90 68 blood pressure: My blood pressure is 90 over 60. Is this too low?
Blood Pressure Numbers: When to Get Help
If you check your blood pressure, you may wonder when an abnormal reading means you should call your doctor. This information can help you understand what your blood pressure numbers mean and when you need to call for help.
What do blood pressure numbers mean?
Your blood pressure consists of two numbers: systolic and diastolic. Someone with a systolic pressure of 117 and a diastolic pressure of 78 has a blood pressure of 117/78, or “117 over 78.”
Blood pressure that is too high increases your risk for heart attack and stroke. Your blood pressure should be less than 140/90 (“140 over 90”). If you have diabetes, it should be less than 130/80 (“130 over 80”). If you are 80 years and older, it should be less than 150/90 (“150 over 90”).
If the first (systolic) number is:
OR the second (diastolic) number is:
Your blood pressure has:
120 or less
80 or less
Low risk (ideal)
121 to 139
81 to 89
Medium risk (high-normal)
140 or more
90 or more
High risk (hypertension)
In general, the lower your blood pressure, the better. A blood pressure reading of less than 90/60 is normal as long as you feel okay.
What can cause a short-term change in blood pressure?
It’s normal for blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day. Things like exercise, stress, and sleeping can affect your blood pressure. Some medicines can cause a spike in blood pressure, including certain asthma medicines and cold remedies.
A low blood pressure reading can be caused by many things, including some medicines, a severe allergic reaction, or an infection. Another cause is dehydration, which is when your body loses too much fluid.
When should you get help for an abnormal blood pressure reading?
One high or low blood pressure reading by itself may not mean you need to call for help. If you take your blood pressure and it is out of the normal range, wait a few minutes and take it again. If it’s still high or low, use the following guidance.
Call 911 anytime you think you may need emergency care. For example, call if:
- You passed out (lost consciousness).
Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:
- Your blood pressure is much higher than normal (such as 180/110 or higher).
- You think high blood pressure is causing symptoms such as:
- Severe headache.
- Blurry vision.
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain.
Call a doctor if:
- Your blood pressure is 140/90 or higher on two or more occasions.
- Your blood pressure is usually normal and well controlled, but it goes above the normal range on more than one occasion.
- Your blood pressure is lower than usual and you are dizzy or light-headed.
- You think you may be having side effects from your blood pressure medicine.
- Leung AA, et al. (2017). Hypertension Canada’s 2017 guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults. Canadian Journal of Cardiology , 33(5): 557–576. DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.03.005. Accessed December 28, 2017.
Other Works Consulted
- Whelton PK, et al. (2017). Guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, published online November 13, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.11.006. Accessed November 20, 2017.
Adaptation Date: 7/24/2020
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Date: 7/24/2020
Adapted By: HealthLink BC
Adaptation Reviewed By: HealthLink BC
Leung AA, et al. (2017). Hypertension Canada’s 2017 guidelines for diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults. Canadian Journal of Cardiology , 33(5): 557-576. DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.03.005. Accessed December 28, 2017.
Essential Senior Blood Pressure Charts by Age
By Angelike Gaunt, content strategist
Your blood pressure is the barometer of your overall circulatory health. Your circulatory system is made up of your heart and blood vessels, which carry oxygen and nutrients throughout your body. But did you know that more than 70% of U.S. seniors have high blood pressure? High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is a major health risk that can lead to heart disease, stroke, and chronic kidney disease.
You can help your elderly loved one take an active role in lowering their blood pressure with simple lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity and eating healthy, balanced meals. If your aging parent lives in an assisted living community, ask about exercise programs and meal options that are low in sodium. But if changes in lifestyle don’t help, prescription medications have proven very effective in lowering blood pressure.
What Is a Good Blood Pressure Target by Age?
Blood pressure often rises with age, but experts agree lower numbers are better for overall health. Blood pressure is measured in two numbers: systolic and diastolic. The top number is the systolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure caused by the heart contracting and squeezing out blood. The bottom number is diastolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure when the heart relaxes and fills with blood.
Elderly Blood Pressure Range for Men and Women
Medical organizations’ guidelines for blood pressure targets in older adults differ. The American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) updated their guidelines in 2017 to recommend men and women who are 65 or older aim for a blood pressure lower than 130/80 mm Hg.
|Blood Pressure Category for Adults 65+||Systolic mm Hg||Diastolic mm Hg|
|Low blood pressure||90 or lower||60 or lower|
|Normal blood pressure||Lower than 120||Lower than 80|
|Elevated blood pressure||120 – 129||Lower than 80|
|High blood pressure stage 1||130 – 139||80 – 89|
|High blood pressure stage 2||140 or higher||90 or higher|
|High blood pressure crisis — see your doctor immediately||180 or higher||120 or higher|
For older adults whose blood pressure is elevated but lower than 130/80 mm Hg, lifestyle changes such as increasing physical activity, eating a heart-healthy diet that is low in salt, and limiting alcohol can help regulate it.
The updated ACC and AHA guidelines recommend that older adults with a blood pressure reading of 130/80 mm Hg or higher be treated with medication. Previous recommendations set the threshold for high blood pressure treatment with medication for adults 65 or older at 150/80 mm Hg.
This change aims to reduce the risk of heart disease in older adults. However, your loved one’s doctor will assess their overall health and any other conditions before determining the best course of action to help your aging parent control their blood pressure.
Since blood pressure tends to increase with age, some medical societies argue about the effectiveness and safety of treating older adults for high blood pressure. Overall, older adults should aim for lower blood pressure numbers but a blood pressure reading of 90/60 mm Hg or lower is considered too low (hypotension). Excessively low blood pressure may cause dizziness or fainting, and increase the risk of falls.
Why Does Blood Pressure Increase With Age?
Doctors don’t completely understand why blood pressure tends to rise with age. Blood pressure is the force of blood as it flows through the arteries. As you age, your arteries may narrow and become stiff. Narrow arteries lead to an increase in blood pressure. High blood pressure can damage the walls of the arteries and the heart itself.
In some cases, high blood pressure could be a result of lifestyle, the environment, certain medications, or other conditions such as sleep apnea, kidney disease, or thyroid problems.
What You Should Know About Fluctuating Blood Pressure in the Elderly
As you help monitor your loved one’s blood pressure, keep in mind that numbers fluctuate slightly throughout the day — that’s normal. Several factors influence your blood pressure numbers. For example, your blood pressure may be lower if you’re resting and higher if you’re stressed. This means you may have a normal reading in the morning and an elevated number in the afternoon.
If you’re concerned about excessive fluctuation in your loved one’s blood pressure numbers:
- Read instructions to ensure you’re using your home blood pressure monitor equipment correctly. Variations in how you measure your loved one’s blood pressure can result in different readings.
- Bring your home monitor to your next doctor’s appointment to compare readings.
- Be aware of “white coat hypertension.” In some cases, a person’s blood pressure may be high at a doctor’s office but normal at home. This could be attributed to the stress related to a doctor’s appointment.
Your loved one’s doctor may want you to keep a blood pressure diary with several readings a day for a couple of weeks to monitor any variations.
How Older Adults Can Maintain a Healthy Blood Pressure
Maintaining a healthy blood pressure doesn’t have to be complicated. Simple lifestyle changes can help:
- Exercise. National guidelines recommend adults of all ages engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week. If mobility or health conditions are a problem, older adults should try to be as physically active as possible.
- Lose weight. If your loved one is overweight, every 2 pounds lost can help reduce blood pressure by 1 mm Hg.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet low in salt. The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy foods. It was designed specifically to help lower blood pressure. Try to limit sodium to no more than 2,300 milligrams per day.
- Avoid drinking alcohol. Alcohol can raise your blood pressure. If your loved one chooses to drink alcoholic drinks, limit it to no more than one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men.
- Don’t smoke. Tobacco damages your artery walls. If your loved one smokes, ask their doctor how to help them quit.
- Manage stress. Try simple relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing exercises or meditation.
In some cases, diet and lifestyle changes are not enough to lower blood pressure. Your loved one may be having a difficult time achieving significant changes in their lifestyle, or their hypertension may be too severe to treat with diet and exercise alone.
Several types of medication are available to treat high blood pressure. Talk to your elderly loved one’s doctor about whether a combination of medication, diet, and lifestyle changes may help control their blood pressure.
Blood pressure – Better Health Channel
Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arteries as it is pumped around the body by the heart. Blood pressure does not stay the same all the time. It changes to meet your body’s needs. It is affected by various factors, including body position, breathing, emotional state, exercise and sleep.
If blood pressure remains high, it can lead to serious problems like heart attack, stroke, heart failure or kidney disease. The medical name for persistently high blood pressure is hypertension and the medical name for low blood pressure is hypotension.
How blood pressure is measured
It is best to measure blood pressure when you are relaxed and sitting. Blood pressure is usually measured by wrapping an inflatable pressure cuff around your upper arm. (This cuff is part of a machine called a sphygmomanometer.)
Blood pressure is recorded as two numbers, such as 120/80. The larger number indicates the pressure in the arteries as the heart pumps out blood during each beat. This is called the systolic blood pressure.
The lower number indicates the pressure as the heart relaxes before the next beat. This is called the diastolic blood pressure. Both are measured in units called millimetres of mercury (mmHg).
Variations in blood pressure
Your blood pressure changes to meet your body’s needs. If a reading is high, your doctor may measure your blood pressure again on several separate occasions to confirm the level.
Your doctor may also recommend that you measure your blood pressure at home or have a 24-hour recording with a monitoring device.
Blood pressure readings
What is considered a healthy blood pressure varies from person to person. Your doctor will advise you about what your ideal blood pressure is based on your circumstances, including your overall health.
The following figures should only be used as a guide:
|Meaning||Top number (systolic) mm Hg||Bottom number (diastolic) mm Hg|
|Low||Less than 90||Less than 60|
|Optimal||Less than 120||Less than 80|
|Normal||120 to 129||80 to 84|
|High-normal||130 to 139||85 to 89|
|High||Greater than 140||Greater than 90|
High blood pressure usually does not give warning signs. You can have high blood pressure and feel perfectly well. The only way to find out if your blood pressure is high is to have it checked regularly by your doctor.
Low blood pressure is relative – what is low for one person may be okay for another – and is only considered a problem if it has a negative impact on your body or it affects the way you feel.
Get regular blood pressure checks
If your blood pressure is in the healthy range and you have no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and no personal or family history of high blood pressure, it is still important to have a check at least every two years. Your doctor can also check your blood pressure during routine visits.
If your blood pressure is ‘high–normal’ (or higher – for example 140/95), or if you have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as a personal or family history of high blood pressure, stroke or heart attack, it is best to have it checked more frequently – such as every 6 to 12 months or as directed by your doctor. Ask your doctor for advice.
Managing high blood pressure
If your blood pressure remains high, it can lead to serious health problems. You will be more at risk of these problems if you:
Lifestyle changes are very important to help manage high blood pressure and lower your risk of cardiovascular disease. Suggestions include:
- Enjoy a wide variety of foods
- Decrease your salt (sodium) intake. (Salt is a mineral and is made up of sodium and chloride, but it’s the sodium in salt that is bad for your health. Although health professionals talk about salt, it is the sodium that is listed on food labels in supermarkets that it is important to keep track of.)
- Achieve and maintain a healthy weight.
- Be moderately physically active for 30 to 45 minutes per day, five days or more in the week. Alternatively, aim for vigorous activity (activity that makes you huff and puff) for 15 to 30 minutes, five or more days of the week.
- Limit your alcohol intake to no more than 10 standard drinks a week.
- Quit smoking.
Some people may also need medicine to manage high blood pressure, but it is still important for them to make lifestyle changes too.
High blood pressure and daily activity
Check with your doctor before starting a new activity or increasing your level or intensity. Be active safely. – Build up your levels of activity gradually.
Try to do at least 30 to 45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. This can be done in bouts of 10 minutes or longer, if that is more convenient.
Physical activity is any form of bodily movement performed by our large muscle groups. Moderate-intensity physical activity (energetic activity that doesn’t make you overly breathless), such as brisk walking or cycling, is enough to provide health benefits.
Walking is a great activity for all ages. You may like to join one of the Heart Foundation’s community walking groups.
Some types of exercises, such as body presses and lifting heavy weights, can raise your blood pressure. Avoid these if you have high blood pressure.
High blood pressure and diet
Following a diet that emphasises the intake of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, including low-fat dairy products, such as in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, may be combined with exercise and weight loss to maximise blood pressure reduction.
Healthy eating is important in managing high blood pressure and reducing your risk of heart disease.
Follow these heart healthy eating patterns recommended by the Heart Foundation:
- Eat plenty of fruit, vegetables and wholegrains.
- Include a variety of healthy protein sources – especially fish and seafood, legumes (such as beans and lentils), nuts and seeds. Smaller amounts of eggs and lean poultry can also be included in a heart healthy diet. If choosing red meat, make sure it is lean and limit to 1-3 times a week.
- Consume unflavoured milk, yoghurt and cheese. If you have high cholesterol, choose reduced fat varieties.
- Make healthy fat choices with nuts, seeds, avocados, olives and their oils for cooking.
- Add herbs and spices to flavour foods, instead of adding salt.
- Drink mainly water.
Salt intake and high blood pressure
Reducing the amount of salt (sodium) you eat can also help to manage or even avoid high blood pressure. To help reduce your salt intake:
- Ensure your diet consists of wholefoods including – vegetables, fruits, wholegrains, lean meat and poultry, fish and seafood, legumes, unsalted nuts and seeds.
- Avoid packaged and processed foods (such as pizzas, pastries, biscuits and take away foods) that are high in salt. You can’t see the salt in these foods, so you don’t know how much salt you are having. Get into the habit of checking food labels.
- Choose low-salt (less than 120mg sodium per 100g) food where possible. If you can’t find low-salt products, those with moderate amounts of salt (less than 400mg sodium per 100g) are ok too. Another simple alternative is to look for labels with ‘low salt’, ‘salt reduced’ or ‘no added salt.
- Avoid adding salt to cooking or at the table – flavour meals with herbs and spices instead.
Medications for high blood pressure
There is a large variety of medicines available to lower and manage high blood pressure. Your doctor may call them ‘antihypertensives’, (which basically means ‘anti’ – against and ‘hypertensive’ – high blood pressure).
These medications do not cure high blood pressure, but they do help manage it. Once you start to take medicines to manage your blood pressure, you may need to take them for the rest of your life. However, the dose of these medicines may change over time.
If you need to take medication, your doctor will advise you on the correct type and dose. Two or more different medications are often needed to manage blood pressure.
Make sure you take your medicines regularly. Some things that may help you remember to take them include:
- Building them into your daily routine by taking them at the same time each day.
- Keeping them somewhere that will remind you – such as next to your alarm, or with your coffee or tea.
- Using a weekly pill box.
- Marking the time on your calendar.
- Asking a family member or friend to remind you.
- Always carrying a list of your medicines and their doses with you.
- Entering a daily alarm in your mobile phone or download an app (such as NPS Medicinewise) to remind you.
Take any blood pressure medicine exactly as prescribed. Don’t stop or change your medicine, unless your doctor advises you to.
Where to get help
New Blood Pressure Guidelines Raise the Bar for Taking Medications – WebMD
By Dennis Thompson
WEDNESDAY, Dec. 18, 2013 (HealthDay News) — Fewer people should take medicine to control their high blood pressure, a new set of guidelines recommends.
Adults aged 60 or older should only take blood pressure medication if their blood pressure exceeds 150/90, which sets a higher bar for treatment than the current guideline of 140/90, according to the report, published online Dec. 18 in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
The expert panel that crafted the guidelines also recommends that diabetes and kidney patients younger than 60 be treated at the same point as everyone else that age, when their blood pressure exceeds 140/90. Until now, people with those chronic conditions have been prescribed medication when their blood pressure reading topped 130/80.
Blood pressure is the force exerted on the inner walls of blood vessels as the heart pumps blood to all parts of the body. The upper reading, known as the systolic pressure, measures that force as the heart contracts and pushes blood out of its chambers. The lower reading, known as diastolic pressure, measures that force as the heart relaxes between contractions. Adult blood pressure is considered normal at 120/80.
The recommendations are based on clinical evidence showing that stricter guidelines provided no additional benefit to patients, explained guidelines author Dr. Paul James, head of the department of family medicine at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine.
“We really couldn’t see additional health benefits by driving blood pressure lower than 150 in people over 60 [years of age],” James explained. “It was very clear that 150 was the best number. “
The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) did not review the new guidelines, but the AHA has expressed reservations about the panel’s conclusions.
“We are concerned that relaxing the recommendations may expose more persons to the problem of inadequately controlled blood pressure,” said AHA president-elect Dr. Elliott Antman, a cardiologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and a professor at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
In November, the AHA and ACC released their own joint set of treatment guidelines for high blood pressure, as well as new guidelines for the treatment of high cholesterol that could greatly expand the number of people taking cholesterol-lowering statins.
About one in three adults in the United States has high blood pressure, according to the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
The institute formed the Eighth Joint National Committee, or JNC 8, in 2008 to update the last set of high blood pressure treatment guidelines, which were issued in 2003.
In June 2013, the institute announced that it would no longer participate in the development of any clinical guidelines, including the blood pressure guidelines nearing completion.
However, the announcement came after the institute had reviewed the preliminary JNC 8 findings. The JNC 8 decided to forge ahead and finish the guidelines.
The recommendation to start seniors on medication at a higher blood pressure reading is based both on evidence of the medical benefit as well as concern over potential drug interactions and high drug costs, James said.
“The elderly are more likely to have other diseases that require medication. It’s not uncommon for me to see people who are on 10 different medications for various illnesses,” he said. “If we don’t see evidence of improved health benefits, then the question becomes why add those additional medicines?”
The definition of high blood pressure — anything above 140/90 — remains the same under the new guidelines, James said. Lifestyle changes should be used to treat people who have high blood pressure readings that fall below the level where medicine is needed, he explained.
The panel also recommended a “toolbox” of four different blood pressure medications that doctors could use treat patients — diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs).
“It gives options for physicians to begin treatment, and all classes have generic versions available,” James said. “This is a slight difference from JNC 7, where they preferred the diuretic class as the preferred first choice. We didn’t see significant differences between the four classes at improving health outcomes.”
James emphasized that these are treatment guidelines for doctors. “Patients should not read these guidelines and take themselves off medications,” he said. “These are recommendations that are intended for physicians who are highly trained professionals and will adapt them to individual patients’ needs. “
The JNC 8 reached its conclusions after reviewing more than 30 years of clinical studies. However, the AHA is concerned that those studies could not have assessed the full damage of long-term high blood pressure.
“The adverse effects of high blood pressure on a person’s health may take many, many years to develop, longer than the follow-up period of many of the trials included in the evidence review,” Antman said.
Epidemiologic evidence has shown that a lower blood pressure is associated with lower rates of strokes, heart failure and death, he added.
The guidelines issued by the AHA and the ACC call for lifestyle changes to treat people with a systolic pressure of 140 to 159 and a diastolic pressure of 90 to 99. Blood pressure levels greater than those should be treated by a combination of medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment would continue as long as the person had blood pressure higher than 140/90.
Even though the JNC 8 guidelines were not reviewed by the AHA or the ACC, the expert panel has provided enough transparency that its recommendations should be taken seriously, said Dr. Harold Sox, of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice.
“They laid the evidence out in a really crystal clear way, and were really careful to make recommendations you could trace back to the evidence without asking, ‘How did they come up with that?'” Sox said.
“Even though they didn’t send the guidelines to AHA and ACC, their documentation of the review process was so thorough that I, for one, was convinced they couldn’t have learned anything more than what was learned in the initial review process,” Sox added.
Dr. Curtis Rimmerman, a staff cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic in Ohio, said he will weigh the new recommendations in his future treatment decisions.
“I’m going to have to go along with what I think are responsible people doing responsible acts,” he said. “I don’t think it’s going to change my practice very much, but I want to digest this information further. In some patients, I may relax some of my blood pressure goals, particularly among more elderly patients who are taking many medications. “
Hypertension symptoms & causes in children
What is hypertension?
Hypertension means “high blood pressure.” This refers to how hard the blood is pushing against the walls of the artery through which it flows—not how quickly it flows. In hypertension, the level of pressure is higher than normal.
How is blood pressure measured?
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). A typical normal blood pressure in an adult is 120/80 mm Hg, or “120 over 80.” The top number refers to the pressure when the heart is pushing blood out through the arteries (systolic). The bottom number refers to the pressure when the heart is at rest—“between beats” (diastolic).
It’s easy to tell whether an adult has hypertension, because there’s a standard set of measurements:
- Normal blood pressure—systolic < 120 mmHg and diastolic < 80 mm Hg
- Pre-hypertension—systolic 120-139 mmHg or diastolic 80-89 mmHg
- Stage 1 hypertension—systolic 140-159 mmHg or diastolic 90-99 mmHg
- Stage 2 hypertension—systolic ≥160 or diastolic ≥100 mmHg
But it’s harder with children. That’s because there are no universal cut-offs as there are for adults; instead, whether a child has hypertension depends on how his blood pressure compares to his peers (determined by gender, height, and age).
- Pre-hypertension—90th to 95th percentile
- Stage 1 hypertension—95th – 99th (plus 5 mm mercury)
- Stage 2 hypertension—anything higher than 99th plus 5 mm mercury
How common is hypertension in children?
Hypertension is becoming increasingly common in children and adolescents. A recent study that looked at 15,000 adolescents found that nearly one in five had hypertension. And there’s reason to believe that hypertension is vastly underdiagnosed in children, since:
- it can be difficult to measure in infants and young children
- it’s sometimes challenging to identify
- it’s often thought of as not something that really affects kids
The rise in the number of children with primary hypertension in the United States is thought to correlate with the rise of obesity.
What complications are associated with hypertension?
While kids with hypertension are unlikely to have heart attacks and strokes, it still has significant risks. Hypertension causes changes in the structures of the blood vessels and heart. Since hypertension in children has historically been understudied, there isn’t a lot of data about exactly what these changes mean. But we do know that in adults, hypertension increases the chance of complications in the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. There’s also compelling evidence that some of these changes are seen in children with high blood pressure.
These changes affect:
Blood vessels—high blood pressure can damage blood vessels throughout the body, which makes it harder for organs to work efficiently.
Kidneys—if the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing waste and extra fluid from the body. This extra fluid can raise blood pressure even more.
Other organs—if left untreated, hypertension makes it harder for blood to reach many different parts of the body, including the eyes and the brain, and can lead to blindness and strokes.
Can primary hypertension be prevented?
Pediatricians are making great efforts to prevent obesity and stem the tide of problems that accompany it. We believe that promoting healthy lifestyle choices will help combat this trend and will go a long way towards preventing primary hypertension in children (and keep adults healthier, too).
Some things are being done—nutritional information is being made more readily available, there’s one push to provide healthy options in schools and another to remove soft drinks from them—but still, it often comes down to families making the right decisions. We are dedicated to educating families to assist with appropriate dietary and activity choices to improve overall health and reduce the risk of hypertension.
What is “white coat hypertension”?
“White coat hypertension” is when a child’s blood pressure readings are high at the doctor’s office (mostly because she’s anxious, which can cause blood pressure to rise), but normal outside of the office (for example at home or at school).
This is pretty common in kids. By some estimations, between 30 and 40 percent of kids who have high blood pressure in the office actually have white-coat hypertension.
White coat hypertension is still a risk. Everyone’s blood pressure changes from time to time—it’s lower when you’re asleep, for example—but if a child’s blood pressure continually rises when she’s anxious (such as before a test), it can be sign of high blood pressure at other times and potentially cause the same kinds of damage that standard hypertension causes.
White coat hypertension is diagnosed by taking the child’s blood pressure outside of the doctor’s office. This can be done in different ways:
- Some parents feel comfortable doing it at home.
- Sometimes we make arrangements for a school nurse to check the child’s blood pressure.
- Your child’s doctor might recommend that she wear an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device—a blood pressure cuff attached to a small device that sits on her belt , and measures her blood pressure at regular intervals over the course of 24 hours. This device is about the size of a deck of cards and is usually tolerated very well.
If your child is diagnosed with white coat hypertension, her doctor may still want to follow her, since some children with white coat hypertension will develop actual hypertension in the future.
Causes of hypertension in children
1. Primary hypertension
Primary hypertension means that the hypertension does not seem to be caused by some other underlyng medical condition. Many doctors think that the incidence of childhood or adolescent hypertension has been rising along with the obesity epidemic. The majority of teens and children over age 6 with hypertension have a family history of hypertension and/or are overweight.
2. Secondary hypertension
Secondary hypertension is caused by a known underlying medical condition. Of these, about
- 80 percent of children have some kind of kidney disease or blood vessel abnormalities
- 5 percent have an endocrinological disorder
- 2 to 5 percent have heart disease
Hypertension in infants with hypertension almost always has a secondary cause. In addition, premature infants have a higher incidence of hypertension.
Among kids with hypertension, especially those who are very young, secondary hypertension is more common than primary hypertension. But among children who are older than 6 to 8 years old, the ratio of primary to secondary hypertension is approaching 50/50.
Signs and symptoms of hypertension
Often, kids and teens with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension won’t show any symptoms at all. If your child has stage 2 hypertension, she might experience one or more of the following symptoms:
- loss of vision
- chest pain
- abdominal pain
- breathing problems
An infant with stage 2 hypertension may seem irritable, not be feeding properly, or vomiting. Sometimes these infants are diagnosed with “failure to thrive.”
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Hypertension
Q: If left untreated, does hypertension get worse?
A: It’s hard to say. Researchers are starting to see that kids and adolescents with pre-hypertension are more likely to develop stage 1 hypertension, but we don’t know if or when stage 1 hypertension will progress to stage 2.
Q: Can hypertension be cured?
A: In some cases, secondary hypertension can be “fixed. ” For example, if:
- it’s caused by a narrowing in a blood vessel that the doctors are able to widen
- it’s caused by a rare endocrine tumor that doctors are able to treat successfully
There are also cases in which hypertension might be transient; for example, if it’s caused by a temporary inflammation of the filters in the kidney.
Even when hypertension can’t be “fixed,” it can almost always be well-controlled, with diet and exercise and/or medication.
Q: If my child is being treated for hypertension, what should I watch out for?
A: Keep an eye out for:
- chest pains
- severe headaches that don’t seem to respond to at-home treatment
- changes in vision
- swelling of hands and feet
- shortness of breath with limited exertion
- changes in her urine (such as lack of urine production, urine that is brown or tea-colored)
Call your child’s doctor if she experiences any of these symptoms.
Q: Will my child need to go on medication?
A: Only a fraction of kids with hypertension require medication. Frequently, it’s treated with diet and exercise modification first. And if the child is overweight, every kilogram (around 2 pounds) of weight she loses, her blood pressure could bring her blood pressure down by about a point.
Q: Will my child have hypertension as an adult?
A: While children with hypertension are more likely to have it as adults, it’s not necessarily always the case. This depends on factors including the cause of the hypertension and how it responds to treatment.
Q: What is the most common treatment?
A: For children with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension, changing to a more healthful diet and exercising more is often enough to manage the hypertension. For children with more severe hypertension, medication is often necessary.
Q: If my child is taking medication for hypertension, will she have to take it for the rest of her life?
A: Not necessarily. If your child has primary hypertension, appropriate lifestyle modifications may allow for medications to be stopped. In addition, if a secondary cause is identified and successfully treated, medications may not be necessary.
Back to top.
What is a healthy blood pressure?
When the heart is squeezing blood into the arteries, the pressure is high. When the heart is relaxed, the pressure is lower.
Your blood pressure is a measurement taken of the highest reading (systolic) and the lowest reading (diastolic). It is given as 2 figures — highest over lowest or systolic over diastolic. Blood pressure is measured in ‘mmHg’, which refers to millimetres of mercury.
Your blood pressure varies from day to day, even moment to moment. Most doctors would say that a healthy blood pressure is higher than 90/60 mmHg but lower than about 140/90.
What is high blood pressure?
Generally, if a person has a blood pressure reading greater than 140/90 mmHg taken at least 3 times at the same clinic, they have high blood pressure. Your doctor may confirm this using a 24-hour blood pressure measurement or getting you to measure your blood pressure at home.
Most people with high blood pressure have no symptoms, and may feel quite well. This is why it’s important to see your doctor and have your blood pressure checked regularly, especially if you have one or more of the known risk factors.
A few people with very high blood pressure may experience headache, dizziness or the sudden effects of diseases of the arteries such as chest pain or stroke.
Find out more about high blood pressure.
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What is low blood pressure?
Most doctors would say that you have low blood pressure if it is below 90/60 mmHg.
For some people, low blood pressure is a sign of good health. These are generally people who are very fit and who have a slow pulse. For other people, low blood pressure is a problem.
Find out more about low blood pressure.
How to lower your blood pressure
The following steps towards a healthier lifestyle can help you lower your blood pressure and keep it at a healthy level:
Find out more about how to lower your blood pressure.
What’s the ideal blood pressure by age
Ideally, we should all strive to have a blood pressure below 120/80mmHg. However, most people have blood pressure readings in the range of 120/80mmHg or 140/90mmHg.
What is blood pressure anyway?
Pressure is simply the amount of physical force exerted on an object. In this case, blood pressure refers to the force exerted by blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels.
When blood pressure is too high, a person’s arteries are subjected to a continuous strain that, in time, can lead to life-threatening cardiovascular disease.
What do the readings of blood pressure mean?
Blood pressure is measured in ‘millimeters of mercury’ (mmHg) and is read for two values. For instance, the optimal blood pressure is 120 over 80 or 120/80mmHg.
The first value represents the systolic blood pressure, which is the highest pressure that the blood reaches when the heartbeats.
The second value is the diastolic blood pressure, which corresponds to the lowest level of blood pressure that occurs when the heart’s muscles relax between beats.
Measuring your blood pressure with a blood pressure monitor is important because having a high reading (hypertension) is not something you can notice or feel.
However, if blood pressure is measured just once and found to be high, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it’s always too high. In order to get a reliable reading, blood pressure has to be measured on several different days while you are resting.
Signs and symptoms of high blood pressure
Usually, people cannot tell they have high blood pressure unless they have it measured. Anything above 140/90 is considered high blood pressure. However, occasionally people with high blood pressure report frequent headaches.
It’s important to note that your blood pressure will vary significantly and a single high blood pressure reading isn’t necessarily a cause for concern. If the reading is above this threshold after weeks of constant measurement, then you can safely presume that you may indeed suffer from hypertension.
Why blood pressure is so important to health
Although a blood pressure of 140 over 90 is considered normal, everyone should strive to lower it even further in order to stave off heart disease and strokes.
For instance, someone with a blood pressure reading of 135/85 is twice as likely to have a heart attack or stroke as someone with a reading of 115/75
An optimal blood pressure is paramount to the structural integrity of your arteries. Imagine a copper pipe in a water supply system — after many years, it will corrode and form micro-wears from all the friction between the water flow and the pipe’s walls. Eventually, it will break, but its operating life can be extended if the water pressure doesn’t cross a critical threshold.
While this analogy isn’t perfect (arteries don’t corrode and some damage can be healed), your arteries will naturally weaken with age after countless liters of blood flowing through them.
High blood pressure increases the risk of having a heart attack, which can cause heart failure. However, poor health outcomes extend beyond the cardiovascular system.
Why your blood pressure is too high
There are a number of reasons why a person may suffer from hypertension.
As we age, blood pressure typically increases due to the wear and tear accumulated by blood vessels over the years. There are also genetic factors that may influence blood pressure. For instance, African-Caribbean and South Asia communities tend to be at a higher risk of high blood pressure. High blood pressure can also run in the family.
All other things being equal, high blood pressure is typically the result of lifestyle choices, particularly diet. Too much salt, not enough fruits and vegetables, and drinking too much alcohol can increase blood pressure. Being overweight and not exercising can also substantially increase the risk of hypertension.
Blood pressure chart
If you made it this far then you now know how to correctly read your blood pressure but perhaps you’re not entirely sure how to interpret the measurement. The chart below is a good place to start, as it shows the ranges of high, low, and normal blood pressure readings.
You may have noticed that only one of the two values needs to be higher or lower to count as either high blood pressure or low blood pressure. For instance, if your top number (systolic blood pressure) is higher than 140, then you have high blood pressure regardless of your bottom value (diastolic blood pressure). Likewise, if your bottom number is higher than 90, then you have high blood pressure regardless of the top number’s reading.
What constitutes high blood pressure by age?
It’s normal for your blood pressure to increase as you age. The table below should give you a rough estimate of what healthy levels should look like.
|1 – 2||80/34 – 120/75||83/38 – 117/76|
Ideal blood pressure by age.
Can your blood pressure ever be too low?
Low blood pressure, also known as hypotension, is generally anything below 90/60 mmHg. If any of the two values is lower than 90 or 60 for systolic and distolic blood pressure, respectively, this counts as having low blood pressure.
Generally, this is a good thing, because it means that the risk of a stroke or heart disease is minimal. Most people with hypotension do not require treatment.
There may be instances when a person’s blood pressure is low temporarily due to medication. And, sometimes, people can have low blood pressure naturally but this is no reason for concern in and of itself — although, in some instances, low blood pressure has been associated with depression.
However, if a patient feels dizzy or like fainting and blood pressure is low, a doctor’s appointment is warranted.
How to lower your blood pressure
You might be worried by your high blood pressure, but the good news is that it can be lowered to optimal levels with some proper foresight.
Although medication may be prescribed by a doctor in order to lower blood pressure, the safest course of action is to make long lasting lifestyle changes.
Diet is extremely important in this context. First and foremost, patients suffering from hypertension should be mindful of their salt intake. In fact, you may want to cut it out entirely out of your diet. Just remember that most of the salt you eat is actually found in products that are already prepared, such as breakfast cereals, ready-made meals, and bread. Be sure to check the nutritional facts label on the products you select from the supermarket.
Eating more fruits and vegetables can also help to lower blood pressure. A healthy amount is five portions of fruit and vegetables per day, where a portion weighs roughly 80 grams. Watch out for added salts when buying frozen or tinned fruits and vegetables from your local supermarket.
A healthy diet will also help you to mitigate another important risk factor for hypertension: being overweight. Exercising and a low-calorie diet can help you reduce your weight to more healthy levels — your blood pressure drops along with those extra pounds. Additionally, doing cardio also keeps the heart healthy.
Finally, be mindful of your alcohol intake. Both men and women should limit their alcohol consumption to 14 units per week, where a unit is equivalent to a small glass of wine or half a pint of beer.
90,000 Pressure 90 to 60: reasons, why is it dangerous? | Heaclub Heaclub
Pulse and blood pressure are indicators of health. If they are constantly above normal, then this is hypertension. When there is a constant decrease in indicators, then in this case we can talk about hypotension, but it is not considered an official diagnosis. It is, rather, a state of the body, and not some kind of separate disease. Moreover, it is considered a concomitant symptom of other diseases.
What danger can a pressure of 90 to 60 pose, is it necessary to treat low blood pressure?
Normally, the human pressure should be 120/80.When it is constantly increased, then the person is diagnosed with hypertension. If there is a constant indicator of 90 to 60, then we can talk about reduced pressure. There are plenty of reasons for this behavior of the body, and for some it is generally a familiar state. But it is not always harmless and can really pose a health hazard.
Why is there low pressure?
First of all, you should know that 90 to 60 pressure can be an individual norm.This is usually found among young girls with a thin physique. This feature is inherited from mother to daughter.
Low blood pressure
Over the years, the pressure gradually increases and may well spill over into hypertension. This is due to the fact that age-related weight gain occurs, chronic diseases are exacerbated, and smoking also affects this.
Heart attacks and strokes are the leading cause of death worldwide. 7 out of 10 die due to clogged arteries in the brain or heart.This is almost always caused by pressure surges due to hypertension.
Lowering the pressure is not only possible, but also necessary. But the cause of the disease itself is not eliminated in any way, the symptom is simply alleviated.
There are two types of hypotension:
- Primary . Low blood pressure is not the cause of serious illness in the body. The person feels normal and there are no ailments.
- Secondary .Low blood pressure is a symptom of an illness. In this case, it can already be dangerous to health – constant dizziness, severe headaches, nausea and weakness.
The last type of hypotension can manifest itself in diseases such as:
- Internal bleeding
- Hormonal failures
- Nervous strain and physical fatigue
- Smoking and alcohol abuse
- Consequence of heart attack
- Chronic diseases
What if the pressure dropped to 90 to 60? First, listen to your feelings and assess your condition.If it is unusual for you and scares you, then see your doctor for an examination.
When is 90 to 60 pressure dangerous?
When is low pressure dangerous?
Schoolchildren usually feel good with low blood pressure, since for them this is more often a familiar state, but for adults it is already becoming more difficult with it. They feel unwell, they feel dizzy, feel weak and generally unwell. Low blood pressure is dangerous after 40 years, because with age it should increase.
In addition, hypotension can lead to some complications:
- Poor health, irritability and bad mood
- Development of heart failure
- Lack of oxygen in the brain, leading to disruption of its work
- Kidney function is impaired , and also renal failure develops
- High risk of ischemic stroke
Blood pressure.Norms, measurement, ABPM, treatment
Blood pressure affects our health and well-being so strongly that it is necessary to monitor it, especially in adulthood.
Blood pressure is one of the main indicators of the state of the body, and its measurement is an obligatory part of a comprehensive health examination. Even small deviations from the norm can be risky. It should be noted that problems with blood pressure occur at different ages, both in the elderly and in very young people.
Heart Health Index
The heart muscle constantly pumps blood into the veins and arteries. Passing through them, the blood exerts pressure on the walls of the vessels. Thus, blood pressure depends on the work of the heart and the elasticity of the blood vessels.
Pressure is not constant, it fluctuates depending on the heartbeat cycles. The heart muscle contracts and relaxes about 60-80 times per minute. Systolic blood pressure is the maximum pressure that is recorded at the time of heartbeat.In the interval between two contractions, when the heart relaxes, the pressure naturally decreases. The minimum pressure is called diastolic.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). Systolic blood pressure is always listed first and diastolic blood pressure second. Normal blood pressure is in the range of 110 / 70-130 / 85.
In addition to problems with the heart and blood vessels, blood pressure is influenced by a variety of factors – for example, physical activity, stress and addiction to tea and coffee increase blood pressure, and in weather-dependent people it can fluctuate due to weather changes.
High blood pressure
High blood pressure is considered 135 / 85-139 / 89. If this figure reaches 140/90, then we can already talk about hypertension.
High blood pressure is a very dangerous condition. As you know, the increase in pressure for every 10 mm Hg. Art. increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease by a third. People with high blood pressure are 7 times more likely to develop cerebral circulation disorders (strokes), 4 times more often – coronary heart disease, 2 times more often – lesions of the vessels of the legs.In addition, hypertension can impair vision and adversely affect kidney function.
Symptoms of high blood pressure – throbbing headache in the occipital region, dizziness, flies before the eyes, insomnia, tachycardia, pain and heaviness in the heart, feeling short of breath.
Low blood pressure
Hypotension is a decrease in blood pressure to 100 / 60-110 / 70. Low blood pressure can also be dangerous and can worsen the condition.However, the good news is that hypotension is not as common as hypertension. If about 40% of the population is susceptible to hypertension, then only 4% suffer from low blood pressure. However, for patients with hypotension, this is little consolation. A decrease in blood pressure leads to weakness, fainting, shortness of breath, sweating of the palms, muscle and joint pain, loss of strength and deterioration in performance, nausea, memory disorders, and cerebrovascular accident. Hypotension can lead to ischemia, loss of vision and hearing.But it is especially dangerous for pregnant women – it can lead to miscarriage. The danger of hypotension is that it does not manifest itself so clearly and is most often discovered by chance.
Pressure measurement methods
Blood pressure measurement is one of the main diagnostic methods. However, whatever method is used, it is important to follow certain rules, otherwise the indicators will be distorted.
One hour before measuring blood pressure using one of the traditional methods (mechanical or electronic tonometer), do not smoke, consume alcohol and beverages containing caffeine, play sports and take medications from the group of adrenomimetics (including nasal drops with vasoconstrictor substances).Measurement of blood pressure should be carried out while sitting comfortably in a chair and leaning back, resting your hand on the table at the level of your heart. During measurements, one should not move or even talk.
Sometimes the difference when measuring pressure on different hands can be 10-15 mm. rt. Art. This is completely normal. If you have never measured the pressure before, you need to do it in turn on both hands and in the future measure it on the arm where it turned out to be higher.
Measuring blood pressure with a hand-held tonometer, or, as doctors call it, the Korotkov method, is perhaps the most common way to check blood pressure. It is based on complete clamping of the brachial artery with the tonometer cuff and listening to the tones arising from the slow release of air from the cuff.
- This is the official standard for non-invasive blood pressure measurement.
- Measurement results have little to do with complete immobility of the hand.
- The person taking the measurement must be very attentive and have good hearing in order to correctly record the result.
- The mechanical tonometer is sensitive to noise in the measurement room and to the accuracy of the position of the phonendoscope head in relation to the artery.
- It requires direct contact of the cuff and phonendoscope head with the patient’s skin, which is inconvenient or impracticable in some cases.
This method assumes the use of electronic devices. A sensitive technique captures the pulsation that occurs in the cuff when blood passes through the section of the artery compressed by it.
- Accurate enough and excludes mistakes made due to human factor – pressure measuring device does not need to listen to sound and record readings – using the device does not require any special knowledge and skills.
- Electronic instrument readings are not affected by ambient noise in the room.
- Allows you to determine blood pressure with a pronounced “auscultatory gap” – an effect that is often manifested at increased pressure and in which sounds between systole and diastole are not heard.
- Measurements can be taken even through thin cloth or bandage.
- When measuring pressure with an electronic device, the hand must be motionless.
- Relatively high cost of the device itself.
Daily blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)
In recent years, ABPM methods have been used, which make it possible to continuously monitor the blood pressure level, recording all fluctuations. This is the most accurate and efficient measurement method today. To implement it, the patient must wear a special compact device for 24-48 hours that measures the pressure every 10-15 minutes.This allows you to track the dynamics of blood pressure and see its changes throughout the day. At the same time, the patient can lead an ordinary life without significant restrictions.
ABPM allows you to select the most effective treatment, and in patients who are already taking medications, to assess the adequacy of therapy.
Among the indications for ABPM are also regular fainting, borderline pressure increase, combination of hypertension with vascular lesions of the brain, and others.
Prevention and treatment
Surprisingly, the causes of hypertension and hypotension are sometimes the same – stress, the influence of hereditary factors, depression. In addition, overweight, smoking, alcohol abuse, addiction to salty foods and a sedentary lifestyle can lead to hypertension, and too strict and inadequate diet or a sharp change in weather conditions can lead to hypotension. Preventing pressure problems is easier than fixing them, and a few very simple rules can help reduce your risk of them.
Under reduced pressure
For the prevention of hypotension, good sleep (at least 8-9 hours) and a healthy balanced diet are very important, and you should eat about 4-5 times a day. Physical activity is necessary, but moderate – for example, walks and simple exercises 2-3 times a week. It is very important to refrain from nervous overstrain, and if this is not possible, take mild sedatives.
With increased pressure
As in the case of hypotension, with hypertension, you need to correctly build a daily regimen and diet, and you should give preference to light meals low in salt and fat.Moderate exercise is also beneficial. Quitting smoking is mandatory, since it has a particularly detrimental effect on the body of people with hypertension.
What if the pressure is jumping? And if the increased is not felt? Doctors answered questions
Online conference “Arterial hypertension. Diseases of the heart and blood vessels ”was held on the information portals“ Healthy people ”(24health.by) and TUT.BY.
Photo: Daria Buryakina, TUT.BY
Arterial hypertension is the most common risk factor for the development of many cardiovascular diseases.About half of myocardial infarction cases and about 80% of stroke cases are associated with high blood pressure.
Is there a concept of “working pressure”? Can hypertension be cured? Are diseases of the heart and blood vessels inherited? Is red wine good for your cardiovascular system?
Your questions were answered by:
- Vadim Sushinsky , chief freelance specialist in general medical practice of the Ministry of Health, head of the department of general medical practice, Belarusian State Medical University, Ph.MD, associate professor;
- Irina Kozich , Head of the Cardiology Department (for patients with myocardial infarction), 4th City Clinical Hospital of Minsk named after N.Ye. Savchenko.
– Back in 1988, during an examination at the hospital, I was diagnosed with hypertensive type neurocirculatory dystonia. Regularly, when visiting a therapist, the measured pressure rises, although at home it is 125-135 / 80-85. More than 10 years ago, the doctor said that the diagnosis of NCD is not used in medical practice.Accordingly, I have arterial hypertension and I need to take medications regularly. Of course, I am not my enemy, but I really feel a slight “jitters” at the doctor’s appointment, from which the pressure probably rises. Tell me, are there any options other than taking medications to stabilize blood pressure? Or maybe my problem is on a different plane? And I know a few more friends with a similar NDC.
Vadim Sushinsky, Photo: Oksana Zhuravleva, portal “Healthy people”
Vadim Sushinsky : In the last century, indeed, young people could have been diagnosed with hypertensive type neurocirculatory dystonia.Today, such a diagnosis is not used in clinical practice. At the same time, I would like to draw your attention to the fact that we are talking about a clinical situation that was observed more than 30 years ago. Typically, blood pressure rises in most people with age. That is why at the present time, probably, we should talk about the diagnosis of “arterial hypertension”. There is no direct indication from the data you provided that you have a blood pressure of more than 140/90, which is currently used as a criterion for diagnosing a disease.However, drug therapy can be prescribed to control blood pressure even in people with lower blood pressure and a high risk of cardiovascular complications. I would like to draw your attention to the correctness of blood pressure measurement. Perhaps the slight tremor that you describe in your question is a manifestation of white coat syndrome. The decision to take medication can be made after a full assessment of your clinical condition.
– Can Omega-3 Stabilize Blood Pressure?
Irina Kozich : omega-3 is prescribed to correct risk factors for arterial hypertension, and not to stabilize blood pressure.
– I am exactly 60 years old. For 20 years I have constantly very high blood pressure. I drink a bunch of the strongest medicines, and the pressure does not fall below 185/110. And sometimes it happens 260/160! 4 times I was in hospitals for examination, but there was practically no result. And the worst thing is that I don’t feel this enormous pressure. Can you please tell me what to do?
Vadim Sushinsky : It follows from your message that you have an uncontrolled course of arterial hypertension.Today, a fundamentally important position is to achieve target blood pressure – pressure that can reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications (heart attacks, strokes, chronic kidney disease and chronic heart failure). Indeed, in a number of patients, achieving target blood pressure is difficult. To achieve this, it is necessary to adhere to non-drug treatment measures, as well as to prescribe combined antihypertensive therapy in most patients.A number of patients have to take 3, 4, and sometimes more drugs. The selection of therapy is carried out by a doctor, and often this process takes a very long time. You belong to the category of people who subjectively do not feel high blood pressure and require more frequent follow-up. I recommend that you be constantly monitored at the local polyclinic by a general practitioner (district therapist), who, if necessary, will refer you to a cardiologist’s consultation or offer inpatient treatment.
I have been suffering from hypertension for the last 6 years, and asthma for the last six months. I began to notice that the pressure seemed to be normal. But at the same time, the region of the heart aches. I start taking blood pressure medications, it doesn’t help until I take either asthma medications or a spare can. Then everything goes away. I would like to know if these two diseases are related or is it something with the heart?
Vadim Sushinsky : It is impossible to say from your question that asthma or arterial hypertension is the cause of your discomfort.Moreover, one should not forget about the possibility of having two diseases at once. You need an additional examination.
– Can hypertension be cured? Vessels are 50% open.
Irina Kozich : There is no cure. The selection of medications is very important, taking which it is possible to maintain normal values of blood pressure and have a good quality of life.
I am 34, a year ago I was diagnosed with aortic aneurysm of the ascending heart.Diagnosed by accident, for a year I have been visiting a doctor and doing an ultrasound. There is no speaker, everything is as it was. Size 49-50 mm. I also have a congenital heart defect, a bicuspid valve. They said that the operation would be needed anyway. I am wondering if it is possible that the operation was not on an open heart, or is this the only way such operations occur? What are the terms of postoperative recovery? How quickly can I get started? The work is not physical.
Irina Kozich, Photo: Oksana Zhuravleva, portal “Healthy people”
Irina Kozich : Indications for surgery are determined by cardiologists with the subsequent consultation of a cardiac surgeon.If in your case there are all indications for surgery, as you said, then surgery is performed on an open heart. The timing of postoperative recovery is always individual.
– What clinics, medical centers in Minsk (and in Belarus) specialize in the treatment of hypertension? Is it possible to undergo examinations (including MRI) and prescribe treatment there without a referral from a local therapist? The Internet is full of advertisements for expensive miracle drugs for hypertension, which, when checked, turn out to be fake.Are there really highly effective but expensive drugs? Or is a high price always a sign of fraud?
Irina Kozich : In Belarus, the treatment of arterial hypertension is carried out at all levels of medical care (polyclinics, regional cardiological centers, hospitals and the Republican Scientific and Practical Center). All examinations, including MRI, should be performed if there are indications that the doctor determines. Currently, there are a lot of antihypertensive drugs, including combined forms for the correction of blood pressure.
“My brother has been practicing healthy lifestyle for four years, but the pressure is high”
Photo: Evgeny Erchak, TUT.BY
The husband (33 years old, height 182, weight 80 kg, does not smoke) has a blood pressure of 140 (up to 145) / 75 (up to 80), pulse 60 beats per minute. Ultrasound of the heart without pathology. Ultrasound of the kidneys and internal organs without pathologies. We contacted a cardiologist and a therapist with the problem of high blood pressure. We went through several drugs to lower blood pressure, the state of health always becomes worse after them. The main problem is that the already low heart rate drops to around 50 beats per minute.What could be the reasons for a low heart rate? Should we continue to try to lower the pressure or leave everything as it is, because without the pills he feels good. From what value is the pressure considered increased?
– An increase in blood pressure values above 140/90 ml of mercury is today a criterion for arterial hypertension. For the diagnosis, it does not matter whether the patient feels high blood pressure or not. Treatment is primarily carried out to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications, which has been demonstrated in numerous scientific studies.Thus, a decrease in blood pressure with its increased value is simply necessary. At the same time, treatment should not worsen the patient’s well-being and quality of life. Your situation requires the selection of drugs that will not slow down your heart rate. There are such medicines, they are well known. However, it is necessary that such a therapy is prescribed by a doctor, and in the future that he conducts dynamic monitoring of your state of health.
My brother (39 years old) has been practicing healthy lifestyle for 4 years.He goes in for sports, follows a meat and vegetable diet, wears a fitness bracelet. He does not eat fatty at all – neither vegetable fats, nor omegas, nor animals, nor even biscuits, since it contains margarine. I can’t convince you. Recently in the morning at the time of waking up, he has high blood pressure for no apparent reason. Is it possible that the reason is a lack of fat-soluble vitamins? What analyzes can determine this?
Iryna Kozich : Your brother pays attention to the main risk factors for arterial hypertension.Nevertheless, he needs to consult a therapist (general practitioner) for the purpose of additional examination (ECG, biochemical blood test, general urine analysis, ABPM) and detection of hypertension.
– There are many people in my family with hereditary heart diseases associated with arterial hypertension and lipid metabolism disorders. Many of them died of heart attacks. Question 1. To what extent does statin therapy, which brings blood cholesterol levels to normal levels, reduce or eliminate the risks of heart catastrophes? Question 2.As a preventive diagnostic measure, should coronary angiography be performed if nothing is of concern at the moment? I am 48 years old, I do not smoke, I go in for sports at an amateur level. BMI 26. Cholesterol without 10 mg of atorvastatin is 6-6.5. Diets do not help, so I have been taking statins for the last 10-15 years.
Vadim Sushinsky : Your case allows us to suspect hereditary forms of lipid metabolism disorders, in which early development of cardiovascular diseases is possible.In particular, strict control of the main parameters of lipid metabolism, including total cholesterol and its other fractions, is required. To correct the existing violations, in addition to non-drug methods, in such cases, drugs are prescribed, including atorvastatin. However, in the absence of a positive result, combination therapy may be prescribed. It requires constant treatment and monitoring of the main indicators. I consider it inappropriate to carry out preventive coronary angiography, since any study, including invasive intervention, is carried out only according to indications determined by the doctor.
– Height 175, age 45, male. With a weight of about 90 kg, my pressure was about 130/80, in the morning it was 125/75, in the evening it increased, sometimes up to 140/85. Heart rate while sitting (when measuring pressure) 75-90. After losing weight to 81 kg, the pressure also decreased: in the morning it can be 110-120 / 62-68, in the evening it rises to 120-125 / 65-75. Heart rate while sitting 60-75. I did not notice a change in well-being (good). Weight decreased by decreasing confectionery consumption, continuing training in the gym, increasing aerobic load (exercise bike).I am confused by the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure (50-55 mm). I have had such a difference for many years (20, possibly more). When I consulted a cardiologist 4 years ago before resuming training (after a 10-year break), he only had questions about increasing blood pressure. 24-hour monitoring was carried out, arterial hypertension was not confirmed.
Irina Kozich : Against the background of weight correction and dynamic loads, your blood pressure figures are within the normal range of 120/80.
– Can adolescents and children have arterial hypertension as an independent disease? That is, not the one that is secondary (diseases of the kidneys, thyroid gland, etc.), namely the one that is observed in adults – primary or essential (hypertension)? Does it last forever, or is it just a temporary symptom?
Vadim Sushinsky : Arterial hypertension as an independent disease in adolescents is rare.That is why, in the first place, it is necessary to exclude diseases that can lead to the development of symptomatic hypertension. AH in adolescents is not always persistent and in some cases can be corrected by lifestyle changes.
“What to do if the pressure is jumping?”
Photo: Daria Buryakina, TUT.BY
– I usually have low blood pressure, up to 90/60, age 35. I feel normal with it. But periodically there is a pulsation in the head, hands, troubled breathing, against the background of which, by the end of the day, pain occurs in the chest area, mainly on exhalation, sometimes a little dizzy.Cardiogram showed sinus bradycardia (pulse 51) and low limb lead voltage. Is it dangerous, do you need any additional examinations? Ultrasound of the heart, blood vessels, analyzes? The therapist suggested walking around with a halter.
Iryna Kozich : You belong to the category of people with low blood pressure, hypotension. Given the listed complaints, you really need an additional examination (24-hour blood pressure monitoring, Holter ECG monitoring).
– I have the following questions: 1) If the pressure is labile, jumping, what to do with the drugs – take them taking into account the surges or without looking at them – evenly, as prescribed? 2) How dangerous is bradycardia (45-50 beats / min.), Which occurs from taking the drug?
Vadim Sushinsky : Arterial hypertension in different people proceeds individually. Often, the disease is characterized by an increase in blood pressure with periodic sharp significant increases – “jumps”.Treatment in any case should be systematic and regular with the use of medicines prescribed by a doctor. If necessary, additional therapy may be prescribed to correct the sudden increase in pressure. It is important to detect a significant increase in blood pressure in time, as it can pose a threat to life and carry out timely correction. When taking medications, side effects may develop. So, for example, when prescribing drugs from the group of beta-blockers, bradycardia may develop.In such situations, the doctor either cancels the drug or reduces the dose.
– The pressure is kept between 140/100 – 135/95. The girl has been drinking the drug for 10 months (at a dosage of 12.5 mg / day – 4 months). The pressure has not returned to normal. What to do: increase the dosage again or stop taking the drug (perhaps too long intake has affected)?
Irina Kozich : While taking the drug at a dose of 12.5 mg / day, your daughter did not achieve normal blood pressure.Dose adjustments or changes in therapy should be discussed with your doctor.
I am 40 years old, at 22 I was diagnosed with hypertensive type of VSD. When I was 30 years old I was diagnosed with 1 tbsp hypertension. Sometimes my blood pressure rises to 140/90 or 150/90 (discovered by accident), because at this pressure I feel great, I lead a healthy lifestyle, I walk every day for more than 2 hours. Doctors from the clinic recommend often taking harmful pills for blood pressure, from which I have diarrhea, etc.significant side effects. Sometimes the pulse rises for no apparent reason with normal blood pressure up to 90-100 with excellent physical well-being, what can this be connected with? All relatives had high blood pressure only after 45 years. Is it possible to do, if possible, without frequent use of antihypertensive drugs, to be treated with proven natural, and is it possible with such blood pressure (if it is not felt at all) sometimes to jog for 10-15 minutes?
Vadim Sushinsky : You, of course, have a diagnosis of hypertension, which means that an appropriate correction is needed.It is very important that you lead a healthy lifestyle, however, taking into account the numbers of blood pressure, it is necessary to prescribe drug therapy. Medicines are prescribed only by a doctor, taking into account a number of factors, which will avoid side effects. Such therapy will be well tolerated and will lead to improved well-being.
90,000 Arterial hypertension and COVID-19
Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation Lyudmila Ivanovna Gapon spoke about the features of the treatment of patients with high blood pressure with viral infections, especially coronavirus.
Why does blood pressure rise with viral infections and flu?
Viral diseases are characterized by various symptoms, including a decrease or increase in blood pressure. These fluctuations may be due to an increase in body temperature due to which changes occur in the circulatory system. In some cases, there may be vasospasm, which, in case of hypertension, is dangerous with a relapse of a hypertensive crisis. Pathogenic microorganisms force the body to function in an emergency mode.The work of the central nervous system is disrupted: there is a feeling of apathy, weakness, fatigue. The pressure can rise even if treatment is not started in a timely manner.
During the treatment of viral diseases in the presence of arterial hypertension, you must not:
• take products with caffeine (Panadol Extra, Coldrex and Rinikold)
• use drugs for the common cold with a vasodilating effect based on phenylephrine
• take medicines of the antihistamine group
• be treated with alcohol
• take a hot bath, inhalation, rubbing and wrapping
• smoking and drinking caffeinated beverages.
❗ High blood pressure causes extreme distress in coronavirus patients, increasing the likelihood of death. But controlling blood pressure with prescription drugs reduces this danger. There is NO PROOF at this time that taking drugs that protect against serious cardiovascular complications increases the risk of COVID-19! People with high blood pressure are at risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19, therefore, all cardiological professional communities around the world strongly recommend continuing to take life-saving drugs.
For detailed recommendations read here
Hypertension in pregnant women
High blood pressure during pregnancy
Changes in blood pressure (BP) in women during pregnancy are observed quite often, which can adversely affect the mother and fetus. Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators of the work of the circulatory system in the body.During pregnancy, all organs and systems of the mother work with increased stress, especially the cardiovascular system. Therefore, it is necessary to regularly measure blood pressure to prevent the development of severe complications. At the beginning of pregnancy, blood pressure, as a rule, decreases slightly, which is associated with the action of hormones. In later stages of pregnancy, as the fetus grows and the blood flow required to feed it increases, blood pressure may increase, relative to physiological parameters before pregnancy. They say about arterial hypertension if a pregnant woman’s blood pressure exceeds the level of 140/90 mm.Hg However, in women with low blood pressure before pregnancy, arterial hypertension may be at blood pressure levels, which are usually considered the norm. Therefore, it is important to know your normal BP.
Why is high blood pressure dangerous during pregnancy?
High blood pressure during pregnancy poses a great danger to the mother and fetus. Against this background, vasoconstriction occurs and the blood supply to all vital organs, including the placenta, is disrupted.Due to the lack of essential nutrients and oxygen, the growth and development of the fetus slows down. There is a serious risk of placental abruption, which is accompanied by bleeding and threatens the life of the mother and fetus. High blood pressure during pregnancy can cause a dangerous pregnancy complication – preeclampsia. A manifestation of preeclampsia can also be edema, a large weight gain, the presence of protein in the urine. Very dangerous symptoms of preeclampsia are: headache, visual impairment (“flies”, “veils” before the eyes), pain in the upper abdomen.Deterioration of the general condition may be accompanied by dizziness, tinnitus, nausea, vomiting. Preeclampsia can provoke a formidable complication – eclampsia. In this condition, the pregnant woman experiences loss of consciousness and seizures.
Register for pregnancy in the antenatal clinic as early as possible!
A very important feature of arterial hypertension during pregnancy is that often, even with high blood pressure, the patient feels normal.High blood pressure is detected by chance, during the next visit to the antenatal clinic. The absence of clinical manifestations of high blood pressure does not exclude the development of dangerous complications.
In order to timely identify unwanted abnormalities during pregnancy and prevent the development of complications in the mother and fetus, pregnant women need to regularly monitor their blood pressure. It is very important to register for pregnancy in a antenatal clinic in a timely manner. The doctor will promptly identify changes in blood pressure and prescribe optimal therapy to maintain blood pressure in the norm.If a woman had high blood pressure before pregnancy, and she is taking medications, it is necessary to adjust the treatment and individually select the drugs that can be taken during pregnancy. To prevent high blood pressure, a pregnant woman should eat correctly and in a balanced manner, observe a drinking regimen, and monitor weight gain. The doctor of the antenatal clinic will also give the correct recommendations on these issues. A pregnant woman must follow the recommendations and not violate the prescribed therapy.
What to do if a pregnant woman has high blood pressure?
If a pregnant woman regularly monitors blood pressure on her own and notes even a slight increase in blood pressure with good health, she, as soon as possible, should visit the antenatal clinic doctor (before the scheduled regular attendance).Self-administration of medicines in this case is strictly prohibited. Before visiting a doctor, you can lower your blood pressure by taking a mild sedative based on motherwort or valerian.
If necessary, you can consult with the obstetrician-gynecologist of the remote medical advisory panel of the Ambulance Station named after V. A.S. Puchkov of Moscow by phone: (495) 620-42-44.
When is an ambulance call required?
If blood pressure has risen suddenly, feeling unwell, urgent hospitalization is necessary, and it is advisable for the patient to immediately call an ambulance team.Signs such as: headache, feeling of flickering dots or “flies”, blurred vision, pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, agitation or depression should be alerted, along with an increase in blood pressure. There may be a high convulsive readiness, which is manifested by twitching of the muscles of the face, neck, upper extremities, loss of consciousness, convulsions is possible.
What to do before the ambulance arrives?
First of all, go to bed, if possible, eliminate all unwanted irritants (turn off all sources of noise, draw the curtains), do not leave the pregnant woman alone, as cramps may occur and help will be needed.Give it a position with a raised head end. It is possible to take pressure-lowering drugs prescribed by a doctor. If a woman has not previously taken antihypertensive drugs, then taking drugs on the advice of others should not be.
If a seizure attack occurs, the pregnant woman should be laid on a flat surface, her head turned to the side (to prevent aspiration of vomit), protected from damage (covered with a blanket), and not physically restrained. After an attack, clean the mouth cavity from vomit, blood and mucus with a napkin.Expect the arrival of the ambulance team!
An ambulance will arrive quickly and provide the necessary assistance. Hospitalization in this condition is required. Only in a hospital is it possible to fully monitor the condition of the mother and child, complete therapy and determine the delivery plan.
We wish you health and happy motherhood!
in obstetrics and gynecology Arkhipova N.L.
OGAUZ “IGKB No. 9” – What to do so that blood pressure remains normal
According to the results of epidemiological studies in our country, about 30 million people (25-30% of the population) suffer from arterial hypertension.
- People with high blood pressure are 3-4 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease and 7 times more often – cerebrovascular accident. In 68 out of 100 cases of myocardial infarction and in 75 out of 100 cases of stroke, patients had long-term high blood pressure.
- Proven that lowering blood pressure
- even by 3 mm Hg. can reduce deaths from stroke by 8%, from coronary heart disease by 3%.
Under arterial hypertension (AH) is understood as consistently high blood pressure (BP). This is one of the most common diseases.
You can only find out that you have arterial hypertension by measuring your arterial pressure!
The level below 130/85 mm is taken as normal blood pressure.Hg Pressure from 130/85 to 139/89 is considered elevated normal.
The diagnosis of arterial hypertension is made upon detection of blood pressure above 140/90 mm Hg. at least twice with repeated visits to the doctor.
Today, there are three degrees of AG
Systolic blood pressure
Diastolic blood pressure
More than 110
There are no symptoms characteristic only of arterial hypertension, but you can suspect this disease if you have:
If these signs exist
- attacks of “lightheadedness”;
- headaches, pains in the heart area;
Measure blood pressure regularly 3-4 times a day and when symptoms appear and record the results in a diary.
- deterioration in performance and memory;
- flashing “flies” before the eyes, double vision;
- numbness of the limbs;
90,031 speech difficulties;
90,031 exercise-induced dyspnea;
90,031 swelling of the legs;
90,031 visual impairment.
Regardless of whether you have normal or high blood pressure, be sure to check if you have risk factors for hypertension and try to reduce their impact on your health:
Results after correction of risk factors
A decrease in body weight by 10 kg leads to a decrease in blood pressure by at least 10 mm.Hg
It has been established that regular exercise reduces systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5-10 mm Hg.
With a decrease in exposure and elimination of stress factors, as well as rest – blood pressure decreases spontaneously.
Smoking cessation helps to reduce blood pressure, cholesterol, fibrinogen in the blood and platelet aggregation activity.
Reducing the frequency and reducing the dose of a single alcohol intake to 20-30 g of pure ethanol per day for men (200-250 ml of dry wine, 500-600 ml of beer) and 10-20 g – for women will avoid the development of hypertension in 11% of men and in 1% of women and reduce the risk of cerebral stroke in patients with hypertension by 3-4 times.
Excessive salt intake
Reducing the consumption of table salt to 4.5 g per day contributes to a significant decrease in blood pressure.
Irregular power supply
It was found that a decrease in the population of systolic and diastolic blood pressure while following the DASH diet leads to a decrease in the incidence of coronary diseases by 15% and strokes – by 27%.
Do not abuse coffee, as drinking 2-3 cups of coffee can increase systolic blood pressure by 3-14 mm.Hg, and diastolic – by 4-13 mm Hg.
You need to measure blood pressure:
– at least 2 times a year, if the last time diastolic blood pressure was <85, systolic blood pressure was <140 mm Hg.
– weekly, if the last time diastolic blood pressure was 85-89 mm Hg.
– daily if systolic blood pressure was> 140 and diastolic blood pressure> 89 mm Hg, especially in the early morning hours from waking to noon.
How to measure blood pressure correctly:
1) an hour before measuring blood pressure, you must not take coffee or tea, half an hour – smoke;
2) blood pressure is measured at rest after 5 minutes of rest;
3) the hand should be at the level of the heart;
4) clothes should not squeeze the hand;
5) the cuff is applied to the shoulder, its lower edge should be 2 cm above the elbow bend, the phonendoscope is installed on the brachial artery;
6) pump air into the cuff until the pulsation stops and add another 30 mm.Hg, then release air at a rate of about 2–3 mm Hg. in 1 second;
7) the appearance of pulsation will indicate the numbers of systolic blood pressure, termination – diastolic blood pressure.
8) to obtain accurate data on the blood pressure level, at least two measurements should be taken;
9) if the shoulder circumference is more than 33 cm, a wider cuff must be used, otherwise the BP figures will be overestimated.
Dietary advice for prevention and control
Diet for hypertension (DASH)
Servings per day
Grain and grain products
1 slice of bread, 80g dry ground grain, 120ml cooked rice, oatmeal, cornflakes, etc.p.
Wheat bread, pita bread, oatmeal, rolled oats
Main source of energy and fiber
160g raw leafy vegetables, 160g cooked vegetables, 180ml vegetable juice
Tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, peas, pumpkin, broccoli, turnips, cabbage, spinach, Jerusalem artichoke, beans
Foods fortified with potassium, magnesium and fiber
180ml fruit juice 40g dried fruit, 80g fresh, frozen or canned fruit, 1 medium fruit
Apricots, bananas, dates, grapes, oranges, orange juice, mango, melon, watermelons, peaches, pineapples, plums, raisins, strawberries, tangerines
The most important sources of potassium, magnesium and fiber
240ml milk, 120ml yogurt, 45g cheese
Skimmed or 1% milk, skimmed or reduced fat butter, yoghurt, cheese
The largest sources of calcium and proteins
Meat, poultry, fish
no more than 2
84g cooked meat, poultry or fish
Choose only lean meats, remove visible fat, bake and boil meat instead of frying; peel poultry
Foods fortified with protein and magnesium
Nuts, seeds, beans
4-5 per week
42g nuts, 14g seeds, 80g boiled beans
Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, walnuts, beans, lentils
Rich sources of energy, magnesium, potassium and fiber
The diet is based on approximately 2000 calories per day.
Power Mode . It is advisable to take food at least 4-5 times a day, distributing it according to the calorie content of the daily diet approximately as follows: breakfast before work – 30%, second breakfast – 20%, lunch – 40%. dinner – 10%. The last meal should be at least 2-3 hours before bedtime.
Refined products such as white bread, rice, pasta.
Grain derivatives – bran bread, black rice, bran, oatmeal, wheat germ, muesli, barley, buckwheat.
Snack food – potato and cheese chips, popcorn in butter.
Nuts, almonds, fruits: apricots, bananas, oranges, grapefruit, pears, popcorn.
Fried vegetables, seafood, poultry.
Baked, steamed vegetables, seafood, poultry.
Vegetables in a fat sauce, oil.
Vegetables with low-fat sauce, seafood with herbs and low-fat or low-fat cheese.
Milk, cheese and ice cream made from whole milk
Low fat milk, yoghurt.
Large portions of fatty meat, sausages, sausages.
Medium portions of lean meat, meat with vegetables.
Pasta with cream, cheese sauce.
Pasta with tomato sauce, olive oil.
Pizza with fat cheese, meat, sausage.
Pizza with vegetables, mushrooms, spinach.
Hamburgers, cheeseburgers, fried chicken.
Grilled chicken, baked potatoes.
Salads with cream sauce.
Salads with olive and corn oil.
Coffee, tea, lemonade, Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola.
Vegetable and fruit juices, nectars.
Physical activity for the prevention of arterial hypertension
Aerobic exercise is shown since:
– large muscle groups take part in them;
– can be carried out for a long time;
– walking, jogging, swimming, tennis, cycling, rhythmic gymnastics contribute to a more intensive absorption of oxygen by the body and are beneficial for the heart and blood vessels.
Aerobic physical activity provides the maximum delivery of oxygen to organs and tissues, so they should be performed at a certain heart rate, for each person it is calculated individually.
The easiest way to calculate your training heart rate is
Maximum heart rate (HR) = 220 – age (years).
Training heart rate should be 50% (low) – 75% (high) of your individual maximum heart rate.
This formula is valid for relatively “healthy” people.
- physical activity should be performed at least 4 days a week;
- the duration of physical activity should be 30-45 minutes per day.
Anaerobic exercise (weightlifting, bodybuilding, which provides high physical activity for a short time)
– CONTRAINDICATED for high blood pressure!
In case of a sharp increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis), it is necessary:
- calm down and ensure yourself a comfortable position;
- Unbutton the outer clothing and open the window;
- restore breathing: take a deep breath, hold your breath and make a slow exhalation, so repeat several times;
- Put mustard plasters on caviar;
0.15 mg (1 tab.)
If after 20-30 minutes the pressure does not decrease by 25% of the original figures, then you must re-take the medicine.
If your blood pressure has not dropped within 20-30 minutes after re-taking the pills, CALL A DOCTOR.
25 mg (1 tab.)
50 mg (1 tab.)
20 mg (1 tab.)
0.5 mg (1 tab.)
40 mg (1 tab.)
- take a tablet under the tongue (chew or suck), taking one of the following medicines from the first aid kit:
To reduce pressure, the techniques of Shiatsu massage are also used. At the same time, a calming method of influence on massage points is used, i.e. continuous, smooth pressure with a gradual increase in pressure for 3-5 minutes. The massage points are shown in the figure.
To prevent the development of hypertension means to stop in time and realize which factors in your life can influence the development of dangerous pathology.You can preserve the quality of life only by carefully monitoring the way of this very life. Blood pressure control is one of the most important challenges facing anyone who wants to live to a healthy old age. Consider the basic rules for the prevention of hypertension.
Measure pressure as often as you can. It is very important to measure your blood pressure regularly. You can do it yourself at home using an automatic device, but you need to do it correctly. Before purchasing the device, measure the circumference of the shoulder, that is, the bicep.Choose a device with a cuff that fits your size. Take it easy. Do not drink tea, coffee or other drinks containing caffeine, do not engage in any physical activity 30 minutes before the measurement. Sit down correctly. Lean your back against the back of a chair. The device should be at the level of the heart. The arms bent at the elbows lie quietly on the table. Don’t cross your legs or arms. During measurements, one should not talk, watch TV, listen to the radio, or eat. The bottom edge of the cuff should be 2 cm above the elbow bend.Take some measurements. Measure blood pressure 2-3 times and write down the arithmetic mean of these measurements. Measure your blood pressure at the same time. This is important because blood pressure changes throughout the day. It is recommended to do this in the morning and in the evening. Write down all of your metrics.
Control your own weight
The number of obese people is growing all over the world. And obesity inevitably leads to hypertension. A good way to keep track of your weight is to check it against the Body Mass Index chart.To calculate your BMI, divide your weight in kilograms by your height squared in meters. Body mass index = kg / m2. The index will be 18.5-24.9. With a score of 25-29.9, your weight can already be considered overweight, and an index above 30 indicates obesity. Another way to measure obesity is by measuring your waist circumference. The waist circumference is measured in a standing position, without outerwear. Hold the measuring tape horizontally. The waist circumference in men is more than 102 cm, and in women more than 88 cm is considered a symptom of obesity.
Quit smoking. There are several ways to quit smoking. Which one is right for you – decide. Himself: I got myself together, I decided, I dropped it. Cheap and cheerful. But not always and not for everyone. Sports: a very rewarding activity and a pleasant alternative to smoking. It is able to prevent the craving for smoking, depressive states, nervousness, stressful situations, weight gain, and therefore helps to avoid relapses of smoking and increase self-esteem. With the help of a doctor: the doctor will recommend, explain, help and support.Individually or in a group: Psychological support, individual or group, helps in smoking cessation. Often combined with medications. Hypnosis: Possibly helps, although there is no convincing evidence. Medicines: there are some, but it is better to be recommended and prescribed by a doctor.
Some medicinal products in the form of patches, inhalers and chewing gums contain nicotine and are designed to partially replenish its reserves in the body of a former smoker so that he does not experience the withdrawal syndrome of his favorite cigarettes.Other medications behave like nicotine and are also designed to reduce the urge to smoke. Alternative medicine: acupuncture, electromagnetic waves, electropuncture. All this is good, everything works, it helps to overcome the withdrawal syndrome, and sometimes even to prevent it.
Choose healthy food. Eating healthy foods is always a good idea. Eat 3 times a day and watch your portion sizes. Try to do without ready-made convenience foods and fast food outlets. And besides … When buying food, pay attention to the weight of the product, its calorie content and chemical composition, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates indicated on the label.Diversify your diet whenever possible. This will make it more balanced. Refuse long-term use of unilateral unbalanced diets and diets; vegetarianism is possible only after consulting a doctor. Change the proportions of foods on your plate towards more fish, vegetables and herbs, whole grains, and less fried side dishes, sugary drinks, sauces, and fat. Limit the amount of sugar and confectionery consumed.
Avoid sausages, sausages, smoked meats, hamburgers, hot dogs, pates, chips and other high-fat, high-calorie foods.Replace meat with fish (2 times a week), poultry, legumes (beans, lentils, peas). Portions of meat or poultry should be small (90-100 g ready-made), and red meat (beef, lamb, pork) should be cooked no more than 2-3 times a week. Preference should be given to lean meats. It is advisable to steam, boil, bake food; minimize the amount of oils, sugar, table salt. When dressing salads, it is better to use vegetable oils: corn, sunflower, olive, soy up to two tablespoons a day, and not mayonnaise and sour cream.Choose dairy products with a low fat content: milk, yoghurts, kefir up to 1–2.5%, cottage cheese 0–9%. Prefer whole grain bread, rye or bran.
Live more actively. Your body was born to move. So, be active. Walking, walking, cycling, volleyball, dancing … Whatever your heart desires! Try walking to work, walking 2-3 stops, or walking 30-40 minutes daily.