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Cause of night sweats in elderly: Night Sweats: Causes and Treaments

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Night Sweats: Causes and Treaments

Sweating is normal and a core part of how the body regulates its temperature. In a sauna or working out in the gym, sweating profusely is expected. Waking up sweating in the middle of the night is another matter altogether. Night sweats can be defined as sweating in excess of that required by the body to regulate body temperature.

Night sweats can occur during sleep and without physical exertion. They aren’t caused by a heavy blanket or warm bedroom. Instead, other underlying health issues may be responsible for these episodes of considerable sweating in your sleep.

Night sweats can reduce sleep quality, concern a bed partner, and provoke serious discomfort. As a result, it’s natural to want to know more about the causes of night sweats and how they can be resolved.

What Are Night Sweats?

As the name indicates, night sweats are episodes of excessive perspiration that happen during sleep. They are often described as soaking or drenching and may require a change of sheets or even clothes.

Night sweats are distinct from simple overheating, which occurs because of something in a person’s environment, such as a heavy blanket or high bedroom temperature.

How Are Night Sweats Different From Hot Flashes?

Hot flashes are sudden feelings of warmth. Hot flashes can occur at any time during the day, and when they occur at night and provoke heavy perspiration, they are classified as night sweats.

In some resources, night sweats are also called hot flushes, but they are distinct from flushing. Flushing is a reddening of the skin from increased blood flow. While night sweats can occur with flushing, flushing itself does not provoke intense sweating.

How Common Are Night Sweats?

Exact estimates of how many people have night sweats are limited. One study of over 2,000 patients in primary care offices found that 41% of people reported having had night sweats in the last month. In that study, night sweats were most common in people aged 41 to 55.

Four Common Causes of Night Sweats

The body’s system for temperature regulation is complex and influenced by multiple factors, which can make it hard in some cases to know exactly why a person experiences night sweats.

That said, four common causes identified in research about night sweats include menopause, medications, infections, and hormone problems.

Menopause

Menopause is when women permanently stop having their period. During this time, significant changes in the body’s production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone are believed to be an important driver of hot flashes.

Hot flashes are considered to be a hallmark of menopause, affecting up to 85% of women. In most cases, hot flashes actually begin in the transition time before menopause, known as perimenopause, and can continue once a woman is postmenopausal.

Menopausal hot flashes normally last for a few minutes and can occur multiple times per day, including at night, when they can cause night sweats. It’s common for hot flashes to continue occurring for several years, and some women experience them for more than two decades.

Perhaps not surprisingly, many women — up to 64% — report sleeping problems and higher rates of insomnia during perimenopause and menopause. While night sweats are not the only cause of these sleeping difficulties, they can contribute to poor sleep, especially when they are severe.

Medication

Certain medications are known to be associated with night sweats. These include some antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), steroids, and medicines taken to lower fevers, such as aspirin or acetaminophen, that may paradoxically cause sweating.

Caffeine intake can be a cause of generalized sweating. Alcohol and drug use can also increase the risk of night sweats.

Infection

Many infections are associated with night sweats. Most often, this is because infections may trigger a fever and overheating. Tuberculosis, bacterial and fungal infections, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a few examples of infections for which night sweats are a significant symptom.

Hormone Problems

Changes in the endocrine system, which controls hormone levels in the body, can be related to night sweats. Examples of hormone problems with links to night sweats include overactivity of the thyroid (hyperthyroidism), diabetes and elevated blood sugar, and abnormal levels of sex hormones.

The part of the brain that regulates body temperature is known as the hypothalamus, and it is also involved in the endocrine system. Hypothalamic dysfunction may be an underlying issue related to hormone imbalances and night sweats.

Other conditions affecting the endocrine system such as pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal gland) and carcinoid syndrome (caused by slow-growing tumors that produce hormones) can also be associated with night sweats.

Other Causes of Night Sweats

Beyond these four common causes, other conditions may give rise to night sweats. Hot flashes may be more common during pregnancy and the post-partum period. Anxiety and panic attacks have been correlated with night sweats.

Hyperhidrosis, a condition of excessive sweating, may affect people during both day and night. Some research has pointed to Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) as a potential cause of night sweats.

Night sweats can be a symptom of certain types of cancer or a side effect of cancer treatments. Hot flushes may occur in people with lymphoma. They frequently arise as a result of hormone therapy for women with breast cancer and men with prostate cancer. Surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy for cancer may provoke night sweats.

How to Stop Night Sweats and Get Better Sleep

Night sweats can be worrying and bothersome, and they frequently are tied to serious sleep disruptions. As a result, it’s natural for anyone dealing with night sweats to want to know how to avoid them and sleep more soundly.

Because there are multiple potential causes of night sweats, there’s no single solution for stopping them. Several steps may be involved and can be tailored to fit a person’s specific situation.

Talk to Your Doctor About Night Sweats

You should talk to your doctor if you have night sweats that are

  • Frequent
  • Persistent over time
  • Interfering with your sleep
  • Affecting other aspects of your daily life
  • Occurring along with other health changes

It’s important to consult with a doctor in these situations, but unfortunately, one study of over 900 people who experienced night sweats found that the majority had not raised the issue with a doctor.

Meeting with a doctor is important because they can help determine the most likely cause and order tests to get to the bottom of the situation. Based on that information, a doctor can work with you to create a treatment plan that takes your symptoms and overall health into account.

It’s also important to let the doctor know about any sleeping problems that you have. Sleep disorders, like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), may be causing daytime sleepiness and, according to some research, may also be a factor promoting night sweats.

Treatments for Night Sweats

The most effective treatment for night sweats will vary for any individual patient and should always be overseen by a health professional. Some potential treatment methods include modifications to environment and behavior, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and medication.

Changes to Your Environment and Lifestyle

A standard approach to night sweats, especially those related to menopause, is to start by trying straightforward changes that can minimize the frequency and severity of night sweats while improving overall health and sleep.

  • Sleeping in a Cooler Bedroom: While a warmer bedroom isn’t the central cause of night sweats, it may facilitate or trigger them. Keeping the thermostat at a lower temperature and using lighter bedding can keep heat from building up around the body during the night. Also consider getting a more breathable mattress and sheets.
  • Wearing Breathable Clothing: Tight-fitting clothes trap heat, so it’s best to wear lightweight, loose-fitting clothes made with materials that are breathable and airy. Dressing in layers makes it easier to make adjustments to maintain a comfortable temperature.
  • Avoiding Caffeine, Alcohol, and Spicy Foods: All of these things can cause spikes in body temperature and induce sweating. Avoiding them, especially in the evening, may cut down on night sweats.
  • Drinking Cold Water: Having a small amount of cool water before going to bed helps some people with night sweats achieve a more pleasant temperature.
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight: Some research has identified a correlation between higher body weight and night sweats. Being overweight or obese can contribute to other health problems, including those that affect sleep, such as sleep apnea.
  • Utilizing Relaxation Techniques: Finding ways to put yourself at-ease can make it easier to fall asleep. Studies also suggest that techniques like controlled breathing may help to meaningfully reduce hot flashes in menopausal women.

Many of these tips overlap with broader healthy sleep tips that can be gradually implemented to make your sleep-related habits work in your favor for more consistent and high-quality sleep.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a type of talk therapy that is commonly used for health problems like depression, anxiety, and insomnia. It is normally conducted in-person by a psychiatrist or counselor, but a number of self-directed programs have been developed.

CBT is based predominantly on reframing negative thoughts in order to promote healthier actions. CBT for insomnia (CBT-I) has a strong track record of success, including in menopausal women.

Studies have found that CBT for hot flashes and night sweats can reduce their frequency and improve mood and quality of life in menopausal women. CBT is compatible with other approaches, such as behavior modifications, and likely has the greatest effect on night sweats when combined with other approaches.

Medications

If existing medications are causing night sweats, then changing the prescription, the dosage, or when the drug is taken may resolve night sweats. If the night sweats are caused by an underlying infection or hormone problem, medication may help address them.

For menopausal women, medications may be considered if behavioral treatments don’t work. Several types of drugs, notably hormone therapies, can reduce night sweats, but these drugs can have significant side effects. A doctor is in the best position to discuss the benefits and downsides of any specific medication.

Alternative therapy with estrogen-containing products like black cohosh, red clover, or soy have not been proven to be effective in addressing hot flashes caused by menopause. Even though these may be available as supplements without a prescription, patients should always talk with their doctor before taking them in order to help prevent potential adverse reactions.

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Don’t Lose Sleep Over Night Sweats

Hot stuff

Excessive sweating keeping you up at night? Know when it’s time to see your doctor

While night sweats are often due to a sleeping environment that is too warm, they can also be caused by an underlying medical condition.

If you are one of the many people who suffer from night sweats, classified as excessive sweating at night, then you may be wondering about the potential causes and if you should be concerned.

“True night sweats are defined as severe hot flashes occurring at night that can drench sleepwear and sheets,” explains Laura M. Rosch, DO, an osteopathic internal medicine specialist from Wheaton, Illinois.

If your night sweats occur on a regular basis, interrupt your sleep, or are accompanied by a fever or other symptoms, such as unexplained weight loss, then you should schedule an appointment with your physician.

“Your doctor will take a look at your detailed medical history and may order tests, such as blood counts and virus and thyroid tests, to determine if you have any underlying medical conditions that could be responsible,” says Dr. Rosch.

Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine​, or DOs, focus on prevention by examining how your lifestyle and environment impact your health, rather than just treating your symptoms.

What causes night sweats?

Practical reasons for why someone may experience night sweats include:

  • Spicy foods or hot drinks before bedtime
  • Hot weather or an over-heated bedroom
  • Excessive amounts of blankets or bedclothes
  • Exercising before bedtime

 

According to Dr. Rosch, the following medical conditions are common causes of night sweats.

  • Menopause—Known as “hot flashes” during the day, night sweats are very common for women going through menopause and are often the first sign.
  • Infections—Bacterial infections like endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves) and osteomyelitis (inflammation within the bones) may result in night sweats, with tuberculosis being the most common infection associated with the condition.
  • Chronic sweating—Idiopathic hyperhidrosis is a medical condition in which the body chronically produces too much sweat without any identifiable environmental or medical cause.
  • Cancers—Night sweats can be early indicators of some cancers. However, a person with an undiagnosed cancer typically experiences additional symptoms, such as unexplained weight loss and fever.
  • Hypoglycemia—Since hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, can cause sweating, people who are taking medications to lower blood sugar, like insulin and oral anti-diabetics, may experience sweating at night.
  • Hormone disorders—Night sweats can be a result of problems in the hormone-producing glands (endocrine system). If a person receives too much or too little of a hormone, such as serotonin, it can result in flushing and sweating. Night sweats may also be a side effect of hormone therapy medications that regulate the amount of hormones in your system.
  • Anxiety—Stress and emotional problems that cause sweating during the day can often have the same effect at night.

Before visiting your doctor, try to eliminate the practical causes of night sweats from your daily routine and sleeping environment. “Make sure your bedroom is at a comfortable temperature for sleeping, remove extra blankets from your bed, and refrain from exercising or eating spicy foods late in the evening,” advises Dr. Rosch. “If your night sweats persist, then make an appointment with your family physician.”

What causes night sweats – and when should you worry?

“Sweating at night is a normal phenomenon and experienced by most people at some point. The term ‘night sweats’ refers to excessive sweating during the night, where severe hot flushes can consistently leave you waking up with soaking wet clothes and sheets,” says Dr Farah Gilani, a GP at Medicspot.

In other words, if your bedroom is too warm or your duvet too thick, it’d be inaccurate to think of this as ‘night sweats’ – you’ve simply overheated. In one study of 2,267 patients visiting a GP, 41% said they’d experienced excessive sweating at night over the previous month.

True night sweats are unrelated to the environment and occur independently of outside temperature. It’s also important to distinguish night sweats from flushing, warmth or redness of the face and body.

Some common causes

In rare cases, night sweats can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, including (occasionally) cancer. But before you panic and assume the worst-case scenario, it’s worth remembering that night sweats can have a wide range of different causes.

“Night sweats can be caused by a number of medical conditions. Some of the most common causes include the menopause, anxiety, medicines, low blood sugar, infections, alcohol or drug misuse, and hyperhidrosis,” says Gilani.

If you’re a woman over 40, night sweats are often caused by the hormonal changes sparked by menopause and perimenopause. Up to 85% of women experience hot flushes during menopause, and in 55% of women the hot flushes begin before any menstrual irregularities.

Anxiety can lead to night sweats because the body’s stress response has been activated (with the concomitant changes in metabolism, heart rate, body temperature etc). Particularly if you’ve been experiencing nightmares, it’s normal to have a physiological response to that fear.

On a similar note, low blood sugar can cause the body to produce excessive adrenaline, which in turn can lead to night sweats. This is a common problem in those with diabetes, and can also happen if you’ve drunk too much alcohol before bed.

Certain medications can be the culprit, particularly antidepressants. Although it can be hard to estimate the true prevalence, it is thought that up to 22% of people taking SSRIs experience excessive sweating. Likewise, a number of pain medications, diabetes medications and hormonal medications list sweating as a potential side effect.

In terms of infections, the main ones associated with night sweats are tuberculosis and HIV. While these may sound pretty scary, they’re far from the most likely diagnosis and would almost invariably be accompanied by other symptoms too.

Finally, hyperhidrosis is just another word for excessive sweating (both during the night and day). This can be a condition in its own right, and doesn’t have to be a symptom of something else. You may want to visit the GP if it’s interfering with your life.

When to see the GP

As Gilani explains, if you’re worried about night sweats, speaking with a GP can help. Because there are so many potential causes – and no easy way of differentiating one type of sweating from another – they will ask you a number of questions to build up a fuller picture.

“To investigate night sweats, a GP will take your medical history, and may examine you to determine if there is an underlying medical condition. Depending on the findings, they may then order tests such as blood tests, X-rays, or other specialised investigations,” she says.

You should always see the GP if your night sweats are accompanied by a very high temperature, cough, diarrhoea, localised pain or other symptoms of concern. And while night sweats every so often are probably nothing to worry about, it’s worth seeking advice if they’re persistent.

“If you find that you are also losing weight for no apparent reason, it’s important to see a GP as this could be a sign of a more serious condition,” says Gilani. “Also, if you have been diagnosed with lymphoma or HIV, night sweats accompanied by unexplained weight loss may be a warning sign that your disease is progressing.”

If your night sweats can be traced to menopause, you may want to look into hormone replacement therapy (HRT). And if the GP believes your medication is to blame, solving the problem may be as simple as prescribing something different.

Most of the time, though, lifestyle changes are sufficient to treat night sweats and medication isn’t necessary. For instance, you might try avoiding hot spicy food, alcohol and caffeine; practising relaxation breathing exercises before bed; and improving your ‘sleep hygiene’.

“By making simple adjustments to your sleeping habits, including removing blankets from your bed, having your bedroom window open at night or wearing lighter pyjamas, you can help prevent and alleviate night sweats,” says Gilani.

Prevalence and Predictors of Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes in Older Primary Care Patients: An OKPRN Study

Ann Fam Med. 2004 Sep; 2(5): 391–397.

, MD, MPH,1, BA,2 and , MD, ChB, MPH3

James W. Mold

1Oklahoma Center for Family Medicine Research, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Okla

Michelle Roberts

2University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Okla

Hesham M. Aboshady

3Private practice, North Providence, RI

1Oklahoma Center for Family Medicine Research, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Okla

2University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Okla

3Private practice, North Providence, RI

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: James W. Mold, MD, MPH Oklahoma Center for Family Medicine Research, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Health Sciences Center, 900 NE 10th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, [email protected]

A version of this paper was presented at the summer OKPRN Convocation, August 17-18, 2002, Quartz Mountain Resort, Lone Wolf, Okla.

Received 2002 Aug 26; Revised 2003 Jun 6; Accepted 2003 Jul 20.

Copyright © Copyright 2004 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

PURPOSE We wanted to estimate the prevalence of night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes in older primary care patients and identify associated factors.

METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of patients older than 64 years recruited from the practices of 23 family physicians. Variables included sociodemographic information, health habits, chronic medical problems, symptoms, quality of life, and the degree to which patients were bothered by night sweats, daytime sweating, and hot flashes.

RESULTS Among the 795 patients, 10% reported being bothered by night sweats, 9% by day sweats, and 8% by hot flashes. Eighteen percent reported at least 1 of these symptoms. The 3 symptoms were strongly correlated. Factors associated with night sweats in the multivariate models were age (odds ratio [OR] 0.94/y; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89–0.98), fever (OR 12.60; 95% CI, 6.58–24.14), muscle cramps (OR 2.84; 95% CI, 1.53–5.24), numbness of hands and feet (OR 3.34; 95% CI, 1.92–5.81), impaired vision (OR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.41–4.27), and hearing loss (OR 1.84; 95% CI, 1.03–3.27). Day sweats were associated with fever (OR 4.10; 95% CI, 2.14–7.87), restless legs (OR 3.22; 95% CI, 1.76–5.89), lightheadedness (OR 2.24; 95% CI, 1.30–3.88), and diabetes (OR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.22–3.92). Hot flashes were associated with nonwhite race (OR 3.10; 95% CI, 1.60–5.98), fever (OR 3.98; 95% CI, 1.97–8.04), bone pain (OR 2.31; CI 95%: 1.30–4.08), impaired vision (OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1. 19–3.79), and nervous spells (OR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01–3.46). All 3 symptoms were associated with reduced quality of life.

CONCLUSION Many older patients are bothered by night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes. Though these symptoms are similar and related, they have somewhat different associations with other variables. Clinical evaluation should include questions about febrile illnesses, sensory deficits, anxiety, depression, pain, muscle cramps, and restless legs syndrome.

Keywords: Night sweats, research design, practice-based research, aged, primary health care, hot flashes/epidemiology, quality of life

INTRODUCTION

Because information from primary care settings is often lacking, primary care physicians often must rely upon information derived from sub-specialty populations. Such information is subject to referral bias. For example, night sweats is a symptom that has been associated in the literature with a variety of serious and unusual medical problems, including tuberculosis, autoimmune diseases, and certain malignancies (eg, lymphomas), conditions that are relatively uncommon in primary care settings. 1 Questions about night sweats are frequently asked of primary care physicians by their patients. In fact, Ely et al2 reported that questions about night sweats were among the most common unanswerable clinical questions encountered in practice. Surprisingly little research, however, has been done to determine the incidence, prevalence, and most common causes of this symptom in primary care settings.

In our own initial investigation of this symptom, we queried 2,767 consecutive adult patients being seen by their primary care physicians. Forty-one percent reported experiencing night sweats within the previous month, including 23% with night sweats only and 18% with both night and day sweats.3 Peak prevalence in both men and women occurred between the ages of 41 and 55 years. Hot flashes were strongly associated with night sweats and with female sex, and it was difficult to separate the effects of menopause from other factors. Of the 27% of patients who were older than 64 years, 30% reported night sweats—21% reporting night sweats only, and 9% reporting both night and day sweats. Older patients reporting night sweats only were more likely to have insomnia, whereas those with day and night sweats had more hot flashes and were more likely to be taking corticosteroid medications.

The present study was conducted to obtain another estimate of the prevalence of night sweats, as well as day sweats and hot flashes, in a different primary care population and to identify factors associated with these symptoms as part of an effort to identify common causes. To avoid the impact of menopause, we studied older patients, using data from the first year of a longitudinal cohort study established for the study of common geriatric conditions in a primary care population.

METHODS

Individuals were eligible to participate if they were active patients (seen within 18 months) of physician members of the Oklahoma Physicians Resources/ Research Network (OKPRN) practicing within 75 miles of Oklahoma City. Participating physicians generated lists of their active patients 64 years of age and older from billing records. Patients living in a nursing home or believed by their primary care physician to be too confused to sign consent were excluded. The physicians then sent letters of invitation, and the study coordinator followed up with telephone calls. Patients who agreed to participate were sent self-administered questionnaires in the mail and were enrolled in the study at their family physicians’ offices by a research nurse, who obtained formal consent and then reviewed the questionnaires for completeness. The following information was obtained from patients who delcined to participate: age, sex, level of education, self-rated health, and reasons for not participating. All patients who received questionnaires in the mail were subsequently enrolled. The questionnaire assessed demographic information, alcohol and tobacco use, a list of common symptoms, a checklist of chronic medical conditions, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Quality of Well-Being Scale Self-Administered (QWB-SA), and the Health Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI3).

The questions about night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes were worded as follows: “During the last month, how much trouble have you had with [night sweats, excessive sweating during the daytime, hot flashes]?” Response options were no trouble, a little trouble, some trouble, a fair amount of trouble, and a great deal of trouble. The last 3 responses were considered positive, the first 2, negative.

Other symptom questions were part of the QWB-SA, SF-36, and HUI3 instruments as shown in Appendix 1, which is available online as supplemental data at http://www.annfammed.org/cgi/content/full/2/5/391/DC1. The QWB-SA is an 11-item, self-administered questionnaire scored on a scale of 0 (worst possible) to 1 (optimal) quality of life.4,5 The SF-36 is a 36-item instrument that generates 8 different subscales, each scored from 0 (least) to 100 (most): general health, mental health, physical functioning, role–physical, bodily pain, vitality, social functioning, and role–emotional. 6–8 The HUI3 is a 17-item questionnaire that also measures health-related quality of life on a scale from 0 (lowest) to 1 (highest).9 A few additional symptom questions are also shown in Appendix 1.

A history of concurrent medical problems was elicited with a single questionnaire item: “Please indicate which of the following medical problems you have now or have experienced in the past (mark all that apply),” followed by the options listed in the Appendix.

Statistical analyses included descriptive analyses, Student’s t test for difference of means and chi-square for proportions, and multivariate logistic regression. Multivariate models were created to consider the relationship between dependent variables (night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes) and factors thought to be associated based on univariate analysis (P <.05). A backward elimination technique was used to identify the best model (all variables P <.01, and stable deviance). Age was forced into all models and removed only if P >.01 was a final value. Highly correlated independent variables (eg, depression, downhearted, trouble getting thoughts from mind, and inability to control life events) were initially tested by subgroups, with variables having a P <.05 selected for consideration in the full model. Interactions between variables that remained in the model were evaluated. Separate multivariate linear regression models were also created to consider the relationship between night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes and scores of quality-of-life measures (HUI3, QWB-SA, SF-36). These models included sociodemographic variables (age, sex, education, income, and race) as covariates. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistix 7 software program (Analytic Software, Tallahassee, Fla).

We also determined the proportions of patients with and without night sweats, day sweats, or hot flashes who had symptoms within the following subgroups: sensory impairment, musculoskeletal pain, visceral pain, and symptoms of anxiety or depression; and conversely, the proportions of patients with and without subgroup symptoms who had 1 or more of the primary symptoms. We performed standard agglomerative hierarchical cluster analyses in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, SPSS, Inc, Chicago, Ill) with each of the primary symptoms serving as the nidus for cluster formation. Clusters were combined using squared Euclidean distance coefficients and the between-groups linkage method. Values were not standardized.

RESULTS

Study Sample

Between January 2000 and January 2001, 799 patients were enrolled from the practices of 23 primary care physicians in central Oklahoma. The physicians identified 3,979 patients aged 64 years and older from their billing records, then excluded 324 who had died, 208 who were in nursing homes, 156 who were too confused to provide reliable information, and 761 who had switched physicians (primarily because of insurance coverage). Of the remaining 2,530 eligible patients, 717 could not be reached by telephone after 3 attempts, and 1,024 declined to participate (87 had transportation problems, 21 had travel plans, 245 had personal or family illness, 406 lacked interest or were against research, 265 were too busy). Of 809 who agreed to participate, the project coordinator excluded 10 because they were unable to understand telephone instructions, leaving 799 who were enrolled. Four did not answer the question about night sweats and were therefore excluded from the study, leaving 795 patients. Participants were younger (mean age 73 vs 77 years, P <.0001), better educated (P <.0001), more likely to be male (P = .002), and rated their health as better than the nonparticipants who could be reached by telephone. There was a tendency for African Americans to be more reluctant to participate (P = .06). The characteristics of the study sample are shown in Table 1.

Table 1.

Characteristics of the Patient Population (N = 795)

Characteristic Percent (n)
Sex, female 56. 6 (450)
Race
    White 88.2 (701)
    African American 8.8 (70)
    Other 3.0 (24)
Income
    <$15,000 18.1 (138)
        $15,000–34,999 44.4 (339)
        $35,000–54,999 19.6 (150)
        $55,000–74,999 10. 3 (79)
    >$75,000 7.6 (58)
Education
    <12 years 15.0 (119)
    HS diploma 26.4 (210)
    College 47.8 (380)
    Graduate degree 10.8 (86)
Cigarette use 7.5 (60)
Excessive alcohol use* 6. 3 (50)

Prevalence of Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes

Of the 10.3% of patients who said they were bothered to varying degrees by night sweats, 70% reported some trouble, 20% a fair amount of trouble, and 10% a great deal of trouble. The corresponding percentages of the 8.7% of patients bothered by daytime sweating were 56%, 33%, and 11%. Of the patients who were bothered by hot flashes, 62% reported some trouble, 25% a fair amount of trouble, and 13% a great deal of trouble. One hundred forty (17.7%) patients reported at least 1 of the 3 symptoms, with 83 (10.5%) reporting only 1, 42 (5.3%) reporting 2, and 15 (1.9%) reporting all 3 symptoms. The prevalence of night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes by sex of the patient is displayed in Table 2. Each of the 3 primary symptoms was associated with the others (P <.0001).

Table 2.

Prevalence of Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes, by Sex of Patient

Sex Night Sweats % (95% CI)* Day Sweats % (95% CI)* Hot Flashes % (95% CI)*
Female (n = 450) 11. 3 (8.4–14.3) 10.2 (7.4–13.1) 10.2 (7.4–13.0)
Male (n = 345) 9.0 (6.0–12.0) 6.7 (4.0–9.3) 4.7 (2.4–6.9)
Total (N = 795) 10.3 (8.2–12.4) 8.7 (6.7–10.7) 7.8 (5.9–9.7)

Variables Associated with Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes

The multivariate associations between night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes, and relevant sociodemographic, anthropometric, and symptom variables are displayed in Table 3. Significant (P <.01) associations were found between each of the primary symptoms and most other symptoms, with both overlap and differences between them. Variables with no univariate association with any of the 3 primary symptoms included income, marital status, having a confidant, heavy alcohol use, weight, body mass index, weight gain or loss, an expectation of worse health, loneliness, oral or dental pain, and feeling upset or blue. There were also no statistically significant univariate associations between any of the 3 primary symptoms and autoimmune diseases, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, chronic hepatitis, cancer, thyroid problems, stroke, depression, gastroesophageal reflux disease, stomach ulcers, diverticulosis, liver disease, hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, or Parkinson’s disease.

Table 3.

Multivariate Associations Between Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes and Relevant Sociodemographic, Anthropometric, Symptom, and Disease Variables

Variable Night Sweats OR (95%CI) Day Sweats OR (95% CI) Hot Flashes OR (95% CI)
Age, y 0. 94/y (0.89-0.98)*
Race (nonwhite) 3.10 (1.60-598)
Fever 12.60 (6.58-24.14) 4.10 (2.14-7.87) 3.98 (1.97-8.04)
Muscle cramps 2.84 (1.53-5.24)
Hearing loss 1. 84 (1.03-3.27)§
Vision problems 2.45 (1.41-4.27)* 2.12 (1.19-3.79)§
Numbness in hands and feet 3.34 (1.92-5-81)
Restless legs 3.22 (1.76-5.89)
Lightheadedness 2. 24 (1.30-3.88)
Diabetes 2.19 (1.22-3-92)*
Nervous spells 1.87 (1.01-3.46)
Bone pain 2.31 (1.30-4.08)*

Analysis of Symptom Subgroups

Patients who had at least 1 of the 3 primary symptoms were 1.5 times more likely to have at least 1 sensory deficit—impaired vision, impaired hearing, impaired taste, impaired smell, or numbness on hands or feet (85% vs 56%, P <. 0001)—and 4 times more likely to have 3 or more sensory deficits (24% vs 6%, P <.0001) than were patients with none of the primary symptoms. Conversely, those with at least 1 sensory deficit were 3.4 times more likely to have experienced any of the primary symptoms (24% vs 7%, P <.0001).

Bodily pain (body pain, bone pain, muscle or joint pain, or hip or side pain) was experienced by 97% of those who reported night sweats, 97% of those who reported day sweats, and 95% of those with hot flashes compared with 74% of those with none of the primary symptoms (P = .001 or less for each comparison). Visceral pain (headache, eye pain, oral or dental pain, chest pain or pressure, stomach pain or indigestion, or genital pain) was reported by 68% of those with night sweats, 65% of those with day sweats, and 71% of those with hot flashes but by only 48% of those with none of the primary symptoms (P = .001 or less for each comparison). Conversely, 21% of those with bodily pain and 23% of those with visceral pain reported at least 1 of the primary symptoms compared with 4% (P <. 0001) and 12% (P = .0003), respectively, of those who not report pain.

Patients with each of the 3 primary symptoms were more than twice as likely as those without those symptoms to report feeling down in the dumps, feeling anxious or fretful, or being a nervous person or having nervous spells (P = .001 or less for each comparison). Collectively, one third of patients with night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes reported being either down in the dumps or down hearted, and one half reported at least 1 of the anxiety-related symptoms. Conversely, of those who said they were down in the dumps, 34% reported at least 1 of the primary symptoms compared with 16% who said they were not down in the dumps (P = .001). Twenty-eight percent of those with at least 1 anxiety symptom compared with 11% of those with no anxiety symptoms reported at least 1 of the primary symptoms (P <.0001).

Associations of Primary Symptoms With Health-Related Quality of Life

Table 4 shows the bivariate relationships between each of the 3 primary symptoms and the various quality-of-life estimates after controlling for age, sex, race, education, and income. All 3 symptoms were associated with lower quality of life based upon at least 1 instrument. Self-rated health was negatively associated with night sweats (P = .02) and hot flashes (P = .008), but not day sweats.

Table 4.

Multivariate Associations Between Night Sweats, Day Sweats, and Hot Flashes and Quality of Life, Controlling for Age, Sex, Education, Income, and Race

QOL Measure Night Sweats Day Sweats Hot Flashes
HUI3 NS NS NS
QWB-SA −0.045* NS NS
SF-36
General health −8.179 −8.262 −7.006
Vitality −9.473 −12.743 −7.771
Physical functioning −13.338 −13.368 −9.672
Role–physical −19.054 −18.615 NS
Mental health −4.357* −4.212* NS
Role–emotional −16.682 −9.892* NS
Social functioning −6437* −11.544 NS
Bodily pain −11.061 −13.196 NS

DISCUSSION

Prevalence

Our results confirm that a significant proportion of elders experience night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes. The 10% prevalence estimate for night sweats corresponds with a finding of an unpublished study of consecutive patients enrolled in a geriatric continuity clinic (Mold, unpublished), but it is substantially lower than the 30% reported for geriatric patients in our previously published study.3 This discrepancy may have resulted, in part, from the purposeful exclusion of patients with mild symptoms (those rating the degree of bother “a little”) in the current study. If we had included them, the estimated prevalence of night sweats would have been 20%. The estimates may also have been affected by the wording of the questions. In the present study, we asked how much patients were bothered by night sweats, whereas in the previous study, the question was simply “do you have night sweats?” Patient selection, however, probably accounts for most of the difference. The previous study sample comprised consecutive patients being seen in the clinic, whereas the present study involved all patients seen at least once during the past 18 months. Patients currently being seen by a physician are probably more likely to be symptomatic.

In the current study there was also some selection bias resulting from differential willingness to participate. Based upon the associations between self-rated health and both night sweats and hot flashes and the association between nonwhite race and hot flashes, we assume that this bias resulted in an underestimation of the true prevalences.

Similarities and Differences Between the Primary Symptoms

We anticipated and confirmed strong univariate associations between the 3 primary symptoms. Also, of the 50 variables with univariate associations (P ≤.01) with at least 1 of the primary symptoms, 23 (48%) were associated with all 3 symptoms, and 33 (66%) were associated with 2 of the 3 symptoms. Thus, all 3 primary symptoms appear to be fairly nonspecific in nature, similar to fatigue or anorexia. That none of them was associated with an expectation of worse health and only hot flashes were associated with being illness prone suggest, however, that they are not simply meaningless items in the positive review of systems. The 3 symptoms were also somewhat different. In the multivariate models, the only variables common to more than 1 of the models were fever, common to all 3 models, and impaired vision, shared by night sweats and hot flashes.

Speculations About Multivariate Associations

Variables found to be associated with the 3 primary symptoms could represent causes, effects, or neither. In the last category are variables associated with the primary symptom through one or more confounding variables. In addition, certain variables, while not causally related, may increase awareness of, or result in greater distress from, the primary symptoms.

Fever is well known to cause sweating, so it is not surprising that fever was associated with all 3 of the primary symptoms. The association between muscle cramps and numbness and tingling of the extremities with night sweats raises questions about hyperventilation, electrolyte imbalance, and neuropathy. Alternatively, muscle cramps often occur during the night and could either cause or make one more aware of nocturnal sweating.

Anxiety could either heighten awareness or increase the degree to which one is bothered by symptoms. It could cause difficulty with sleep or result in autonomic stimulation that results in sweating. Anxiety was strongly associated with difficulty sleeping, but there was no colinearity in the multivariate model.

Sensory impairment could make one more aware of bodily sensations such as sweating, or they may be associated with mental health problems that result in night sweats. There was a strong association between visual impairment symptoms and both anxiety and depression; again, however, no colinearity could be found.

The association between day sweats and light-headedness is interesting. Perhaps sweating results in chronic underhydration, and we should be as concerned about the consequences of sweating as we are about its causes. The association of day sweats with restless legs, a condition associated with iron deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, and periodic leg movements in sleep, is even less clear. The association of day sweats and diabetes may or may not be related to hypoglycemic episodes.

Patients with hot flashes were more likely to report nervous spells. This finding supports the conclusion of our previous study that hot flashes may be a symptom of panic disorder.3 The association between nonwhite race and hot flashes is interesting and unexplained. In the bivariate analyses, nonwhite race was also associated with night sweats but not day sweats. Nonwhites were also more likely to report muscle and joint pain but not visceral pain, sensory deficits, or symptoms of anxiety and depression. No interactions were found between race and any other multivariate predictors.

The lack of associations between any of the symptoms and body mass index, use of alcohol or cigarettes, and recent change in weight are interesting and probably important. Excessive weight is often blamed for daytime sweating. It is also quite interesting that, although night sweats have generally been associated in the medical literature and textbooks with specific disease processes, very few common medical conditions in the long list included in this study were associated with any of the 3 symptoms. There are a variety of possible explanations. First, many of the diseases said to cause night sweats are uncommon among primary care patients, though 50 patients in our population reported having an autoimmune disease. More importantly, the diseases reported by our patients had, no doubt, been treated with substantial resolution of symptoms. In addition, the information we obtained about diseases was by self-report and may not have been completely accurate.

Although one reason for focusing on the elderly was to eliminate menopause as an etiologic factor, even in this age-group, women were more likely than men to report hot flashes. Because we did not collect information on the use or recent discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy, we cannot be certain that estrogen deficiency was not a factor, but we doubt that it was a very important one. It may be that hot flashes as a symptom are more familiar and acceptable to women and therefore more likely to be noticed and reported by them.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study

This study has several strengths. It is the largest study to date of the prevalence of and factors associated with night sweats. A large number of variables were available for analysis. Associations of the 3 primary symptoms with various measures of health-related quality of life are potentially important findings that have not previously been reported.

Cross-sectional studies are, by design, exploratory. This initial approach is appropriate when little is known about the causes and consequences of the variables of interest, as in this case. Also, despite the large population size, the large number of variables considered could have resulted in some statistically significant associations occurring by chance, though by focusing primarily on those associations that have a P <.01, we have reduced that possibility.

No objective clinical data were available to confirm the diseases reported. Medications were not evaluated in this study. Several medications were found to be associated with night sweats in the previous study, including antidepressants, antihistamines, xanthines, and corticosteroids. The relationship between night sweats and antidepressants may actually be the result of an association between night sweats and depression, particularly as night sweats were reported with several different classes of antidepressants. A variety of medications cause diaphoresis as a side effect and should always be considered among the possible causes for night sweats and day sweats.

Although we cannot rule out an effect of climate on our results, patients were enrolled throughout the year. In our previous study, the prevalence of night sweats was the same in winter and summer. In that study, however, the question specifically excluded environmental causes.3

Higher rates of participation by younger, healthier patients and by men may have reduced our ability to detect associations between the 3 symptoms and chronic illnesses by reducing the number of participants with such illnesses. Because there was no mention of the symptoms of interest during recruitment or enrollment, it is unlikely that participants were influenced to enroll based upon symptom presence or absence.

Future studies of these symptoms should use more robust designs (case-control or cohort) and focus on the associations between each of the 3 symptoms and specific mental illnesses, sensory impairments, pain syndromes, sleep disorders, medical problems, and medications. These studies should also assess the impact of the symptoms and their causes on prognosis.

CONCLUSIONS

Night sweats, day sweats, and hot flashes are common symptoms in elderly primary care patients. Presumably related to autonomic reactions to emotional or physical distress, they are, no doubt, more noticeable and distressing to some than to others. Though relatively nonspecific, their presence should probably prompt additional questions about febrile illnesses, diabetes, anxiety, depression, somatic and visceral pain, sensory deficits, and restless legs syndrome in addition to standard, recommended evaluations for uncommon serious diseases, such as tuberculosis and malignancies.10

Notes

Conflicts of interest: none reported

Funding support: This study was supported by a grant from the Presbyterian Health Foundation.

Participating Oklahoma Physicians Resources/Research Network (OKPRN) practices: Oklahoma West Physicians Group, Weatherford; Family Medicine Center, Oklahoma City; Great Plains Family Practice Residency Program, Oklahoma City; Putnam North Medical Center, Oklahoma City; West-brook Family Physicians, Edmond; Canyon Park Family Physicians, Edmond; Mid-Del Family Physicians, Midwest City; Clinton Strong, MD, El Reno; Kyle Waugh, MD, Weatherford; and the Citizens Potawatomi Clinic, Shawnee.

REFERENCES

2. Ely JW, Osheroff JA, Ferguson KJ, Chambliss ML, Vinson DC, Moore JL. Lifelong self-directed learning using a computer database of clinical questions. J Fam Pract. 1997;45:382–388. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]3. Mold JW, Mathew MK, Belgore S, DeHaven M. Prevalence of night sweats in primary care patients. J Fam Pract. 2002;51:452–456. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]4. Kaplan RM, Sieber WJ, Ganiats TG. Comparison of the quality of well-being scale with a self-administered questionnaire. Psychol Health. 1997;12:783–791. [Google Scholar]5. Andresen EM, Rothenberg BM, Kaplan RM. Performance of self-administered mailed version of the quality of well-being (QWB-SA) questionnaire among older adults. Med Care. 1998;36:1349–1360. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Ware JE, Snow KK, Kosinski M, Gandek B. SF-36 Health Survey Manual and Interpretation Guide. Boston: New England Medical Center, The Health Institute; 1993.

7. Andresen EM, Bowley N, Rothenberg BM, Panzer R, Katz P. Test-retest performance of a mailed version of the medical outcomes study 36-item short-form health survey among older adults. Med Care. 1996;34:1165–1170. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]8. Lyons RA, Perry HM, Littlepage BN. Evidence for the validity of the short-form 36 questionnaire (SF-36) in an elderly population. Age Ageing. 1994;23:182–184. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]9. Torrance GW. Measurement of health state utilities for economic appraisal. J Health Econ. 1986;5:1–30. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]10. Viera AJ, Bond MM, Yates SW. Diagnosing night sweats. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:1019–1024. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

Causes and treatments in males and females

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When a person has night sweats, they may wake up with drenched pajamas and sheets, even when the room is cool.

There are various causes of night sweats, which doctors call “sleep hyperhidrosis.” The issue is often not serious, but it sometimes shows that a person needs medical attention.

Sweating is the body’s natural cooling system, a way to prevent overheating. A region in the brain called the hypothalamus regulates body temperature. It works with more than 2 million sweat glands to keep the body at the right temperature.

Sweat glands release water and other substances through the skin. As the water evaporates, it releases heat energy. This is how sweating cools the body.

In this article, we describe common causes of night sweats and how to treat or manage them.

Hot days and workouts, for example, heat the body and trigger sweating as a way to cool down.

Perspiration also occurs during sleep and in other situations. It may be a response to:

  • Certain substances: Consuming alcohol or taking some medications or drugs can cause night sweats.
  • Infections: Tuberculosis, influenza, and other illnesses that involve a fever can lead to night sweats.
  • Hypoglycemia: This is another name for low blood sugar.
  • Hormone imbalances: These can occur due to menopause, diabetes, thyroid problems, puberty, and pregnancy.
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Though this typically causes heartburn, night sweats are a common feature.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: This restricts breathing during sleep, and a person with untreated sleep apnea is three times as likely to have night sweats as someone without the condition.
  • Stress and anxiety: These can cause additional sweating during the day and at night, particularly in people who experience night terrors or panic disorder.
  • Autoimmune disease: Some examples include rheumatoid arthritis and giant cell arteritis.
  • Surgery that affects hormone levels: One that commonly results in night sweats is the removal of female reproductive organs.
  • Cardiovascular diseases: Some examples include aortic dissection and nocturnal angina.
  • Neurological disorders: For example, strokes and autonomic neuropathy may cause night sweats.
  • Cancer: Night sweats can also be an early indication of cancer, especially lymphoma or leukemia, though other initial symptoms may be more noticeable.

Transgender people often have difficulty sleeping, according to 2017 research. One reason can be night sweats as a result of hormone treatment.

In a person going through menopause, doctors consider night sweats to be a vasomotor symptom, because the issue affects blood flow. Also, research points to a link between night sweats and the risk of coronary heart disease in midlife.

Obesity may also aggravate night sweats during menopause, according to another study.

Medications

Night sweats can be a side effect of some medications, including:

  • antidepressants
  • medications for other mental health issues
  • hormone therapies
  • diabetes medications
  • some drugs to lower fevers, such as aspirin and acetaminophen
  • steroids

Anyone who wonders whether a medication may be responsible for this issue should check the drug’s packaging or ask a pharmacist or another healthcare provider.

Some people sweat excessively throughout the day and night. This is called hyperhidrosis, and it appears to affect almost 3% of the United States population.

Some research has pointed to a link between excessive sweating and social anxiety disorder, and some experts believe that a problem with the central nervous system may underlie both issues.

Many people with hyperhidrosis avoid bringing it up with doctors out of embarrassment, but treatments and management strategies can help.

The right approach to night sweats depends on the underlying cause. Treating the issue may involve correcting hormone irregularities or adjusting dosages of medications.

In some other situations, a doctor may recommend management strategies, such as:

  • creating a cool sleeping environment
  • using light, breathable, pajamas and sheets made from natural fabrics
  • sleeping with air-conditioning or a fan on
  • drinking plenty of water to prevent dehydration
  • practicing relaxation techniques or breathing exercises before bed and after waking up with a night sweat
  • using clinical-strength antiperspirant on areas such as the underarms, hands, feet, hairline, back, chest, or groin before bed
  • limiting the intake of alcohol, caffeine, and spicy foods
  • not eating 2–3 hours before bed
  • getting regular exercise, but not too close to bedtime
  • maintaining a healthy weight
  • having a healthful diet that is low in fat and sugar
  • receiving treatment for any underlying health issues

Cotton sheets are available for purchase online — so are various antiperspirants.

Also, medications called anticholinergic agents can help reduce sweating, but a person should only take them if a doctor recommends it.

The causes listed in an earlier section can all lead to night sweats in females. The issue usually occurs during times when hormones are changing, such as:

  • menopause, which commonly causes night sweats and hot flashes
  • pregnancy
  • just after giving birth, in which case the doctor may refer to “postpartum night sweats“

It is an especially good idea to bring up night sweats with a doctor if the sweating:

  • is severe
  • changes in frequency
  • affects sleep and the quality of life
  • is not sufficiently addressed with management strategies

The causes listed in an earlier section can also affect males.

In addition, older research suggests that males experience a type of menopause, during which testosterone levels fall around midlife.

Excessive sweating is a feature of low testosterone levels, or hypogonadism. Around 39% of males aged 45 and above may experience this drop in testosterone. They may also experience night sweats as a result. However, there appears to be little evidence to support this idea.

A doctor may suggest hormone treatment or perform tests to identify the cause of the sweating.

Night sweats affect many people. They are sometimes no cause for concern, but they can interrupt sleep and so reduce the quality of life. Also, in some cases, night sweats are a sign of a health issue that requires attention.

Sleeping in a cool room with bedding and pajamas made from light natural fabrics may help. If not, a doctor can recommend other approaches, which may include medication.

If sweating is a side effect of a medication, the doctor may change the drug or the dosage.

Seek medical advice if sweating is severe, concerning, or if it accompanies other symptoms.

Strange Health Issues in Elderly People

Q1. My mother-in-law has a strange problem. She is pushing 90, but for many years she has had a condition where she sweats profusely. She sweats so much she has to change her bedding and her clothing many times a day. She’s been to many doctors but they’ve not helped her. Her social life has been badly hampered by this problem. Any idea what it could be and how to fix it?

— Sue, Pennsylvania

Excessive sweating or hyperhidrosis occurs when the body sweats more than is necessary to control its temperature. It is not very common, as less than one percent of people suffer with this condition. While the sweating can occur all over the body, it is most common on the feet, hands, and underarms.

This condition typically starts early in life during adolescence — less than five percent of cases begin in adulthood. Interestingly, it occurs almost 20 times more frequently in people of Japanese descent. While most cases have no clear explanation for the increased sweating, there are a number of conditions that can lead to this problem. They include an overactive thyroid, diabetes, gout, menopause (though this is usually of a limited duration), alcohol, and certain drugs. Treatment is aimed at correcting the underlying problem, if one is identified. If no explanation is uncovered, treatment includes the use of topical agents such as 20 percent aluminum chloride and oral medications that work on the nervous system, which is responsible for the sweating. The bad news is that these medications can have many side effects, particularly in the elderly.

Other approaches include iontophoresis, in which an electrical current is applied over the skin, and most recently, injection of botulinum toxin in the region of the armpit (the toxin works to block the release of a chemical in the body that drives sweat production). A visit with her physician would result in choosing the best approach, taking into account any other medical problems your mother-in-law may have.

Q2. I’m 60 years old and have been dealing with terrible dry mouth for the last year. I’m not taking any new medications and I feel fine otherwise. Is this age-related? What can I do about it? I feel like no matter how much I drink, I can never satisfy my thirst!

— Arlene, Maryland

Given your age and the symptoms of dry mouth that you describe — including the fact that you feel as though you cannot satisfy your thirst even with ample hydration — it is important that you see a doctor who can evaluate the possibility of diabetes, which is associated with dry mouth and unsatisfied thirst. Medical conditions like Alzheimer’s disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and hypertension may also cause dry mouth in some patients. Of course, there are also a variety of other, less serious causes of dry mouth, including breathing from the mouth rather than the nose (especially at night), smoking or chewing tobacco, or excessive consumption of alcohol. In some cases, for reasons not altogether clear, some degree of dryness of the eyes and mouth can occur in older people without any clear explanation. The first step in solving the problem is to see a doctor who can rule out a more serious cause, like diabetes, and then you can work together to determine and treat what’s causing the dry mouth.

Q3. I have an older friend who has been passing out at times, and he often feels weak. When this happens, he seems a little disoriented, his legs give out from underneath him, and he falls or almost falls. How should he deal with this?

It is essential that your friend receives a neurological examination and a cardiovascular evaluation to determine the cause of his fainting spells. British doctors refer to the symptoms you’re describing as “drop attacks” when they’re exhibited by older persons such as your friend. The reasons behind such spontaneous attacks can be different for different people — some being more serious than others — so it’s imperative to determine the cause. A proper diagnosis can lead to effective prevention of these attacks, or, at the very least can help him to prepare for and manage an attack when it does occur.

Learn more in the Everyday Health Senior Health Center.

When to See a Doctor For Night Sweats

Night sweats are more than feeling warm and tossing a blanket aside in the middle of the night. If you have night sweats you wake up soaked—bedding and all. 

Night sweats are not a disease; they’re a symptom of another health condition or illness. Night sweats are rarely due to a serious health matter and a few tips can help you handle them yourself. A call to the doctor is in order though, if you want to try to stop night sweats or you’re concerned they may be linked to something that needs medical attention.

Common Causes of Night Sweats 

Both men and women as well as children can have night sweats. There’s a long list of conditions that cause them, but among the most common are:

  • Menopause and perimenopause: hormone level changes that lead to nighttime hot flashes

  • Antidepressants: medications including SSRIs and tricyclics

  • Hyperhidrosis: excessive sweating

  • Infections: including tuberculosis, endocarditis, abscesses and HIV infection

  • Acid reflux: reflux tends to worsen at night and can cause sweating

  • Medications: including hormone therapy, diabetes medications, fever reducers, and steroids

  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)

  • Certain cancers

    or cancer treatments

Night Sweats Treatment at Home

Night sweats can disrupt your sleep and leave you exhausted. They can be hard to stop, but some home remedies can ease them and help you cope. Here are some common sense measures to try: 

  • Keep the bedroom cool and make sure the air is circulating.

  • Wear moisture-wicking sleepwear.

  • Try quick-drying microfiber bedding.

  • Put a cooled gel pack under your pillow and flip the pillow as needed.

  • Avoid alcohol, spicy food and tobacco at night.

There are many herbal remedies available that claim to help night sweats, especially for menopausal women. Some evidence exists that black cohosh may help, but most herbs have not been shown to be effective. Some people have found success with dong quai, red clover, flaxseed, or soy. If you want to try an herbal remedy, get them from a reputable source and tell your doctor before you try them. Some early research suggests that complementary and alternative treatments, like acupuncture, hypnosis and meditation, may help with night sweats. 

When to See a Doctor for Night Sweats

Although night sweats are rarely an indication of a serious condition, call your healthcare provider if they are affecting your quality of life. A doctor may be able to help you, depending on the underlying cause. 

Prescription medication for night sweats includes hormone therapy, some antidepressants, and anti-seizure or blood pressure medicines. Occasionally, night sweats can be an indication of serious infection or certain cancers, including lymphoma. It’s important to see your doctor about night sweats if they are accompanied by:

Who to See for Night Sweats

If you are a woman and think you may be nearing menopause, see your gynecologist about night sweats. Otherwise, call your primary care provider, who can assess the possible causes. If necessary, he or she can send you to a specialist. You may see an infectious disease doctor or possibly an endocrinologist or neurologist. If there is a chance you may have cancer, your doctor can recommend an oncologist. Make sure you understand your insurance coverage before you see a specialist, as some insurers require a referral or have other coverage limitations. 

Night sweats are no fun, but generally they are nothing to worry about. However, if you are concerned about night sweats, consult your doctor who can help diagnose the cause and advise you about treatment options.

Night sweats

IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct treatment prescription, you should contact your doctor.

Night sweats – the causes of the appearance, for what diseases it occurs, the diagnosis and treatment methods.

According to statistics, more than a third of patients complain of periodic sweating that occurs during the day. This condition does not always serve as a sign of a disease, however, if such a symptom regularly occurs for no apparent reason and at night, you should pay attention to this.

Varieties of episodes of sweating

When talking to a doctor about the occurrence of episodes of sweating at night, many people mean different manifestations by this.In some cases, this refers to the perspiration on the forehead, while in others it is so much sweat that it is necessary to change clothes, and sometimes bedding. In addition, the number of episodes of increased sweating, or hyperhidrosis, per night and the accompanying symptoms (snoring, holding of breath, fever, fear, insomnia, frequent urination) are important.

Possible Causes

Various causes, including those not related to illness, can lead to increased heat production and sweat production.

First of all, you should pay attention to the microclimate of the room and bedding.

Quilts that are too warm, synthetic clothing, or a high temperature in the bedroom will inevitably trigger bouts of night sweats. If the above is excluded from the list of causes of increased sweating, then other possible factors should be considered.

Excessive sweating can occur as a result of infectious diseases with alternating periods of rising and falling temperatures.A sharp drop in temperature in viral infections (influenza, SARS, mononucleosis), bacterial diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, endocarditis, lung abscess), septic fevers is always accompanied by profuse sweating. A number of tumors also give symptoms such as increased sweating. Pheochromocytoma (a tumor of the adrenal glands that secretes catecholamines – adrenaline and norepinephrine) causes sweat overproduction due to increased hormone production.

In lymphoma, along with general signs of intoxication, night sweats can be profuse (profuse).Excessive sweating is associated with some endocrine diseases.

In women, increased heat production, leading to hyperhidrosis, occurs during hormonal changes: during pregnancy and perimenopause. Against the background of a decrease in the level of estrogen and an increase in the content of follicle-stimulating hormone, there is a change in the distribution of blood in the vessels of the skin. This explains the sudden redness of the skin and sweating during hot flashes. Men can also experience night sweats during andropause – an age-related decrease in the production of the sex hormone testosterone.

Increased sweating can be a symptom of thyrotoxicosis – a disorder of endocrine regulation due to dysfunction of the thyroid gland.

With this disease, there is an increased metabolism and an increase in body temperature, which causes hyperproduction of sweat. The nervousness and psychological instability typical of patients with thyrotoxicosis also contribute to the increase in sweating.

Hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus leads to episodes of sweating at night.

Acromegaly, in which the production of growth hormone growth hormone increases, is almost always accompanied by increased sweat production in the evening and at night.

Obesity should also be mentioned, in which sweating also increases. This process can be associated not only with the activity of the endocrine glands, but also with the use of foods that stimulate the work of the sweat glands.

At night, sweat can come out with a sudden cessation of breathing – apnea.As a rule, in this case, perspiration appears mainly on the face. Disorders of sweating can be caused by episodes of transient cerebrovascular accident, hypertensive crisis, encephalitis, and large brain tumors. All these diseases can be accompanied not only by increased sweating, but also by other signs of autonomic dysfunction: chills, fear, irritability. Facial sweat often occurs with Parkinson’s disease. Panic attacks are among the neurological conditions associated with excessive night sweating.They are characterized by an unexpected and unexplained bout of feeling unwell, accompanied by fear or anxiety. Panic attacks can occur either in certain uncomfortable situations, for example, when traveling on the subway, or develop for no apparent reason (at night) and be accompanied by a feeling of fear, palpitations and sweating.

An increase in sweating is often provoked by the intake of drugs (cytostatics, aspirin, insulin, proserin), the use of alcohol, drugs, sometimes this phenomenon is observed with withdrawal reactions (arising from the termination of the intake of psychoactive substances).

Diagnostics and examinations

First of all, you need to make sure that sweating is not a reaction to an increased temperature in the room, excessively warm bedding and clothing. It is necessary to exclude the infectious nature of sweating, in particular, tuberculosis.In this case, it is important to establish the patient’s belonging to the risk groups for tuberculosis (migrants; persons released from prison; persons in whose families there is a patient with tuberculosis; frequently ill patients; HIV-infected; patients with diabetes mellitus ; people receiving corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy, as well as chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer).Long-term respiratory symptoms dictate the need for an X-ray examination of the chest organs, a clinical blood test, a sputum examination for acid-fast mycobacteria by microscopy (three times) and immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis infection.

90,000 Hyperhidrosis (increased sweating). Symptoms and treatment

Hyperhidrosis is a condition in which profuse sweating occurs in situations where sweat is usually not observed or is insignificant.Severe sweating can occur all over the body at the same time or localized (palms, feet, armpits, etc.).

The human body constantly produces small amounts of sweat, with physical exertion, stress, eating hot food and raising the temperature, the amount of sweat can increase. This is a normal reaction of the body, the secretion of sweat helps to cool the body and protects against overheating. Excessive sweating refers to excessive sweating in situations where this is not normally the case.For example, heavy sweating at rest or with little exercise.

Classification of varieties of hyperhidrosis

According to the mechanism of development, there are two types of profuse sweating, which depends on the presence or absence of predisposing factors.

  • Primary hyperhidrosis (idiopathic) – a physiological predisposition of the body, is not a sign of any disease and can develop in an absolutely healthy person.Often, this type is inherited from parent to child. Typical features are profuse local sweating (armpits, palms, neck, etc.), sweating all over the body is extremely rare at the same time.
  • Secondary hyperhidrosis – occurs against the background of progressive diseases, in the presence of hyperactivity or when taking medications. It is characterized by profuse sweating all over the body at the same time, and not on localized areas. If you suspect secondary hyperhidrosis, you should visit a specialist.Since this type always has a valid reason for its appearance and can be detected during examination.

The following classification is based on the amount of skin affected by the pathology.

  1. Generalized hyperhidrosis – profuse sweating, widespread throughout the body, involving the back and chest. It is secondary, with rare exceptions, it occurs under the influence of various diseases or from taking medications.Women are predisposed to this type during pregnancy and the postpartum state, in the second half of the menstrual cycle, after the onset of menopause.
  2. Localized (local) hyperhidrosis – profuse sweating occurs only in certain parts of the body, while the rest produce sweat in accordance with the norm. It belongs to the idiopathic form, most often due to vegetative-vascular dystonia. With local hyperhidrosis, a person may develop bromidrosis (osmidrosis) or chromidrosis.
    • Bromhidrosis – offensive sweat, the reason for the appearance is lack of hygiene and the consumption of products with a pungent odor (onions, garlic, tobacco, etc.). With insufficient hygiene, bacteria on the surface of the skin actively decompose the protein substances released along with sweat – compounds of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are formed, which have an unpleasant odor. It can also occur against the background of diabetes mellitus, skin syphilis (syphilitic rash) and pemphigus.
    • Chromidrosis – dyeing sweat in various colors (orange, black, etc.)occurs when toxic substances and chemical compounds (mainly cobalt, copper and iron) enter the body, as well as in the presence of hysterical seizures and chronic diseases.
  3. Gustatory hyperhidrosis – profuse sweating of the upper lip, the area around the mouth, the tip of the nose when eating hot, spicy, spicy foods and drinks. In addition, it can develop with Frey’s syndrome (a type of pain associated with the ear-temporal nerve).

Causes of hyperhidrosis

The main factor for the occurrence of profuse sweating is the excessive activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which activates the work of the sweat glands.A signal is transmitted to the sweat glands along the nerve fibers of the sympathetic part of the peripheral nervous system, as a result, they are activated and begin to work in an enhanced mode. If the SNS is too active, the sweat glands produce copious amounts of sweat.

It should be noted that the increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is the mechanism of hyperhidrosis. But the exact reason for its excessive activity is not known. Since sweating can develop in both a healthy person and a background of any disease, when taking medications, emotional overstrain and many factors that seem to have nothing to do with SNS.

An imbalance in the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems is characteristic of vegetative-vascular dystonia; increased sweating is often found in this disorder. But this pathology cannot be considered as the main reason for hyperhidrosis, since the majority of people suffering from sweating do not have vegetative-vascular dystonia.

How to treat hyperhidrosis

The exact mechanism of the influence of somatic, endocrinological and psychological disorders on the sympathetic nervous system is unknown.Scientists cannot explain how the process of active work of the sympathetic nervous system is triggered. Accordingly, it is not possible to regulate the centers of the brain that control nerve fibers that transmit signals to the sweat glands. Treatment of hyperhidrosis is carried out with methods and drugs that lower the intensity of the sweat glands.

Methods of treatment are exclusively symptomatic – they relieve sweating, but do not affect the cause of the disease. If sweating is of a secondary type, which has arisen due to any disease, then the technique to reduce sweating is carried out together with the treatment of the pathology that caused the problem.

Treatment of hyperhidrosis is carried out by the following methods:

  1. Use of antiperspirants (deodorants, gels, lubricants, wipes).
  2. Taking drugs that reduce sweating.
  3. Iontophoresis.
  4. Introduction of botulinum toxin (botox) into the skin.
  5. Surgical methods. Curettage (destruction and removal) of the sweat glands through an incision in the skin. Sympathectomy is the transection of the nerves to the sweat glands.Laser lipolysis is the destruction of sweat glands by a laser.

The presented methods are used according to a specific algorithm, from the simplest methods to surgery, to achieve the desired result.

Use of antiperspirants

These products are applied to the skin and contain aluminum salts that clog the sweat glands. As a result, the production of sweat is blocked and sweating is reduced. Antiperspirants can be used for a long period of time until the optimal effect is obtained.Before the use of aluminum, the preparations contained formaldehyde or urotropine, their use was limited due to toxicity and low efficiency.

When choosing an antiperspirant, you should take into account the concentration of the active substance – aluminum. It is better to start treatment with a minimum concentration (from 6.5 to 12%). The drug is applied to the affected area of ​​the skin for 6-10 hours, preferably at night, then washed off. The interval of use is from 1 to 3 days, depending on the duration of the action.

Iontophoresis and botulinum toxin

In case of insufficient effectiveness of antiperspirants, an iontophoresis procedure is performed – under the influence of an electric field, drugs and salts are introduced into the skin, which reduce the activity of the sweat glands. These injections help 80% of the time.

Cupping with botulinum toxin is performed when iontophoresis does not bring the desired result. The therapeutic effect of the procedure lasts from six months to one and a half years.

Medicines

Tablets are rarely used for treatment, since their use is associated with the appearance of side effects – heart palpitations, dry mouth, problems with urination, etc. The active ingredient in the preparation may be glycopyrrolate, oxybutynin and clonidine. Usually, drugs are used in situations where a short-term but reliable result is needed.

Surgery

During surgery, the sweat glands in the problem area are completely removed, the nerves leading to the site of profuse sweating are destroyed or cut.

Curettage – cleansing with a curette (surgical spoon) from the sweat glands from the problem area. The procedure is performed under local or general anesthesia and helps in more than half of the cases. But it is possible that secondary curettage may be needed.

Laser lipolysis – destruction of sweat glands by laser, a safe procedure that minimally traumatizes the skin surface.

Sympathectomy – transection or clamping of the nerve leading to the sweat glands.A simple and effective procedure, but it can cause side effects – profuse sweating on the adjacent skin area.

Hyperhidrosis in children

Small children are at least as susceptible to hyperhidrosis as adults. It should be borne in mind that until the age of 6 years, the sweating system is only being formed. After the sweat glands begin to work stably, they look more like the system of an adult. The baby’s sweat glands begin to function from 3-4 weeks of life, their work is unstable and may inadequately respond to temperature changes.At the age of three, children sweat a lot during sleep and while eating, which is the norm – the body removes excess heat outside, protecting itself from overheating.

The child’s body is well adapted to the temperature conditions of the environment, the temperature of 18-22 degrees is comfortable for walking in a regular T-shirt. An adult at the same temperature can feel cool and dress the child according to his feelings. When overheated, the body sweats, compensating for excess clothing.

A large number of natural factors can explain the child’s heavy sweating, but if signs of hyperhidrosis are frequent, it is worth consulting with a specialist.

Causes and Symptoms

The primary and secondary forms of hyperhidrosis are distinguished. Primary is most often inherited, sweating of the feet, palms and armpits increases. Secondary occurs due to the presence of any disease, sweat appears throughout the body evenly.

Sweating can occur due to prolonged use of drugs or their wrong dosage – antidepressants, antibiotics, vasoconstrictor antipyretics, drugs.

The causes of increased sweating in children of different ages are very different, it is associated with changes in the growing body.

  1. Breast age. The reasons for the appearance are teething, the presence of rickets, intracranial pressure, muscle hypertonicity, hot and dry air. The disease is more susceptible to obese children born prematurely, eating artificial mixtures.
  2. From the age of six, the sweating system is finally formed.Excessive sweating at this time is associated with a crisis in a child, living conditions change – the appearance of new people and abundant mental stress. Changes in diet and the appearance of excess weight can also cause hyperhidrosis.
  3. Adolescence, puberty. Puberty causes hormonal changes in the body, at which time primary hyperhidrosis may appear. In adolescence, the cause of sweating is diabetes mellitus, overweight, vegetative dystonia, mental disorder.

It is possible to identify the presence of a disease in children by several signs:

  • profuse sweating in the armpits;
  • wet, cold hands;
  • head sweating, red face;
  • wet clothes that have to be changed several times a day;
  • wet feet, unpleasant odor.

Prevention and Treatment

Diagnosis of excessive sweating begins with a visit to a pediatrician and dermatologist.The doctor writes out a referral for the delivery of an analysis – blood (general, sugar level, the presence of hormones) and urine. If necessary, an ultrasound scan, X-ray, ECG and additional consultation of specialists – an endocrinologist, cardiologist, infectious disease specialist – are prescribed. For the treatment of profuse sweating, sedatives, vitamin-mineral complexes, immunomodulators, and, if necessary, exercise therapy and electrophoresis are prescribed.

Compliance with preventive measures will help to avoid or speed up the treatment process, these include:

  • compulsory scheduled visits to the pediatrician;
  • 90,068 daily air baths;

  • morning and evening water procedures;
  • bathing with chamomile, oak bark, string;
  • loose-fitting socks made of soft, natural materials;
  • use of hypoallergenic detergents for washing clothes;
  • exclusion of fatty, spicy and salty foods from the diet, restriction of sweets;
  • support of temperature and humidity conditions in rooms;
  • Maintaining a calm atmosphere in the family, excluding nervous shocks.

Causes of increased sweating in women over 50 and 60 years old

Anyone in their life has experienced increased sweating. Even older women are affected by this problem.

Wet armpits cause not only visible aesthetic discomfort, but are also a common cause of poor health in women after 50 and 60 years. What is the reason for this phenomenon and why elderly women sweat.

The causes of sweating attacks in the elderly fair half are quite enough.You should deal with this phenomenon and visit a medical professional if other signs are accompanied, as well as if increased hyperhidrosis brings a woman inconvenience and affects her well-being.

Main reasons

Consider the main factors:

  • Weight. Being overweight has a great effect on increased sweating in women over 60 years of age. Thermogenesis is influenced by the presence of fat cells in the human body. It is necessary to find out what led to obesity – overeating or hormonal imbalance caused by a metabolic failure.
  • Physical activity. With increased physical activity, the phenomenon of sweating, especially after 50 years, can be considered the norm. There is an activation of the sebaceous glands and the secretion of sweat.
  • Emotional outburst, stressful situation. When a person experiences a negative emotion (anger, anger, frustration), adrenaline is released into the bloodstream, which triggers the body’s protective functions.
  • Incorrect power supply. Overeating, the use of hot spices and seasonings, the use of hot drinks (coffee, tea) lead to increased sweating in women after 50 years.Smoking, alcohol abuse increases the manifestations of increased sweating.
  • Genetics. Modified sweat secretion glands, as well as a large number of them, are the rarest cause of hyperhidrosis.
  • Use of medicines. Increased hyperhidrosis will be a side effect of some drugs.

Hormonal changes (climax)

Every woman in her 50-60 years begins to enter a natural state – menopause.Of course, there are deviations from the norm and menopause can happen at 35 or at 65, it all depends on individual characteristics. During menopause, the amount of hormones in the blood changes, which are responsible not only for the reproductive system, but also for all organ systems.

Being produced in the brain, hormones affect the coherence of the whole organism. Violation of thermoregulation directly depends on the production of sex hormones and is almost always a sign of increased sweating in women in old age.

If, during menopause, increased sweating in women after 60 is greatly increased, then it is necessary to contact an endocrinologist for ancillary treatment with hormone replacement therapy. Attacks of increased perspiration in older women occur even at night.

Night sweats

The causes of night sweats in women over 50 can be metabolic diseases and hormonal disorders. Most often, such diseases are:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis, when persistent joint pain occurs during prolonged sitting, low-grade fever and muscle pain are present.
  • Gout. The beautiful half of humanity suffers from joint pain in the lower extremities, more often during menopause, which is accompanied by hot flashes and increased hyperhidrosis at night.
  • Lupus. Joint damage, allergic skin rashes, and the concomitant neurological manifestations lead to nocturnal hyperhidrosis.

It is necessary to distinguish between night sweats caused by diseases and increased sweating when external signs change.

If the room temperature is too high, heat exchange is disturbed and this leads to a change in thermoregulation, and this does not pose a danger at all and can be easily eliminated by changing the room temperature.

Possible pathologies

Harmless wet armpits can cause the most serious diseases. Therefore, if sweating occurs at night, you need to consult a doctor, especially with a parallel increase in body temperature.

A doctor can help you figure out why an elderly woman may have severe sweating.

If we talk about endocrine diseases, then it can be:

  • Diabetes mellitus. An increase in the amount of sugar in the blood is why a woman can sweat after 50 years.
  • Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. The activity of the thyroid gland is associated with the work of the nervous and cardiovascular systems, it has a direct effect on heat exchange throughout the human body. With concomitant symptoms: fatigue, bulging, tremor of the extremities, an endocrinologist’s consultation is necessary.
  • Violations of the hormonal levels of the reproductive system of the ovaries, especially during menopause and with various hormone-dependent disorders of menstrual function.
  • Diseases of the pancreas cause severe girdle pain in the epigastrium, accompanied by increased sweating.

There are other reasons:

  • Oncology. Cancer tumors, including various leukemias and leukemias, affect the functions of the internal glands, which leads to disruption of the entire thermoregulation system.
  • Infection. Escaping perspiration signals various types of acute respiratory viral infections, as well as influenza, malaria, pneumonia and more serious diseases (AIDS, tuberculosis), which lead to intoxication of the body.
  • Heart disease. Heart failure, an increase or decrease in blood pressure numbers is one of the common causes of increased sweating in older women.
  • Osteochondrosis. If present in the cervicothoracic region, headaches and increased hyperhidrosis occur, depending on changes in atmospheric pressure.

We treat at home

Sweating in a woman of mature age often requires medical intervention and such an unpleasant symptom should not be ignored.

At home, a relaxing bath or cool shower can help alleviate this condition. With night tides, an evening bath with light beer has a good effect for 2 weeks. A bath with oak bark will be a wonderful remedy.

Traditional medicine helps to significantly reduce the condition:

  • Tea with mint, it has a calming and sedative effect.
  • Infusion of nettle and sage, it should be taken twice a day for a month.
  • Observe the daily routine, separate time for work and rest, sleep in a cool room for at least 7-8 hours.

Antiperspirants are the solution to get rid of wet armpits and unpleasant odor. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the skin and do sensitivity tests before use. These products should not be abused in the heat.

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If you still have questions or want to share your opinion, experience – write a comment below.90,000 Gastritis: Causes of gastritis, Symptoms of gastritis, Gastritis during pregnancy

Gastritis of the stomach is one of the most common diseases among other pathologies of the digestive system. It is observed in 80-90% of people of predominantly middle and elderly age. About 70-90% of older people suffer from various forms of gastritis. Chronic gastritis is dangerous because it can turn into a peptic ulcer, and then into stomach cancer.

Do not underestimate gastritis, as it affects the general condition of the body.Food is poorly absorbed, due to which there is a breakdown and weakening of health. This condition leads to severe diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and stomach tumors. Depending on the form of manifestation, gastritis can be acute and chronic. Acute gastritis occurs suddenly against a background of various stimuli. Chronic gastritis is acquired over time with improper diet and lifestyle. Gastritis can occur with low, normal and high acidity of the stomach. There are several types of gastritis:

  • Atrophic – a severe form of gastritis, in which the gastric mucosa is so affected that it can lead to the formation of tumors.
  • Erosive – this type of disease is observed in acute and chronic gastritis. It is characterized by the formation of small erosions on the surface of the gastric mucosa.
  • Hypertrophic – the form is observed in patients with chronic gastritis, characterized by extensive changes in the gastric mucosa, which leads to the formation of adenomas and cysts in the stomach.
  • Biliary – a pathological reflex of the body, in which bile acid constantly enters the stomach cavity and causes negative changes in the mucous membrane.

Causes of gastritis

Bacterial and non-microbial factors can cause gastritis:

  • The main cause of the disease is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, less often other bacteria and fungi. Helicobacter pylori is detected in 80% of gastritis cases. Bacteria enter the gastric mucosa, releasing special substances that irritate the mucous membrane, cause a change in the pH of the walls, which leads to inflammation. Scientists have not yet established why some people are susceptible to these bacteria, while others are not.
  • Incorrect power supply. Among the main causes of gastritis, malnutrition is distinguished. It can be overeating or malnutrition, wrong food intake. Lack of plant foods rich in plant fiber that promote good digestion leads to gastritis. Frequent consumption of refined and processed foods, fatty and hot sauces also leads to stomach inflammation.
  • Drinking alcohol without measure often leads to the development of gastritis. Ethanol has a destructive effect on the gastric mucosa, disrupts acid-base metabolism in the body.Alcohol molecules are rapidly absorbed in the small intestine and stomach, with constant consumption of alcoholic beverages, the stomach, liver and pancreas are gradually destroyed.
  • According to research, some drugs that are used to prevent blood clotting, pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs can negatively affect the state of the gastric mucosa, as they irritate it. Most often, gastritis can be caused by non-hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin, glucocorticoid hormones.
  • The cause of gastritis can be various helminthic infections, constant stress, some strong chemicals, allergies to certain foods.

Symptoms of gastritis

Gastritis can manifest itself in various symptoms depending on the form and degree of the disease and can proceed unnoticed. The main symptom of gastritis is a sharp pain in the solar plexus area, which manifests itself more sharply with the use of certain types of foods, drinks, drugs, especially foods with increased irritability to the gastric mucosa.Pain can occur between meals. There is constant or intermittent pain in the solar plexus area immediately after eating or during fasting.

Among the symptoms of gastritis, heartburn, vomiting, and belching are also distinguished. Morning sickness, vomiting with bile, sometimes with bloody discharge may appear. There is bloating, frequent gas, and a taste of bile and metal. Painful sensations may be accompanied by headache, dizziness, frequent heartbeat. The color of feces changes, the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes turn pale.Sometimes there may be intense thirst and increased salivation.

The symptoms of chronic gastritis are harder to define. For a long time, a person may not notice any special signs. There may be irregular bowel movements, plaque on the tongue, fatigue, rumbling and noises in the abdomen between meals, bloating, and at times diarrhea or constipation may occur. Chronic gastritis affects the quality of life, but does not strongly affect the patient’s health. At the initial stage, it can manifest itself as a disorder of the digestive system.In a more advanced stage, chronic gastritis causes constant gas, anemia, drowsiness, temperature changes and increased sweating, increased rumbling in the abdomen, bad breath, heaviness after eating.

Symptoms during exacerbation of gastritis

During an exacerbation of gastritis, severe symptoms are observed that can be immediately noticed:

  • acute abdominal pain that occurs intermittently or constantly, worse after meals or in between meals;
  • belching, nausea, heartburn after eating;
  • increased salivation;
  • vomiting after eating with a sour odor and greenish or yellowish mucus;
  • dry mouth due to dehydration;
  • bowel disorder: constipation or diarrhea;
  • headache, weakness, fever, rapid heartbeat and breathing, dizziness.

Exacerbation of gastritis is accompanied by severe pain after eating and vomiting. The painful sensations can be so strong that it is difficult for a person to straighten up. Vomiting may be mixed with mucus and dark blood clots if bleeding has opened in the stomach. At the same time, the stool becomes dark, almost black in color. In an acute attack, a person may lose consciousness, the skin turns pale, the pulse is barely palpable, breathing becomes shallow, and a lot of sweat is released. In this case, urgent hospitalization is required.

Forms of gastritis

Since gastritis is one of the most common gastrointestinal problems in the 21st century, more than one type of disease has been studied.

Hypoacid gastritis

Hypoacid gastritis is a form of gastritis characterized by inflammation of the gastric mucosa with a reduced secretory function of the glands. Decreased secretion of hydrochloric acid leads to gradual atrophy of the stomach cavity, inability to absorb nutrients and vitamins.On the mucous membrane, growths, formations can occur, which are then converted into a cancerous tumor.

The manifestation of symptoms of hypoacid gastritis depends on the stage at which the pathological process is. At the beginning of the development of the disease, there may be a heaviness in the stomach, in the upper abdomen. Over time, pain occurs, which are located in the epigastric region. Pain can occur intermittently, after drinking alcohol or irritating spicy, fatty foods.

Other symptoms of hypoacid gastritis include indigestion, constipation or diarrhea, belching, and bad breath.As the disease progresses, vomiting periodically occurs, at times severe.

The most important consequence of this type of gastritis is poor digestion and absorption of food. Against this background, signs of vitamin deficiency may appear:

  • weight reduction;
  • development of anemia;
  • peeling skin,
  • severe hair loss,
  • dryness and cracks in the skin, in the corners of the mouth, ulcerative lesions on the mucous membranes in the mouth;
  • Great weakness and dizziness;
  • pallor of the skin, increased sweating and palpitations.

Diffuse gastritis

Diffuse gastritis is a form of gastritis characterized by uniform inflammation of the entire gastric mucosa. Inflammation of the mucous membrane leads to decreased gastric motility, poor digestion of food, as a result of which the glands lose their ability to normally break down food.

At the initial stage of the disease, the gastric mucosa becomes inflamed, then the inflammation flows into a chronic form. After a while, if gastritis is not treated, atrophy of the gastric glands occurs.First, glandular cells die, then epithelial cells, they are replaced by fibrous tissue. The danger of diffuse gastritis is that after it the risk of developing stomach cancer increases. Decay products and protein remain in the stomach, which poison the body and reduce vital functions. A person has vitamin deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, weakness and apathy. Diffuse gastritis can be acute or chronic.

Depending on the nature of the lesion, diffuse gastritis is usually divided into several types:

  • Diffuse subatrophic gastritis is a progressive inflammation in the gastric mucosa that gradually leads to the loss of the gastric glands;
  • diffuse obstructive gastritis – this is the name of the form of chronic gastritis, which spreads to all parts of the stomach;
  • Diffuse superficial gastritis is the mildest form of the disease, which is characterized by inflammation of only the upper part of the gastric mucosa.

The development of diffuse gastritis can depend on many reasons and negative factors. These include poor nutrition, starvation, unhealthy foods, frequent use of alcohol and cigarettes, infectious and viral diseases. The onset of gastritis can be associated with various diseases of the nervous system, endocrine system, metabolic and digestive disorders.

Antral gastritis

Antral or antrum gastritis is an inflammatory process in the antrum, which leads to atrophy of areas and impaired motility of this department.Over time, antrum gastritis progresses and becomes chronic focal atrophic.

Depending on the manifestation, several types of antral gastritis are distinguished:

  • Superficial antrum gastritis – it is characterized by the defeat of the uppermost layer of the stomach. This is the simplest form of gastritis and does not scar or damage the glands. Superficial antrum gastritis can be focal, occur in certain areas.
  • Erosive antrum gastritis – this type is characterized by a more significant lesion of the gastric mucosa.The inflammatory process leads to the development of erosions, affects the glands of the stomach, forms many scars, and may be accompanied by bleeding.
  • Hyperplastic – the gastric mucosa thickens, the epithelial cells are replaced, which leads to the formation of many cysts or polyps.
  • Focal antrum gastritis – with this type of gastritis, there are many foci of lesions of the gastric cavity and areas of atrophy.
  • Antrum gastritis with atrophy – develops against the background of mucosal atrophy, i.e.That is, the function of the gastric glands decreases, the cells are no longer able to secrete gastric juice and normally digest food. The chronic form of atrophic antrum gastritis can lead to the formation of malignant tumors in the stomach.

The development of antral gastritis occurs due to the development of microorganisms in the stomach cavity. The main role is played by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which enters the stomach, causing inflammation and atrophy of mucosal cells. The multiplication of bacteria leads to a decrease in the production of bicarbonate by the glands of the antrum.For this reason, the acidity of the gastric juice increases.

Acid enters the intestine and irritates it, the digestive process is disturbed, which leads to diseases of the small intestine. There is an oxidation of the pyloric region, atrophic changes, as a result, the gastric glands die. The glands are replaced by scar tissue.

Antral gastritis can develop against the background of autoimmune processes in the body. There is a malfunction of the glands, severe inflammation and damage to the cells of the mucous membrane.This can cause the development of chronic disorders of the secretory function of the mucous membrane. In most cases, antrum gastritis is the cause of the development of erosions and ulcers when leaving the stomach, or in the duodenal cavity.

At the first stage, antral gastritis can proceed without pronounced symptoms, since the excretory function of the glands has not yet been impaired. The acidity level in gastric juice is normal or slightly elevated. Over time, the disease progresses and discomfort occurs.Severe pain is felt in the solar plexus area. It occurs 1.5 hours after a meal, and can occur between meals on an empty stomach. Pain symptoms are sharp, in the form of contractions. Increased acidity leads to the formation of erosions in the stomach cavity, so a sharp pain is felt.

Heartburn and belching with a sour taste, heaviness and discomfort in the stomach, upset of the digestive system: increased gas production, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation can join the pain.With acute erosive antrum gastritis, periodic gastric bleeding may occur. They are characterized by severe vomiting with an admixture of blood and dark-colored stools.

The intensity of symptoms manifests itself after the use of spicy, fried, smoked, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, sour fruits and vegetables, and coarse fiber. Severe attacks may occur with dizziness, weakness, rapid heartbeat and breathing.

Anacid gastritis

Anacid gastritis is a disease in which gastritis with low acidity develops.With this type of disease, gastric juice is poorly produced, since the cells of the stomach atrophy. With low acidity, the assimilation of proteins does not occur completely, therefore, decay products remain in the stomach, which poison the body. Accumulating with other metabolic wastes, they reduce the body’s resistance to disease and lead to the development of malignant tumors.

Chronic anacid gastritis can occur after an acute form of the disease, against the background of typhoid fever or dysentery, if the treatment process is neglected.The acidity in the stomach can decrease due to the regular use of alcohol, smoking, overeating, unhealthy foods, starvation and obsession with diets, and improper diet. The risk group includes young people, most often office workers and representatives of other specialties of sedentary work.

The onset of the disease may be asymptomatic. As anacid gastritis develops, the patient may experience the following symptoms:

  • pain in the stomach and heaviness in the abdomen after eating;
  • bowel disorder or constipation;
  • lethargy and apathy;
  • rapid weight loss, since a reduced release of hydrochloric acid leads to impaired absorption of nutrients and vitamins;
  • nausea and vomiting mixed with bile or mucus;
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth, belching and putrid odor from the mouth;
  • increased gas production and bloating;
  • low blood pressure and anemia;
  • pain of a girdle nature, which may worsen from time to time;
  • aversion to common foods, such as milk;
  • complications in the form of dysbiosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and other gastric diseases.

A characteristic sign of anacid gastritis is bad breath with a tinge of rot, since food in the stomach is not completely digested and wanders in it. The patient is constantly tormented by heaviness in the stomach, even after small portions of food.

Superficial gastritis

Superficial gastritis – one of the types of gastritis, which is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membrane and damage to the inner lining of the stomach. It is the safest form of gastritis.The inflammatory process can affect the area at the exit from the stomach into the duodenum, then antral gastritis occurs.

The development of superficial gastritis can be caused by the use of irregular and unhealthy food, hot and cold dishes, seasonings and spices, hobby for alcoholic beverages, sweets, smoking. Also, negative factors include the regular intake of drugs based on acids, poisoning with chemicals, the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori in the stomach.

Among the main symptoms of superficial gastritis, there is pain that occurs in the area of ​​the solar plexus. It manifests itself more acutely with the use of spicy and heavy foods, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, as there is irritation of the gastric mucosa. After eating, the feeling of discomfort in the stomach increases. The pain may have a point character, which means that the patient has a focal form of superficial gastritis.

Erosive gastritis

Erosive gastritis – one of the forms of gastritis, in which inflammatory processes in the stomach lining are accompanied by the formation of small erosions on the surface of the mucous membrane.Unlike simple gastritis, with this type of disease, many damaged areas of the mucous membrane are formed, inflammation and redness occur. Erosion can occur in all parts of the stomach.

Erosive gastritis can occur acutely when harmful products or chemicals enter the stomach, or in chronic form when the stomach and digestive system do not work properly.

The development of this type of gastritis can be triggered by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.It can take a long time and take longer to heal than other forms of gastritis. The danger of erosive gastritis is that it is often accompanied by gastric bleeding. With severe bleeding, there is a risk of losing a large amount of blood, becoming critical.

Erosive gastritis cannot always be accurately diagnosed, as its symptoms are similar to other forms of gastritis. Only with bleeding in the stomach can a diagnosis be made with certainty.In other cases, the following signs of the disease appear:

  • Pain in the upper abdomen. It can be mild, but with extensive lesions of the stomach, the pain becomes severe and is eliminated only with the help of analgesics.
  • The onset of pain after eating or on an empty stomach, as gastric juice irritates the ulcerated gastric mucosa.
  • Heartburn, which occurs most often in chronic erosive gastritis with decreased work of the stomach and reflux of acidic contents from the stomach into the duodenum.
  • Disorders from the digestive system: heaviness after eating, sour and rotten belching, unpleasant taste and dry mouth, bowel upset in the form of diarrhea or constipation.

In an acute attack, the patient has severe vomiting with blood or epithelial particles, headache, rapid breathing and palpitations, loose stools, dizziness and weakness.

Reflux gastritis

Reflux gastritis is a condition caused by regular ingestion of acidic contents into the stomach and destruction of the mucous membrane by bile acids.The digestive system is equipped with a special muscular sphincter – a gatekeeper, which opens from time to time so that half-digested food from the stomach gets into the duodenum.

With reflux gastritis, the gatekeeper begins to work incorrectly, which leads to a back reflux of food masses containing enzymes and bile into the stomach from the duodenum.

During this process, the gastric mucosa is attacked by acids and enzymes, which leads to the destruction of its cells.Bile acid from the stomach ends up in the intestines and causes inflammation. This phenomenon is called reflux, which causes reflux gastritis. This is a chronic disease that is dangerous because it can lead to the development of a malignant tumor of the stomach.

There are two types of gastritis reflux:

  • Duodenogastric reflux, which occurs against the background of poor closure of the pylorus, high blood pressure, inflammatory and destructive processes of the mucous membrane in the duodenum.
  • Biliary reflux arising from changes in the biliary system, impaired motility and sphincter function. This leads to disruption of the functioning of organs and the force of pressure inside the intestine and bile ducts, which disrupts the compression of the ducts of the stomach and pancreas.

During the development of reflux gastritis, symptoms such as heaviness in the stomach after or during a meal occur. The patient has an unpleasant taste in the mouth and nausea. Vomiting with bile, diarrhea or constipation manifests itself, the accumulation of gas in the intestines, and bloating increase.Such gastritis is characterized by painful sensations of a dull and aching character. They can occur during and after meals.

Frequent vomiting leads to poor assimilation of food, the patient quickly loses weight, weakness occurs, dizzy. Nutrients and vitamins do not enter the bloodstream, so vitamin deficiency develops. The skin becomes dry, lips become sticky, hair becomes dull and nails brittle. Low blood pressure may develop from a lack of vitamins.

The chronic form of gastritis reflux occurs due to the reflux of bile into the stomach for many years.It is characterized by a multifocal or diffuse-atrophic lesion of the mucous membrane, accompanied by intestinal damage and a decreased secretion of gastric juice. In the future, this can lead to the development of cancer.

Hypertrophic gastritis

Hypertrophic gastritis is one of the forms of chronic gastritis, which is characterized by the proliferation of the gastric mucosa, the appearance of polyps and cysts in it. The disease is diagnosed most often in males aged 30-50 years.

The development of hypertrophic gastritis can be associated with various pathogenic factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, junk and rough food, chemical poisoning with gases or metals in hazardous industries. The presence of viral and infectious diseases: dysentery, hepatitis, typhoid fever – can cause the development of this form of gastritis.

Hypertrophic gastritis is usually divided into several types depending on the type of changes in the gastric mucosa:

  • Menetrie’s disease – with this type, large folds are formed on the gastric mucosa.It can manifest itself in three forms: dyspeptic, pseudo-tumor and asymptomatic.
  • Warty – this type of gastritis is characterized by the formation of warts on the gastric mucosa.
  • Granular – a cyst forms in the gastric mucosa.
  • Polyposis – this type is characterized by the formation of polyps in the gastric mucosa

Hypertrophic gastritis is characterized by strong changes in the mucous membrane, therefore it causes pronounced symptoms:

  • painful sensations of an aching and paroxysmal nature that occurs during or after eating;
  • with increased acidity of gastric juice or reflux gastritis, heartburn occurs;
  • flatulence and bloating;
  • Increased salivation, nausea and vomiting;
  • poor or no appetite;
  • sharp weight loss, weakness and low blood pressure;
  • in some cases there is gastric bleeding, vomiting mixed with blood and epithelial particles;
  • bowel disorder such as diarrhea or constipation;
  • Feeling of heaviness in the abdomen after eating.

Hyperplastic gastritis

Hyperplastic gastritis is a pathological condition of the gastric mucosa, in which there is an overgrowth of cells in the cavity. The lesions are benign and may not bother a person for several years. Hyperplastic gastritis occurs in a specific part of the stomach or can spread to the entire organ.

Hyperplastic gastritis causes thickening of the stomach walls and the formation of polyps.As a result, the work of the digestive system worsens, the secretion of gastric juice and the digestion of food are disrupted. With a protracted illness, polyps can transform into a malignant tumor.

For a long time, hyperplastic gastritis may not manifest itself in any way or be similar to other gastric diseases. As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more pronounced. The patient may be disturbed by the following symptoms:

  • heaviness in the stomach after eating;
  • aching pain in the solar plexus area;
  • belching, heartburn with a rotten taste in the mouth;
  • vomiting and nausea;
  • Gas formation, bloating.

Stomach pain can be constantly disturbing and aching or occur periodically. Gastritis attacks often occur after a person has consumed irritating foods or alcohol. Symptoms vary depending on the level of acidity in the gastric juice. With increased acidity, the patient often has heartburn and belching with a sour taste. With a reduced secretion of gastric juice, the patient is constantly worried about the heaviness in the stomach, regardless of how much he ate.

In some cases, a polyp can form at the exit of the stomach, clog it and cause food obstruction. If the polyp has fallen out of the stomach into the duodenum, the patient has severe cramping or cutting pain. Similar symptoms are found in acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, exacerbation of ulcers and other diseases of the digestive system. Therefore, it is important to immediately undergo a comprehensive diagnosis.

Hyperacid gastritis

Hyperacid gastritis is an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa, which is characterized by a high concentration of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice, that is, increased acidity of the stomach.

The development of hyperacid gastritis begins due to improper and irregular nutrition. Frequent consumption of carbonated water and alcoholic beverages, strong tea and coffee, especially on an empty stomach, can cause gastritis. High acidity develops due to the abuse of spicy, smoked, salty and fried foods. Sour sauces and drinks also negatively affect the condition of the mucous walls of the stomach.

Another factor in hyperacid gastritis is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori.It multiplies in the stomach and negatively affects the condition of the mucous wall. Constant emotional stress, anxiety, low immunity, smoking and drinking alcohol can provoke its reproduction. This bacterium rapidly damages the soft walls of the stomach and can later cause stomach ulcers if not treated.

In some cases, hyperacid gastritis can be caused by the frequent use of chemicals such as acid or alkali.The constant intake of aspirin, drugs for inflammation, antimicrobial drugs also leads to an increase in gastric acidity and the development of gastritis. Some ointments, Indomethacin, injections, Diclofenac have a negative effect. Long-term use of such funds leads to damage to the gastric mucosa.

First of all, hyperacid gastritis is characterized by pain symptoms that occur on an empty stomach, at night or immediately after eating or some time after eating.With hunger pain, the discomfort disappears after a person eats. The pain can be pulling or sharp in nature, give to the hypochondrium. There is bloating after eating, sour belching. Since food is poorly absorbed by the body during illness, the patient lacks vitamins and basic nutrients. A person loses weight a lot, the skin becomes dry and lethargic, the condition of the hair and nails worsens.

The development of hyperacid gastritis causes a symptom such as heartburn after eating.It occurs after eating heavy, spicy and acidic foods. The patient may be tormented by nausea and vomiting. On the tongue, you can see the formation of a white coating. Many people with hyperacid gastritis feel a burning sensation in the stomach after spicy and hot sauces, marinades.

Gastritis with high acidity

Gastritis with high acidity – inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa, caused by a violation of the excretory function of the stomach. With this disease, the secretion of gastric juice increases, which leads to inflammation and destruction of the walls of the stomach.

Depending on the reasons that caused gastritis, gastritis with high acidity of the type “A”, “B” and “C” is isolated. Fundamental gastritis occurs due to the congenital formation of antibodies to the cells of the gastric mucosa. Antral gastritis or type “B” develops against the background of infections in the mucous membrane – the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, which destroys the gastric mucosa.

Type C gastritis can be caused by chemical factors: damage to the gastric mucosa by chemicals, alcohol, prolonged use of certain drugs, such as aspirin.Gastritis with high acidity can occur due to reflux, in which there is a movement of undigested food from the duodenum and bile acid, damaging the stomach cavity. Gastritis is dangerous because it can lead to gastric ulcer, and subsequently to cancer of the stomach and duodenum.

Among the main symptoms of gastritis of the stomach with high acidity, heartburn after eating is distinguished. As the level of hydrochloric acid rises, severe irritation of the mucous membrane occurs and the patient experiences acute symptoms.Severe pain occurs before eating, during sleep and after eating. Eating is often accompanied by belching and sour heartburn.

Low acid gastritis

Gastritis with low acidity is an inflammatory process in the gastric mucosa, which occurs against the background of a decrease in the acidity of gastric juice, its production and the ability to digest food.

The occurrence of gastritis with low acidity is associated with many factors.External reasons include regular intake of excessively hot, fibrous food that is not sufficiently digested, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and frequent drinking. Internal factors include autoimmune disorders, inflammatory processes in the digestive system, endocrine and metabolic diseases.

The main property of hydrochloric acid is to detoxify food from various bacteria, therefore, with reduced acidity, this process is disrupted. This leads to the multiplication of bacteria and an increase in the inflammatory process of the gastric mucosa.The result is indigestion, bloating, and gas.

Most often, the symptoms of gastritis of the stomach with low acidity are difficult to miss, since they are pronounced:

  • belching with the smell of a rotten egg or with a putrid smell, since the food is not completely digested;
  • feeling of fullness or heaviness in the stomach after eating;
  • unpleasant taste in the mouth, most often the taste of metal;
  • constipation or bowel disorder, diarrhea;
  • heartburn after eating;
  • dull pain in the epigastric region immediately after eating or after 15-20 minutes;
  • 90,068 flatulence and gas in the intestines;

  • signs of vitamin deficiency: brittle nails, dry and brittle hair, dry skin;
  • rumbling in the stomach;
  • decrease in hemoglobin and anemia.

In a more advanced form, low acidity is accompanied by severe weight loss, general weakness, lethargy, low blood pressure and apathy. Low acidity leads to impaired digestion of proteins, which leads to a lack of this substance in the body. If a person develops gastritis with low acidity, he constantly wants to eat something sour or foods that increase the secretion of hydrochloric acid: black bread, cabbage, hot seasonings and spices, pickles and pickled foods.

Acute gastritis

Acute gastritis is a progressive inflammation of the gastric mucosa that occurs when exposed to a strong irritant. The disease occurs quickly and proceeds with complications in the form of erosion of the gastric mucosa and bleeding.

A distinction should be made between acute and exacerbation of chronic gastritis. In acute gastritis, severe pain and other severe symptoms occur.

The course of acute gastritis is characterized by changes in the gastric mucosa, depending on which it can manifest itself in various forms:

    • catarrhal;
    • fibrinous;
    • necrotic;
    • purulent.

The most dangerous form is purulent gastritis, in which all layers of the stomach cavity are affected: mucous, submucous, muscular and serous. It occurs during peptic ulcer disease, tumors, and damage to the stomach. With purulent gastritis, thickening of the walls of the stomach begins due to the mucous and submucous layer, and extensive fibrinous overlays develop. Along with acute phlegmonous gastritis, perigastritis and life-threatening peritonitis may occur.

Acute gastritis occurs due to a number of negative factors:

  • Alcohol abuse.
  • Poisoning with acids, alkali and other toxic substances.
  • Allergy to certain foods, reaction to junk food.
  • Regular intake of drugs containing acid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and others.
  • The consequence of severe heart disease, hepatic or renal failure, burns, injuries, operations, critical conditions.
  • In rare cases, the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a negative factor.
  • Viral infections, especially in HIV patients, staphylococcal infection and others.
  • High-dose radiation exposure.

Chronic gastritis attacks

Chronic gastritis is a condition in which repeated inflammation of the gastric mucosa occurs due to negative factors. Inflammation of the mucous membrane can be primary or secondary. With low acidity, atrophic chronic gastritis may occur. It is characterized by disruption of the stomach glands, a decrease in the production of gastric juice and the formation of benign tumors on the walls of the mucous membrane.

Chronic gastritis can manifest itself at any time, especially after eating the wrong food, alcohol, nervous tension and other stress. With an attack of gastritis, resulting from the consumption of a large amount of food, there is a strong feeling of pressure and heaviness in the stomach. The pulse becomes rapid, blood pressure decreases, and breathing becomes more frequent. Bloating can be seen in the epigastric region. When probing the stomach area and turning the patient on the side, a loud splash is heard in the stomach.

Symptoms of an attack are:

  • weakness;
  • loss of appetite, especially for those foods that served as the onset of gastritis;
  • severe attack of vomiting.

After stomach pain, nausea and vomiting, heaviness in the stomach and acute pain occur. Vomiting becomes frequent and excruciating, with pain and even cramps, if the vomiting is severe and leads to dehydration. Vomit may be mixed with bile and blood clots if bleeding begins in the stomach.In this case, urgent hospitalization is required.

Frequent secretion of gastric juice, which occurs due to the intake of alcoholic beverages, leads to a significant excretion of sodium chloride along with vomiting, can cause severe malaise and convulsions. Severe headaches and dizziness are observed.

Atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis is a severe form of chronic gastritis that often leads to stomach cancer. This disease is characterized by the occurrence of atrophic changes in the gastric mucosa and a decrease in the secretion of gastric juice, as well as a decrease in the number of glands.

The cause of atrophic gastritis has not yet been established by doctors. The mucous membrane of the stomach can be destroyed due to mechanical and chemical damage, from malnutrition, abuse of spicy, salty and sour, fibrous foods, as well as in the presence of the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. This disease affects both men and women.

Atrophic gastritis can have various degrees and locations of gastric lesions and is divided into several types:

  • diffuse atrophic gastritis;
  • atrophic antral gastritis;
  • diffuse gastritis;
  • hyperplastic atrophic gastritis;
  • atopic focal atrophic gastritis.

At the initial stage of the disease, the symptoms of atrophic gastritis are similar to those of gastritis with low acidity. The process of cell destruction begins in the body and at the bottom of the stomach, which contain cells that produce hydrochloric acid and enzymes involved in digestion, as well as protein, which is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 by the stomach. Therefore, the first symptoms can manifest as B12-deficiency anemia, which is often the cause of misdiagnosis. Painful sensations practically do not appear, the patient is worried about the heaviness in the stomach after eating, the feeling of fullness in the stomach.

During the development of atrophic gastritis, symptoms such as belching with air after eating, which eventually acquire a bitter taste, may appear; heartburn, dry mouth, rumbling in the stomach, upset bowel movements, constipation and diarrhea. The patient’s general condition worsens: appetite decreases, the person quickly loses weight, after eating, weakness often occurs, dizzy. There may be shortness of breath, stabbing pain in the chest area.

Gastritis during pregnancy

Gastritis during pregnancy is a fairly common phenomenon due to the specifics of the development of the fetus.In women with chronic gastritis during pregnancy, vomiting often occurs – early toxicosis, which lasts up to 14-17 weeks. This disease is not a contraindication to pregnancy and does not affect the development of the child. Pregnancy is uneventful and labor is normal.

Exacerbation of gastritis during pregnancy occurs due to a number of reasons: chronic infectious diseases, endocrine changes in the body, hormonal changes, lack of iron and other vitamins in the body of the expectant mother.

Symptoms of gastritis during pregnancy

There are no special symptoms of gastritis during pregnancy, since the disease proceeds in different ways. In most cases, the following symptoms may appear:

  • pain in the area of ​​the solar plexus;
  • nausea, belching;
  • vomiting and unpleasant taste in the mouth;
  • bowel disorder;
  • with a low level of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice, frequent stool disorders in the form of diarrhea or constipation.

With increased secretion of gastric juice, gastritis during pregnancy manifests itself in the form of pain in the upper abdomen, which are repeated. They can occur in the epigastric region, in the right hypochondrium, or near the navel. Painful sensations appear after eating or after eating spicy, fatty or smoked foods. Pain can occur between meals, on an empty stomach, or at night. It can be aching, strong, or barely perceptible. If the acidity of the gastric juice is increased, the pain is more pronounced than with a decrease.

Gastritis in children

Gastritis in children occurs at the age of 3-6 years, when the child is often susceptible to infections and viral diseases, and at the age of 10-13 years, when the body enters a state of puberty and is often exposed to stress and emotional distress.

Depending on the causes of gastritis, acute primary and secondary gastritis in children is distinguished. Primary gastritis occurs from improper food, bacteria, parasites, fungi, excess food, food allergies.The secondary form can be caused by infectious diseases: rubella, measles, influenza, diphtheria, septic inflammation. The infection that caused the disease may end up in the gastric mucosa.

The development of acute gastritis in children can be caused by various drugs containing acid, antibiotics. Also, this disease is transmitted genetically. In many cases, gastritis can be triggered by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Nutrition plays an equally important role. An incorrect regimen, unhealthy foods containing a large amount of sugar, salt, fat, can cause gastritis in children.This includes sugary sodas and juices, chips, sweets, biscuits that are high in unhealthy fats and food additives.

As a rule, the signs of gastritis in children are vivid and easy to notice. Very often the symptoms of gastritis in children are similar to those of food poisoning:

  • fever and fever;
  • nervous state, insomnia, crying for no reason;
  • pallor of the skin, blue circles under the eyes;
  • decreased appetite, abdominal pain;
  • plaque formation in the language of different colors;
  • dry mouth or increased salivation;
  • belching;
  • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

A severe form is corrosive gastritis in children due to chemical poisoning, which is characterized by severe burning pain in the stomach and when swallowing, constant vomiting mixed with mucus, blood and tissue fragments. It is dangerous because it can be fatal. With chronic gastritis, the child develops general weakness, apathy, loss of appetite, intestinal upset, belching after eating, and severe weight loss.

Treatment of gastritis

Treatment of gastritis depends on the course of the disease.In acute gastritis, you need to flush the stomach with a solution until it is completely cleared of food. Fasting is necessary during the day, you can drink warm tea, a decoction of wild rose, chamomile, mint, plantain, yarrow, oats, still mineral water. Meals should be light and gentle, you can eat soups in the form of mashed potatoes, omelets, soft cereals, soufflé from dietary meat and fish, jelly. After a while, you can introduce a little dry bread, boiled vegetables, dairy products into the diet, and after a week return to your normal diet.During gastritis, with nausea and vomiting, cerucal or motilium tablets help.

How to treat gastritis? For each type of disease, special drugs are prescribed. To relieve severe pain, the patient takes platyphylline and papaverine. Antibacterial drugs are prescribed only for severe infections that are treated under the supervision of a gastroenterologist, so you cannot prescribe medication yourself. After the doctor has prescribed a certain range of medicines, the search for medicines in pharmacies for the treatment of gastritis can be carried out on our resource, as well as book them if necessary.If Helicobacter is identified as the cause of gastritis, special treatment is carried out to destroy this bacterium.

Gastritis that occurs after taking acids or a chemical should only be treated in a hospital setting, as it can cause complications to other organs. Gastritis associated with food allergies requires careful attention to diet and the elimination of allergenic foods. With low or high acidity, the patient is prescribed drugs to normalize the acid balance in the stomach.It is possible to take solutions, gels to relieve inflammation and envelop the walls of the stomach.

Treatment of gastritis with drugs

Today, there are many drugs that can eliminate pain symptoms, reduce inflammation and restore mucous membranes. Gastritis medications can decrease or increase the acidity of your stomach acid. The following drugs are used to reduce acidity:

  • almagel;
  • phosphalugel;
  • famotidine;
  • ranitidine;
  • platyphylline;
  • astrin;
  • gastropin;
  • atropine;
  • 90,068 pyrene;

  • rabeprazole;
  • omeprazole.

Their action is aimed at neutralizing gastric juice, which destroys the mucous membrane. Due to their properties, the release of hydrochloric acid decreases, inflammation is relieved. In the treatment of gastritis, other drugs are used that neutralize acid and do not form carbon dioxide. Magnesium oxide is widely used – powder, which is taken in 0.5-1 grams. It has a long lasting effect and is often prescribed along with calcium carbonate, which is rarely used alone.

Antacids should not be taken on an empty stomach, as their effect is short-lived. It is better to drink them after meals, as the effect of the medicine will increase up to 3-4 hours. With gastritis, the patient is prescribed an enveloping agent that protects the gastric walls from physical and chemical damage from food.

Almagel is the most effective remedy for heartburn and gastritis. This is a complex of antacids and coating agents, as well as analgesics. The drug should not be taken with water, after taking it, you should not drink water for an hour.You should lie on your side and turn every 1-2 minutes to distribute the medicine throughout the gastric mucosa. Almagel should be taken for 3-4 weeks. It should be noted that with long-term treatment with almagel, phosphorus is excreted from the body in large quantities. Therefore, it is additionally necessary to take a mineral complex.

To restore the microflora of the stomach, enveloping agents are used, such as decoction of flax seeds, white clay with water, smecta. They create an additional protective film and soothe inflammation.To normalize the digestive processes in the stomach, enzyme-containing preparations are used:

  • pancreatin;
  • fest;
  • mezim-forte;
  • panzinorm;
  • digestal.

For the treatment of gastritis with low acidity, wormwood tincture, plantain juice, Swedish bitterness, Apilak are used. They help to increase appetite, secretion of gastric juice. To improve appetite, apilak is used, which is secreted from royal jelly, taken one hour before meals.For better digestion of food, the patient is prescribed pepsin, packurmen and natural gastric juice. They help to quickly break down foods, due to which the gastric mucosa is quickly restored and pain is eliminated.

If gastritis is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, drugs containing an antibiotic are used:

  • omeprazole;
  • pylorides;
  • esomeprazole;
  • tindazole;
  • clarithromycin;
  • amoxicillin.

The list of tablets for gastritis and stomach ulcers caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori includes Pilobact NEO and Clatinol.They include Omeprazole (Lanzoprazole), which promotes the release of hydrochloric acid and creates an optimal environment for the interaction of antimicrobial drugs. Clarithromycin is an antibiotic of the macrolide group that rapidly fights against H. pylori.

You can search for medicines in city pharmacies for the treatment of such an unpleasant disease as gastritis on our portal.

First aid for an attack of gastritis

In case of an attack of gastritis, it is necessary to immediately flush the stomach to exclude complications.You need to prepare a saline solution: 2 tablespoons are diluted in 7-8 liters of warm water. Drink and induce vomiting. Then lie down and put a warm heating pad on your stomach. During the day, fasting is necessary, you can only drink water. On the second day, you can use mashed potatoes in the water, mashed porridge in the water, and white bread croutons. From drinks allowed mineral water, weak tea, decoctions of chamomile, lemon balm, yarrow.

If food poisoning occurs:

1) it is necessary to induce vomiting and rinse the stomach with an alkaline or saline solution or ordinary warm water.

2) Then take activated carbon. depending on body weight, magnesium sulfate 15-30 g, diluted in a glass of warm water or castor oil.

3) Shows bed rest and rest.

4) All irritants must be eliminated and a strict diet must be followed.

First aid for gastritis, stomach pain is eliminated using Baralgin 5 ml intramuscularly or intravenously, Analgin 50% 4-6 ml with Drotaverine or Papaverin 2-4 ml of 2% solution, or with halidor (bencyclan) 2 ml of 25% solution intramuscularly.You can enter Novocaine 0.25% up to 15 ml intravenously. Atropine is also used at a dose of subcutaneous 1 mg (1 mg / amp) or 2-4 mg (2 mg / ampoule) of Platyphyllin.

Together with vomit, a large amount of fluid and gastric juice is lost. If there is severe weakness and rapid pulse, it is necessary to inject 1 ml of Cordiamine under the skin of the patient. A significant loss of fluid with vomiting leads to a weakening of the body, therefore, it is necessary to restore the water balance by injecting 500-1000 ml of physiological solution under the skin.

If the patient is not taken to the hospital, after gastric lavage it is necessary to receive:

  • enveloping preparations: almagel, almag;
  • astringent drugs – vikalin, vikair.

It is necessary to observe bed rest, do not eat for 1-2 days, it is allowed to drink purified water and weak tea. If there is a suspicion of poisoning, Nifuroxazide is taken 1 scoop every 6 hours or Intetrix 6-8 capsules up to 3-4 times a day, or Lidaprim 2 tablets 2 times a day, Chlorquinaldol 0.25 g 3 times a day day.

Treatment of gastritis during pregnancy

During pregnancy, the question of how to treat gastritis is acute, since you need to be extremely careful when choosing medicines. Many drugs are prohibited because they can harm the development of the fetus. The main cause of the disease is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, therefore, the treatment of gastritis during pregnancy uses various antibacterial agents in combination.

Treatment of gastritis involves the use of special agents – proton pump inhibitors, but they are prescribed to pregnant women only in critical cases.Such drugs for gastritis as ranitidine bismuth citrate, a blocker of H2-gstamine receptors, which reduce the release of hydrochloric acid, are contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation, as they negatively affect the child. To destroy the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, antibiotics Amoxicillin and Clarithromycin are prescribed. Amoxicillin must be taken with caution, Clarithromycin is used in rare critical cases.

The antibiotic Metronidazole is contraindicated during pregnancy in the first trimester; it can be used in the last stages of fetal development if gastritis is of great harm to the mother.In most cases, antimicrobials are not prescribed for pregnant women.

In the treatment of exacerbation of gastritis during pregnancy, means are used to protect the gastric mucosa. These include antacids, which reduce the increased production of gastric juice and the content of hydrochloric acid. Pregnant women are allowed to take medicines based on magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate. However, they are often not recommended to use and only with a doctor’s prescription. Vitamin complexes can be prescribed, since iron deficiency anemia and other types of vitamin deficiency often occur.

Many women do not know what to do during gastritis during pregnancy if severe pain occurs. In this case, you need to take medications – antispasmodics. These include Drotaverin, which should not be taken in the first trimester, and taken with caution the rest of the time. To improve gastric motility, the drug Metoclopramide is used, which is prohibited from taking in the first trimester, and can be used in the remaining trimesters if the condition is critical.

Traditional methods of treating gastritis

Among folk remedies for gastritis, first of all, fresh juices from vegetables, decoctions of herbs, oats and flax, tinctures of honey and propolis are distinguished.They have anti-inflammatory and healing effects on the stomach walls, soothe pain and increase appetite.

How to treat gastritis with folk methods

Treatment of gastritis with oats has proven itself well. Take one glass of oats and fill it with a liter of water. You need to insist for 12 hours, then cook for half an hour. Boiled oats should be wrapped in a blanket and left for 12 hours, then strain. Use the resulting broth on an empty stomach for half a glass.

Another effective folk method for treating gastritis is aloe, which has a wound healing and calming effect on the stomach. This plant is an excellent antiseptic. Squeeze juice from aloe leaves and take 2 tablespoons twice a day on an empty stomach. Aloe juice can be mixed with red wine or honey. To do this, take 200 grams of aloe and honey juice and two glasses of wine, mix and put in a dark place for two weeks. The resulting mixture should be consumed one spoonful three times a day before meals.

In the treatment of gastritis, sea buckthorn oil is used, which has a healing and enveloping effect. It is good to use it in case of gastritis with high acidity, in order to reduce the acidity of the stomach, relieve inflammation. Sea buckthorn oil should be consumed one teaspoon half an hour before meals, three times a day.

Propolis has a positive effect due to its beneficial properties. It is consumed in the form of drugs and in natural form.For gastritis, it is recommended to take a tincture of propolis. You need to take 10 grams of propolis powder and 100 grams of alcohol, mix and shake for half an hour. It is necessary to instruct for three days, then shake again, put in the cold for two hours and clean with a paper filter before use.

Many recipes for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract contain plantain. It is used to prepare infusion and fresh juice from the leaves. To prepare the infusion, you need to take one tablespoon of dry leaves, grind them and steam with a glass of hot water.Insist for 10 minutes, strain and use in small sips within an hour. For juice, you need to wash the leaves well, cut, mash and squeeze the juice. Then mix it with the same amount of honey and cook for 20 minutes. You need to drink the mixture 2-3 tablespoons a day. Store the mixture in a glass container in a cool place.

Folk remedies for gastritis include the use of clay externally and internally. For use, you need to dilute 1 teaspoon of white clay in one glass of water. The mixture should be drunk twice a day before meals for 1 glass, 3 weeks.Then ten days you need to take a break and repeat the course of treatment again. Lotions can be made from white clay and applied to the area of ​​pain. The lotion should be applied in a thin layer and wait until it dries. Then gradually increase the thickness of the lotion and the heating time.

Potato juice for gastritis

In case of gastritis, potato juice relieves unpleasant symptoms, as it has laxative, antimicrobial, regenerating, analgesic, antispasmodic, wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties.With its help, constipation is eliminated, gastric motility improves, appetite increases, heartburn and pain symptoms in the stomach and intestines disappear.

To prepare potato juice, you need to take fresh tubers, in summer or autumn. Tubers need to be peeled and squeezed out using a juicer or with a grater and gauze. The juice should be drunk immediately, as it spoils within 10 minutes. You need to drink potato juice for gastritis immediately after preparation, it cannot be stored, as it deteriorates and loses all useful properties.The most useful varieties are considered pink: “American”, “morning rose” and others.

Flax for gastritis

How to brew flax seeds

For gastritis, flax seeds can be consumed fresh and boiled.

To prepare a decoction of flax seeds for gastritis, you need:

1) Take 3 tablespoons of seed and brew with a glass of boiling water;

2) Cover with a lid, wrap well and leave to infuse overnight;

3) Take the broth on an empty stomach 20 minutes before meals;

4) First, drink half a glass of broth, drink the rest during the day;

5) The course of decoction treatment is a month, even if you do not feel pain in the stomach.

You need to cook the broth fresh every day. Flaxseed broth consists of a viscous mucus that envelops the walls of the stomach and eliminates the inflammatory process.

Flaxseed porridge is an effective remedy in the fight against gastritis. To do this, you need to cook flax porridge, boil it well so that there is more mucus. Eat porridge every morning for a month. Seeds can be sprinkled on other dishes, or chopped in a blender and added to yoghurts and cottage cheese, drinks.

Flax is good for heartburn and bitterness in the mouth, which often accompany gastritis.Grind the seeds to get one tablespoon. We brew them in boiling water and use them twice a day before meals.

When treating gastritis, flax seeds can be mixed with other medicinal plants. In equal parts, flax seed, chamomile flowers, bullock, tansy flowers, bearberry leaves, thyme herb, coriander are taken. Crushed and mixed. Take two tablespoons of the resulting mixture and pour in two glasses of boiling water, brew overnight. You need to consume the infusion one third of a glass a day before meals, for 2 months.For the stomach, flaxseed jelly will be useful, which can be consumed before meals or on its own between meals. It creates a thin film in the stomach cavity, protects it from mechanical damage, and also contains a large amount of mucopolysaccharides.

Prevention of gastritis

The measures for the prevention of gastritis include adherence to the regimen and quality of food, limiting physical and emotional stress. The use of alcohol, carbonated and sweet artificial drinks, any food irritants is excluded.It is forbidden to smoke during treatment and afterwards you should limit smoking so as not to cause a relapse.

Diet for gastritis

Meals for gastritis should be divided into 5 meals in small portions. For gastritis with low or normal acidity, food from vegetable and cereal soups in low-fat broth, low-fat meats, lightly fried or boiled, low-fat fish, dairy products, stale white or black bread, homemade crackers, boiled and raw fruits and vegetables, milk , boiled eggs, omelets, boiled and soft cereals, vegetable and fruit juices, a little butter, coffee, tea, cocoa and sugar.

With gastritis, honey can be included in the diet in combination with other drugs as a therapeutic component. Honey can be consumed 3-4 times, but not more than 150 grams per day. It is used naturally and also as a solution in warm water. One tablespoon of honey is diluted in a glass of warm water. The course of treatment can be two months, depending on the patient’s condition. Honey is used in combination with medicinal plants, nuts and propolis.

The menu for gastritis with increased gastric secretion function should be such that the excretion of hydrochloric acid is normalized.It is forbidden to fry food, it is allowed to boil or bake. The diet can include milk, yogurt, kefir, low-fat cheese, non-acidic cottage cheese, yogurt, boiled or steamed eggs, lean boiled meat and fish. Vegetables must be boiled and ground, you can eat fresh salad, onions, dill. The bread must be dried, you can use crackers. The food can include diet sausages, low-fat varieties of ham and hams. You can eat smoked but lean fish. It is better to cook soups with vegetables, with the addition of cereals and pasta; heavy broths are not recommended.

In case of gastritis with high acidity of the stomach, it is recommended to include in the diet various cereals that need to be cooked for a long time. You can use butter, ghee and any vegetable oil. You should exclude hot sauces, you can prepare sauces based on milk or cream. Spices should be limited, except for cinnamon and bay leaves. It is allowed to drink weak tea, cocoa and coffee.

What not to eat with gastritis? Fresh baked goods and fresh bread, buns and cakes, hard cheeses, sour bread like Borodinsky, legumes, thick noodles, fatty fish and meat, fried and refined foods, canned foods, spices, cabbage, turnips, radishes should be excluded from the diet , onions, fruits with thick peels, especially grapes, lard, fatty dairy products, sweets and chocolate.

Life after illness. What is the recommendation for those who have recovered from COVID and pneumonia?

Kymbat Kazkenova, infectious disease specialist :

People who have recovered from COVID or pneumonia must be isolated for 14 days after the symptoms disappear. They should have a separate room, separate dishes and toiletries. They are advised to wear a mask when leaving the room. It is necessary to keep the house clean and ventilate the room several times a day.They need to eat well and get enough sleep. Why? Even if the virus has been carried mildly, it weakens the person’s immune system. As a result, the body’s ability to resist any bacteria, viruses, pathogens decreases. And after recovery, these patients are at high risk of developing other ailments. What to do? First of all, it is necessary to restore immunity. Eating right is important for boosting immunity. Recommended daily intake of vitamins C, B, vitamins A, E, D, vegetables, fruits, meat, soups and protein products.

COVID affects the lungs. Lung lesions can persist for a long time. Therefore, a recovered person should be under the supervision of a pulmonologist. But a lot depends on the patient. The doctor gives instructions, and it is up to the person to follow them or not. I would like people to come up responsibly. If you practice breathing at home, eat well, take precautions, and take your prescribed medications on time, your body will recover faster.

A banner warning about the danger of COVID-19 and men exercising on the sports ground. Almaty, July 12, 2020.

People who have contracted and recovered develop antibodies. However, they remain in the blood for only one and a half to two months, sometimes up to six months. To be careless is wrong, I think (among foreign scientists, WHO specialists, there is still no clear scientific concept regarding how long antibodies persist in the body. – Red .).

Meirzhan Abishev, pulmonologist:

As a pulmonologist, I made the following observation: those who are considered recovered sometimes show symptoms of the virus for a month or two. There may be a sore throat or chest pain. The most common symptom is excessive sweating. I would say that sweating is characteristic of the coronavirus. There is no need to be afraid and run to the doctor, gradually this symptom will disappear. Symptoms that should be cause for concern are fever, shortness of breath and weakness.I have been working with COVID-infected people for four to five months, but have not noticed re-infection. Nevertheless, the possibility exists. As for the patients, some recover immediately. In 15–20 percent of people, these mild symptoms persist.

In my practice, I have seen a complete recovery of only two out of thousands of patients. That is, their lung lesions have completely disappeared. I will say as a pulmonologist: firstly, it takes time to heal, and secondly, it depends on the characteristics of the organism.It is important to lead a healthy lifestyle, take care of yourself, follow the instructions of doctors. Upon discharge from the hospital, the patient undergoes computed tomography. We warn you that this will need to be repeated later. Depending on the severity of the disease, the degree of damage and the nature of the lung lesions, each person is assigned a different period. I think that after an illness, the human body recovers in at least two to three months. Some patients with severe lung damage are unlikely to make a full recovery.They will have to sit at home with a breathing apparatus all their lives.

A young man at the entrance to the hospital. Almaty, July 2020.

Lungs, kidneys, upper respiratory tract do not like cold. What does it mean? Do not operate the air conditioner in your car, home or office. Drafts are dangerous. Drink plenty of fluids if you don’t have chronic heart disease or kidney failure. Drinking liquids improves blood composition. Now the demand for kumis and shubat has grown. Those who have recovered can drink these drinks, but in moderation.Vitamins should not be drunk in boxes. It can be hard on the body. I want to say that you should not be frivolous about recovery – this process must be approached wisely and carefully.

Arman Baidylov, immunologist:

Immunologist Arman Baydylov.

COVID is a disease that weakens the immune system. I would say that the most important for the body is vitamin D3. Some studies from universities around the world have shown that among those dying from coronavirus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are 20 percent more.Therefore, it is necessary to consume foods with vitamin D after discharge. Of the microelements, I would also name zinc and magnesium. Because the process of respiration and energy production at the cellular level is directly dependent on magnesium. With a lack of magnesium, energy production is slow, and people recovering from coronavirus infection feel weak for a long time.

During treatment, patients receive various antibiotics. These are drugs that are difficult for the body. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the restoration of intestinal microflora and liver.In such cases, it is necessary to consult a doctor for advice on recovery. Convalescents should not take medication on their own. You need to take medications prescribed by your doctor.

Doctors examine an x-ray of a patient with a coronavirus infection.

Sergey Molchanov, psychotherapist of the highest category:

Humans transmit this virus in different ways. Someone is easy, someone is asymptomatic, someone’s condition worsens. Therefore, the psychological state of people is important, and why now it is necessary to talk about it? Because in those who have recovered from the illness, the syndrome of fear of death is aggravated.And that’s okay. Death is all around now. A person is afraid not only for himself, but also for those close to him. Therefore, I think that they need to understand once again that there are some values ​​in life, children, grandchildren, for example. Somehow to treat in a different way, so that depression does not swallow you, you have to get out. Ask “how?” It’s simple. It is necessary to start doing what has been postponed for various reasons. To do for yourself, your psychological health. A person must reevaluate his life. Maybe he denied himself something, but now it is necessary to do it.And restore, try to restore your psychological health. You can listen to good music – it also helps, you can watch good films, that is, a person must emotionally relax. Communicate more with people you like, and not with those with whom you have to.

Of course, this is a new virus. Therefore, many, even doctors, are afraid. Many are afraid of getting sick again. It seems to me that everyone here accepts and reacts differently. For example, my wife tested positive.But she took it very lightly, psychologically easily endured it, one might say. That is, she knows that she has been ill, has immunity, and communicates calmly with people. She returned to work and lives as she did before. And for some it is the other way around. People are afraid of everything, even simple communication. They move away, do not communicate with anyone. And after a while they remain with themselves, with a bunch of psychological problems. Then they develop fear of death syndrome and depression.

People on the transitional part of the street in Almaty.June 29, 2020.

People are intimidated by all this hype about the new virus. Therefore, they are worried, afraid. Since there are many sudden deaths, when people were not particularly sick, but this virus took them away. Yes, it’s hard. Therefore, I think we should not be silent, but speak. If the feeling of anxiety persists, you need to contact a specialist. This is especially true for those people who have lost loved ones. There is such a thing as mourning. If you don’t normally say goodbye to your deceased relative, you will carry this grief within you all your life.Therefore, it is very important not to miss this moment and turn to a psychologist, psychotherapist. Believers can turn to a spiritual leader. That is, this case must be passed completely, drunk to the bottom, crying out, let’s say, completely. Burn off as it should be, and then psychological health in the future will not be undermined by deaths.

Aigul Rakhymzhankyzy, psychologist:

Psychologist Aigul Rakhymzhankyzy.

With the advent of the pandemic, the fear of death increased. Because there are so many deaths around us.A person worries about himself and his loved ones. The epidemic is devouring both young and old. The most difficult thing for a person is to accept death, and to accept sudden death is twice as difficult. This is stress that many people cannot overcome. In psychology, it consists of four stages.

The first stage is disbelief. The person is at a loss because of the loss of a loved one, with whom he spoke only yesterday or a week ago and he was completely healthy. The second stage is the inevitable experience of grief. Those who have lost loved ones ask themselves: “What would have happened if the situation had been different?” The third stage is the accusation.Search for an answer to the question: “Who is to blame?” It is at this moment that a person can become depressed. At this time, there are conflicts with doctors, quarrels with relatives or the search for those responsible for the lack of medicines. That is, a conflict begins with others. The last stage is recognition. It is unlikely that a person will be able to calm down and recover without going through these four stages.

An ambulance car on the street in Aktobe. July 26, 2020.

Now we have lost the opportunity to go through all these processes.Because deaths follow one another. There are people who do not have the opportunity to mourn, to say goodbye to their deceased relatives, to grieve. What to do in such a situation? This is a very difficult question. All I can say is that a person who has lost loved ones must be strong. He must gather around him decisive people capable of serious and concrete actions. It is necessary to get rid of people prone to fear, panic, anxiety. The most important thing is to stop blaming yourself.

Alexey Vibe, fitness trainer:

Fitness trainer Alexey Vibe.

I have not yet met people who have had this virus. But I think there will be in the future. Therefore, I decided for myself that I would prepare an easier training program, although I always had it. A person who has recovered needs to start practicing at home on the basis of training programs with a minimum load for the body, since in no case should he be given the same load at once.

The coronavirus damages not only the lungs, but other organs as well. For example, heart, kidneys.Therefore, I suggest not doing such exercises that can somehow affect these organs. I recommend to everyone who has been ill to do breathing exercises, swimming or yoga.

90,000 When it’s okay to sweat and when it’s not. Check if you’re okay

It is considered indecent to sweat outside the treadmill or, say, the gym. Moisture allegedly indicates a lack of proper hygiene. Don’t support this nonsense!

Sweating is great (almost always), whichever syllable in the word “great” you emphasize.Another question is that sweating is a multifaceted phenomenon, which has both obvious advantages and disadvantages. And all these mathematical signs are worth considering. Start over.

Where does sweat come from

Sweating is primarily a physiological mechanism . About the same as the one that makes the eyes blink and water intensely if dust gets into them; skin – respond to ultraviolet light with sunburn; stomach – produce acid when food enters it …

Sweat is part of the thermoregulation system.It is released when the corresponding parts of the brain (the so-called thermoregulatory center) record an increase in body temperature or ambient temperature.

At such moments, the autonomic nervous system gives a signal: “It seems we are on fire!” The sweat glands receive a nerve impulse that causes their ducts to contract intensively, absorbing moisture from the surrounding tissues and throwing it out. This creates sweat on the surface of the skin. Then it evaporates. And this process lowers the temperature of the skin, and with it, thanks to the blood flow, and the body as a whole.

From 2 to 4 million sweat glands are unevenly distributed over the surface of our body. Their concentration is higher under the armpits, in the groin folds, on the palms, feet and face.

Everyone needs to sweat. Insufficient sweating (anhidrosis), when, for one reason or another, the sweat glands carry too little moisture to the surface of the skin can be fraught with overheating and heatstroke.

Excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis) from a physiological point of view is not that terrible, but it brings serious psychological discomfort.Which is especially unpleasant if excess sweat also smells.

Why do people sweat, even when it’s not hot

Increased sweating in heat or during physical activity, in general, is predictable and understandable. So, by urgently lowering the temperature by evaporation of moisture from the skin, the body reacts to overheating. However, there are conditions in which there is no rise in temperature, but excessive sweating is present. This sweat, which appears without overheating, is called cold.

The reasons why we sweat without overheating can be very different.Here are some common options.

1. Strong emotions or stress

Lifehacker has already written about the “fight or flight” unconscious defense reaction. Our brain interprets strong emotions and experiences as a signal of approaching danger and mobilizes the body: what if you have to fight someone or flee?

Even if you are not going to fight the boss or run from the planning meeting at all, your body is still preparing for increased activity. Preventive sweating is one element of this training.What if you tear the enemy too quickly and instantly overheat? “Well, no, no,” says the sympathetic nervous system and starts the thermoregulation procedure in advance, rewarding you outwardly absolutely calm with wet palms and a sweaty back.

2. Consumption of spicy food

The work of sweat glands is sharply increased when eating foods rich in spices (mustard, horseradish, red and black pepper, curry, onion, garlic, coriander, ginger …). Also, alcohol often makes us sweat.This type of sweating is called food sweating .

3. Some diseases

Sweating often accompanies diseases associated with fever. For example, acute respiratory infections, flu, sore throat, all kinds of infections. Suddenly protruding cold sweat can be a side effect, in particular:

  1. Hypoglycemia (a sharp decrease in blood sugar levels).
  2. Taking synthetic thyroid hormones.
  3. Taking certain types of pain relievers, including morphine.
  4. All kinds of pain syndromes.
  5. Cancer.

By the way, an important clarification! Be sure to visit a therapist if, along with increased sweating, you observe the following symptoms:

  1. Chest pain.
  2. Severe dizziness.
  3. Difficulty breathing.

They may indicate serious heart problems.

Also, the reason for the obligatory consultation with a doctor is constant sweating, which does not stop for a day or more.

4. Smoking

In addition to other unpleasant effects that nicotine has on our body, it also stimulates production of acetylcholine. This chemical compound also makes the sweat glands work more actively. If you smoke a lot, you sweat more. The connection here is unambiguous.

5. In women – pregnancy or menopause

Hormonal fluctuations associated with bearing a child and menopause are also often accompanied by increased sweating.And this is a natural process.

Why does sweat smell like

Sweat glands are not the same. There are two types of them, which form sweat of a fundamentally different composition.

Eccrine glands

The actual thermoregulatory elements. They make up about 75% of sweat glands, are located throughout the body and are actively working from birth. The sweat they generate is colorless and odorless as it is 99% water. It is discharged to the surface through special ducts, which outwardly resemble the smallest pores.

Under normal conditions, the eccrine glands remove about 0.5 liters of moisture daily. But with heat, physical activity, stress, and so on, the volume of sweat can reach 10 liters per day.

It is thanks to eccrine sweat that children, even if they rush in the heat and turn out to be completely wet, can easily do without antiperspirants and showers during the day. The sweating system works out the thermoregulation function perfectly, but at the same time it does not smell at all. Whether the situation with the following type of sweat glands …

Apocrine glands

They are about 25% of the total number of sweat glands.They are larger than eccrine ones, and are located only in strictly defined areas of the skin: in the armpits and folds of the groin, on the forehead and scalp. The apocrine glands are activated only after reaching puberty.

The moisture they produce is not released directly onto the skin surface, as in the case of eccrine glands, but into the hair follicles. So, climbing the hairs, apocrine sweat appears on the skin – a milky sticky liquid, which, in addition to water, contains an impressive dose of fats, proteins, hormones, volatile fatty acids and other organic compounds.

It is believed that it is this type of sweat that largely determines the specific smell of each person. By the way, another name for apocrine glands is the glands of the genital odor.

Mixing with bacteria living on the surface of the skin, becoming a good breeding ground for them, nutritious apocrine sweat (if not washed off) acquires a pungent unpleasant odor.

But even if you take a shower every 20 minutes, you will not get rid of the sexual odor. At least until, with age, the reproductive function begins to fade away, simultaneously “closing” the apocrine glands.

What to do to avoid sweating

… Or at least not sweating so much. The question is relevant, especially in the warm season. And the answer to it as a whole is contained in the information given above.

You will not be able to completely get rid of sweat: at least the normal half-liter must evaporate from your skin anyway every day. With heat, active physical activity, infectious diseases, the amount of moisture naturally grows, and this should be rejoiced, and not prevented: the evaporation of sweat allows your body to function in a normal temperature regime.The only thing that is important to take in these situations is to drink more water to stay hydrated.

For the rest, sweating management primarily involves adjusting your lifestyle and daily habits:

  1. Wear breathable clothing that will not get hot.
  2. Avoid stress and excessive emotional reactions.
  3. Remove from the diet foods and drinks that activate the work of sweat glands.
  4. Stop smoking.
  5. If any medications you are using or an existing medical condition are causing your sweating, talk to your doctor about alternative treatments.
  6. Use antiperspirants and do it right.

And remember, sweating is your friend, not your enemy. Treat this physiological feature with care and gratitude.

Arpimed

What you need to know before you use Risperidone

If you have any doubts that you have any of these conditions, check with your doctor or pharmacist before using Risperidone.

Special instructions and precautions

Consult your doctor:

  • if you have heart problems. These include irregular heartbeats, or a tendency to have low blood pressure, or if you are using drugs to lower your blood pressure. Risperidone may lower blood pressure. Dose adjustment required,
  • if you have risk factors that predispose to the development of stroke, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disorders, pathological changes in the cerebral vessels,
  • if you have ever experienced involuntary movements of the tongue, mouth and face,
  • if you have ever had a medical condition whose symptoms include fever, muscle stiffness, sweating, or impaired consciousness (also known as neuroleptic malignant syndrome),
  • if you have Parkinson’s disease or dementia,
  • if you have had a low level of leukocytes in the blood in the past (drug or other genesis),
  • if you have diabetes,
  • if you have epilepsy,
  • if you are a man and have ever had a long or painful erection,
  • if you have problems with temperature control or overheating,
  • if you have kidney problems,
  • if you have liver problems,
  • if you have an abnormally high level of the hormone prolactin in your blood or if you suspect a prolactin-dependent tumor,
  • if you or another member of your family has a history of blood clots, as antipsychotics predispose to blood clots.

If in doubt if any of the above applies to you, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using Risperidone.

Given that very rare cases of severe leukocytopenia have been observed with the use of Risperidone, the attending physician should periodically monitor the level of leukocytes in the blood.

Risperidone may cause weight gain. Significant weight gain can adversely affect your health.Your doctor should regularly measure your body weight.

Both the development of diabetes mellitus and the exacerbation of pre-existing diabetes mellitus have been noted in patients with diabetes mellitus who took Risperidone, your doctor should monitor for symptoms of high blood sugar. In patients with diabetes mellitus, blood glucose levels should be monitored regularly.

During eye surgery, the lens may become clouded (cataract), the pupil (the black circle in the center of your eye) may not increase in size if necessary.In addition, the iris (the colored part of the eye) can become unnecessarily flexible during surgery, which can damage the eye. If you are planning an eye surgery, be sure to inform your doctor that you are taking Risperidone.

Elderly people with dementia

In elderly patients with dementia, there is an increased risk of stroke. You should not take Risperidone if you have dementia due to a stroke.

Visit your doctor frequently during risperidone treatment.

Therapy should be started immediately if you or your caregiver notice a sudden change in mental state or sudden weakness or numbness of the face, arms or legs, especially on one side, or slurred speech, even for a short period of time. They can be signs of a stroke.

Children and adolescents

Other causes of violent behavior must be ruled out before starting treatment for conduct disorder.

If fatigue is observed during risperidone treatment, adjusting the time of administration may eliminate the difficulty in concentrating.

Before starting treatment, it is necessary to measure your weight or the weight of your child, which must be done regularly during treatment.

A small and unfinished study showed that there was an increase in the height of children taking risperidone, but whether this is a result of the drug or was due to some other reason is not known.

Other medicines and Risperidone

Inform your doctor or pharmacist if you are using, have recently taken or must take any other drugs.

It is especially important to consult your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking:

  • Drugs that affect your brain, such as sedatives (benzodiazepines) or certain pain medications (opiates), allergy drugs (antihistamines) because risperidone can increase their sedation,
  • drugs that can interfere with the electrical activity of your heart, such as malaria drugs, antiarrhythmic drugs, antihistamines, antidepressants, or other drugs to treat mental health problems,
  • drugs that cause slow heartbeats,
  • drugs that cause a decrease in the level of potassium in the blood (for example, some diuretics),
  • drugs for the treatment of high blood pressure.Risperidone may lower blood pressure,
  • drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (e.g. levodopa),
  • Diuretics used to treat heart problems or swelling in various parts of the body due to the accumulation of excess fluid in them (for example, furosemide or chlorothiazide). Risperidone, alone or with furosemide, may increase the risk of stroke or death in older people with dementia.

The following drugs may reduce the effect of Risperidone

  • rifampicin (medicine to treat certain infections),
  • carbamazepine, phenytoin (medicines for the treatment of epilepsy),
  • phenobarbital.

If you start or stop taking these drugs, you may need to adjust your risperidone dose.

The following drugs may enhance the effect of Risperidone:

  • quinidine (used to treat certain types of heart disease),
  • antidepressants such as paroxetine, fluoxetine, tricyclic antidepressants,
  • beta blockers (used to treat high blood pressure),
  • phenothiazines (for example, drugs used to treat psychosis or as sedatives),
  • cimetidine, ranitidine (stomach acid blockers),
  • itraconazole and ketoconazole (medicines for the treatment of fungal infections),
  • Certain medicines used to treat HIV / AIDS, such as Ritonavir,
  • verapamil, a medicine used to treat high blood pressure and / or heart rhythm disorders,
  • sertraline and fluvoxamine, drugs used to treat depression and other psychiatric disorders.

If you start or stop taking these drugs, you may need to adjust your risperidone dose.

If you have any doubts about taking this medicine, you should consult your doctor or pharmacist before using.

Taking Risperidone with food, drink and alcohol

Risperidone can be taken with or without food. You should avoid drinking alcohol while taking Risperidone.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

  • If you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant or planning to become pregnant, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking Risperidone.
  • The following symptoms may occur in newborns whose mothers used Risperidone in the last trimester (last three months of pregnancy): tremors, muscle stiffness and / or weakness, drowsiness, agitation, trouble breathing, difficulty feeding.If a child develops any of these symptoms, see a doctor.
  • Risperidone may increase levels of a hormone called prolactin, which can affect fertility (see side effects).

Influence on the ability to drive and use mechanisms

Dizziness, fatigue, and vision problems may occur during treatment with Risperidone. In this case, you need to stop driving or work with any mechanisms and inform your doctor about it.

Important information about the ingredients in Risperidone

Risperidone, film-coated tablets contain lactose.

If your doctor has told you that you have an intolerance to some sugars, check with your doctor before taking Risperidone.

How to take Risperidone

Risperidone should be taken exactly as prescribed by your doctor.

If you have any doubts about taking this medicine, you should consult your doctor or pharmacist before using Risperidone.

Recommended doses

Schizophrenia Treatment

Adults

  • The initial dose is usually 2 mg per day, on the second day the dose can be increased to 4 mg per day
  • The dosage can be individually adjusted by the doctor, depending on the observed effect
  • For most patients, the optimal dose is 4-6 mg per day
  • The total daily dose can be divided into one or two doses per day.Your healthcare professional can determine the dose that is best for you.

Elderly patients

  • Starting dose is usually 0.5 mg twice daily
  • The dosage can be gradually increased by the attending physician from 1 mg to 2 mg twice a day
  • The attending physician can select the optimal dose for you

For the treatment of manias

Adults

  • Starting dose is usually 2 mg once daily
  • The dosage can be gradually adjusted by the doctor, depending on the observed effect
  • For most patients, the optimal dose is 1-6 mg per day

Elderly patients

  • Your starting dose is usually 0.5 mg twice daily
  • If necessary, the dose can be increased to 1-2 mg twice a day, depending on the observed effect

Treatment of attacks of aggression in patients with Alzheimer’s disease

Adults (including the elderly)

  • Starting dose is usually 0.25 mg twice daily
  • The dosage can be gradually adjusted by the doctor, depending on the observed effect
  • For most patients, the optimal dose is 0.5 mg twice daily.Some patients may need 1 mg twice daily
  • The duration of treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease should be no more than 6 weeks.

Use in children and adolescents

Children and adolescents under 18 are not allowed to use Risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia and mania

Conduct Disorder Treatment

The dosage depends on the weight of your child

For children weighing less than 50 kg:

  • Initial dose is usually 0.25 mg once daily
  • , if necessary, the dose can be increased gradually every other day by 0.25 mg per day
  • The usual maintenance dose is 0.25 mg to 0.75 mg once daily

For children weighing 50 kg or more:

  • The starting dose is usually 0.5mg once a day
  • If necessary, this dose can be increased by 0.5 mg per day, no more often than every other day
  • The usual maintenance dose is 0.5 mg to 1.5 mg once daily.

The duration of treatment in patients with conduct disorder should be no more than 6 weeks.

It is not allowed to use Risperidone in children under 5 years of age for the treatment of conduct disorder

Patients with kidney and liver problems

Regardless of the disease to be treated, all initial and subsequent doses of risperidone should be halved.The dose escalation should be gradual in these patients. Risperidone should be used with caution in this group of patients.

Method of application

Oral

You must swallow the tablet with water.

If you used more Risperidone than you recommended

  • Tell your doctor immediately and take the packaging with you.
  • In case of overdose, you may feel drowsy or tired, or abnormal body movements, difficulty standing and walking, dizziness due to low blood pressure, or an irregular heartbeat, or seizures.

If you forget to take Risperidone

  • If you forget to take the next dose of the drug, use it as soon as you remember. However, if it is time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and continue as usual.If you miss two or more doses, tell your doctor.
  • Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed appointment.

If you stop taking Risperidone

You should not stop taking the drug Risperidone on your own, you should consult your doctor before stopping the use of this drug, as relapse is possible. If your doctor decides to stop taking the medication, the dosage may need to be gradually reduced over several days.

If you have any further questions on the use of this medicine, you should contact your doctor or pharmacist.