110 over 58 blood pressure: When Is Low Blood Pressure Too Low? Hypotension and More| Everyday Health
When Is Low Blood Pressure Too Low? Hypotension and More| Everyday Health
Symptoms of Hypotension
Most doctors do not consider hypotension a problem unless it is associated with certain signs and symptoms:
What Is a Dangerously Low Blood Pressure Number?
According to the AHA, there is no specific number at which day-to-day blood pressure is considered too low. However, when low blood pressure is accompanied by any of the above listed dangerous symptoms, it is time to seek medical care.
When Low Blood Pressure Can Strike
Some people have naturally low blood pressure, and they don’t experience any symptoms. But for those who are used to having high blood pressure, a sudden decrease in blood pressure can signal a problem and can cause the symptoms listed above.
An episode of hypotension is more likely to occur under these conditions:
- Resuming an upright posture after bed rest for a long period of time
- Being in the first 24 weeks of pregnancy
- Losing a large amount of blood
- Being dehydrated
- Taking certain medications, such as blood-pressure-lowering medications, heart medications, Parkinson’s disease medications, tricyclic antidepressants, or medications to treat erectile dysfunction
- Having a heart problem, such as a very slow heartbeat, heart valve problems, heart attack, or heart failure
- Having a endocrine problem, such as hypothyroidism, parathyroid disease, Addison’s disease (an adrenal gland disorder), low blood sugar, or diabetes
- Having a severe infection that enters your bloodstream
- Experiencing anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction
- Having a neural disorder that affects your blood pressure
- Having a nutrient deficiency, such as low vitamin B12 and folic acid levels
Can Low Blood Pressure Make You Tired?
Low blood pressure can cause fatigue — that feeling of overwhelming tiredness and lack of energy. Research has found an association between low blood pressure and chronic fatigue syndrome, a condition characterized by profound fatigue, pain, and sleep abnormalities that are often made worse by exertion.
There is no cure for this type of fatigue, but doctors may suggest treating underlying causes, such as sleep disorders or mental health issues. Treating low blood pressure with dietary changes and proper physical activity can also help.
When Do You Need Medical Care for Hypotension?
If your blood pressure is always on the low side and you do not have any of the dangerous symptoms, there is usually no cause for concern. Similarly, if you have a single at-home blood pressure reading that is abnormally low without any symptoms, you probably do not need to see your doctor. It is normal for your blood pressure to rise and fall over time, and your body is usually able to get your blood pressure back to normal.
But, says Dr. Lawrence, “when you sense there’s a recurrent problem, or there’s no clear explanation for what’s happened, you need to seek medical advice. “
If your blood pressure drops suddenly and you are experiencing symptoms like dizziness, you should call your healthcare provider. They can assess your situation and rule out underlying problems, such as internal bleeding, serious infection, or an allergic reaction.
Treatment for hypotension will depend on the cause of the low blood pressure. Immediate steps might include the following:
- Lying with your feet above your heart
- Drinking fluids
- Avoiding hypotension triggers like prolonged standing
After evaluation, a doctor may make these recommendations:
- Avoid alcohol.
- Adjust your diet.
- Adjust your medications (possibly lowering dosages of blood-pressure-lowering drugs).
- Take blood-pressure-raising medications, such as Florinef (fludrocortisone) and ProAmatine (midodrine).
- Weare compression stockings.
People who experience shock related to hypotension will need emergency treatment to restore blood flow to their organs and raise their blood pressure back to normal.
It’s important to determine whether your low blood pressure is “a primary problem or secondary problem,” notes Lawrence. A primary problem means that the body’s reflexes are not working as they should. Secondary causes mean that the low blood pressure is a result of things like dehydration or the effects of certain medications.
“Some antihypertensive [medications] are more likely to cause hypotension than others, and a lot of it is dose-dependent,” says Lawrence. “In most people, there will be some easily identifiable secondary cause or some easy solution to what may even be a chronic problem that has no secondary cause, and that’s why it’s important to see your doctor, so they can make an appropriate assessment.”
Keep track of your blood pressure readings, even if you don’t have any health issues, so that you know what your personal normal reading is. And if your blood pressure is being monitored, talk to your doctor about the blood pressure target range that’s best for you.
Additional reporting by Ashley Welch.
When to Worry About Low Blood Pressure
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We all know that high blood pressure can be dangerous. But what about low blood pressure?
Also called hypotension, low blood pressure is not a problem if you’re healthy and show no signs or symptoms of the condition. However, abnormally low blood pressure can cause problems such as dizziness and fainting and can be a sign that other serious conditions, such as heart disease, are present.
What is Blood Pressure?
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing on the artery walls as it is pumped out of the heart. Blood pressure is measured in two kinds of pressures. Systolic pressure is when the heart beats while pumping blood. Diastolic pressure is when the heart is at rest between beats.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Systolic pressure is listed first (or the “top” number), then diastolic pressure (or the “bottom” number).
Normal blood pressure in adults is less than 120/80 mmHg. Low blood pressure is a reading below 90/60 mmHg.
Most forms of hypotension happen because your body can’t bring blood pressure back to normal or can’t do it fast enough, says the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
For some people, low blood pressure is normal. They have it all the time, with no symptoms or negative side effects.
In other people, abnormally low blood pressure is caused by certain medical conditions or factors. When this happens, less blood and oxygen flow to the body’s organs.
Symptoms & Causes of Low Blood Pressure
Many different conditions and situations can cause low blood pressure, from standing up too fast to being pregnant. Sometimes, low blood pressure is linked to an underlying problem, says the American Heart Association. That’s why it’s important to see your doctor right away if you experience the signs of low blood pressure.
Symptoms of low blood pressure can include:
- Lack of concentration
- Blurred vision
- Cold, clammy and pale skin
- Rapid, shallow breathing
Low blood pressure can be a sign of serious heart, endocrine or neurological conditions. If left untreated, the brain and other vital organs do not get the oxygen and nutrients they need. In extreme cases, this can cause shock, a life-threatening condition.
If you show signs of low blood pressure, your doctor will conduct an exam and may perform tests to determine what’s causing the condition. Low blood pressure can occur with many other conditions, says the American Heart Association.
Some causes of low blood pressure are:
- Prolonged bed rest, in which circulation decreases due to lack of movement
- Heart problems that prevent the heart from being able to circulate enough blood
- Endocrine problems, such as an under-active thyroid
- Pregnancy. Blood pressure often drops in the first 24 weeks of pregnancy.
- Decrease in blood volume from trauma, dehydration or internal blooding
- Certain medicines. Medicines that treat hypertension, heart conditions, Parkinson’s disease, depression and erectile dysfunction can lower blood pressure.
- Nutritional deficiencies, such as a lack of vitamin B-12 and folic acid, may lead to anemia, which can cause low blood pressure.
- Severe infections like septic shock, when bacteria enter the blood stream
- Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) that causes problems with breathing and sudden drop in blood pressure
- Postural (orthostatic) hypotension, a rapid blood pressure drop when standing from a sitting or lying down position
- Neurally mediated hypotension, which is a blood pressure drop after standing for long periods.
Living with Low Blood Pressure
Medicines and lifestyle changes can help you live safely with chronic low blood pressure. Your doctor can recommend steps you can take to manage your low blood pressure. These actions can help control the condition:
Drink more water. This can help avoid dehydration.
Medicines and lifestyle changes can help you live safely with chronic low blood pressure.
Avoid alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are dehydrating, and alcohol changes how medicines work in your body.
Slow down. Take your time when standing up. If lying down, sit up first. Then wiggle your feet and move your legs. This will increase circulation and get your heart rate up so that you don’t feel lightheaded when you stand up.
If your medicine and lifestyle changes do not reduce your low blood pressure symptoms, talk with your doctor about other changes you can make.
It’s easy to get the care you need.
See a Premier Physician Network provider near you.
Source: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association
When is Low Blood Pressure an Emergency?
When is low blood pressure (hypotension) a medical emergency?
Low blood pressure can be a sign of good health. However, if it gets too low (hypotension) that could mean that not enough blood is reaching your vital organs, leaving them starved of oxygen. This can cause shock. You could have a medical emergency if any of the following signs and symptoms happen along with low blood pressure:
- Cold, clammy, pale skin.
- Rapid, shallow breathing. Heart palpitations.
- Dehydration, thirst.
- Dizziness lightheadedness, fainting.
- Headache, neck or back pain.
- Lack of concentration.
- Blurred vision.
Call 911 or go to your emergency room if you experience signs of severely low blood pressure or shock.
What causes low blood pressure?
- Pregnancy. Blood pressure commonly drops during a woman’s first 24 weeks of pregnancy.
- Blood loss, whether from blood donation or some sort of trauma.
- Prolonged bed rest.
- Endocrine issues such as hypothyroidism.
- Some medications, including some for depression, heart conditions and high blood pressure.
- Emotional distress.
- Nutritional deficiencies such as lack of vitamin B12 and folic acid.
- Heart problems like a low heart rate (bradycardia).
- Severe infection (septic shock).
- Allergic reaction (anaphylaxis).
What questions might I be asked in the emergency room?
Your healthcare provider will interview you when you enter the emergency room. Do your best to prepare yourself to answer the following questions, and more, that your healthcare provider may ask.
- What medications are you on?
- What symptoms do you have?
- How long have you had these symptoms?
Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) | Nursing Times
Low blood pressure is also known as hypotension. People with a reading of around 90/60, or less, are commonly regarded as having low blood pressure.
Brought to you by NHS Choices
Your heart pumps blood around your body through a circulatory system that is made up of tubes called arteries and capillaries. The blood flows back to your heart through a network of veins.
When your heart contracts (squeezes in) it pushes blood into your arteries, causing an increase in pressure. At this stage, the pressure in your arteries is at its highest, and is known as the systolic pressure. When your heart relaxes and refills with blood, the pressure in your arteries decreases. This is known as the diastolic pressure. Both your systolic and diastolic pressures are measured in terms of millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
Throughout the day, your blood pressure can vary by between 30-40 mmHg (both systolic and diastolic) depending on what you are doing. When you are asleep or relaxed your blood pressure will be at its lowest. When you exercise, or you are stressed or anxious, your blood pressure will increase. Therefore, each time you have your blood pressure measured, it is important that the test is carried out under similar conditions so that the results are consistent.
The highs and lows
For a young, healthy adult, normal blood pressure is about 110/70, but generally, the lower your blood pressure is, the better. If you have a reading of 140/90 or more, you have high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. If your blood pressure is high, your GP may give you advice about how to lower it by making some simple lifestyle changes, such as altering your diet, giving up smoking, and taking regular exercise. Alternatively, you may be prescribed drugs that will help to reduce your blood pressure.
Low blood pressure is also known as hypotension. People with a reading of around 90/60, or less, are commonly regarded as having low blood pressure. If you have low blood pressure, you have (to a certain degree) some protection against factors that increase blood pressure, such as eating too much salt, not eating enough fruit and vegetables, or being overweight. However, some people who have low blood pressure may experience symptoms, and there may be an underlying cause.
Symptoms of low blood pressure
On its own, low blood pressure does not always cause symptoms. If you have low blood pressure, and do not have any symptoms, you do not require treatment. However, sometimes if your blood pressure is too low, there may not be enough blood flowing to your brain and other vital organs. As a result, you may experience symptoms such as dizziness and fainting. If you do, your GP will try to find out whether there is an underlying cause for your symptoms.
As well as dizziness and fainting, other symptoms of hypotension may include:
- blurred vision,
- general weakness, and
- a temporary loss of consciousness.
Postural, or orthostatic hypotension
You may feel dizzy, or faint, after changing posture – for example, when you sit up from a lying position, or stand up from a sitting position. However, the fall in blood pressure usually only lasts for a few minutes as it adjusts to your new posture. This is known as postural, or orthostatic hypotension, and can affect you more as you get older. Similar symptoms may also occur after exercise.
Dizziness, light-headedness, faintness and falls are symptoms that can sometimes occur after eating, as a result of low blood pressure. This condition, known as postprandial hypotension, tends to occur more often in older people, particularly in those who have high blood pressure, or a condition such as Parkinsons disease or diabetes.
After a meal, the intestines need a large amount of blood for digestion, and so the heart rate increases, and the blood vessels in other parts of the body constrict (narrow) to help maintain blood pressure. However, the heart rate of some elderly people may not increase enough, and their blood vessels may not constrict enough to maintain blood pressure. As a result, their blood pressure falls. Lying down after eating, and eating frequent, small, low-carbohydrate meals may help to reduce the effects of postprandial hypotension.
Causes of low blood pressure
There are a number of things that can cause low blood pressure. They include:
- the use of certain medications, such as anti-depressants, and medicines to treat high blood pressure,
- diabetes mellitus, which can cause damage to the nerves that supply your blood vessels, resulting in a fall in blood pressure when you stand up (postural or orthostatic hypotension),
- serious injuries, such as burns, or those that cause severe blood loss, and lead to shock and a reduction in blood volume,
- serious illnesses, or conditions, such as a heart attack, or adrenal gland failure,
- rare nerve conditions that affect the nerves in your legs can cause a severe drop in blood pressure when you stand up (postural or orthostatic hypotension),
- increasing age, as you get older, your arteries become stiffer which can cause your blood pressure to drop, particularly when you stand up, and
- pregnancy, during the early to mid stages of pregnancy low pressure is fairly common.
Blood pressure lowering medicines
Nowadays, most blood pressure lowering medicines do not cause a drop in blood pressure when you stand up. Alpha-blockers, such as doxazosin, are the only type of medicine that may cause a decrease in your standing blood pressure. You should have your standing blood pressure checked if you are taking doxazosin and you feel dizzy or faint when you stand up.
In the past, it was thought that low blood pressure could cause tiredness, depression and anxiety. However, recent studies have found no strong evidence to suggest that low blood pressure causes these symptoms.
Adrenal gland failure
The adrenal glands are two small glands that are located just above your kidneys. They produce a number of hormones, including aldosterone, which controls the amount of salt in your body. If your adrenal glands become damaged, the production of aldosterone may be reduced, resulting in a loss of salt from your body. This can lead to low blood pressure, and may make you feel dizzy or faint if you stand up too quickly. Adrenal gland failure is rare but, if it is diagnosed, it can be treated by increasing the amount of aldosterone.
Diagnosing low blood pressure
Blood pressure is measured using two numbers the first is known as systolic (the pressure in your arteries when your heart contracts and pushes the blood around your body), and the second is known as diastolic (the pressure in your arteries when the heart refills with blood between heart beats). Both your systolic and diastolic pressures are measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
Your GP or practice nurse will use an inflatable cuff to measure your blood pressure. The cuff is placed around your upper arm and inflated. Your GP or practice nurse will watch a pressure gauge and listen to the blood flow in the main artery of your arm, using a stethoscope. Upon hearing the heart beat, the systolic pressure will be recorded, and when the sound disappears, the diastolic pressure will be recorded. Alternatively, a digital blood pressure machine may be used to take readings automatically.
After you have had your blood pressure taken, your GP or nurse will give you your systolic reading first, followed by your diastolic reading. If your systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg, and your diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg, you will be told that your blood pressure is 120 over 80, which is commonly written as 120/80.
Your blood pressure may be measured both while you are lying down and while you are standing. If you have high or low blood pressure and you are taking medication, you should have your blood pressure checked on a regular basis.
Treating low blood pressure
If you have low blood pressure, but do not have any symptoms, you do not require treatment. Only a small number of people who have low blood pressure are prescribed medication to treat the condition. For example, some elderly people may experience symptoms when changing posture, and are sometimes given medication to constrict (narrow) their arteries.
Medications that cause low blood pressure
If you are taking medication and your GP suspects that it may be causing low blood pressure, s/he will probably advise a change of medication or alter the dose. If you are taking a blood pressure lowering medicine, such as the alpha blocker, doxazosin, and you feel dizzy or faint when you stand up, you should have your blood pressure measured to see if it drops. If it does, you might need to have your medicine changed. You should discuss this with your GP or practice nurse.
Underlying illnesses or conditions
If your GP suspects that a disorder, such as a heart condition, adrenal gland failure, or a nerve condition, is causing your low blood pressure, you may be referred to hospital for further tests and treatment. If adrenal gland failure is the cause of your low blood pressure, replacing the missing hormone, aldosterone, will rectify the problem. If a nerve condition is causing low blood pressure, it can be more difficult to treat. You might be given medicines in order to stimulate your nervous system.
Salt and fluids
While people who have high blood pressure are usually advised to restrict their salt intake, if you have low blood pressure, you may be advised to include more salt in your diet. If you have postural (orthostatic) hypotension, you may be advised to increase your salt intake, either by adding more salt to your food, or by using salt tablets. Your GP will be able to advise you about how much additional salt you require. Also, if you are dehydrated, ensuring that you drink enough fluid (at least eight glasses a day) will help.
If you have low blood pressure, your GP may recommend wearing support stockings to help stimulate your circulation, or using several pillows to raise your head while sleeping.
Preventing low blood pressure
If you have low blood pressure, and it is part of your genetic make up, you are lucky because it means that, to a certain degree you have some natural protection against the factors that cause high blood pressure (hypertension).
Older people, particularly those with diabetes, may have a tendency for their blood pressure to fall when standing, and blood pressure lowering drugs may make this worse. However, getting up slowly will help you to avoid sudden falls in your blood pressure. When getting out of bed, you should sit up slowly first, before standing up slowly.
NHS Choices links
This article was originally published by NHS Choices
What Does My Blood Pressure Reading Mean?
According to the American Heart Association, nearly half of all American adults have high blood pressure, also referred to as hypertension. Many people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms and may be unaware of their hypertension, allowing it to remain untreated. But, when left untreated, hypertension can be a significant risk factor for stroke, cardiac arrest, and other health conditions.
Because so many people with high blood pressure do not experience any symptoms, the best way to manage your blood pressure is by reading it regularly. Blood pressure readings can be conducted in the home with a standard “cuff” or an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) device, or at the doctor’s office and even most pharmacies.
The information below is designed to help you understand what your latest blood pressure readings may mean for your health — and to provide tips on what you can do to get or keep your blood pressure in a healthy zone.
Understanding Your Blood Pressure Reading
Click on the link below that represents your blood pressure reading to understand how your blood pressure may affect your health.
Hypertensive Crisis (Emergency Care Needed)
Readings above 180 systolic pressure (the upper number) or above 110 diastolic pressure (the lower number) usually indicate a hypertensive crisis — putting you in the highest risk category for heart attack, stroke, and other acute life-threatening problems — and requiring emergency care.
Very high blood pressure can cause symptoms such as headache, nausea and vomiting, mental confusion, vision changes, chest pain, or shortness of breath. If you notice any of these symptoms along with a blood pressure above 180/110, your high blood pressure is considered a hypertensive emergency; call 911.
During a hypertensive emergency, a medical team will work to bring your blood pressure down quickly. If you don’t have these symptoms but your blood pressure remains high, doctors call this “hypertensive urgency.” It’s important to seek medical attention for hypertensive urgency, so that doctors can help bring your blood pressure down over a period of hours to days.
Stage 2 Hypertension (High Risk)
140/90 – 180/110
Systolic blood pressure readings at least 140 or diastolic blood pressure readings at least 90 usually indicate STAGE 2 HYPERTENSION, which puts you at high risk for life-threatening problems such as heart attack and stroke.
Stage 1 Hypertension
130/80 – 139/89
Systolic blood pressure readings between 130 and 139 or diastolic blood pressure readings between 80 and 89 usually indicate STAGE 1 HYPERTENSION, which means the force of the blood pressure in your arteries is higher than normal, putting you at increased risk of life-threatening problems such as heart attacks and stroke. Blood pressure in this range can also damage organs such as the heart and the kidneys over time, especially in people who already have chronic medical problems affecting these parts of the body.
If you’re already being treated for hypertension with medications, and your blood pressure is in this range, you may need to have your medications adjusted.
If you’ve never been diagnosed with high blood pressure before, you may have developed hypertension. Hypertension is defined as a systolic blood pressure at least 130, and/or a diastolic blood pressure at least 80. For a new diagnosis, hypertension should be confirmed on at least 2 office visits after an initial screening.
Elevated Blood Pressure
120/61 – 129/79
Systolic blood pressure readings between 120 and 129 with diastolic blood pressure readings less than 80 usually indicate ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE, indicating you don’t have hypertension but your blood pressure is higher than what experts consider optimal for most adults. Research studies suggest that people with elevated blood pressure are more likely to have a heart attack or stroke, compared to people with lower blood pressure. However, many experts currently don’t recommend using medications to treat elevated blood pressure, unless the patient also has other medical conditions that would benefit from lower blood pressure (such as heart failure or kidney disease).
Many people with elevated blood pressure eventually develop true hypertension, so having your blood pressure checked regularly is important.
If you’re already on medications for high blood pressure, this level of blood pressure is often considered adequate control by most doctors.
Normal Blood Pressure
91/61 – 119/79
Readings above 90/60 and below 120/80 indicate that the pressure in your arteries is considered normal for most adults. However, in some cases, a systolic blood pressure below 110 can be associated with dizziness when standing. This is more likely to happen to older adults or to people who usually have a much higher blood pressure.
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure)
80/50 – 90/60
Readings at or below 90/60 usually indicate an abnormally low blood pressure, or what’s called HYPOTENSION, meaning the pressure in your arteries is at the lower end of what’s considered normal. Some people with blood pressure this low may be prone to weakness or fainting, but many people feel just fine. If you’re taking blood pressure medicines, they’re probably lowering your blood pressure more than they need to, and they should be adjusted. It’s also possible to get low blood pressure as a side effect of certain medications.
If you’re not on any blood pressure medicines, there’s usually no need to be concerned about low blood pressure unless you’re experiencing symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, nausea, or fatigue. In fact, hypotension isn’t usually diagnosed unless the patient is experiencing symptoms.
Severe Hypotension (Very Low Blood Pressure)
Readings below 80/60 usually indicate severely low blood pressure, which may have an underlying cause that could indicate a new, serious heart problem or infection. Very low blood pressure can also be caused by an endocrine or neurological condition. However, some people have very low blood pressure but feel fine and are otherwise healthy. Certain medications and nutritional deficiencies can worsen low blood pressure.
NOTE: This information isn’t a substitute for medical advice provided by your own doctor. If you think you might have hypertension or elevated blood pressure, be sure to discuss your blood pressure concerns with a doctor or nurse, who can help you factor in other important information, such as other medical problems you may have. In particular, the information above and in the related links may not always apply to those who are very old, very frail, or have multiple chronic medical conditions.
Also, if you find that your systolic blood pressure (the first, or “top” number) is higher than at least 130, and your diastolic number (the second number, or “bottom” number) is lower than 80, you may have something called Isolated Systolic Hypertension. This type of high blood pressure becomes more and more common as people get older. For this kind of hypertension, doctors usually conclude it’s more important to focus on the systolic pressure, rather than the diastolic pressure.
What Low Blood Pressure Means and When It’s an Emergency
- Low blood pressure is defined by a blood pressure reading of 90/60 mm Hg or lower, but a reading this low isn’t necessarily a cause for concern.
- It becomes a concern if you start to exhibit symptoms of dizziness, shortness of breath, or fainting; if this happens, you should seek medical attention.
- In some cases, low blood pressure can be a symptom of a more serious condition like sepsis or Addison’s disease.
- This article was reviewed by John Osborne, MD, PhD, and the Director of Cardiology for Dallas-based State of the Heart Cardiology.
- Visit Insider’s homepage for more stories.
Blood pressure is a measure of the force of blood moving through your artery walls. When that force is too low, your vital organs may not be getting the right amount of blood flow they need to function.
Here’s what you need to know about what might cause low blood pressure and when it is considered an emergency.
What low blood pressure means
Hypotension is the medical term for low blood pressure, which is typically defined by a blood pressure reading of 90/60 mm Hg or lower. For reference, a normal blood pressure range is around 100/60 mm Hg to 120/80 mm Hg.
Low blood pressure with no symptoms is rarely a cause for concern, says Nicole Weinberg, MD, a cardiologist at Providence Saint John’s Health Center. In fact, some people have chronic low blood pressure, but feel fine, and do not need to be treated.
However, if low blood pressure is combined with symptoms of dizziness, fainting, shortness of breath, or lightheadedness, it could be a sign that you need medical attention.
The exact cause of low blood pressure is not always clear, Weinberg says, but some common causes include:
- Side effects from over-the-counter or prescription medications, including drugs used to treat high blood pressure, like diuretics, as well as tricyclic antidepressants and erectile dysfunction drugs
- Pregnancy (often in the first 24 weeks), due to hormonal changes and expansion of the circulatory system
- Other hormone changes, including issues with the hormone-producing glands in the endocrine system
- Dehydration, heat exhaustion, or heat stroke
In addition, postural or orthostatic hypotension can occur when you quickly rise from a sitting or lying down position, causing a sudden drop in blood pressure and feelings of lightheadedness. This can last for just a few minutes or it can be more severe and cause fainting.
In fact, Parkinson’s disease can impair the body’s ability to automatically adjust blood pressure when changing positions, resulting in bouts of orthostatic hypotension. About one in five people with Parkinson’s are affected by orthostatic hypotension.
Weinberg says orthostatic hypotension usually isn’t a medical emergency unless it persists and you consistently feel lightheaded when you stand. For someone experiencing an isolated episode of hypotension, Weinberg advises lying down, eating a salty snack, and drinking water — since fluids increase blood volume and can help get your blood pressure back to normal.
When low blood pressure is an emergency
If you frequently experience symptoms of low blood pressure, such as dizziness or fainting spells, you should consult a doctor. While low blood pressure, itself, usually isn’t fatal, there are serious medical situations where it is considered an emergency, and you should go to the hospital.
“The likelihood of dying from low blood pressure is low unless it is related to another disease process,” Weinberg says.
For example, a blood infection, or sepsis, can result in low blood pressure. Sepsis occurs when the chemicals released by the body to fight an infection trigger widespread inflammation, resulting in blood clotting that reduces blood flow to vital organs, such as your heart, kidneys, and brain. This can progress to septic shock and very low blood pressure, which may be fatal, and should be treated immediately.
Low blood pressure can also be affiliated with Addison’s disease — a disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, a hormone that helps your body respond to stress. Lack of cortisol production can cause addisonian crisis, which is characterized by low blood pressure and can be fatal without proper treatment.
The treatment for low blood pressure varies depending on the cause. In severe cases, someone might need intravenous therapy (IV) to deliver fluids into the veins and raise blood pressure. In critical situations, such as septic shock, doctors may use drug therapies either orally or through an IV to quickly raise blood pressure.
Diastolic blood pressure: How low is too low? – News
Low diastolic blood pressure is a risk factor for new-onset heart failure in older adults. UAB cardiologist Jason Guichard explains why that might be, the causes of low diastolic pressure and how to deal with it.
Written by: Matt Windsor
Media contact: Adam Pope
Blood pressure consists of two numbers. Systolic pressure, the force exerted on blood vessels when the heart beats, is the upper number. Diastolic pressure, the force exerted when the heart is at rest, is on the bottom — in more ways than one. Systolic pressure attracts the lion’s share of attention from physicians and patients, says UAB cardiologist Jason Guichard, M.D., Ph.D.
“Physicians are busy people, and like it or not they often focus on a single number,” Guichard said. “Systolic blood pressure is the focus, and diastolic pressure is almost completely ignored.” That is a mistake, he argues. “The majority of your arteries feed your organs during systole. But your coronary arteries are different; they are surrounding the aortic valve, so they get blood only when the aortic valve closes — and that happens in diastole.”
Diastolic pressure has been getting more attention lately, however, thanks in part to an influential paper in Hypertension, written in 2011 by Guichard and Ali Ahmed, M.D., then a professor of medicine in UAB’s Division of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Palliative Care and now the associate chief of staff for Health and Aging at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, D.C. (Ahmed remains an adjunct faculty member at UAB.)
INFOGRAPHIC: See our quick guide to causes, and treatments, for low diastolic blood pressure.
That paper coined a new term, “isolated diastolic hypotension,” which refers to a low diastolic blood pressure (less than 60 mm Hg) and a normal systolic pressure (above 100 mm Hg). Older adults who fit those conditions are at increased risk for developing new-onset heart failure, the researchers found.
“High blood pressure is a problem, but low blood pressure is also a problem,” Guichard said. That realization helped drive a 2014 decision by the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) to relax target blood pressure guidelines for those over 60 years old. [Read Guichard’s take on “ideal blood pressure” and the new guidelines in this blog post.]
“Years ago and until recently, doctors were treating blood pressure so aggressively that many patients couldn’t even stand up without getting dizzy,” Guichard said. “We want to empower patients to know that you don’t have to drop those numbers all the way down to nothing, to the point where you can’t play with your grandkids or play golf or take a simple walk around the block because your blood pressure is so low. I think it’s important to raise awareness in this area, especially for older people.”
Jason GuichardAhmed and Guichard are continuing to explore the mechanisms behind low diastolic pressure in more detail. Several new papers are pending, Guichard says. In the meantime, he sat down with The Mix to explain the dangers associated with low blood pressure.
Most people are trying to lower their blood pressure. What would you define as “too low,” and why is that a problem?
A diastolic blood pressure of somewhere between 90 and 60 is good in older folks. Once you start getting below 60, that makes people feel uncomfortable. A lot of older folks with low diastolic pressures get tired or dizzy and have frequent falls. Obviously, none of that is good news for people who are older, who potentially have brittle bones and other issues.
Your coronary arteries are fed during the diastolic phase. If you have a low diastolic pressure, it means you have a low coronary artery pressure, and that means your heart is going to lack blood and oxygen. That is what we call ischemia, and that kind of chronic, low-level ischemia may weaken the heart over time and potentially lead to heart failure.
What could cause a person to have low diastolic blood pressure?
Medications are a big one. There are some medicines that are culprits for lowering your diastolic blood pressure more than your systolic — specifically, a class of medications called alpha blockers, or central acting anti-hypertensive agents.
Another reason is age. As you get older, your vessels become a little more stiff, and that tends to raise your systolic pressure and lower your diastolic pressure.
It’s hard to reverse the aging process; but one potential therapy is to find ways to allow your vessels to retain their elasticity — or, if they’ve lost it, maybe ways to gain that back.
The best current treatment is to lower dietary salt intake, which has been shown to be very closely linked with the elasticity of your vessels. The more salt you eat, the less elastic your vessels will be. Most peoples’ salt intake is too high. Salt intake is a highly debated topic in medicine, but most believe that dietary salt intake of greater than 4 grams per day is too high, and less than 1. 5 grams per day is too low. This depends on a person’s age and underlying medical problems, but this range is a good rule of thumb. There is some data that the ideal salt intake for healthy people is around 3.6 grams per day, but again this is highly debated.
UAB’s hypertension group, led by Dr. Suzanne Oparil and Dr. David Calhoun, has detailed much of the basic science showing the effect of salt at a molecular level in the blood vessels. On the inside, your blood vessels are lined with a thin monolayer of endothelial cells. In an experimental setting, adding salt to these cells causes changes almost immediately. They become less reactive — that means they stiffen up — and lose their elasticity, which is what you actually see clinically.
Additionally, the stiffening of the vessels happens very soon after you take on a salt load during eating, which is very interesting.
Beyond changes in medications, what can people do to raise their diastolic pressure if it’s too low?
Lifestyle changes like diet and exercise can have immediate effects. Your inside changes much quicker than the mirror shows you. On the inside, you’re getting much more healthy by eating better, getting exercise, controlling your weight and not smoking.
Everyone thinks, “I’m going to have to do this for six months or a year before I see any changes.” That’s not true. The body is very dynamic. Within a few weeks, you can see the benefits of lifestyle change. In fact, with dietary changes in salt intake, you can see a difference in a day or two.
If someone does have low diastolic pressure, what should they — and their doctors — look for?
If they aren’t on medications that we could adjust, the important thing is close monitoring; maybe seeing a patient more frequently in clinic and monitoring them closely for cardiovascular disease or heart failure symptoms.
Your original study in Hypertension got a lot of attention. What are you working on now?
We’re finalizing some papers that address two big criticisms of that study. The first criticism was that we were looking strictly, as the name suggests, at isolated diastolic hypotension. We didn’t really care at the time what the systolic pressure was doing; but a high systolic pressure is a risk for heart failure, among other things. When we looked at the patients in our study, their systolic blood pressures were all relatively normal, and we adjusted for patients with a history of hypertension.
So we actually went back and redid the analysis, completely excluding people with hypertension. And the results still remained true. In fact, the association was even stronger.
The other criticism involved something called pulse pressure. That’s the difference between your systolic and diastolic blood pressure. And multiple studies have shown that a widened pulse pressure is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Some fellow researchers said, “Really, all you’re looking at is just a wider pulse pressure. This isn’t necessarily novel — that’s been shown before. ”
So we’ve actually looked at pulse pressure differences in all these patients and broken them down by differences in pulse pressure. And even when we adjusted for pulse pressure, the conclusion about the low diastolic pressure still rang true.
We actually looked at three different groups of pulse pressure — normal, wide and really wide. And it was true throughout. Low diastolic blood pressure increased one’s risk for heart failure.
You also have an interest in diastolic heart failure. What is that?
There are two different types of heart failure: one where the pumping function of the heart is abnormal — that is known as systolic heart failure — and one where the relaxation function is abnormal — that is known as diastolic heart failure. We have lots of medicines for, and experience treating, systolic heart failure, which is also called “heart failure with reduced ejection fraction” — everything from beta blockers, ACE inhibitors and ARBs to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and statins.
Diastolic heart failure, or “heart failure with preserved ejection fraction,” has no approved pharmacologic therapies to date. It was widely overlooked, to be honest, until about 10-15 years ago, when physicians realized that these poor patients were having terrible heart-failure symptoms but none of the classic objective measures of heart failure. In most cases, you can’t even tell the difference between a person with systolic and diastolic heart failure based on their symptoms. On the inside, however, their heart is pumping just fine; the problem is their heart is stiff — it doesn’t relax as well as it should. That stiffness leads fluid to back up into the lungs and extremities and causes a lot of the symptoms that you have with systolic heart failure, but the pumping function of the heart is normal.
Now that there is an awareness of diastolic heart failure, we’re realizing that it is a very common problem. It looks like there are as many people with diastolic heart failure as with systolic heart failure. As a matter of fact, there may even be more people with diastolic heart failure.
It has become a heavily studied form of heart failure right now. Everyone is clamoring to get a medicine to help these patients, because it turns out to be very prevalent, and a lot of times they have the same morbidity and mortality as people with systolic heart failure.
Make an appointment with a UAB doctor
Surely everyone has heard complaints from friends about high blood pressure , hypertension . As a rule, we do not pay attention to such complaints, and even more so – we rarely watch ourselves. But an increase in blood pressure is fraught with heart attacks and strokes in the future. This is the first sign of heart failure, which does not bode well.
Surely everyone has heard complaints from friends about high blood pressure , hypertension .As a rule, we do not pay attention to such complaints, and even more so – we rarely watch ourselves. But an increase in blood pressure is fraught with heart attacks and strokes in the future. This is the first sign of heart failure, which does not bode well.
Hypertension – the scourge of many people. And not only older people suffer from it, but also young people, who, due to their own youth, are not at all inclined to think about diseases, and even more so to engage in self-diagnosis.However, despite age, high blood pressure may be the cause of poor health.
Have you measured your blood pressure? Not according to the testimony of a doctor, but just for the sake of interest? Measure it right now and evaluate the result. The readings of the tonometer 120/80 mm Hg are the norm. All that is higher is already arterial hypertension (AH). Moreover, hypertension absolutely does not care how old you are.
Heart attack and stroke, however, too.
Currently, studies are being actively carried out on the relationship between increased blood pressure and the risks of developing heart attacks and strokes. It is very likely that in the near future the “risk zone” will start from 135/85 mm Hg. It has been proven that if your blood pressure is kept within the range of 110-120 / 60-85 mm Hg, then the likelihood of a stroke or heart attack is minimal for you. But the risk of developing these diseases doubles if the upper (systolic) pressure increases by 20 units, and the lower (diastolic) pressure by only 10!
In many countries, including Russia, no more than 50% of the total number of those who actually suffer from hypertension know that their blood pressure is higher than it should be.And only half of those 50% are trying to fight it.
Most believe that if the pressure is slightly higher than normal, then this is “okay.” Nothing hurts, does it? Well, okay. But you cannot be indifferent to yourself and your health. And the consequences of such carelessness can be very upsetting. The specialists of our medical institution every day have to deal with patients who neglected treatment at the first signs of the disease. The results are depressing: disability, a change in lifestyle not in an interesting direction, reproachful sighs of relatives who are forced to serve the patient …
You need to watch yourself.And you need to be attentive to the unusual deterioration of health and take timely measures to eliminate it. The very first signs of hypertension, it would seem, have nothing to do with it: frequent headaches, loss of general tone, pressure in the region of the heart. We often hope that this is all short-lived and will go away by itself. Alas, it will not work.
With such a deterioration in well-being, you must first measure your blood pressure . In case you find that it is higher than it should be and the dynamic monitoring of indicators does not detect a decrease, you need to consult a doctor.Self-medication is inappropriate here. As in many other cases, self-administration of medicines will simply “smear” the picture of the disease, and it will be difficult for the doctor to correctly diagnose and prescribe effective treatment. Do not postpone a visit to the doctor: the timely start of the fight will help maintain health.
The increased blood pressure , even if it does not externally make itself felt, affects primarily the walls of the arteries that feed all human organs: heart, brain, kidneys, eyes.Violation of the structure of the arterial vascular wall makes it impossible for the normal operation of these organs. And “failures” in their work and give a clinical picture of hypertension in the future.
The heart is the most important organ. And, perhaps, it will be superfluous to talk about how important it is to listen to his knocking … High blood pressure increases the thickness of the walls of blood vessels, simultaneously reducing their tone. The heart muscle of the left ventricle grows and loses its ability to function normally. If at the same time the patient’s blood cholesterol level is higher than normal, then this leads to the formation of sclerotic plaques, which is fraught with thrombosis of the coronary arteries, and as a result – angina pectoris and heart attack.
Likewise, an increased blood pressure leads to cerebrovascular dysfunction. Changes in the walls of blood vessels can cause their spasm, then thrombosis and stroke. In addition, if the patient has a cerebral aneurysm, provoked by a congenital predisposition, then high blood pressure leads to rupture of the aneurysm and extensive hemorrhage. Even if high blood pressure does not lead to atherosclerotic thrombosis of the cerebral arteries, it can cause locunar stroke or locunar disease (death of brain cells due to a sharp rise in blood pressure).However, modern computer technologies help diagnose this disease in time and prescribe effective treatment.
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Human pressure. What is considered the norm and how to measure it correctly | | Infopro54
So, blood pressure is the pressure produced by blood on the walls of our vessels. It is subdivided into arterial – in speech we most often use this type, as well as intracardiac, capillary and venous pressure. We are used to calling pressure arterial, because, unlike veins and capillaries, large vessels-arteries are located on the surface of our bodies and the pressure in them is easier to measure. The rate of contraction of the heart muscle and how much blood it can pump over a certain period of time will depend on the blood pressure.
It is important to understand that the notorious 120 to 80 norm simply does not exist!
First, blood pressure readings depend on whether you are a man or a woman, how much you weigh and what your age is.The older you and I are, the higher the indicators.
So, from 16 to 20 years old, good blood pressure is 100 \ 70-120 \ 80 mm Hg.
from 21 to 40 years old – 120 \ 70 – 130 \ 80 mm Hg
From 41 to 60 years – up to 140 \ 90 mm Hg
And further – up to 150 \ 90 mm Hg.
Second, there are several things that affect BP. This is the ability of the muscle tissue of the heart to contract strongly enough to ensure the normal release of blood through the vessels. The thinner the blood, the higher the degree of its patency.Diabetes mellitus and increased coagulability can interfere with the speed capabilities of blood cells. Also, the elasticity of the walls of our vessels affects the level of pressure – they wear out and it becomes more and more difficult for them to withstand the load. Their elasticity, in turn, is influenced by atherosclerotic changes. A sharp expansion or narrowing of blood vessels may be the result of some news, perceived too emotionally, due to some kind of psychological problem, which can also cause an increase or decrease in pressure.(hypertension)
And yet, general indicators of blood pressure exist and look like this:
Normal blood pressure is considered to be the interval from 110/70 to 130/85 mm Hg.
Reduced blood pressure within normal limits – 110 \ 70-100 \ 60;
Increased blood pressure within normal limits – 130 \ 85-139 \ 89;
Hypotension (low blood pressure) – below 100/60;
Hypertension (high blood pressure) – above 140 \ 90.
Any medical examination requires certain preparations.You and I strictly follow the instructions of doctors regarding donating blood or preparing for an ultrasound examination. This procedure should be taken no less seriously – before measuring the pressure, try to delete all unpleasant thoughts from your head 30 minutes before the start, exclude heavy loads, do not eat or smoke at this time. You need to sit down so that you feel comfortable. Relax, straighten up, let your back rest on something solid, such as the back of a chair, and let your arm rest freely at a level just above your waist.Do not move and remain silent. Take readings on the right and left hands, wait 10 minutes and again measure on both hands. Use a regular blood pressure monitor and a cuff for this, this is the easiest way. You can also use an electric tonometer, it will make it easier to measure pressure for someone who does it on their own, but here it should be borne in mind that such devices often break down and show incorrect results.
If, after all the calculations, you and your attending physician understand that you have hypertension, then the fact that a quarter of the people on earth suffer from it and the number of patients continues to grow steadily will hardly comfort you.
Its causes can be extra pounds, insufficient activity, smoking and alcohol, stress, over-salted food, genetics and diseases of certain organs of our body. Treatment should be strictly supervised by the attending physician! If you ignore such symptoms of the disease as shortness of breath, pain in the heart and head, then this is fraught with a hypertensive crisis. This condition is caused by a sharp increase in blood pressure and damage to the nervous system and organs inside the body and can be life-threatening! If a patient has tremors of the extremities, chills, nausea or vomiting, darkened in his eyes, a feeling of fear appears, then he must be laid on a flat surface, his head should be raised, an influx of fresh air should be provided and an ambulance should be called.
Hypotension, fortunately, is not so dangerous, but it also causes a lot of ailments – a person with such a diagnosis constantly feels overwhelmed and tired, complains of memory loss, sweating, and drowsiness. He is worried about joint and muscle pains throughout the body. Low blood pressure can be caused by such reasons as a poorly balanced diet and a lack of vitamins, hereditary predisposition, endocrine gland disorders and a general weakening of the body.
As you can see, any disorders in the body should be reported to the attending physician and in no case should self-medicate!
90,000 Norms of blood pressure for people of different ages.Prevention of arterial pressure deviations
Contents of the article:
Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators of the state of the body, and even slight fluctuations in it can be associated with a health risk. That is why no basic examination takes place without measuring it. It should be borne in mind that normal blood pressure indicators are rather arbitrary and individual in nature.
Blood pressure – what is it
During normal operation, the heart muscle constantly pumps blood into the arteries.In turn, when the blood flow passes through the vessels, it puts pressure on them. Accordingly, blood pressure is a conditional indicator that characterizes the force of blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels. The indicator characterizes the work of the heart, the elasticity of blood vessels and the cardiovascular system of a person as a whole.
Pressure is a changeable quantity. It fluctuates depending on the heartbeat cycles, it can rise and fall several times, even within one day.It is often highest during daytime activity and lowest during nighttime sleep.
Regular and timely monitoring of this indicator allows timely detection of deviations in the work of the autonomic, endocrine, cardiovascular and other systems. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). In this case, blood pressure on both arms may differ, but the difference should not exceed 10 mm. rt. Art.
Three blood pressure indicators are used for monitoring:
- Systolic, or upper pressure .It characterizes the maximum force of blood pressure on the walls of blood vessels at the time of cardiac contraction. At this time, the right and left ventricles contract, and blood is pushed out in the systole phase into the aorta. The value of systolic pressure is influenced by the frequency and strength of heart contractions, as well as vascular resistance. When measuring, the upper pressure is always indicated first.
- Diastolic, or lower pressure . Shows the lowest level of blood pressure on the vascular walls during the pause between heartbeats.In this phase, the heart rests and fills with blood. The indicator depends only on vascular resistance. During the measurement, the lower pressure is recorded second.
- Pulse pressure . Difference between systolic and diastolic pressure.
Medical norm of blood pressure
Blood pressure is an extremely changeable and individual value that depends on the sex and age of a person, physical activity, the presence of bad habits, emotional background and many other factors.Ideally, the indicator should be determined on an individual basis for each person. However, for a more convenient and quick diagnosis, there are official normative indicators that doctors use in their daily practice.
The table shows the norm of systolic and diastolic pressure in a person without distribution by sex and age according to the data of the European Society for the Study of Hypertension (ESH).
DBP (mm Hg)
Arterial hypertension 1 degree
Arterial hypertension 2 degrees
Arterial hypertension 3 degrees
Isolated systolic hypertension
Norms of blood pressure by age in men and women
If you take age into account, normal blood pressure in children is lower than in adults. As people of both sexes age, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure increases. This happens due to the development of age-related changes in the blood vessels.
There are differences in gender.
Norms of blood pressure indicators in men and women, depending on age:
Up to 1 year
From 1-10 years
From 10-20 years
From 20-30 years old
From 30-40 years old
From 40-50 years old
From 50-60 years old
From 60-70 years old
From 70-80 years old
From 80-90 years old
Despite the fact that hypertension is considered a disease of older people, young people also often suffer from high blood pressure. It’s just that people under the age of 35 do not often experience symptoms. And this is another reason why it is extremely important to measure your blood pressure regularly and correctly.
How to measure pressure correctly
For timely control of blood pressure, every home medicine cabinet should have a tonometer. This is a special device that allows you to record the systolic and diastolic pressure.
For pressure measurement you can use:
- Hand-held tonometer with cuff .To obtain accurate data requires certain skills and who takes the measurement. The correct position of the cuff is of great importance, as well as the ability to hear heart sounds and correctly use the tonometer. When handled correctly, it provides accurate and reliable results.
- Automatic or semi-automatic devices . They work on the principle of a mechanical tonometer, but allow you to get more accurate results. After placing the device, the blood pressure is displayed on a special screen.
To identify the relationship between blood pressure and poor health of a person, it is necessary to measure the indicator not only accurately, but also regularly. One trip to the clinic or several visits to the doctor is not enough. You should determine the level of blood pressure daily, at different hours of the day, and at the same time record the results in a diary. In it, you also need to enter notes regarding the state of health or the circumstances that influenced the result – bad sleep, missed medication, malaise, etc.
Daily monitoring will allow you to determine the most appropriate time for taking medications and will provide quality control of treatment. This is the only way to obtain correct results that will be suitable for medical analysis.
Regardless of the method and time of measurements, in order to obtain correct indicators, it is necessary to adhere to a number of important rules:
- exclude physical activity, food intake and smoking approximately 30 minutes before the start of measurements;
- do not move, do not talk while measuring;
- take a comfortable position and relax, be sure to provide support for the hand, positioning it so that the hand is in a natural position approximately at the level of the heart;
- Measure the indicator on each hand with a break of about 10-15 minutes.
Reasons for deviations from the norm
Pathological fluctuations in blood pressure are associated with many external factors:
- unstable psycho-emotional state, stress, depression;
- excessive loads or, conversely, leading a sedentary life;
- pathology of internal organs and systems;
- bad habits – alcohol consumption, smoking;
- unhealthy diet, strict diets, consumption of salty and fatty foods;
- lack of vitamins, microelements;
- abrupt changes in weather, climate;
- hereditary factors.
As for internal processes, most often jumps in blood pressure are the result of:
- Increase in blood density, which complicates the flow through the arteries. There are many reasons for blood thickening, often autoimmune pathologies or diabetes mellitus.
- Weakness of the heart muscle, its inability to work with the necessary strength and in the proper mode.
- Loss of elasticity by vessels.
- Malfunctions of the endocrine system.
Often, the deviation of the pressure level from the proper indicator is accompanied by a number of pronounced symptoms:
- With increased pressure (hypertension) , when the indicator exceeds 140/90 mm.rt. Art., there is a headache of a pulsating nature, tachycardia, dizziness, vision and sleep worsen, pain appears in the region of the heart. This is an extremely dangerous condition in which the risk of heart and vascular pathologies is significantly increased.
- With reduced pressure (hypotension) , when the indicator falls below 100/60 mm. rt. Art., there is a breakdown, drowsiness, shortness of breath, sweating, nausea, memory impairment, pain in muscles and joints.
Hypertension is much more common than hypotension.If high blood pressure is diagnosed in about 40% of the population, then only about 5% of people suffer from low blood pressure. Treatment for both types of abnormalities is a process in which the patient must strictly adhere to the doctor’s prescriptions and be ready to change the lifestyle.
Prevention of deviations in blood pressure
Prevention means the ability to prevent the development of a disease. Preventive recommendations will be useful for those people who have a hereditary predisposition to such a pathology or who understand that they are at risk due to constant stress or nervous work.
As with the causes and symptoms, preventive measures for different types of abnormalities in blood pressure will differ:
- Overpressure . To avoid hypertension, special attention should be paid to the development of a clear daily routine, work schedule, rest and nutrition. It is necessary to choose dishes that are low in salt and fat, exclude fast food and fried foods from the menu. It is imperative to provide moderate physical activity and gradually return to normal weight. For the body to function normally, weight loss should be about 5-10% of body weight per month until safe health indicators are achieved.
- Reduced pressure . For the prevention of hypotension, it is necessary to ensure a healthy sleep of at least 8-9 hours a day. The diet should consist of foods high in calcium, magnesium and potassium. The most optimal five meals a day. It is necessary to limit the consumption of foods high in animal fats and simple carbohydrates.Light physical activity is also required every 2-3 days – walking or simple exercises.
When detecting any pathological abnormalities in blood pressure, it is imperative to give up bad habits – smoking, drinking alcohol, and also to minimize the level of stress, emotional fluctuations and mood swings.
What pressure – normal – Science – Kommersant
– You are an outstanding specialist in hypertension, hypertension.Please describe the current understanding of this ailment and the methods of its treatment. Here American cardiologists began to write that normal blood pressure is 110 to 70 mm Hg, and in Russia you can hear that it is not bad and 139 to 89 mm.
– First of all, what is arterial hypertension? Increased blood pressure, but if you have increased it once, do not think that you are sick. This can happen after excessive physical exertion, a nervous breakdown, alcohol abuse, all these are temporary phenomena.Only if two or three times in a row you note blood pressure more than 140 to 90 mm, then you can talk about arterial hypertension. It can arise as a result of other diseases – vascular pathology of the kidneys, brain, be a consequence of kidney disease, diseases of the endocrine system: the thyroid gland, adrenal glands. Obesity also triggers a number of complex mechanisms, which then lead to the fact that the pressure rises. And all these are secondary, or symptomatic, arterial hypertension.But in most cases, arterial hypertension occurs for unknown reasons, and then we must talk about hypertension. The approaches to the treatment of hypertension and symptomatic arterial hypertension are different. If arterial hypertension is a manifestation of other diseases, then it is completely logical that we should treat them first of all, and only when we completely eliminate the cause that could lead to an increase in pressure, it is worth prescribing drugs that lower it. If we are talking about hypertension, then here it is necessary to see how high the increase in pressure is.If it is more than 160 to 90 mm Hg, you must immediately prescribe a medicine and offer the so-called non-drug methods of treatment – limiting salt intake, losing weight, exercising, proper nutrition, avoiding excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages. If the pressure is up to 159 mm Hg and there are no other cardiovascular diseases, risk factors that can aggravate the patient’s condition, you can try to normalize his life for a month, let him live without pills.But the question of whether you need to take pills or not is up to the doctor to decide. In general, I advise everyone to make friends with some good doctor. He can be young, old, it can be a man or a woman, the main thing is that you find a common language and be on the same wavelength with him. If your local doctor does not cause you positive emotions, run away from him, you do not need to overpower yourself, there will be nothing good from communicating with such a doctor.
As for different approaches: American colleagues, of course, do not consider only 110 to 70 mm as normal pressure, not higher.They recommend talking about arterial hypertension with a pressure of more than 130 to 80 mm. Our European colleagues, and we support them, believe that the permissible level is not higher than 140 and 90 mm Hg. There is a gradation of lower blood pressure levels. For example, there is such a concept as the optimal pressure – 120 by 80 mm, there is the concept of normal pressure: for the upper – 120–129 mm, for the lower – 80–84 mm. Then comes high normal blood pressure – 130–139 and 85–89 mm, so our colleagues from America decided to also consider high normal pressure a manifestation of hypertension.We still do not agree with this and believe that there is no need to change something, to “reinvent the wheel”, but to lead a healthy lifestyle at any pressure.
– What about hypotension?
– As a rule, hypotension is a manifestation of vegetative-vascular disorders. There is no such disease as vegetative-vascular dystonia, there are violations of vascular tone, they are a manifestation of some neurological symptoms. Hypotension can be a sign of anemia and other conditions. It is very difficult to deal with these symptoms, more difficult than to overcome hypertension.First of all, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination and exclude any organic causes of hypotension, and then, if none are found, a healthy lifestyle, contrast douches, sleep. By the way, insomnia also leads to hypotension.
Pressure below the plinth
Young healthy people often have rather low blood pressure numbers (for example, 90/60 mm Hg), which does not at all impair their performance and well-being. Nevertheless, some people do not easily tolerate a decrease in pressure below the usual values: weakness appears, performance decreases.
Physicians traditionally do not take hypotonic complaints seriously, since a decrease in pressure does not cause serious complications and does not affect life expectancy. Some experts believe that hypotension in itself is not a disease – as such, there is no lower limit of normal blood pressure. Some of them express the opinion that hypotension is a problem mainly for urban residents. “It’s hard to imagine a village woman who gets up at 5.00, lights the stove, milk the cow, cooks breakfast, and then lies on the couch with low pressure,” Russian cardiologists joke.
Nevertheless, the correspondent of Modus Vivendi took the side of hypotonic patients and tried to find out from associate professor of the Department of Internal Medicine N2 of the Belarusian State Medical University, Ph.D. Elena BELSKAYA when hypotension poses a threat to health.
– What do doctors understand by the term “hypotension”?
– Hypotension is usually called a decrease in blood pressure in men below 100/60 mm Hg. Art., and in women – below 90/50 mm Hg. Art., with the proviso that they feel great and tolerate low blood pressure well: there is no weakness, dizziness.For some people, hypotension may be a physiological norm.
– Can hypotension occur against the background of serious changes in the body?
– Yes, in this case we are already talking not about physiological (i.e. normal), but about pathological arterial hypotension. It can be a symptom of a serious illness.
– Which ones?
– The most common is the so-called. orthostatic hypotension, when, when the position of the body changes, blood pressure decreases by more than 20 mm Hg.Art. in systolic pressure and more than 10 mm Hg. Art. diastolic. As a rule, orthostatic arterial hypotension is characteristic of the elderly. Especially those with diabetes or Parkinson’s disease.
In acute vascular insufficiency, arterial hypotension may appear against the background of bleeding.
Sometimes we talk about postprandial hypotension in patients with impaired tone of the sympathetic nervous system and in patients with diabetes mellitus: the pressure decreases due to the fact that the distribution of circulating blood is disturbed.The main outflow goes to the gastrointestinal tract, while the peripheral vessels are not fully supplied with blood.
Pathological arterial hypotension also occurs in patients who have had myocardial infarction. It can also be seen with some heart defects. Often, low blood pressure is the lot of patients with rhythm disturbances.
– Can hypotension occur in a completely healthy person?
– Nowadays it is fashionable to starve for the sake of beauty, to go on diets … So, against the background of diets, there is often a decrease in sympathetic tone and, as a result, hypotension develops.
– Some sources indicate that hypotension is characterized by increased excitability and sensitivity to cold, bright light and loud sounds, anxiety and a tendency to motion sickness in transport …
– If arterial hypotension is a symptom of hypotonic neurocirculatory dystonia, then may be so. Such people are often rocked in transport, they complain that they have “goosebumps” and feel “cold hands”.
– What does the term “high fitness hypotension” mean?
– This is t.n. sports hypotension, which is a variant of the physiological norm. Trained people may have low blood pressure, and the tendency for a rare pulse is the response of the trained athlete’s heart and the neuroregulation of vascular tone to stress.
– Is hypotension the lot of the beautiful half of humanity or the strong?
– In general, hypotension is most common in women. It is they who, as a rule, are more prone to neurocirculatory dystonia. They also lose weight more often, and against the background of constant diets, they often develop anemic syndrome – i.e.n. anemia.
– When is hypotension a real health threat?
– When it is a symptom of a serious illness. After all, hypotension happens, for example, with damage to the adrenal glands, but in this case, as a rule, it makes itself felt. A person does not even feel physiological hypotension until he measures the pressure and hears from the doctor: “Yes, you have hypotension.”
– Does hypotension need such constant pressure control as hypertension?
– Of course it does – if it is not well tolerated.If a person suffers from headaches, he is pursued by weakness, dizziness. Then in the morning you should have a cup of strong coffee, and even better – good tea. In the first-aid kit, a hypotonic person who does not tolerate low blood pressure should have a tonometer.
– Is non-drug therapy used for hypotension?
– Non-drug therapy in this case is a correction of risk factors for the development of hypotension, one of which may be an unbalanced diet.Excessive fatigue is another risk factor. Today we even say that hypotension develops against the background of computer attachment. Low physical activity can be considered the third factor.
It follows that the key to the treatment of hypotension is reasonable exercise, good rest, and balanced nutrition. A cup of strong coffee or tea, a slice of chocolate will slightly increase the pressure. It is quite possible to afford to eat something salty, such as a piece of herring.
BelGazeta , November 30, 2009
90,000 The upper limit of the pressure norm is considered to be 130 to 80 – Rossiyskaya Gazeta
The message about changes related to hypertension immediately went beyond the medical community.Which is natural. After all, the number of hypertensive patients in the world has doubled over the past forty years. Today, 1.1 billion people suffer from hypertension. It is dangerous in itself. She is one of the main pathways to heart attacks and strokes. The new recommendations were adopted at the annual forum of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Society for the Treatment of Hypertension in Munich. Simon Matskeplishvili, a member of the forum, a member of its scientific committee, deputy director for scientific work of the Lomonosov University Clinic, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, answers the questions of the “RG” observer.
– Compared to the previous – 2013 – recommendations, there are several important changes in the new guideline, – Simon Teimurazovich began the conversation. – Previously, for example, the goal of treatment was to lower blood pressure to values below 140 by 90 millimeters of mercury. Now the upper limit of the norm is considered to be values of 130 to 80.
These figures are not the same for all ages?
Simon Matskeplishvili: There can be no single a priori. It is desirable for patients under 65 years of age to have systolic (“upper”) blood pressure in the range of 120-129 mm Hg.pillar. In patients over 65 years old, systolic pressure values in the range of 140-150 mm were previously considered the norm. Now doctors need to achieve a decrease in these indicators to 130-139 mm Hg. Art. The same rates are recommended for people over 80 years old. And further. As a result of treatment, the lower pressure values in all groups of patients, regardless of the degree of risk and concomitant diseases, should decrease not to 90, as was previously thought, but to 80 and below.
Why is the Munich Forum considered a kind of hypertension legislator?
There are many “40-year-olds” and “70-year-olds” around us.
Simon Matskeplishvili: This forum is the world’s largest scientific event in this field of medicine.The Congress, which is called European, is in fact worldwide: doctors from almost all countries of the world participate in its work. For example, most applications for speeches and symposia have been received from the United States for several years, followed by Japan for several years in a row.
What is the reason for such a high interest in new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure?
Simon Matskeplishvili: First, arterial hypertension is the main culprit in mortality on our planet.Second, the observational results presented at this congress showed that our achievements in the field of blood pressure control (as well as levels of cholesterol, glucose, physical activity) are far from desired. Of particular importance to the publication of this document was the release of similar recommendations of American colleagues in 2017, which were subject to considerable criticism. According to American criteria, about 49 percent of US residents can be considered hypertensive patients.Accordingly, doctors are not confident that the potential harm, significant costs and complexity of treatment justify this innovation. In general, the new European guidelines are less aggressive than the American ones, especially for elderly patients. The criterion for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension in the European recommendations was the pressure level of more than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. (in American – 130/80 mm Hg. Art.). This refers to the pressure measured at the doctor’s appointment. At home measurements, a pressure of more than 135/85 mm Hg was retained as a criterion for hypertension.Art. It is very important to measure the pressure correctly. Which, by the way, many patients (and doctors!) Are not trained.
How to resist a hypertensive affliction?
Simon Matskeplishvili: It may surprise you, but one of the cornerstones of the treatment of arterial hypertension is lifestyle change. In many patients with an initial form of the disease, this alone is enough for a long-term normalization of blood pressure. Limiting salt intake, avoiding alcohol abuse, a sufficient amount of vegetables and fruits in the diet, reducing and maintaining a normal body weight, regular physical activity, quitting smoking … All this can prolong life.But! Lifestyle changes are by no means a reason to postpone the initiation of drug therapy in patients at high risk of cardiovascular complications.
1.1 billion people suffer from hypertension
The omnipotent pill for hypertension appeared?
Simon Matskeplishvili: There are not many changes here. Rather, there are almost none. The list of drugs and their combinations remains the same. As the great physician Sir William Osler said, “A bad doctor has twenty remedies for one diagnosis, and a good one cures all diseases.”The role of the patient himself is very important, his adherence to the recommendations and prescriptions of the doctor. Not even the best remedy will work if not taken. It is also important to control blood pressure during therapy. Let me remind you: low pressure is just as dangerous as high. It is impossible to judge by the “classic” symptoms such as pain or heaviness in the back of the head, “rush of blood” or “internal heat” how much the pressure is. It is imperative to measure it at home or at a doctor’s appointment.I recommend that you forget about “working” and “senile” pressure. The pressure is normal or not. No other is given. It is important, from my point of view, to reduce conservatism in the management of elderly and senile patients. It was proposed to focus not on the passport, but on the biological age. After all, there are many “40-year-olds” and “70-year-olds” around us. In elderly patients in good physical shape, even at the age of 80, antihypertensive therapy and lifestyle changes are recommended at an upper pressure level of 160 mm Hg.Art. With good tolerance, drug therapy is also possible in debilitated elderly patients. That is, it is never too late to start life-prolonging treatment.
Photo: Alexander Korolkov / RG
Simon Teimurazovich Matskeplishvili was born in 1972 in Kutaisi. Graduated from the Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy in 1994. In 1997-1999 he completed an internship at the Institute of Clinical Physiology of the National Council for Scientific Research in the Italian city of Pisa.In 2001 he received a diploma in European cardiology.
Author and co-author of more than 540 scientific papers in the field of cardiology in leading Russian and international publications. Matskeplishvili – Deputy Director for Research at the Lomonosov Moscow State University Clinic, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the field of his scientific interests – the study and application of invasive and non-invasive methods for assessing pathologies of the cardiovascular system, the introduction of cellular technologies in the study of the heart.
How to measure blood pressure correctly
- Before measuring blood pressure, you must rest for at least 5 minutes.
- Half an hour before the procedure, do not smoke, drink coffee or tea.
- During the measurement, sit with the back of a chair. The arm with the cuff should be motionless and lie comfortably on the table.
- Don’t talk.
- The cuff should be wrapped around the upper arm with the center of the inflatable bag just over the brachial artery. The bottom edge of the cuff should be 2-3 cm above the elbow bend.
- Legs must not be crossed.
- Feet should be on the floor.
- The bladder must be emptied before measurement.
- The shoulder should not be squeezed by clothing. Measurement through clothing is not allowed.
Infographics “RG”: Leonid Kuleshov / RIA Novosti
Blood pressure – norm and pathology
May 14-24 as part of the Year of the Heart at the MUSZ City Hospital No. 1
named. G.I. Drobyshev, an information and practical action is being held
“Learn to control your blood pressure.”
One of the most common health complaints and one of the most “favorite” diseases among the elderly is high blood pressure. This pathology can explain any changes in well-being, bad mood and other troubles. Blood pressure can rise and fall several times over the course of one day, and a person’s normal blood pressure is a purely individual concept.
What is blood pressure and what values are considered normal?
Blood pressure is a general concept that determines the force with which blood presses on the walls of blood vessels, it is more correct to call it – blood pressure, because the pressure matters not only in the arteries, but also in the veins and capillaries.But it is possible to measure without the help of special devices only the pressure in large vessels located on the surface of the body – in the arteries.
Blood pressure – BP – depends on the speed and strength of the person’s heart, how much blood it can pump in one minute, on the properties of the blood itself and the resistance of the walls of blood vessels.
Factors influencing the value of blood pressure:
- the ability of the heart to contract with sufficient force and ensure the normal release of blood through the vessels;
- on the rheological properties of blood – the “thicker” the blood, the more difficult it moves through the vessels, diseases such as diabetes mellitus, increased coagulability, greatly impede blood flow and can lead to problems with blood pressure, with thick blood, some doctors prescribe leech treatment ;
- elasticity of vascular walls – blood vessels wear out over time and cannot withstand increased stress – this causes the development of hypertension in elderly people,
- atherosclerotic changes – reduce the elasticity of the walls;
- a sharp narrowing or dilation of blood vessels – as a result of nervous shocks or hormonal changes, a sharp narrowing or expansion of blood vessels is possible – for example, with fear, anger or other strong emotions;
- diseases of the endocrine glands.
Normal pressure is determined by a combination of a large number of parameters, and for each age, gender and for an individual, its indicators can vary greatly. For medical standards, average indicators are taken from healthy people of a certain age. It has long been proven that a pressure of 120/80 cannot and should not be considered the ideal norm for people of different ages.
To find out what normal blood pressure a person should have at different age periods, you can use the following table.
Indicators of blood pressure of an adult:
- Normal blood pressure is considered in the range from 110/70 to 130/85 mm. rt. Art.
- Reduced normal pressure – 110 \ 70 – 100 \ 60;
- Low blood pressure – hypotension – below 100 \ 60;
- Increased normal pressure – 130 \ 85- 139 \ 89;
- High blood pressure – hypertension – more than 140 \ 90 mm. rt. Art.
Indicators of normal blood pressure for different age periods:
- 16 – 20 years old – 100 \ 70 – 120 \ 80 mm.rt. Art.
- 20 – 40 years old – 120 \ 70-130 \ 80;
- 40 -60 – up to 140 \ 90;
- over 60 years old – up to 150 \ 90 mm. rt. Art.
From the above table, it can be seen that the older the person is, the higher the normal blood pressure, this is due to age-related changes in the vessels, in the heart muscle and in other organs. High blood pressure, as well as low blood pressure, can cause various health problems, but in order to determine whether a change in pressure level is to blame for feeling unwell, it is necessary to measure it regularly and keep a special diary.For this, several trips to the clinic or doctor’s visits are not enough, only daily regular blood pressure measurements can give correct results.
The correctness of the diagnosis and the appointment of treatment largely depends on the correctness of the blood pressure measurement, because the doctor, when prescribing a medicine or prescribing treatment, is largely guided by the measurement numbers.
Today there are different ways of measuring pressure:
- The simplest and oldest – with the help of a cuff and a tonometer – it is of great importance here to apply the cuff correctly, to be able to use the tonometer and to listen to heart sounds.Such a measurement requires special training and skills, but when used correctly, it gives fairly accurate and reliable results.
- Electrotonometer – the principle of operation is the same, but the results are visible on a special display. This makes it easier to measure the pressure yourself and provides more accurate results. But such blood pressure monitors often break down and may show incorrect numbers.
Whichever way the blood pressure is measured, a few general rules must be followed:
- before measurement, half an hour before the start, exclude physical activity, nervous tension, smoking, eating and so on,
- relax, sit comfortably when measuring,
- the posture should be comfortable, the back should be straight, support is required, the arm should lie freely at the level of the patient’s chest,
- you cannot talk or move during measurement,
- measurement should be carried out on both hands and it is desirable to carry out a series of measurements with an interval of 5-10 minutes.
If, after a correctly performed blood pressure measurement, the readings differ greatly from the norm, you need to repeat the measurements within a few days and, upon confirmation, consult a doctor.
High blood pressure.
Considered one of the most dangerous diseases of mankind, about 25% of people around the world suffer from hypertension, and this figure continues to increase. Hypertension is called an increase in blood pressure above 140/90 mm.rt. Art. Hypertension can be caused by:
- genetic predisposition,
- diseases of internal organs,
- physical inactivity,
- smoking and drinking,
- Excessive use of table salt,
- nervous strain,
- other factors.
With hypertension, the patient suffers from headaches (and here the pills for headaches will not help), shortness of breath, heart pain, increased fatigue, insomnia, poor health and other symptoms.In addition, the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, brain damage, pathology of the urinary system and eye diseases increases.
Treatment of hypertension is a very complex and time-consuming process, where the outcome of diseases depends on compliance with the doctor’s recommendations. It is important to find the cause of the increase in pressure and act on it. Simultaneously providing symptomatic treatment. In each case, drugs, doses and their combination should be selected individually by the attending physician.
Without timely treatment or uncontrolled administration of drugs, hypertension can not only severely damage health, but also cause such a life-threatening condition as a hypertensive crisis.
Hypertensive crisis is a life-threatening condition caused by a sharp increase in blood pressure and damage to the nervous system and target organs. The numbers of blood pressure in a hypertensive crisis can vary greatly in different patients – someone normally tolerates 200 \ 150 mm.rt. Art, but someone feels bad already at 150 \ 85 mm. rt. Art. The nature of the lesions in HA depends on the organs in which the pathology was previously – if the heart ached, myocardial infarction may occur, if tormented – headaches – then a stroke and so on.
The reasons for the Civil Code may be:
- psycho-emotional overstrain,
- physical activity,
- meteorological changes,
- alcohol intake,
- plentiful food with high salt content,
- incorrectly selected antihypertensive drugs,
- diseases of the endocrine system and internal organs.
With the development of HA, the patient’s state of health sharply worsens, there is a feeling of fear, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, darkness before the eyes, swelling and flushing of the face, chills, tremors of the extremities, fainting, up to coma may appear.
If such symptoms appear, you need to lay the patient on any flat surface with a raised headboard and urgently call an ambulance. Before she arrives, try to provide the patient with peace, an influx of fresh air, get rid of embarrassing clothing, if the patient has had hypertension for a long time, then most likely he is taking some kind of antihypertensive drug, in this case, you can give the patient the usual dosage before arrival.
Hypotension, low blood pressure.
For many people, especially those with hypertension, it seems that lowering blood pressure may not be a problem, but in fact it is not. Constantly lowered blood pressure can cause no less inconvenience and cause health problems than hypertension.
The causes of such a pathology can be a hereditary predisposition, poor nutrition and vitamin deficiency, endocrine diseases, nervous tension, general exhaustion of the body and other problems.
A person suffering from hypotension constantly feels tired, overwhelmed, he can hardly perform his daily duties and is emotionally inhibited. In addition, there is a decrease in memory and brain activity, poor thermoregulation, increased sweating, headaches, drowsiness, pain in joints and muscles, and a general disorder of well-being.