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Heart Information Center: Cholesterol | Texas Heart Institute

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance called a lipid that is found in all body cells. Your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs to form cell membranes and to make certain hormones. Extra cholesterol enters your body when you eat foods that come from animals, like meats, eggs, and dairy products.

High blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for heart disease. Research has shown that by lowering your blood cholesterol, you will greatly reduce your risk of heart disease.

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance called a lipid that is found in all body cells. Your liver makes all of the cholesterol your body needs to form cell membranes and to make certain hormones. Extra cholesterol enters your body when you eat foods that come from animals, like meats, eggs, and dairy products. Although we often blame the cholesterol found in foods that we eat for raising blood cholesterol, the main culprit is actually saturated fat. Foods rich in saturated fat include butter fat in milk products, fat from red meat, and tropical oils such as coconut oil.

Blood cholesterol levels, which tell how much lipid or fat is in the blood, are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). In general, you want to have a cholesterol level below 200 mg/dL. Between 200 mg/dL and 239 mg/dL, your cholesterol level is elevated or borderline-high and should be lowered if you can. With a level of 240 mg/dL or above, your cholesterol level is high, and there is a need for action. For example, changing your diet, beginning an exercise program, and taking statins or other cholesterol-lowering medicines are all ways to lower your cholesterol level.

High-Cholesterol Country

According to the American Heart Association, more than 43% of American adults have cholesterol levels of 200 mg/dL or higher.

The risk of high cholesterol, or hypercholesterolemia, tends to be greater as we age, and the condition affects more women than men. Obesity of any kind, lack of physical activity, and diabetes are other important risk factors.

The Good, the Bad, and the Total

Cholesterol travels to cells through the bloodstream in special carriers called lipoproteins. Two of the most important lipoproteins are low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Doctors look at how LDL, HDL, and fats called triglycerides relate to each other and to your total cholesterol level.

Low-density Lipoprotein

LDL particles deliver cholesterol to your cells. LDL cholesterol is often called “bad cholesterol” because high levels are thought to lead to heart disease. Too much LDL in the blood causes a fatty buildup (plaque) to form on artery walls, which starts a disease process called atherosclerosis. When plaque builds up in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, you are at greater risk of having a heart attack. Your LDL levels may be high if you eat a diet with a lot of saturated fat, cholesterol, or both. Sometimes, an under-active thyroid (called hypothyroidism) may also increase LDL levels.

High-density Lipoprotein

HDL particles carry cholesterol from your cells back to your liver, where it can be removed from your body. HDL is known as “good cholesterol” because high levels are thought to lower your risk of heart disease. If you have low HDL levels, you have a greater heart disease risk, even if your total cholesterol is below 200 mg/dL. Low HDL is often the result of physical inactivity, obesity, or smoking. It is also common for people who have type 2 diabetes to have low HDL levels. Men generally have lower HDL cholesterol levels than women do, because the female hormone estrogen raises HDL. But when women stop having their monthly menstrual periods, their levels of HDL may decrease.

Triglycerides

Triglycerides are fats that provide energy for your muscles. Like cholesterol, they are delivered to your body’s cells by lipoproteins in the blood. If you eat foods with a lot of saturated fat or carbohydrates, you will raise your triglyceride levels. Elevated levels are thought to lead to a greater risk of heart disease, but scientists do not agree that high triglycerides alone are a risk factor for heart disease. People with high triglycerides are often obese or have low levels of HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes, all of which are risk factors for heart disease. Extremely high triglyceride levels (more than 1000 mg/dL) can lead to abdominal pain and a life-threatening disorder of the pancreas called pancreatitis.

Total Cholesterol

A measure of total cholesterol in the blood is found by adding up the cholesterol carried in LDL particles, HDL particles, and other lipoproteins. All adults 20 years or older should have what is called a full lipoprotein profile once every 5 years. You will need to stop eating for 10 to 12 hours before this test, and the only liquid you may drink is water. This full profile will tell your doctors what your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride levels are. LDL is the most important lipid for predicting your heart disease risk.

If your cholesterol levels were measured from a non-fasting blood sample, meaning you have eaten within 10 to 12 hours of the test, doctors will only be able to calculate your total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. If the results show that your total cholesterol is high, your HDL cholesterol is low, or if you have other risk factors for heart disease, your doctor will probably order a full lipoprotein profile.

Doctors can then look at the results of your full lipoprotein profile, as well as your other risk factors for heart disease, and use a risk assessment tool to better predict your chances of having a heart attack within 10 years.

The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol also gives more information about your risk of heart disease than your level of total cholesterol alone does. The ratio is obtained by dividing the value of total cholesterol by the value of HDL cholesterol. A number higher than 5 shows an increased risk in people who do not have heart disease. People who already have heart disease should not have a number higher than 4.

Total Cholesterol

It is best to have your cholesterol tested by trained medical personnel. Your blood sample should be sent to an approved laboratory for testing. Tests performed at health fairs, at shopping centers, or using home-testing kits may not always give you laboratory-grade results.  If you get an unusual result from any source, you should see your doctor. You should keep your normal eating habits, exercise pattern, and weight before cholesterol testing, except for the 10 to 12 hours before having the full lipoprotein profile, when you cannot eat or drink anything but water. You may need to have the test on another day if you have a cold or the flu or have recently changed a medicine. Your doctor may also ask you not to drink alcohol for several days before testing, especially for a true reading of triglyceride levels.

Improving Lipid Levels

A diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol is key to lowering LDL cholesterol levels. A diet with between 25% and 35% of total calories from fat (mostly unsaturated fat) and less than 7% of total calories from saturated fat is recommended.

Other key lifestyle changes for lowering LDL include increasing your physical activity, watching your weight, and eating foods high in fiber. Foods that contain plant stanols and sterols may also help lower LDL. Plant stanols and sterols can be found in special margarines at your grocery store. In some cases, patients find it helpful to see a dietitian, who can help them set up an eating plan.

The key lifestyle changes for increasing low HDL cholesterol are losing weight (if you are overweight), quitting smoking, and increasing physical activity.

Patients with elevated triglyceride levels should control body weight, limit how much alcohol they drink, eat a diet low in saturated fat, and decrease the amount of simple carbohydrates (or sugar) that they eat. The liver changes extra calories from carbohydrates into triglycerides.

A number of medicines are very effective and safe for lowering LDL cholesterol levels. Cholesterol-lowering medicines called statins have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and the need for coronary artery bypass surgery or angioplasty. It is very important that you continue with lifestyle changes even if your doctor gives you cholesterol-lowering medicine. Although cholesterol-lowering medicine can lower your total cholesterol, it does not protect against other risk factors for heart disease, such as obesity and physical inactivity.

Experts from the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) say that more aggressive cholesterol treatment is needed for people at high risk of dying from a heart attack or cardiovascular disease. The basic message of the group’s recommendations is the lower the better when it comes to levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or “bad cholesterol.” The updated recommendations say that almost all high-risk patients with LDL cholesterol levels of 100 mg/dL or higher should begin taking cholesterol-lowering medicine.

Reducing your cholesterol level does not give you complete protection from heart disease, but doctors agree that it is one of the most important ways to reduce your risk.

Should You Worry About Having High Cholesterol?

Though some health issues are easy to ignore, high cholesterol, particularly high LDL levels (the “bad cholesterol”) is not one of them. Cholesterol problems can affect anyone. Monitoring cholesterol levels is crucial because individuals with unhealthy cholesterol levels typically do not develop specific symptoms.

Verywell / Cindy Chung

Overview

High cholesterol, which is defined as a total cholesterol level greater than 240 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), is much more common than very low levels. The target cholesterol level for a normal, healthy adult is below 200 mg/dL, while levels above 200 mg/dL are considered high.

Current guidelines recommend that healthy adults check their cholesterol levels at least once every five years.

Individuals with elevated total cholesterol or LDL levels have a significantly increased risk of developing heart disease, which is the number one cause of death in the United States. Approximately 25.6 million adults have diagnosed with heart disease annually, resulting in 650,000 deaths each year.

It would seem that cholesterol has been demonized with good reason, yet our bodies cannot live without the soft, waxy stuff. Cholesterol is present in every cell and promotes hormone production, digestion, and the conversion of sunlight into vitamin D.

Approximately 80% of the cholesterol present in the blood is produced by the liver and intestines, while the remaining cholesterol present is derived from the diet.

Diagnosis

Several tests are used to evaluate cholesterol levels in the blood. The simplest test measures total cholesterol, which is the combined levels of LDL (“bad cholesterol”), HDL (“good cholesterol”), and triglycerides (the main form of body fat).

A lipid profile test, which is performed after 12 hours of fasting, provides a detailed breakdown of cholesterol levels by lipid type (LDL, HDL, and triglycerides).

Current healthy cholesterol level guidelines recommend:

  • LDL: Levels below 100 mg/dL are considered healthy.
  • HDL: Levels above 60 mg/dL are healthy.
  • Triglycerides: Levels below 150 mg/dL are healthy. 

HDL cholesterol—the “good cholesterol”—works like a cleanup crew in the bloodstream by ferrying “bad cholesterol” (LDL) to the liver for safe disposal. That means higher HDL levels are good for the heart.

If you’ve already received a lipid test, you can better understand your results by using our lipid test analyzer. Start by inputting your test results into the tool below. It can help you see what your values may mean for your health so you can follow up appropriately with your doctor.

Causes

Maintaining a healthy level of cholesterol is important for maintaining a healthy heart. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP), an initiative of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, high total cholesterol levels are particularly dangerous for individuals who smoke.

Additionally, individuals who are diabetic or obese, or have low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, or a family history of heart disease, should strive to maintain healthy cholesterol levels. 

Approximately 1 in every 200 to 500 people suffer from familial hypercholesterolemia. This is a genetic condition that can elevate cholesterol levels to two times the normal level.

In addition to lifestyle and overall health, age is also a risk factor for developing high cholesterol. Older individuals, particularly men over 45 years of age and women over 55 years of age, are more likely to see their cholesterol levels increase because their bodies are not as efficient at processing and excreting cholesterol. 

Young people are not immune to the dangers of high cholesterol. Researchers have found that fatty plaques of cholesterol can actually begin forming well before adulthood, leading to narrowed arteries and, potentially, a heart attack or stroke.

Treatment

In most cases, changes in diet and increased exercise are the first response to lowering high cholesterol levels. The NCEP recommends getting at least 30 minutes of exercise every day.

Other recommended strategies include avoiding saturated fats and cholesterol and maintaining a healthy weight. Obesity often leads to elevated total cholesterol levels because excess body fat can increase the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood.

Foods to Avoid

Foods to avoid if you have high cholesterol levels include white bread, white potatoes, and white rice, whole-fat dairy products, and any highly processed sugars or flours. Fried foods and red meat should also be avoided, as well as foods high in saturated fats.

Foods that have been shown to reduce cholesterol include fatty fish, walnuts and other nuts, oatmeal, psyllium (and other soluble fibers), and foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols.

Medications

However, if lifestyle changes alone are not effective, your doctor may prescribe a particular class of drugs known as statins, which help reduce LDL and triglyceride levels and increase HDL levels. Statins, the most widely prescribed class of cholesterol-lowering drugs, act by inhibiting cholesterol production within the liver.

Your doctor may prescribe one of many available statin medications: Lipitor (atorvastatin), Zocor (simvastatin), Mevacor (lovastatin), Lescol (fluvastatin), Crestor (rosuvastatin), or Pravachol (pravastatin).

Should you worry about high triglycerides?

These blood fats can be one of the signs of metabolic syndrome, which increases the risk for having a heart attack or stroke.

Until recently, triglycerides tended to get less attention when looking at cardiovascular risk compared to LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. There’s no question that extremely high levels (1,000 mg/dL or more) spell trouble and can lead to acute pancreatitis. But what about treating lower levels of triglycerides? Recent evidence suggests you should work to reduce triglyceride levels of they are higher than normal, especially if you have heart disease or have other risk factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure or smoking.

Triglyceride levels

Normal

Less than 150*

Borderline high

150–199

High

200–499

Very high

500 or higher

*All values in milligrams per deciliter

Source: National Cholesterol Education Program.

A sign of metabolic syndrome

People with metabolic syndrome are several times more likely to have a heart attack or stroke. The risk of eventually developing diabetes is even greater.

A syndrome is, by definition, a group of signs and symptoms that occur together because of an underlying condition. For metabolic syndrome, that group includes abdominal obesity (as measured by waistline), high blood pressure, high blood sugar, low HDL cholesterol — and, yes, high triglyceride levels.

So as doctors have started to take metabolic syndrome more seriously, they’ve also started to pay more attention to triglyceride levels as one of its telltale signs.

Triglycerides go it alone

HDL and triglycerides are metabolically connected and are often inversely related: As triglycerides go up, HDL goes down — and vice versa. But that isn’t always so. People can have “isolated” high triglycerides without low HDL levels, and research is now showing that high triglycerides are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, no matter what the HDL is.

What you can do

Many of the steps you should take to lower triglycerides are the same ones you should take to protect your heart and health overall.

If you’re overweight, shed a few pounds. Get regular aerobic exercise (the kind that increases your heart rate). Limit the saturated fats in meat and dairy products. Watch your alcohol intake, even moderate drinking ramps up triglyceride levels. And diet? High-carb/low-fat eating will increase your triglycerides and lower your HDL.

If you’re taking a statin to lower your LDL, one side benefit may be reduced triglyceride levels. Depending on the dose, statins can lower triglycerides by 20%–40%.

The omega-3 fats in fish and fish oil capsules are another triglyceride-lowering option. For a very high triglyceride level, your doctor can prescribe a high-dose omega-3 medication.

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What to know and how to manage levels

Cholesterol is a type of body fat, or lipid. A serum cholesterol level is a measurement of certain elements in the blood, including the amount of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL) in a person’s blood.

Serum cholesterol levels also show the amount of triglycerides present. Triglycerides are another lipid that can be measured in the blood.

According to the American Heart Association, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is often considered bad, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is considered good.

A person’s serum cholesterol level can indicate their risk for conditions such as heart disease.

In this article, we explore what serum cholesterol shows, what healthy ranges are, and how to improve levels with changes to lifestyle and diet.

Share on PinterestSerum cholesterol levels can help to determine a person’s risk of heart disease.

Cholesterol is a waxy, fatty substance. Some cells in the liver produce it and release it into the bloodstream.

LDL cholesterol can build up in a person’s arteries, clogging them and reducing blood flow. This is why cholesterol is often linked to heart disease.

With a blood test, a doctor can measure levels of:

  • HDL cholesterol, which is good
  • LDL cholesterol, which is bad
  • triglycerides, which are a type of fat bundled with cholesterol

Total serum cholesterol is calculated by adding the HDL level, the LDL level, and 20 percent of the triglyceride level present in a blood sample.

Cholesterol plays a vital in many of the body’s processes, including:

  • building cellular membranes
  • making hormones
  • metabolizing vitamin D in the skin
  • producing bile acids to digest fatty foods

While LDL cholesterol tends to build up and block arteries, HDL cholesterol helps to mop up other cholesterol in the blood and unstick it from artery walls. This is why HDL cholesterol is considered good.

Doctors once determined whether a person’s serum cholesterol level was healthy by comparing it to established normal ranges.

Previously used guidelines, reported in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) of blood, include:

Age and sex Total serum cholesterol HDL level LDL level Triglycerides
All aged 19 and younger At most 170 mg/dL At least 45 mg/dL Less than 100 mg/dL Less than 150 mg/dL
Females aged 20 and older 125–200 mg/dL At least 50 mg/dL Less than 100 mg/dL Less than 150 mg/dL
Males aged 20 and older 125–200 mg/dL At least 40 mg/dL Less than 100 mg/dL Less than 150 mg/dL

Doctors now take a wider range of factors into account before deciding if someone’s cholesterol levels are unhealthy or require treatment.

Some risk factors a doctor may consider when evaluating a serum cholesterol level include:

  • the ratio of HDL to LDL cholesterol
  • triglyceride levels
  • obesity
  • high blood pressure
  • whether the person is a male aged 45 years or older
  • whether the person has experienced menopause
  • smoking or tobacco use
  • family history
  • type 2 diabetes
  • lack of physical activity or a sedentary lifestyle
  • a diet high in saturated and trans fats
  • excessive alcohol consumption
  • a diet very high in carbohydrates, especially when refined
  • metabolic syndromes
  • chronic inflammatory conditions

Overall, a person with higher levels of HDL cholesterol and lower levels of LDL cholesterol will have a healthier serum cholesterol measurement.

This is because HDL cholesterol helps to reduce the presence of LDL cholesterol in the blood. It can also prevent LDL cholesterol from collecting and forming hard deposits called plaques, which stick to artery walls and reduce blood flow.

Plaques can become so large that they cause the arteries to narrow and stiffen, which can contribute to heart disease.

A significant amount of LDL cholesterol in arteries can prevent enough blood and oxygen from reaching organs and tissues, causing severe health complications.

A chunk of a plaque, known as a thrombus or blood clot, can also break off and become stuck in a narrower or restricted artery. This will make the blockage of blood more severe.

Complications associated with high serum cholesterol levels include:

Less is known about how triglycerides impact health. However, people with high levels of triglycerides tend to be at risk for similar conditions, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.

Below is a 3-D model of high cholesterol, which is fully interactive.

Explore the model, using your mouse pad or touchscreen, to understand more about the impact of high cholesterol levels.

The liver produces enough cholesterol to meet all of the body’s needs. Any cholesterol consumed in foods and drinks, known as dietary cholesterol, is excess. This extra, unnecessary cholesterol is more likely to build up in the bloodstream.

Changing the diet is the most effective way to reduce levels of unhealthy cholesterol and increase levels of healthy cholesterol.

Saturated and trans fats should account for no more than between 5 and 6 percent of a person’s daily intake of calories.

If a person consumes 2,000 calories per day, they should only take in between 11 and 13 grams of saturated fat each day.

A person can also achieve and maintain healthy cholesterol levels by making changes to their lifestyle.

The following tips can help a person to reduce their levels of LDL cholesterol:

  • eating fewer full-fat dairy products, such as whole milk, butter, cream, and cheeses
  • eat fewer red meats, pork, lamb, and poultry with skin
  • avoiding packaged, fast, and fried foods
  • limiting the consumption of oils high in trans fats
  • avoiding some tropical oils and butters, especially those derived from cocoa, coconuts, palm, and palm kernel
  • eat fewer refined carbohydrates, such as those found in pastries, breads, crackers, and chips
  • avoiding sugary foods and drinks, such as candies, chocolate bars, juices, prepared smoothies, sodas, and energy drinks
  • losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight
  • quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke
  • reducing or avoiding alcohol consumption
  • exercising regularly
  • reducing or managing stress
  • treating related medical conditions, including diabetes and high blood pressure
  • having planned meals
  • snacking on fruits and vegetables, rather than unhealthful prepared foods

Keeping a food diary can help a person to identify room for improvement and develop more healthful habits.

Share on PinterestIncreasing the proportion of whole grains and vegetables in a person’s diet can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

The following activities can boost a person’s levels of HDL cholesterol:

  • using oils with fewer trans fats, such as those derived from olives, sunflowers, canola, and corn
  • eating more whole fruits and vegetables
  • eating more whole grains and cereals
  • replacing meat with plant-based protein sources, such as walnuts, almonds, beans, tofu, seeds, quinoa, and whole grains
  • eating skin-free poultry and fish such as salmon, trout, herring, and mackerel
  • increasing the intake of dietary fiber, either by eating more leafy greens and whole grains or by taking supplements
  • drinking low-fat milk or replacing milk with a dairy-free alternative
  • getting regular exercise

A doctor may prescribe medications, often statins, for people with high cholesterol that does not respond to dietary and lifestyle changes.

Cholesterol may have a bad reputation, but it is crucial to many bodily processes. However, the liver produces all the cholesterol a person needs.

Serum cholesterol can give an overview of a person’s cholesterol levels. The amount of triglycerides and LDL and HDL cholesterol in the blood can indicate the risk of a severe heart condition, such as a heart attack or stroke.

The American Heart Association recommend that adults older than 20 have their serum cholesterol levels and other indicators of heart disease checked every 4 to 6 years.

A person with a higher risk of complication related to high blood pressure may need to have their serum cholesterol levels checked more frequently.

High Cholesterol in Children and Teens

What is cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that’s found in all the cells in the body. The liver makes cholesterol, and it is also in some foods, such as meat and dairy products. The body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if your child or teen has high cholesterol (too much cholesterol in the blood), he or she has a higher risk of coronary artery disease and other heart diseases.

What causes high cholesterol in children and teens?

Three main factors contribute to high cholesterol in children and teens:

  • An unhealthy diet, especially one that is high in fats
  • A family history of high cholesterol, especially when one or both parents have high cholesterol
  • Obesity

Some diseases, such as diabetes, kidney disease, and certain thyroid diseases, can also cause high cholesterol in children and teens.

What are the symptoms of high cholesterol in children and teens?

There are usually no signs or symptoms that your child or teen has high cholesterol.

How do I know if my child or teen has high cholesterol?

There is a blood test to measure cholesterol levels. The test gives information about

  • Total cholesterol – a measure of the total amount of cholesterol in your blood. It includes both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
  • LDL (bad) cholesterol – the main source of cholesterol buildup and blockage in the arteries
  • HDL (good) cholesterol – HDL helps remove cholesterol from your arteries
  • Non-HDL – this number is your total cholesterol minus your HDL. Your non-HDL includes LDL and other types of cholesterol such as VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein).
  • Triglycerides – another form of fat in your blood that can raise your risk for heart disease

For anyone aged 19 or younger, the healthy levels of cholesterol are

Type of Cholesterol Healthy Level
Total Cholesterol Less than 170mg/dL
Non-HDL Less than 120mg/dL
LDL Less than 100mg/dL
HDL More than 45mg/dL

When and how often your child or teen should get this test depends on his or her age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:

  • The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
  • Children should have the test again every 5 years
  • Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke

What are the treatments for high cholesterol in children and teens?

Lifestyle changes are the main treatment for high cholesterol in children and teens. These changes include

  • Being more active. This includes getting regular exercise and spending less time sitting (in front of a television, at a computer, on a phone or tablet, etc.)
  • Healthy eating. A diet to lower cholesterol includes limiting foods that are high in saturated fat, sugar, and trans fat. It is also important to eat plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
  • Losing weight, if your child or teen is overweight or has obesity

If everyone in the family makes these changes, it will be easier for your child or teen to stick to them. It is also an opportunity to improve your health, and the health of the rest of your family.

Sometimes these lifestyle changes are not enough to lower your child or teen’s cholesterol. Your health care provider may consider giving your child or teen cholesterol medicines if he or she

  • Is at least 10 years old
  • Has an LDL (bad) cholesterol level that is higher than 190 mg/dL, even after six months of diet and exercise changes
  • Has an LDL (bad) cholesterol level that is higher than 160 mg/dL AND is at high risk for heart disease
  • Has an inherited type of high cholesterol

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  • Frontiers | Plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Correlates With Heart Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Introduction

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disease that affects a considerable number of patients worldwide (1). Among diabetic individuals, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality (2). Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with vascular dysfunction (3), oxidative stress (4), and proinflammatory cytokines that impair organ function (5). Moreover, patients with T2DM often have concomitant insulin resistance, which aggravates the severity of CVD (6).

    The sympathoadrenal system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, which has detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system (7–9). Insulin resistance in diabetes is related to both glucose intolerance and impaired fatty acid metabolism (10). Indeed, the intimate relationship between fatty acid and glucose in the Randle cycle has strong implications for its role in the development of diabetes (11). Once insulin resistance has developed, it affects heart function through the activation of protein kinase C (12). Overall, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertensive cardiovascular disease contribute to heart failure in diabetic patients (13).

    In the context of dyslipidemia, the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol may impair heart function through several mechanisms. Besides its role as a proatherogenic lipoprotein, LDL cholesterol triggers the release of proinflammatory cytokines (14). Oxidized LDL cholesterol also promotes arterial intimal thickening to reduce myocardial blood flow (15). Although a link between plasma cholesterol and clinical outcome in heart failure has been reported (16), there is currently insufficient information about the influence of plasma LDL cholesterol on heart function.

    Considering the link between plasma cholesterol and cardiovascular outcome, we hypothesized that plasma LDL cholesterol may influence heart function in diabetic patients. This study investigated the relationship between plasma LDL cholesterol levels and left ventricular function in individuals with T2DM. The influence of other plasma lipids such as triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on heart function will also be evaluated.

    Materials and Methods

    Participant Selection

    This cross-sectional study was conducted at Changhua Christian Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan. Patients visiting the cardiology clinic between January 2016 and December 2017 were assessed for eligibility. Enrollment criteria were diabetic patients over 21 years of age who received antidiabetic and cholesterol-lowering medications. Candidates must be able to comply with transthoracic echocardiography for enrollment. Patients were excluded if they had previously been diagnosed with heart failure. Moreover, individuals with acute cardiovascular events, congenital heart disease, familial hypercholesterolemia, or chronic kidney disease were ineligible.

    Ethics Approval

    This study was carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH IRB No. 181103). All participants provided written informed consent to receive blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

    Laboratory Evaluation

    Participants received blood tests for plasma TG, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) after a 12-h fast. Blood samples were sent to the central laboratory within 1 h and assayed by Beckman Coulter UniCel DxC 800 Synchron™ Clinical Systems. Specifically, plasma LDL cholesterol was measured by the timed-endpoint method using a commercial polyanion solution. Analytical precision was within 1.7, 3.0, and 7.5 ml/dL for HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and TG, respectively.

    Echocardiographic Assessment

    Sonographers at the cardiology clinic performed transthoracic echocardiography using Canon Medical Systems’ Aplio™ 300 CV Platinum system. Echocardiographic measurements were performed according to current guidelines (17). Specifically, the left atrial diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) were measured in the parasternal long axis view. The right ventricular diameter was measured in the apical four-chamber view. E and A velocities from mitral valve inflow were used to calculate the E/A ratio. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was derived from the modified Quinones equation (18).

    Statistical Analysis

    Participants were divided into two groups according to their plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Power analysis indicated that a sample size of 48 participants per group was necessary to detect a significant difference in left ventricular function with 80% statistical power. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to confirm the normal distribution of clinical variables in this study (D = 0.11807, P = 0.06859). Demographic characteristics between groups were compared using Student’s independent t-test for continuous variables and Pearson’s χ2-test for categorical variables. Echocardiographic parameters were compared using Student’s independent t-test. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between left ventricular function and plasma lipids. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS version 22.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows. Armonk, NY, USA) with a two-tailed P < 0.05 indicating statistical significance.

    Results

    The study screened 140 individuals for eligibility. Twelve individuals were excluded due to heart failure, seven patients did not receive cholesterol-lowering medications and were thus ineligible, and three candidates with chronic kidney disease were excluded. The enrollment process is illustrated in Figure 1.

    Figure 1. Enrollment protocol of the study.

    Demographic Characteristics of Participants

    The study enrolled a total of 118 participants who were divided into two groups according to their plasma LDL cholesterol levels. As summarized in Table 1, demographic characteristics including age (69.7 vs. 66.9 years, P = 0.159), female sex (45.8 vs. 42.4%, P = 0.711), body mass index (26.2 vs. 25.9 kg/m2, P = 0.66), diabetes duration (5.4 vs. 5.1 years, P = 0.48), plasma TG level (140 vs. 141 mg/dL, P = 0.945), plasma HDL cholesterol level (36.1 vs. 38.8 mg/dL, P = 0.129), serum HbA1c (7.2 vs. 7.5%, P = 0.225), and systolic blood pressure (129 vs. 130 mm Hg, P = 0.735) were similar between these groups. Comparable proportions of participants in both groups received beta blockers (62.7 vs. 69.5%, P = 0.437), calcium channel blockers (44. 1 vs. 40.0%, P = 0.653), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (66.1 vs. 55.9%, P = 0.258), and diuretics (18.6 vs. 23.7%, P = 0.499). All participants received cholesterol-lowering medications. The mean plasma LDL cholesterol level was significantly different between these groups (63.0 vs. 112 mg/dL, P < 0.001), which formed the basis of this clinical investigation.

    Table 1. Demographic features of the participants.

    Correlation Between Plasma LDL Cholesterol and Left Ventricular Function

    As shown in Table 2, participants with lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels had better heart function, as measured by the LVEF, than patients with higher LDL cholesterol levels (58.0 vs. 50.5%, P = 0.022). These groups had similar left atrial diameter (43.2 vs. 43.3 mm, P = 0.913), right ventricular diameter (25.3 vs. 25.1 mm, P = 0.81), LVESD (31.5 vs. 33.0 mm, P = 0. 43), LVEDD (48.7 vs. 49.7 mm, P = 0.476), and E/A ratio (0.96 vs. 0.93, P = 0.57).

    Table 2. Association between plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and left ventricular function.

    Multivariate Regression Analysis of LVEF Determinants

    In Table 3, multivariate regression analysis revealed that plasma LDL cholesterol was inversely correlated with left ventricular function (β coefficient: −0.110, P = 0.024). In contrast, other plasma lipids such as TG (β coefficient: 0.026, P = 0.142) and HDL cholesterol (β coefficient: 0.182, P = 0.278) had limited correlation with LVEF. The structural parameter LVEDD was shown to be correlated with left ventricular function (β coefficient: −1.085, P = 0.001).

    Table 3. Multivariate regression analysis of parameters associated with left ventricular ejection fraction.

    Discussion

    This study revealed an inverse relationship between plasma LDL cholesterol levels and heart function in patients with T2DM. Specifically, patients with lower plasma LDL cholesterol levels had better LVEF than participants with higher LDL cholesterol levels. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis showed a link between left ventricular function and plasma LDL cholesterol. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the association between plasma LDL cholesterol and heart function in patients with diabetes.

    Several physiologic mechanisms may explain the link between plasma LDL cholesterol and heart function. First, LDL cholesterol is a recognized risk factor of atherosclerotic heart disease and heart failure mortality (19, 20). Furthermore, investigators have demonstrated that insulin resistance can decrease myocardial glucose uptake to impair heart function (21). Excessive lipid metabolites also lead to structural abnormalities such as myocardial fibrosis (22). As mentioned previously, a synergistic effect between hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertensive cardiovascular disease leads to heart failure in patients with T2DM.

    This study excluded candidates with heart failure to avoid the cholesterol paradox. Individuals with terminal heart failure paradoxically fared better with higher plasma cholesterol levels (23). This phenomenon may be attributable to heart failure induced cachexia, which reduces plasma cholesterol levels (24). Researchers also suggest that the presence of CVD can modify the relationship between plasma cholesterol and heart function (16).

    The inverse relationship between plasma LDL cholesterol levels and heart function has clinical implications. Clinical trials have shown that cholesterol-lowering therapy in diabetic patients can reduce CVD mortality (25). Our study suggests that cholesterol-lowering intervention may also preserve heart function in individuals with T2DM. Indeed, a recent study suggests that the lipid-lowering effect of insulin can improve heart function in elderly individuals with diabetes (26). In addition, medical nutrition therapy that targets LDL cholesterol may attenuate the development of heart failure.

    This study provides novel information about the relationship between plasma LDL cholesterol and left ventricular function. Echocardiographic measurements were verified by three cardiologists to lessen the inter-operator variability (F = 2.1, P = 0.22). Participants received blood tests at the same medical center, which helps to reduce variability in laboratory techniques. Participants in both groups also received similar antihypertensive medications to reduce the potential confounding effects of these medications on heart function.

    However, this study also has limitations. Since sonographic examination is technique-dependent (27), the accuracy of LVEF measurement depends on the sonographer’s experience. Moreover, dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can influence left ventricular function (28). Thirdly, antidiabetic medications such as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors can modify left ventricular contractility (29). Obesity is also related to heart failure, but abdominal circumference was not included in the analysis. The study is also limited by its non-randomized design, relatively small sample size, and cross-sectional design. Therefore, prospective studies with a larger sample size are required to confirm its findings.

    In conclusion, there is an inverse correlation between plasma LDL cholesterol and heart function in people with diabetes. Participants with higher levels of plasma LDL cholesterol had worse LVEF than patients with lower LDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, this study supports the hypothesis that plasma LDL cholesterol may influence heart function in diabetic patients, but prospective studies are necessary to confirm this finding.

    Data Availability

    The raw data supporting the conclusions of this manuscript will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation, to any qualified researcher.

    The research dataset is available as Supplementary Table 1.

    Ethics Statement

    This study was carried out in accordance with the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Changhua Christian Hospital (CCH IRB No. 181103). All participants provided written informed consent to receive blood tests and transthoracic echocardiography in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.

    Author Contributions

    P-CC, S-RH, J-CL, C-PC, S-CC, S-TT, and J-FK conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents, materials, analysis tools, and wrote the manuscript. Y-CC and Y-HL analyzed the data, prepared figures and tables, and wrote the manuscript. Y-HL is a qualified statistician who verified the statistical methods in this study. P-CC and Y-CC contributed equally to the study as first authors. All authors have reviewed and approved of the manuscript to be submitted.

    Funding

    The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any external source of funding.

    Conflict of Interest Statement

    The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors would like to thank sonographers at the Cardiology clinic for performing echocardiographic evaluation of the participants.

    Supplementary Material

    The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2019.00234/full#supplementary-material

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    90,000 What is the danger of high blood cholesterol?

    Number of views: 237

    Cholesterol is a fat-like substance, without which the normal functioning of the human body is impossible. Cholesterol is a kind of building framework that ensures the stability of cell membranes. It is also a part of bile, sex hormones and vitamin D3. Most of this substance (about 80%) is synthesized in the liver, less (about 20%) is supplied with food.

    In the blood, cholesterol is contained in the form of complex compounds – lipoproteins. Allocate “good” cholesterol – high density lipoproteins, in the form of which excess cholesterol is removed from the body, and “bad” cholesterol – low density lipoproteins, which are less excreted from the body and partially deposited on the walls of arteries, forming cholesterol plaques.

    The process of formation of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels is called atherosclerosis. With atherosclerosis, the lumen of the blood vessels gradually narrows, as a result of which the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to organs and tissues is impaired.Most often, atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart and brain develops.

    Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the heart initially manifests itself as pain during physical exertion, and ultimately can lead to a heart attack. The manifestations of atherosclerosis of the cerebral vessels can be a decrease in attention and memory, mental performance, headaches, and sleep disturbances. Severe vasoconstriction of the brain can lead to stroke.

    According to official WHO data, an increase in blood cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is observed in about 200 million inhabitants of the planet.Most often it is detected in overweight people and patients with diabetes mellitus.

    If the level of cholesterol in the blood exceeds the norm, then you should review the diet and seek help from a specialist. In this situation, a diet with a low cholesterol content is recommended, namely: limit the consumption of egg yolks, caviar, fatty and fried foods, liver dishes; animal fats are replaced with vegetable fats; increase your intake of foods high in fiber.

    Along with the correction of nutrition, the doctor may prescribe medications to lower blood cholesterol. These drugs are selected individually, as they have a number of contraindications for use. Unfortunately, even the most modern drugs do not always allow to completely normalize the level of cholesterol in the blood, therefore, lately, experts are paying more and more attention to metabolic drugs that can improve the treatment.

    90,000 WTC calculations for the import of almonds in the material of the “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”

    WTC calculations for the import of almonds in the material of the “Rossiyskaya Gazeta”

    Nut milk conquers the world market.Will this dietary fashion take root in Russia?

    Herbal substitutes for dairy products are rapidly conquering the global market. Such data are contained in a study by the reputable agency that studies the food market, Innova Market Insights. Russia is unlikely to be captured by this fashion, RG experts say. Although there are a lot of useful things in these products, so anything can be.

    Traditional milk remains the leader in consumption among similar products.However, the share of plant-based surrogates has already reached 6 percent on the market, the agency calculated. They note that if earlier the most popular product in this category was soy milk, now it is replaced by products made from almonds and other nuts. By choosing plant-based milk replacers, consumers expect a healthier product. At least this is how these products are positioned by manufacturers.

    Lou Ann Williams, director of Innova Market Insights, explains that the Asian region is the traditional market for herbal dairy products.Especially in Japan. There, from time immemorial, it was necessary to make do with scarce arable land. This led to the weak development of animal husbandry, and therefore the consumption of milk there has always been relatively low. And many Japanese have developed congenital lactose intolerance. Therefore, they have to use substitutes. They are often used in Asian cuisine. For example, coconut milk is one of the main ingredients in the spicy Thai Tom Yam soup. They drink vegetable milk and just like that. Soy milk is used in the preparation of various cereals.

    From Asia, these products migrated to specialized European stores with products for those who need to adhere to certain diets. And when these goods began to be in demand among the mass consumer, they moved to the shelves of ordinary stores. Then soybeans and gave way to the palm as the main raw material for nuts and cereals. In Russia, such milk is even used for making cappuccino, says Marina Petrova, director of Petrova 5 Consulting.

    The expert says that in general, the consumption of milk in the world is now growing. First of all, at the expense of low-income regions, where the standard of living is now beginning to rise. For Africa, they even made a special product – a small cube of milk powder that can be dissolved in water and get a glass of ordinary milk.

    And against the background of the general growth in the consumption of dairy products, the consumption of their substitutes is also growing. But these products are unlikely to be able to compete with traditional milk in Russia, said Maria Zhebit, a representative of Soyuzmoloko.”They are unlikely to be in demand outside the big cities,” she says.

    Nutritionist Elena Solomatina points out that the demand for vegetable milk is growing largely due to the global fashion for proper nutrition. However, according to her, it is not very correct to compare animal milk and its plant substitutes. “It’s like comparing an apple and a fish,” says the medic. And then in any product you can find positive and negative sides, says the expert. On the one hand, animal milk does contain cholesterol, which has been linked to cardiovascular disease in humans.

    On the other hand, it is wrong to draw a direct parallel. There are vegetarians who have much higher cholesterol levels than people who regularly consume fatty foods. With food, a person consumes only 20-30 percent of all cholesterol in the body. The rest is generated internally.

    The same goes for herbal products.There are hormone-stimulating substances that are good for women in adulthood, but not very good for men. In addition, most of the soybeans from which dairy surrogates are made is genetically modified. And this, judging by experiments on mice, adversely affects future generations.

    Ultimately, experts summarize, the main thing is to eat wisely. Any, even the most useful product can be harmful if consumed excessively.

    Rossiyskaya Gazeta – Federal Issue No. 6950 (82), Vasily Mironov, 18. 04.2016 01:40

    Clinical diagnostic laboratory

    analyzer

    No. Service name Price
    1 Complete blood count 200
    2 Complete blood count (including leukoformula and ESR) 300
    3 General urinalysis 150
    4 Urine analysis according to Nechiporenko 100
    5 Determination of microalbumin in urine 150
    6 General therapeutic biochemical blood test (total protein, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, glucose) 800
    7 Biochemical blood test (determination of blood glucose) 100
    8 Biochemical blood test (determination of total bilirubin) 100
    9 Biochemical blood test (determination of direct bilirubin) 100
    10 Biochemical blood test (determination of blood urea) 100
    11 Biochemical blood test (determination of blood creatinine) 100
    12 Biochemical blood test (determination of total protein) 100
    13 Biochemical blood test (ALT determination) 100
    14 Biochemical blood test (AST definition) 100
    15 Biochemical blood test (determination of alkaline phosphatase) 100
    16 Biochemical blood test (determination of lactate dehydrogenase) 100
    17 Biochemical blood test (determination of gamma-glutamyl transferase) 100
    18 Biochemical blood test (determination of blood amylase) 100
    19 Biochemical blood test (determination of total cholesterol) 100
    20 Biochemical blood test (determination of triglycerides) 100
    21 Biochemical blood test (determination of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood) 100
    22 Biochemical blood test (determination of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the blood) 100
    23 Lipidogram (cholesterol, triglycerides, lipoprotein cholesterol) 400
    24 Biochemical blood test (determination of electrolytes – sodium, potassium, chlorine) 300
    25 Biochemical blood test (determination of C-reactive protein) 150
    26 Biochemical blood test (determination of albumin) 100
    27 Biochemical blood test (determination of total calcium) 100
    28 Biochemical blood test (determination of unlimited phosphorus) 100
    29 Biochemical blood test (determination of magnesium) 100
    30 Biochemical blood test (determination of iron) 100
    31 Biochemical blood test (study of the iron-binding capacity of serum) 100
    32 Microscopy of the discharge of the female genital organs 300
    33 Determination of protein A associated with pregnancy (PAPP-a) 1000
    34 Determination of the b-subunit of hCG 1000
    35 Determination of blood group, rhesus and anti-erythrocyte antibodies by conglutination with gelatin 500
    36 Determination of blood group, rhesus and anti-erythrocyte antibodies by column agglutination 600
    37 Determination of the presence and titer of antibodies by the ABO system (method with unitiol) 300
    38 Determination of the presence and titer of anti-erythrocyte antibodies 200
    39 Determination of blood phenotype by antigens C, c, E, e 200
    40 Antiglobulin test (Coombs’ test) 450
    41 Blood sampling from finger 100
    42 Blood sampling from a vein 110
    43 Fetal blood count 200
    44 Determination of blood group, Rh – accessories, fetal blood phenotype 400
    45 Study of the karyotype (peripheral blood, fetal umbilical cord blood) 5000
    46 Study of preparations of chorionic villi, fetal material 6500
    47 Study of preparations of chorionic villi, placenta, amniocytes and fetal material by the FISH method 30000
    48 Determination of procalcitonin by immunochromatographic method (express test) 2500
    49 Biochemical screening of the 1st trimester with the calculation of the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the Astaria program on the AutoDELFIA 2000
    50 Determination of hCG 500
    51 Determination of progesterone 500
    52 Determination of estradiol 500
    53 Study of prostate secretion 300
    54 Neonatal screening for hereditary metabolic diseases (PKU, VH, AGS, cystic fibrosis, galactosemia) 1000
    55 Determination of blood phenylalanine 200
    56 Coagulogram (APTT, PT, PTI, INR, Fibrinogen) 350
    57 Hemostasiogram standard (APTT, PT, TV, FG, AT III, RFMK, platelet aggregation) 1000
    58 D-Dimer 1000
    59 Antithrombin III 500
    60 RFMK definition 150
    61 Study of platelet aggregation 300
    62 Determination of the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in serum 200
    63 Determination of the level of free thyroxine (CT 4) in serum 200

    Information about the program for medical examinations (Foreigners)
    General items
    Height / weight / abdominal circumference / obesity / body composition / Blood pressure / Ophthalmology (vision, intraocular pressure, fundus) / Hearing / complete blood count /
    erythrocyte sedimentation rate / Syphilis test / AIDS test / cholesterol test / urinalysis / electrocardiography / chest X-ray / / lung function tests / Hepatitis B and C tests / Cervical cancer screening (women)
    Health Care Program Information
    Program Additional items
    Code Age floor price (USD) Contents
    BASIC All M 416 General subjects / Blood test / Abdominal ultrasound
    All W 542 General subjects / Blood test / Abdominal ultrasound / Gynecological ultrasound / Mammography
    GOLD 2030 M 745 General Subjects / Body Composition Measuring Instrument / Blood Test / AFP (Liver Cancer) Test / Thyroid Stimulating Hormone / Hepatitis A Tests /
    Rubella antibody test / (during sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal ultrasound / computed tomography of visceral fat / Arterial stiffness test
    W 774 General subjects / body composition Measuring device / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / Hepatitis A tests / Rubella antibody test / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal ultrasound / computer visceral fat tomography / Arterial stiffness test
    4050 M 1. 354 General subjects / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / Prostate specific antigen / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers of gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers of pancreatic cancer / Testosterone test / Tests for proteinuria / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Stress test / Ecocardiography
    W 1.450 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / AFP test (liver cancer) / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Proteinuria tests / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Exercise test / mammography / gynecological ultrasound / Colposcopy / Ultrasound of the thyroid gland / check of bone density
    60 ~ M 2. 070 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / Prostate specific antigen / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Testosterone test / Tests for proteinuria / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Ecocardiography / Homocysteine ​​/ folic acid / vitamin B12 / check of bone density / ultrasound of the carotid artery
    W 2.360 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / AFP test (liver cancer) / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Proteinuria tests / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Exercise test / mammography / gynecological ultrasound / Colposcopy / Ultrasound of the thyroid gland / Checking bone density / Ecocardiography / Ultrasound of the carotid artery
    PLATINUM 2030 M 1. 644 General subjects / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / Hepatitis A tests / Rubella antibody test / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / abdominal computed tomography / computed tomography visceral fat tomography / Arterial stiffness test / MRI + MRA / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest
    W 1.935 General subjects / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / Hepatitis A tests / Rubella antibody test / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / abdominal computed tomography / computed tomography visceral fat tomography / Arterial stiffness test / MRI + MRA / Human papillomavirus test / gynecological ultrasound / breast ultrasound / thyroid ultrasound
    4050 M 2. 263 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / Prostate specific antigen / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Testosterone test / tests to detect proteinuria / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Stress test / Ecocardiography / (in a dream ) Colonoscopy / MRI + MRA
    W 2.650 General subjects / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / AFP test (liver cancer) / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Proteinuria tests / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Exercise test / mammography / gynecological ultrasound / Colposcopy / Thyroid ultrasound / Bone density check / Breast ultrasound / (during sleep) Colonoscopy / MRI + MRA
    60 ~ M 2. 650 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / Prostate specific antigen / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Testosterone test / Tests for proteinuria / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Ecocardiography / Homocysteine ​​/ folic acid / vitamin B12 / bone density check / ultrasound of the carotid artery / (during sleep) Colonoscopy / MRI + MRA
    W 3.230 General items / body composition Measuring instrument / Blood test / AFP test (liver cancer) / Thyroid stimulating hormone / (in sleep) Gastroscopy / Helicobacter test / Abdominal computed tomography / Visceral fat computed tomography / Arterial stiffness test / Inflammation indicators / Glycosylated hemoglobin / AFP test (liver cancer) / AFP test (liver cancer) / Tumor markers for gastrointestinal cancer / Tumor markers for pancreatic cancer / Proteinuria tests / Low-dose computed tomography of the chest / Exercise test / mammography / gynecological ultrasound / Colposcopy / Thyroid ultrasound / Bone density check / Ecocardiography / Carotid ultrasound / MRI + MRA / (during sleep) Colonoscopy / Breast ultrasound

    Created in 2014. 08.01. The reasons for the hospital are subject to change. (value exchange rate: 2014.09.11)

    ABC Laboratory Technology Center – HDL Cholesterol (High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol)

    Cholesterol is a complex fat-like organic compound that is constantly formed in the body and is used to build cell membranes, giving them rigidity and strength, for the synthesis of sex and steroid hormones, vitamin D.

    Cholesterol is a vital substance, up to 80% of which is formed in the liver, and the remaining 20% ​​in finished form comes with animal products (oil, lard, fatty meat, etc.) Cholesterol is insoluble in water, its transport between organs and tissues are carried out “in a package” of soluble proteins in the form of lipoprotein complexes.

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) transport excess cholesterol out of cells, so HDL is sometimes called “good” cholesterol (alpha-cholesterol) as opposed to “bad” cholesterol – LDL. HDL has the highest density among lipoproteins due to the high level of protein relative to lipids. The HDL fraction transports approximately 25% of total cholesterol.

    A decrease in the concentration of HDL cholesterol is found in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, acute infections, bronchopulmonary diseases, gastric ulcer, hypertriacylglyceridemia. Measurement of HDL cholesterol is used for early detection of atherosclerosis, assessment of the effectiveness of therapy aimed at lowering blood lipids.

    Risk factors that can lead to a decrease in HDL cholesterol are a sedentary lifestyle, smoking, obesity, hypertension.

    Research methods: colorimetric enzymatic
    Units of measurement in CLT ABC: mmol / L (millimol per liter)

    Biomaterial used for research:

    Biomaterial Home visit In med. office Independently
    Venous blood
    Capillary blood *

    * In case of hard-to-reach veins, in pediatric practice.

    To perform this test, it is recommended to donate blood in the morning (between 7 and 10 o’clock), strictly on an empty stomach (after an 8-12 hour period of fasting and abstaining from alcohol and smoking).Inform your doctor about any medications you are taking that may affect the test result.

    Factors influencing the indicator:

    1. Reception of fatty foods, alcohol consumption.
    2. Taking hormonal contraceptives, steroids, lipid-lowering drugs, nicotinic acid.

    1. Examination of patients at high risk of atherosclerosis.
    2.Assessment of the state of patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases in order to prevent cardiovascular accidents.
    3. In order to monitor the condition of people suffering from obesity, diabetes mellitus, smoking abuse.
    4. Diagnosis of pathological conditions of the liver.
    5. Examination and monitoring of patients taking corticosteroids, diuretics and β-blockers.

    alpha lipoproteins, alpha cholesterol, alpha cholesterol, high density lipoproteins, HDL Cholesterol

    Laboratory analyzes | Clinic “Alpha Technologies”, Novosibirsk

    OBS46 Annual prophylactic examination (after 40 years) (Total protein, free T4, Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR, Triglycerides (with the calculation of coeff.atherogenicity), Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Homocysteine, ALT, AST, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, Gamma-HT, Urea, Creatinine, General urine analysis (with sediment microscopy), Glucose, TTG) 1 r. d. 4660
    OBS48 “My healthy nanny” (HIV Ag / Ab Combo, HBsAg, Anti HCV total, Syphilis RPR, Gamma-HT, Cannabinoids (marijuana), Opiates, Stool analysis for enterobiasis, Stool analysis for protozoa, Stool analysis for helminth eggs, Culture for pathogenic group and sensitivity to antibiotics, Culture for Staphylococcus aureus and determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (Nasal discharge), Culture for gonococcus and determination of sensitivity to antibiotics (discharge of genitals), Microscopic (bacterioscopic) examination of a native smear stained according to Gram, Trichomonas, determination of DNA) up to 9 p.d. 6590
    OBS51 Prevention of heart and vascular diseases and their complications (Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides (calculating the coefficient of atherogenicity), Fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), Prothrombin, INR, Homocysteine) 1 s. d. 2760
    OBS53 Lipid profile: extended (Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides (with calc.coeff. atherogenicity), Apolipoprotein A1. Alolipoprotein B, Lipoprotein (a), Cholesterol fraction (SNP) up to 2 w.d. 2610
    OBS54 Lipid profile: screening (Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Triglycerides (with the calculated coefficient of atherogenicity) 1 w.d. 920
    BS55 Antiphospholipid syndrome, laboratory criteria (Antibodies to cardiolipin IgG, Antibodies to cardiolipin, IgM, Antibodies to beta-2-glycoprotein 1, total IgG, IgA, IgM, Lupus anticoagulant) up to 9 p.d. 3140
    OBS56 Liver examination: extended (ALT, ASAT, Gamma-HT, Total bilirubin, Alkaline phosphatase, Direct bilirubin, Total blood protein, Protein fractions, Cholinesterase, Prothrombin, Cholesterol, HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality), Anti-HCV total ( antibodies to antigens of the hepatitis C virus, in total), Glucose, Urea) up to 2 w. d. 2950
    OBS57 Liver examination: screening (ALT, AST, Gamma-HT, Bilirubin total, Alkaline phosphatase, Bilirubin direct) 1 p.d. 1000
    OBS59 Screening for autoimmune liver damage (Antibodies to smooth muscle (SMA), Antibodies to liver and kidney microsomes, Antibodies to mitochondria, Antinuclear factor (ANF), Antibodies to parietal cells of the stomach (PCA) up to 9 p.d. 5500
    OBS60 Kidney examination: extended (Total protein in urine, Albumin (in urine), Reberg’s test, General urine analysis (with microscopy of sediment), Creatinine, Urea, K / Na / Cl, Phosphorus, Calcium, Complete blood count, Total protein in blood) up to 2 p.d. 2170
    OBS61 Kidney examination: screening (General urinalysis, Creatinine, Urea, K / Na / Cl, Total protein in the blood) Up to 2 w. d. 1000
    OBS62 Diagnostics of celiac disease: intolerance of cereal protein (gluten) (Antibodies to deamidated peptides of gliadin, IgG, Antibodies to deamidated peptides of gliadin, IgA, Antibodies to reticulin, IgA and IgG, Immunoglobulin A in total, Antibodies of IgA class to tissue transglutaminase IgG class tissue transglutaminase, Antibodies to endomysium, IgA).Up to 9 business days 4800
    OBS63 Joint pain: extended examination (ASL-0 (Antistreptolysin-0) (42) C-reactive protein (CRP) (43) Rheumatoid factor, IgG (44) Anti-Yersinia enterocolitica IgA (IgA antibodies to Yersinia antigens) ( 238) Antibodies of IgG class to Yersinia Enterocolitica antigens, Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, IgA and IgG, Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (ACCP), Calcium, Phosphorus, DPID, Osteocalcin, Parathyroid hormone) Up to 5 r. d. 6370
    OBS64 Joint pain: screening (ASL-0 (Antistreptolysin-O), C-reactive protein (CRP), Rheumatoid factor, IgG, Antinuclear antibodies, Complete blood count, ESR) up to 2 r.d. 1770
    OBS65 Diabetes control: advanced (Albumin, Reberg’s test, Glucose in urine, Glucose in the blood, Glycated hemoglobin, Cholesterol.HDL, LDL, Triglycerides (with the calculated coefficient of atherogenicity), Creatinine (in the blood), Homocysteine) up to 2 r.d. 3160
    OBS66 Diabetes control: screening (Glucose, Glycated hemoglobin) 1 w.d. 530
    OBS67 Diabetes: autoimmune markers (antibodies to insulin, antibodies to glutamate decarboxylase, antibodies to tyrosine phosphatase) Up to 12 p. d. 3140
    OBS68 Diagnosis of anemia (General blood test. Leukocyte formula, Counting the number of reticulocytes, Iron, Transferrin, Ferritin, B12, Folic acid, Latent (unsaturated) iron-binding capacity of blood serum) Up to 2 r.d. 2990
    OBS70 Female cancer risk: cervix (Cytological examination (Papanicolaou stain, Rar test), HPV extended screening (15 + CME *)) Up to 4 r.d. 1730
    OBS71 Diagnosis of osteoporosis (Calcium, Phosphorus, DPID, Osteocalcin, Parathyroid hormone) Up to 2 r.d. 2540
    OBS73 Blood biochemistry: extended profile (ALT, ASAT, Bilirubin total, Bilirubin direct, Gamma-HT, Glucose, Total protein, Creatinine, Urea, Alkaline phosphatase, Cholesterol, K / Na / Cl, Protein fractions, HDL, LDL, Iron, Calcium, Amylase, LDH, Triglycerides) Up to 2 p. d. 3610
    OBS74 Blood biochemistry: minimal profile (ALT, ASAT, Bilirubin total, Bilirubin direct, Gamma-HT, Glucose, Total protein) Up to 2 r.d. 2320
    OBS75 Thyroid gland: extended examination (TSH, AT-TPO, T4 free, TZ free, AT-TG) 1 w.d. 1740
    OBS76 Thyroid gland: screening (TSH, AT-TPO, T4 free) 1 p.d. 1010
    OBS77 Hospitalization in a therapeutic hospital (HIV Ag / Ab Combo, Anti-HCV-total (hep. C), HBsAg (hep. B), Syphilis RPR, AlAT, AsAT, Bilirubin total, Bilirubin direct, Gamma-GT, Glucose (in blood), Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Creatinine (in the blood), Urea (in the blood), Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR, General urine analysis, Total protein (in blood), Alkaline phosphatase) 1 r. d. 3820
    OBS78 Hospitalization in a surgical hospital (HIV 1,2: antigen + antibodies (HIV Ag / Ab Combo), Syphilis RPR, HBsAg (Australian antigen, qual.Total blood test, Leukocyte formula, ESR, General urine analysis (with sediment microscopy), Total protein (in the blood), Alkaline phosphatase, APTT, Prothrombin, Fibrinogen, Antithrombin III, Blood group, Rh-affiliation) Up to 2 r.d. 5170
    OBS79 Healthy – healthy country: annual preventive examination (up to 40 years) (General blood test, Leukocyte formula, ESR, ALT, ASAT, Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, Glucose, Creatinine (in the blood), Urea (in the blood), Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, Total protein (in blood), Alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Iron, Total calcium, TSH) 1 p.d. 3850
    OBS80 Female hormonal profile: ovarian dysfunction, menstrual irregularities (FSS LH, Prolactin, Estradiol, Testosterone, TSH, DEA-B04, Cortisol, 17-OH-progesterone, SHBG) Up to 4 w. d. 3760
    OBS81 Problems of miscarriage: autoimmune profile (Antibodies to phospholipids IgM / lgG, Antinuclear antibodies (antinuclear antibodies), Antibodies to thyroglobulin (AT-TG), Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (AT-Protroma), Lupus anticoagulant class, Autoglobin , Immunoglobulins of class M, Immunoglobulins of class G) Up to 3 r.d. 3950
    OBS82 Assessment of androgenic status (Testosterone, SHBG, 17-OH-progesterone, DEA-B04) up to 4 w.d. 1610
    OBS83 I want to become a mother: comprehensive examination when planning pregnancy (HIV, Syphilis EIA (igM-HgG), HBsAg, Anli-HCV-totai, Toxoplasma IgG, Rubella IgG, CMV IgG, Herpes IgG, Chlamydia lg A + G, Complete blood count , Blood group, Rhesus affiliation, ALT, ASAT, Total bilirubin, Glucose, Creatinine, Total protein, FSH, LH, Prolactin, Estradiol, TSH, Testosterone, fl3A-S04) up to 3 r. d. 7730
    OBS85 Pregnancy: 1st trimester (1-13 weeks) (Total protein, Urea, Creatinine, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, APTT (APTT), Prothrombin, INR (prothrombin time), Fibrinogen, HIV 1.2 : antigen + antibodies (HIV Ag / Ab Combo), Anti-Treponema pallidum IgM + IgG (causative agent of syphilis, in total), HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality), Anti-HCV total (antibodies to antigens of the hepatitis C virus, in total), Toxoplasma (IgG + IgM), Rubella (IgG + IgM), CMV (IgG + IgM), Herpes (IgG + IgM), Glucose, Complete blood count, Leukocyte count, ESR, Blood group, Rhesus affiliation, TSH, Syphilis RPR ) Up to 2 p.d. 8170
    OBS86 Pregnancy: 2nd trimester (14-28 weeks) (Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR, TSH) 1 w.d. 800
    OBS87 Pregnancy: 3rd trimester (from 29-30 weeks) (HIV 1. 2: antigen + antibodies (HIV Ag / Ab Combo), Anti-Treponema pallidum IgM + IgG (causative agent of syphilis, in total), HBsAg (Australian antigen, qual.), Anti-HCV total (antibodies to antigens of the hepatitis C virus, in total), APTT, Prothrombin, Fibrinogen, Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR, Glucose, TSH, Total protein, Urea, Creatinine, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, ALT , AsAT) 1 w.d. 3960
    OBS88 Pregnancy planning: diagnosis of urogenital infections (Chlamydia, DNA determination, Herpes virus type I, II, DNA determination, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Microscopic examination of a stained native smear – bacterioscopy, Gonococcus, Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, DNA determination, Ureaplasma DNA (scraping)) Up to 3 r.d. 2660
    OBS90 HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, C (HIV, RPR, HBsAg, Anti-HCV-total, Syphilis EIA (IgM + IgG)) 1 w. d. 2660
    OBS91 Sex and the City: 6 infections (blood test) (HIV 1,2: antigen + antibodies, Syphilis RPR, HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality), antibodies to HBcog antigen of hepatitis B virus, in total, antibodies to hepatitis virus antigens C, in total, Antibodies to chlamydia, IgG antibodies to herpes simplex virus type 2, IgM antibodies, IgG to the causative agent of syphilis, in total) Up to 3 r.d. 3210
    OBS92 Sex and the City: 14 infections + smear for microflora (Candida albicans, DNA determination, Microscopic (bacterioscopic) examination of a smear stained according to Gram, Chlamydia, DNA determination, Ureaplasma, DNA determination Mycoplasma (genitalium and hominis), DNA determination, Gardnerella , DNA determination, Gonococcus, DNA determination, Trichomonas, DNA determination, Herpes virus type I, II, DNA determination, Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 types, DNA determination, HIV 1,2: antigen + antibodies, antibodies of IgM, IgG classes to the causative agent of syphilis, in total, HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality.), antibodies to antigens of the hepatitis C virus, in total) Up to 3 w.d. 4470
    OBS93 Sex and the City: 8 infections + smear for microflora (HIV 1,2: antigen + antibodies, HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality), antibodies to hepatitis C virus antigens, in total, IgM antibodies, IgG to the causative agent of syphilis, in total , Chlamydia, DNA determination, Trichomonas, DNA determination, Mycoplasma (genitalium), DNA determination, Microscopic examination of a stained smear – bacterioscopy, Gonococcus, DNA determination) Up to 3 r.d. 2770
    OBS94 Weight Problems (Initial Health Evaluation for Patients with Weight Disorders) (Glycosylated Hemoglobin, Triglycerides, Prolactin, Leptin, Glucose, Cholesterol, LDL Cholesterol, HDL Cholesterol. TSH, Cortisol (Hydrocortisone)) Up to 8 w.d. 3000
    OB107 Before diet: minimal examination (Glycated hemoglobin, Cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TSH, Triglycerides, Glucose) 1 p.d. 1730
    OB108 Before the diet: additional examination (General blood test, Leukocyte formula, ESR, ALT, AST, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Total protein, Urea, Creatinine, Uric acid, Amylase, Total bilirubin, T4 free, Prolactin, Testosterone, FSGBG, FSGBG LH, Cortisol, Fibrinogen, C-Peptide) 1 s.d. 5230
    OBS95 VIP-examination for women (General urinalysis, General blood test, ESR, Leukocyte formula, ALT, AST, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, Glucose, LDH, Uric acid, Protein fractions, Cholesterol, Cholesterol-LDL, Cholesterol-HDL, Triglycerides, Calcium, Magnesium, C-Reactive protein, Iron, Ferritin, Gamma-HT, Creatinine, Urea, Total protein, Alkaline phosphatase, K / Na / CJ, Phosphorus, Rheumatoid factor, Transferrin, Prothrombin, TSH, AT-TPO, T4 free, Prolactin, Anti-nuclear antibodies, Antibodies to phospholipids IgG and IgM, Syphilis RPR, HBsAg, anti-HBs, Antibodies to chlamydia, anti-CMV IgG, anti-H, pylori IgG, Apolipolrotein A1, Apolipolrotein B (with the calculation of the ratio , Lipoprotein (a), AT-TG, Antibodies to double-stranded DNA, HIV, Syphilis EIA (IgM + IgG), anti-HBc total, anti-HCV total, anti-Toxo IgG, anti-HSV IgG) Up to 3 r.d. 16440
    OBS96 VIP examination for men (General urine analysis, General blood test, ESR, Leukocyte formula, ALT, AST, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin, Glucose, LDH, Uric acid, Protein fractions, Cholesterol, Cholesterol-LDL, Cholesterol-HDL, Triglycerides, Calcium, Magnesium, C-Reactive protein, Iron, Ferritin, Gamma-HT, Creatinine, Urea, Total protein, Alkaline phosphatase, K / Na / CI, Phosphorus, Rheumatoid factor, Transferrin, Prothrombin, TSH, AT-TPO, T4 free, SHBG, PSA total, HIV, Syphilis EIA (IgM + IgG), anti-HBc total, anti-HCV total, anti-H.pylori IgG, Apolipolrotein A1, Alolipoprotein B (with the calculation of the ratio), Lipoprotein (a), AT-TG, Testosterone, Antibodies to phospholipids IgG and IgM, PSA free, Syphilis RPR, HBsAg, anti-HBs, Antibodies to chlamydia) r.d. 15440
    OBS97 ARI, ARVI (runny nose, cough, sore throat) (Cytological examination of two scrapings (smears) from the nasal mucosa, Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae, IgM / IgG, Anti-Chlamydophila pneumoniae, IgM / IgG, IgM antibodies to Bordetella pertussis, Respiratory syncyt IgG / IgM antibodies.vir., Culture for microflora and sensitivity to antibiotics (pharynx, nasal sinuses -1 localization at choice), Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR) Up to 6 w.d. 6410
    OB105 (312URO) Sex and the City: 12 infections (urogenital scraping) (Chlamydia, DNA determination, Mycoplasma (hominis and genitalium), DNA determination, Ureaplasma, DNA determination, Gardnerella, DNA determination, Gonococcus, DNA determination, Trichomonas, DNA determination, Herpes- virus type I, II, DNA determination, Cytomegalovirus, DNA determination, (scraping), Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 types, Candida albicans, DNA determination) Up to 2 p.d. 3080
    0B106 Hospitalization in a surgical hospital: extended examination (Culture for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Culture for pathogenic intestinal microflora (Shigella, Salmonella), HIV 1,2: antigen + antibodies, Syphilis RPR, HBsAg (Australian antigen, quality), Anti -HCV total (antibodies to antigens of the hepatitis C virus, in total), AlAT, ASAT, Direct total bilirubin, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Glucose, Potassium, Sodium, Chlorine, Creatinine (in the blood), Urea (in the blood), Complete blood count, Leukocyte formula, ESR, General urine analysis (with sediment microscopy), Total protein (in the blood), Alkaline phosphatase, APTT, Prothrombin, Fibrinogen, Antithrombin III, Blood group, Rhesus affiliation, Thrombin time, Albumin, Triglycerides, Total cholesterol) Up to 6 p.d. 6960
    3312 Minimum examination for infections (Chlamydia. Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Trichomonas) Up to 2 w.d. 690
    3313 Annual examination for infections (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealiticum, Trichomonas, Ureaplasma. DNA determination (scraping), Cytomegalovirus, DNA testing (scraping), Herpes virus type I, II, DNA determination, (scraping), Human papillomaviruses 16.18, determination of DNA (scraping)) Up to 2 p.d. 1430

    Therapist – ProfiMed

    Position: physician, nutritionist, geriatrician
    Work experience in the specialty: 7 years

    Education

    • 2007-2013 Perm State Medical University. acad. E.A. Wagner (General Medicine)
    • 2013-2014 Perm State Medical Academy named after academician E.A. Wagner of the Federal Agency for Healthcare and Social Development, St.Perm (General Medicine / Doctor) Internship in Therapy
    • 2014-2016 Perm State Medical University. acad. E.A. Wagner (residency in general practice (family doctor)
    • 2016 Perm State Medical University named after V.I. acad. E.A. Wagner (residency in general medical practice)

    Refresher courses:

    • 2019 – Perm State Medical University, Department of Therapy and Family Medicine FDPO, advanced training courses in the specialty “Therapy”
    • 2019 – NIPO professional retraining in the specialty “Nutritionist”
    • 2019- Far Eastern State Medical University, professional retraining in the specialty “Geriatrics”, Khabarovsk

    Specializations and improvements:

    • 2017 – Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, advanced training program “Topical issues of geriatrics”, Moscow
    • 2019 – Perm State Medical University named after ac. E.A. Wagner, certification course in therapy, g.Perm
    • 2019 – Academy of Health Industry Specialists, Certification Course “Weight Correction Specialist”, Moscow
    • 2020 – Training webinar on the topic: “Health improvement through microbiota rehabilitation”, Moscow
    • 2020 – “Nutritional support for women 35+”, Kazan
    • 2020 – “Management of clients with thyroid diseases”, Kazan
    • 2020 – ANO DPO “Training Center MED-ART”, advanced training “Examination of temporary disability.Quality control of medical care “, Perm
    • 2020 – ANO DPO “Training Center MED-ART”, advanced training “Organization of vaccine prevention of infectious diseases”, Perm
    • 2020 – online intensive “Application of DNA tests in medical practice”
    • 2020 – certification course “Fundamentals of Nutrition”

    Participation in conferences:

    • 2018 – VI educational and practical forum “Modern therapy-universalism and quality” (November-December 2018.Perm)
    • 2019 – Russian National Congress of Cardiology (September 2019, Yekaterinburg)
    • 2019 – Cognitive and psychosomatic disorders: an interdisciplinary approach “
    • 2019 – International educational Russian-Spanish school dedicated to the treatment and rehabilitation of patients after stroke, with the participation of MD, neurosurgeon Julio Secades
    • 2019 – School-seminar “Outpatient admission: from syndrome to diagnosis” (May 2019, St.Perm)
    • 2019 – Round table “Cardiorenal syndrome” (Perm, March 2019)
    • 2020 – Online conference “Pathophysiology, clinic and consequences of microbiota disturbance”, Moscow
    • 2020 – Online conference “Coaching women’s hormonal health”

    Employment:

    From 2014 to 2017 – “Perm Regional Hospital of War Veterans”, therapist
    From 2017 to 2020 – “Perm Gerontological Psychiatric Center”, therapist
    From 2019 to 2020 – Medical Health Center “LINE”, nutritionist
    2020 – MMC “Medical On Group Perm”, therapist, nutritionist
    From 2020 to the present.time. – CDC “Profimed”, therapist

    Area of ​​professional interests:

    1.Modern diagnostic methods and treatment

    • gastrointestinal diseases (halitosis, GERD, gastritis, duodenitis, cholelithiasis, biliary dyskinesia, Gilbert’s disease, dyspepsia, flatulence, intestinal dysbiosis, fatty hepatosis, constipation, diarrhea, management after cholecystectomy)
    • diseases of the cardiovascular system (hypertension, angina pectoris, chest pain, high cholesterol),
    • respiratory system (ARVI, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma)
    • anemia (iron deficiency, folate deficiency, B-12 deficiency)
    • diseases of the spine (osteochondrosis)
    • joint diseases (gout, arthrosis, arthritis)
    • kidney disease (pyelonephritis, cystitis, urolithiasis)
    • metabolic disorders (high cholesterol, high blood sugar, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperuricemia)
    • diseases of the skin (dry skin, acne, psoriasis, allergic dermatitis), hair (loss, fragility, early gray hair) and nails

    2. Competent interpretation of laboratory and instrumental research methods (ECG, ultrasound, EFGDS, spirography, bioimpedansometry, pulse oximetry, dynamometry, ph-metry)

    3.Early diagnosis, detection and non-drug correction of insulin resistance, iodine deficiency, hypothyroidism, metabolic syndrome, assessment of risk factors and prevention of diseases

    4.planning and preparation for pregnancy (identification and replenishment of deficiencies, correction of concomitant pathology)

    5. Drawing up individual nutrition programs taking into account the patient’s taste preferences and concomitant pathology, managing patients for weight correction (gaining / reducing fat or muscle mass), drawing up personalized diets for obesity, metabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus, gout, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis), with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gallstone disease, GERD, celiac disease), thyroid gland (hypothyroidism, autoimmune thyroiditis), gynecological diseases (endometriosis, polycystic ovaries), autoimmune diseases, allergies, food intolerance, lactose intolerance (glucose) syndrome of bacterial overgrowth, overgrowth of fungal growth, skin diseases (acne, psoriasis), drawing up an individual plan for correcting deficiencies and preventing diseases, restoring intestinal microflora through nutrition and nutritional support, managing elderly patients, taking into account age

    6 .