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Acid smoking: Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking.

Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking.

Gut. 1990 Jan; 31(1): 4–10.

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Illinois 60611.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Studies were done to evaluate the lower oesophageal sphincter function of chronic smokers compared with non-smokers and to ascertain the acute effects of smoking on the sphincter and the occurrence of acid reflux. All subjects (non-smokers, asymptomatic cigarette smokers, and smokers with oesophagitis) were studied postprandially with a lower oesophageal sphincter sleeve assembly, distal oesophageal pH electrode, and submental electromyographic electrodes. The two groups of cigarette smokers then smoked three cigarettes in succession before being recorded for an additional hour. As a group, the cigarette smokers had significantly lower lower oesophageal sphincter pressure compared with non-smokers but the sphincter was not further compromised by acutely smoking cigarettes. Cigarette smoking did, however, acutely increase the rate at which acid reflux events occurred. The mechanisms of acid reflux during cigarette smoking were mainly dependent upon the coexistence of diminished lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. Fewer than half of reflux events occurred by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. The majority of acid reflux occurred with coughing or deep inspiration during which abrupt increases in intra-abdominal pressure overpowered a feeble sphincter. We conclude that cigarette smoking probably exacerbates reflux disease by directly provoking acid reflux and perhaps by a long lasting reduction of lower oesophageal sphincter pressure.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.

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Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Publishing Group


GERD: Controlling Heartburn by Changing Your Habits

How can you modify your lifestyle to relieve symptoms of GERD?

There are many changes you can make to your lifestyle that can help to relieve or reduce symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These are some suggestions.

Quitting tobacco use

If you smoke or chew tobacco, stop. The nicotine from tobacco relaxes the valve between the esophagus and stomach (lower esophageal sphincter). This can allow stomach acid and juices, the chemicals that break down food in the stomach, to back up (reflux) into the esophagus, which causes heartburn.

Because the nicotine in tobacco is addicting, stopping the use of tobacco is more difficult than simply changing a habit. Those who successfully quit using tobacco usually use a combination of strategies that may include:

  • Professional counseling, either by telephone or in person.
  • The use of medicines, to help overcome the addiction to nicotine.
  • Participation in a proven smoking cessation program.
  • Having a support group of peers who are also quitting or who do not smoke.

Using more than one of these strategies greatly improves your chances of successfully quitting. Quitting tobacco use may require several attempts.

Changing your eating habits

Developing healthier eating habits, losing weight if necessary, and avoiding foods that increase symptoms of GERD may make heartburn less likely to occur. Take your spouse or partner along with you when you go to your doctor to discuss diet habits. It will be easier to make changes in your diet if your family understands what you need to do and why.

Changes you may want to make include avoiding chocolate, peppermint, and alcohol. These can all make GERD worse by relaxing the valve between the esophagus and the stomach. It also may be a good idea to eat smaller, more frequent meals.

If you are overweight, lose weight. Being overweight puts additional pressure on your stomach and increases the likelihood of heartburn occurring. Losing just 5 to 10 pounds can help.

Certain foods can be associated with reflux. Though they will not cause GERD, eating these foods can make the symptoms worse, and avoiding them can help reduce heartburn. These include citrus fruits, mint (such as peppermint and spearmint), fatty and fried foods, garlic and onions, spicy foods, and tomato-based foods like spaghetti sauce and pizza. Some people notice that their symptoms get worse after drinking coffee, tea, soda, or anything with caffeine. If you notice that your symptoms are worse after eating a specific food, you may want to stop eating it and see if your symptoms get better.

Reducing pressure on your stomach

Putting pressure on your stomach may push stomach juices into your esophagus, causing heartburn. Some ways to reduce heartburn include the following:

  • After you eat, wait 2 to 3 hours before you lie down. Late-night snacks aren’t a good idea. When you are lying down, the contents of your stomach can push against the valve between the esophagus and stomach (lower esophageal sphincter). Sitting up allows gravity to help food and stomach juices from the esophagus drain back into your stomach.
  • Avoid tight clothing over your stomach. Tight belts, waistbands, or panty hose may push against your stomach and make your heartburn worse.
  • Use care when lifting and bending. Bending over tends to increase the amount of stomach acid that can get into your esophagus. When lifting, bend your knees to avoid bending over at the waist.

Improving sleep position and habits

Raising the head of your bed 6 in. (15 cm) to 8 in. (20 cm) will help keep stomach acid from flowing into your esophagus when you are sleeping. You can do this by putting blocks underneath your bed frame or by placing a foam wedge under the head of your mattress. Using extra pillows will not work.

Lying down soon after eating will also increase the chance of getting heartburn. After you eat, wait 2 to 3 hours before you lie down. Late-night snacks aren’t a good idea.

Smoking Can Lead to GERD

Eddie Thomas of Salem, Ore., has acid reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, and he tells you about it in a raspy, scratchy tone.

“I’ll wake up with acid in my throat,” says Thomas, 33, taking a drag off his cigarette outside a shopping mall in Salem, Ore. “It’s kind of why my voice is the way it is.” He also suffers from frequent heartburn.

Thomas figures his GERD comes from his diet, which is pretty lousy. Or maybe from his weight. He’s surprised when he’s told that it might come from the cigarette he’s smoking.

“I didn’t even know that,” Thomas says, dropping the cigarette to the ground.

Smoking and GERD

It’s true: Studies have closely linked smoking to GERD, and smokers suffering from constant acid reflux often find some relief from their GERD once they quit.

Research also has linked smoking to some of the worst complications of GERD, including Barrett’s esophagus and throat cancer.

Doctors say that smoking contributes to GERD by:

  • Relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter. Nicotine tends to relax smooth muscle inside the body. One of the body’s main defenses against GERD is the lower esophageal sphincter, a tight ring of muscle that connects the esophagus and the stomach. The sphincter regulates passage of food into the stomach, and prevents acid from refluxing into the esophagus. When nicotine causes the sphincter to relax, there’s an increased risk of acid surging into and damaging the esophagus.
  • Reducing salivation. Saliva contains an acid-neutralizing substance called bicarbonate, which helps fight the effects of acid reflux and GERD. Basically, when you swallow your saliva, it helps quell whatever acid damage is taking place due to reflux. Smokers produce less saliva, and so have less ability to neutralize refluxed acid.
  • Increasing acid secretion in the stomach. Smoking prompts the stomach to produce more acid, increasing the risk of gastric juices being refluxed into the esophagus. Smoking also seems to make stomach acid more intense and damaging by promoting the transfer of bile salts from the intestines into the stomach.
  • Interfering with the esophageal muscles. In relaxing smooth muscle, nicotine also can interfere with the muscles that help move food down the esophagus. These muscles help rid the esophagus of damaging acid reflux.
  • Damages the esophageal lining. Smoking is harmful to mucus membranes that help protect the esophagus from acid damage.

Quitting Smoking

It can be incredibly difficult to quit smoking, even if you have a pressing health reason like GERD. Here are some tips to help you quit:

  • Talk to your doctor about medications that can help you quit, such as nicotine replacements or prescription drugs that can reduce cravings.
  • Set a date when you will quit, and prepare yourself ahead of time for the cravings.
  • Keep yourself busy, so you won’t have time to think about your cravings.
  • Make a list of your reasons for quitting, and refer to it when you’re feeling bad.
  • Avoid activities during which you usually smoke.
  • Tell friends and family about your plans to quit, and ask for their support.
  • Have things like candy, peppermint sticks, and carrots ready to put in your mouth in place of a cigarette.

Knowing the link between GERD and smoking just may give Thomas the incentive he needs to put down the cigarettes: “I know smoking is bad for me. I know I need to quit. This is just one more reason,” Thomas says.

Smoking and the Digestive System

Smoking can harm your digestive system in a number of ways. Smokers tend to get heartburn and peptic ulcers more often than nonsmokers. Smoking makes those conditions harder to treat. Smoking increases the risk for Crohn’s disease and gallstones. It also increases the risk of more damage in liver disease. Smoking can also make pancreatitis worse. In addition, smoking is associated with cancer of the digestive organs, including the head and neck, stomach, pancreas, and colon.

Smoking and heartburn

The stomach makes acidic juices that help you digest food. If these juices flow backward into your esophagus, or food pipe, they can cause heartburn. They can also cause a condition called gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The esophagus is protected from these acids by the esophageal sphincter. This is a muscular valve that keeps fluids in your stomach. But smoking weakens the sphincter. Smoking also allows stomach acid to flow backward into the esophagus.

Smoking and peptic ulcers

Smokers are more likely to develop peptic ulcers. Ulcers are painful sores in the lining of the stomach or the beginning of the small intestine. Ulcers are more likely to heal if you stop smoking. Smoking also raises the risk for infection from Helicobacter pylori. This is bacteria commonly found in ulcers.

Smoking and liver disease

The liver normally filters alcohol and other toxins out of your blood. But smoking limits your liver’s ability to remove these toxins from your body. If the liver isn’t working as it should, it may not be able to process medications well. Studies have shown that when smoking is combined with drinking too much alcohol, it makes liver disease worse.

Smoking and Crohn’s disease

Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease. This disease is an autoimmune disorder of the digestive tract. For reasons that are not clear, it’s more common among smokers than nonsmokers. Although there are many ways to help keep Crohn’s flares under control, it has no cure. Smoking can also make it harder to control Crohn’s disease and its symptoms.

Smoking and diseases of the colon

Smoking is one of the major risk factors for colon cancer. Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Routine screenings, such as a colonoscopy, can identify small, precancerous growths called polyps in the lining of the colon.

Smoking and gallstones

Some research suggests that smoking increases the risk of developing gallstones. Gallstones form when liquid stored in the gallbladder turns into material that resembles stones. These can range in size from a grain of sand to a pebble.

Smoking and cancer of the digestive system

Smoking is a risk factor for mouth, lip, and voice box cancer, as well as cancer of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, colon, and rectum.

The bottom line

If you smoke, try to quit. Seek medical help to stop smoking if you need help. Giving up smoking will lower your risk for lung cancer and heart disease. It will also reduce your risk for other digestive disorders.

Does Smoking Tobacco Make Heartburn Worse?

You’ve cut out the pizza and chili dogs, lost weight, and raised the head of your bed. But your heartburn just won’t go away. Before you reach for a new bottle of antacids, you can do one more thing that might help: Quit smoking.

A large study found that smokers were much more likely than nonsmokers to have acid reflux, a condition that causes acid from the stomach to leak upward into the esophagus, the tube that food travels through. A tell-tale symptom of acid reflux is heartburn — that burning feeling in your chest. Smoking also sometimes goes hand in hand with other habits, like drinking coffee or alcohol, that are thought to fire up the burn in your body. But cigarettes alone can bring on the discomfort.

Cigarettes: The Heartburn Connection

Nicotine, a key part of tobacco, is thought to relax the ring of muscle in the lower esophagus that keeps acid in the stomach, where it belongs. When that ring relaxes, acid can trickle up and cause that burning sensation.

Smoking can also cause your mouth to make less spit, which might mean more heartburn symptoms. When reflux happens, acid gets into the lower part of the esophagus, says Ronnie Fass, MD. Saliva offsets the acid. Fass is director of the division of gastroenterology and hepatology at MetroHealth Medical Center in Cleveland. Cigarettes may also make it harder for your body to make a substance that helps guard you from stomach acid.

A smoker’s cough won’t help you, either. “Each time you cough you get increased reflux because you’re increasing your abdominal pressure,” says Rahul Pannala, MD. That pressure sends acid upward. Pannala is an assistant professor medicine at Mayo College of Medicine.

Chewing Tobacco, Nicotine Gum, and Patches

“Chewing tobacco is even worse,” Fass says. Because nicotine is released constantly, it could mean more heartburn.

Nicotine gums and patches are safer bets for overall health than chewing or smoking tobacco, and they are less likely to give you heartburn. “Chewing gum may have some positive effect, and nicotine gum is likely a better choice than smoking cigarettes,” Pannala says. One small study found no increase in heartburn risk in people who used a nicotine patch.

Good Reasons to Quit

There’s no guarantee that quitting will get rid of your heartburn, but it’s worth a try, especially given the other well-known health dangers of smoking.

If you’re overweight, you may want to shed some pounds, too. A recent study of smokers with severe acid reflux symptoms found that quitting only helped those who weren’t overweight. If your body mass index (BMI) is outside the healthy range, Fass says, “quitting tobacco is not enough. You have to also lose weight.”

“The act of quitting or trying to quit tends to lead to healthier habits,” Pannala says. These include eating a more balanced diet and limiting how much alcohol you drink, both of which could help with heartburn symptoms. “It sounds simple, but it can make a difference.”

Is it heartburn, acid reflux or something more?

Each one of us experiences heartburn at some point in our lives. Symptoms differ from person to person, but those who have felt heartburn most likely feel a burning sensation in the chest, usually after eating a meal.

Mild heartburn is quite common and can usually be relieved with antacids. Some find it helps to avoid spicy or acid foods. But if your heartburn symptoms become more frequent or don’t go away, it could be acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

GERD is chronic acid reflux, or acid reflux that occurs more than two times a week. GERD occurs when a muscle at the end of your esophagus does not close properly, which causes stomach contents to leak back (or reflux) into the esophagus, irritating it.

Symptoms of GERD include:

  • Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • Belching
  • Sudden excess of saliva
  • Sensation of food sticking in the esophagus
  • Chronic sore throat, laryngitis, or chronic irritation in the throat
  • Inflammation of the gums, erosion of the enamel of the teeth
  • Hoarseness in the morning
  • A sour taste or bad breath

If symptoms of GERD continue for longer than 10 years, it can change the lining of your esophagus, causing you to develop Barrett’s esophagus, a pre-cancerous condition in which the normal tissue lining of the esophagus has been replaced by abnormal tissue lining.

Barrett’s esophagus is often a result of long-term GERD symptoms. The longer someone has reflux, the more likely they are to develop Barrett’s esophagus.

Though the risk is small, Barrett’s esophagus can increase your risk of developing a type of cancer in the esophagus called esophageal adenocarcinoma. The risk is higher if dysplasia is present, if you have a family history of Barrett’s, and if you smoke or drink heavily.

You can prevent Barrett’s esophagus by controlling your acid reflux through:

  • Losing weight
  • Not lying down after eating
  • Sleeping propped up so your head and chest are above your stomach
  • Taking an antacid
  • Quitting smoking or chewing tobacco
  • Only drinking alcohol in moderation
  • Eating more fruits and vegetables

Talk to your doctor if you have regular symptoms of heartburn. Living a healthy lifestyle can play a major role in reducing your risk and avoiding health problems associated with acid reflux.

How do you live a healthy lifestyle? Tell us in the below comments.

Learn more about cancer services at Edward-Elmhurst Health.



Does Marijuana Affect Acid Reflux?

Dear Stoner: Does smoking weed make acid reflux worse? I’ve noticed that my chest burns sometimes after smoking.
Timmy Tibs

Dear Timmy Tibs: This doesn’t totally land in the “unanswerable” category, but it’s got one foot in it. There’s evidence that smoking can increase gastroesophageal reflux (acid reflux) and heartburn, and there’s limited evidence that cannabinoids can help with acid irritation in the stomach — but we could find no studies that specifically deal with pot smoke and its effects on stomach acid.

click to enlarge

Acid reflux is likely from the coffee, hot sauce and beer you’ve put in your belly throughout the day, but smoking doesn’t help.

Shutterstock.com

Smoking of any kind can worsen your acid reflux problem. Smoking relaxes the lower esophageal sphincter (not that kind of sphincter), which means stomach acids can rise up more easily in your esophagus, causing heartburn. The munchies can also contribute to your acid reflux, as many of the foods and drinks associated with post-pot smoking can be very acidic, including coffee, soft drinks and many condiments and sauces.
However, consuming cannabinoids in ways other than smoking could help the condition, according to David Love, a physician based in North Carolina. “If used for this indication, it would be more logical to take the cannabinoid by oral intake rather than by smoking,” he says, implying that edibles or tinctures could actually decrease acid reflux without the smoke irritating your body.

Take note of your diet on days that you smoke cannabis, both before and after smoking. If there’s little acidity in it, maybe your body doesn’t react to smoke as well as it used to. You could always pop a couple of antacids during the day if you plan on smoking later that night.

Have a question for our Stoner? E-mail [email protected] or call the potline at 303­-293-­2222.

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City Clinical Hospital №7 | Tobacco smoking

For healthcare workers – on consulting patients on quitting smoking

Smoking is a real problem in modern society
Continuing to smoke is not our decision, not our choice. So the cigarette decided for us. Only a few are able to get rid of her “tenacious paws”. About 70% of smokers try to quit smoking, but only 5% can do it without assistance.
Everyone knows about the dangers of smoking
Active social advertising in the media, outdoor advertising, billboards and posters – they all tell, and some even clearly show why the habit of “missing” a cigarette or two is so dangerous. The smoker lives less. The smoker lives worse. The smoker can die at any moment. We know all this … but we smoke. Why?
Nicotine is a poison and a drug. Tobacco leaves contain this poison to scare away insects, but a person takes it voluntarily (remember an example familiar from a school family about the effect of nicotine on a horse).Nicotine addiction is equal in strength to addiction to hard drugs, which is almost impossible to give up on your own. So why do we refuse to admit to ourselves that we ourselves cannot quit smoking?
Smoking causes two types of addiction
First, psychological dependence, and secondly, physical. Psychological habit – with a cigarette in your hands it is more “comfortable” for you to communicate, you like languidly releasing smoke in rings while sitting in a cafe or restaurant. Without a cigarette, you are haunted by the feeling that you are “missing something”, you experience discomfort.It seems that you are only playing, in fact it is an addiction. Physical addiction is directly related to nicotine. Nicotine takes a few seconds to “get” to the brain. It binds to acetylcholline receptors and triggers the release of dopamine, the so-called “pleasure hormone”. You get a “burst” of dopamine, after which the hormone levels begin to decline to normal. However, “normal” is no longer enough for you, and you reach for the cigarette again. The circle is complete.
Smoking is a social problem
To smoke or not to smoke in your own apartment is definitely everyone’s choice.But smoking in public places puts others at risk, almost more than for the smoker himself. Ask permission from a woman who is expecting a child, or from a young mother with children in a cafe, they will want to see a smoking man next to them. We smoke next to children. Often even next to their own. The child in this case does not understand that already from childhood, a “caring mother” increases his risk of heart disease several times. As soon as the smoke of cigarettes begins to threaten someone else – smoking ceases to be your personal affair, the harm of smoking is a problem of society as a whole.
We are looking for a cure for smoking
The task of finding a cure for smoking was faced by scientists for a long time. For a long time on the market, the most effective anti-smoking method has been the nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) method. It assumes that the same nicotine is introduced into the body, only in its pure form. At first, you break the habit of psychological dependence, and then you begin to gradually wean yourself from nicotine drugs (patches, inhalers or chewing gum). Often, in its pure form, you consume more nicotine than you would smoke with a cigarette, but you save your lungs from harmful tar.
At the beginning of the 21st century, scientist Jotham Ko developed the world’s first anti-smoking pills. They have become a simple and natural answer to the question “how to quit smoking”. The drug is based on an active substance that attaches to the same receptors in the brain as nicotine. You smoke a cigarette, but you do not get any pleasure from it, because the nicotine place is already “occupied”, and it has no choice but to leave the body. The second important effect of pills is that they still cause a release of dopamine (albeit significantly lower than a cigarette), thereby significantly alleviating the withdrawal syndrome.Due to their high social significance, the new pills for the treatment of tobacco smoking have received the Galen Prize, which is often called the “Nobel” Prize in medicine.
However, all doctors aloud assert that it is possible to get rid of nicotine addiction only if the smoker himself is determined to do it. Without this prerequisite, no remedy can help. You can drink pills, cover yourself with plasters and proudly walk with a cigarette in your teeth with the thought: “I won all pharmacists.I drink medicine and smoke at the same time. ” Can. But is it worth starting all this then?

Tobacco smoking: what is the harm to health?

Tobacco smoking is one of the most harmful addictions, which is a social problem of society, both for its smokers and non-smokers.
For the part of the smokers, the problem is trying to quit smoking (because not all smokers manage to do it the first time), and for non-smokers, it is to avoid the influence of the smoking society and not “get infected” by their addiction, and also to protect their health from tobacco products.
The danger of tobacco smoking cannot be overstated. When tobacco smoke enters the body, the conduction of nerve impulses, which are responsible for the state of most organs and systems, is disrupted. The consequence of smoking is the formation of multiple pathologies in the body of a smoker.
What substances are contained in cigarette smoke
A cigarette is far from a harmless toy, consisting of tobacco leaves and paper. When it burns, over 4 thousand hazardous chemicals are released.It is they who cause the main harm to the body when smoking.
Together with the smoke from a cigarette, a person inhales:
• tar – a mixture of solid particles. Most of them are carcinogenic and are deposited in the lungs;
• Arsenic is the most harmful chemical in cigarettes. It has a negative effect on the cardiovascular system, provokes the development of cancerous tumors;
• benzene is a toxic chemical compound of organic origin. Causes leukemia and other forms of cancer;
• polonium is a radioactive element.Has a radiation effect on the body from the inside;
• Formaldehyde is a toxic chemical. Causes diseases of the lungs and respiratory tract.

The effect of smoking on the human body
Lungs and respiratory tract
The main harm from tobacco smoking in the body falls on the respiratory system, since tobacco smoke penetrates there in the first place. Harmful substances affect the tissues of the respiratory tract, slow down the work of the cilia of the trachea. Resins are deposited on the alveoli of the lungs, which leads to a decrease in the area for gas exchange.Nitric oxide constricts the bronchi, making breathing much more difficult. Carbon monoxide, ammonia, and hydrogen cyanide make it difficult to remove toxins from the respiratory tract. As a result, all inhaled substances and microorganisms settle in the tissues of the lungs, from where they are absorbed into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body, provoking a wide range of diseases.
Heart and blood vessels
Nicotine contributes to vasoconstriction, which eventually leads to atrophy of the small capillaries of the extremities. Carbon monoxide, accumulating in the arteries, slows down the blood flow, and by binding with hemoglobin, it provokes a state of hypoxia – a lack of oxygen.The increased secretion of adrenaline raises blood pressure and leads to an acceleration of the heart rate. Such consequences of smoking not only worsen the general well-being, reduce activity and performance, but also harm all organs and systems in the body. In addition, smoking is dangerous due to high blood cholesterol levels, which leads to the risk of blood clots, heart attack and stroke.
What diseases develop due to smoking
Cancer. The most negative consequences of addiction to cigarettes are cancers of the bronchi, lungs, trachea, larynx, esophagus, bladder and pancreas.In addition, the kidneys, organs of the reproductive and hematopoietic systems are affected.
Diseases of the cardiovascular system. These are such consequences of smoking as ischemic heart disease, Buerger’s disease, disorders in peripheral vessels, strokes, thrombosis, etc.
Pathology of the digestive system. Smoking also harms the health of the gastrointestinal tract, causing the formation of polyps of the large intestine, stomach and duodenal ulcers, gastritis, gastroduodenitis, etc.
Diseases of the respiratory system.Smoking cigarettes provokes the development or aggravates the course of bronchial asthma, chronic rhinitis, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchitis, and also increases the incidence of acute respiratory infections and influenza.
Diseases of the oral cavity. The consequence of smoking cigarettes can be not only yellowing of the enamel, but also such serious pathologies as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, periodontitis, oncological lesions of the mucous membranes.
Disorders of the musculoskeletal system.Smoking cigarettes has a negative effect on the human skeleton. It has a detrimental effect on the condition of the tendons and ligaments, as well as muscle tissue. Under the influence of smoking, the absorption of calcium in the body worsens, osteoporosis develops, the frequency of fractures and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis increase.
Eye diseases. The danger of smoking lies in the provocation of such pathologies as macular degeneration (retinal damage), nystagmus (abnormal movements of the eyeballs), tobacco amblyopia (loss of vision), diabetic retinopathy (damage to the retinal vessels in diabetes mellitus), cataracts, etc.
Diseases of the reproductive system. Smoking is also harmful to the genitals. The most common consequences in women are menstrual dysfunction, decreased fertility, anovulatory cycles, and early menopause. Under the influence of smoking, men’s health suffers no less. They have a decrease in fertility, erectile dysfunction, a decrease in the number of sperm in the seminal fluid, a deterioration in their quality and mobility.
Other diseases. The consequences of the harmful effects of smoking on the body are extensive.In addition to the above pathologies, smokers run the risk of type II diabetes, depression, multiple sclerosis, hearing impairment and other ailments.
What harm does smoking have on a person’s appearance
Skin. How can smoking be dangerous for the skin? Chronic hypoxia and narrowing of the vascular lumen lead to a disruption in the blood supply to the smoker’s dermis, as a result of which it is deprived of nutrients and oxygen. The skin takes on a grayish appearance, becomes dehydrated, looks haggard, ugly.Due to the loss of elasticity, the number of wrinkles increases.
Figure. It would seem, what harm does smoking cause to the figure? But contrary to the popular myth that cigarettes help you lose weight, the distribution of the smoker’s body fat deviates significantly from the norm: fat is distributed mainly around the waist and chest. Deposition on the thighs is reduced. There is a disproportion between the circumference of the hips and waist.
Oral cavity. In addition to pronounced halitosis (bad breath), the consequences of smoking are manifested by aesthetic defects: yellowing of the enamel of the teeth, staining of the gums.Smoking is also harmful to the oral mucosa: it leads to inflammatory diseases and even tooth loss. Another aspect of the harm from smoking cigarettes is a violation of the acid-base balance of the oral cavity. It increases the risk of tooth decay, enamel cracks and other pathologies. In addition, smoking harms the health of the periodontium: more than half of all diseases are caused by the consumption of cigarettes.
Why quit smoking?
In 2 hours after quitting smoking, nicotine will begin to be excreted from the body.
After 12 hours, the feeling of lack of air will pass.
After 2 days, taste and sense of smell will become more acute.
After 12 weeks, the circulatory system will improve, making walking and running easier.
All this should be an incentive for smokers to quit smoking.
The main thing is that the smoker must remember that by succumbing to this addiction, he puts his health, both psychological and physiological, at great risk. And the most important thing in the life of any person is their own health …

Important!
Every year on May 31, an international action against smoking is held around the world – World No Tobacco Day, i.e. a smoke-free day. It was installed in 1988 by the World Health Organization.

90,000 Tertiary smoking is an underestimated threat to children and adults – genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential. Take care of your home!

Marine Gambaryan, Head of the Federal Center for the Prevention and Control of Tobacco Consumption of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Medical Research Center of Therapy and Preventive Medicine” of the Ministry of Health of Russia

We have already said that self-isolation is a great opportunity to quit smoking.And also that smoking tobacco and e-cigarettes makes you more vulnerable to COVID-19. But the focus is also on tertiary smoking (or exposure to tertiary tobacco smoke), which scientists believe poses a latent threat to human health.

Everyone knows about the effects of secondhand smoke on the human body. It has long been no secret to anyone that second-hand smoke – the smoke that swirls from the tip of a burning cigarette, and the smoke that the smoker exhales – is more toxic than the smoke that the smoker inhales while inhaling.Today, no one disputes that secondhand smoke can cause cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and other respiratory diseases, including chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pneumonia in innocent people. We also know that secondhand smoke is especially dangerous for children, and can cause sudden infant mortality in the first year of a child’s life, frequent respiratory infections, including pneumonia, otitis media, and aggravate bronchial asthma in them. All this, we seem to know.

And what if the second-hand tobacco smoke does not disappear anywhere, but filling the entire room with itself settles and remains for a long time on the walls, carpets, upholstery of car interiors, on the surfaces of furniture and objects? And all these objects together begin to emit already tertiary tobacco smoke, no less hazardous to health? We don’t know much about him!

Do you know who knows? The tobacco industry. It was representatives of this industry who established in the early 80s that it turns out that secondary smoke from a side stream is 2 – 4 times more toxic than the smoke of the main stream of a cigarette, and its condensate is 2 – 6 times more carcinogenic than smoke condensate from main thread.Moreover, it has been found that “stale” secondhand smoke is 6 to 12 times more toxic than “fresh” secondhand smoke, and that its toxicity increases over time as the secondhand smoke turns to tertiary …

And modern studies have also proven that there are many new substances formed in tertiary smoke: for example, as a result of the reaction of surface-bound nicotine, the main component of tertiary smoke, with nitrous acid, carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSN) are formed, and when reacting with ozone, toxic aldehydes …

Tertiary tobacco smoke is now known to pose a hidden and underestimated health hazard. Firstly, studies show that there is an unacceptable amount of it in rooms where smoking is accepted. Secondly, tertiary tobacco smoke contains many hazardous chemicals – the transformation products of chemicals contained in second-hand tobacco smoke, including in the form of volatile components. Once on the surface, they stay there for a long time – weeks and months – and it is very difficult to get rid of them.Therefore, tertiary tobacco smoke often coexists with second-hand smoke, creating the so-called “passive smoke”.

Tertiary tobacco smoke contains many mutagens and carcinogens, exposure to tertiary smoke leads to a number of cellular reactions, as with active smoking, transformation of cell growth in the experiment and the development of lung cancer in mice.

Exposure to tertiary tobacco smoke is especially dangerous for children. Many studies have shown that exposure to components of tertiary smoke, for example, metabolites of nicotine, acrolein, found in a child’s body in much higher concentrations than in adults, increase the risk of developing lung cancer and other localizations in children 1-6 years old.

In addition, exposure to tertiary tobacco smoke is associated with DNA damage, can cause genetic and epigenetic mutations, leading to the development of malignant neoplasms.

Tertiary tobacco smoke pollution is a worldwide problem, especially in countries with high smoking prevalence. Recent advances in understanding the effects of tertiary smoke indicate its genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential.

Moreover, it’s not just about smoking tobacco.The consumption of electronic cigarettes, vapes, tobacco heating products, hookahs equally pollute the environment, being a source of second-hand and tertiary smoke, since the main toxic and carcinogenic components are nicotine metabolites, which is more than contained in all these products.

Federal Law of February 23, 2013. N15-FZ “On protecting the health of citizens from the effects of second hand tobacco smoke and the consequences of tobacco consumption” protects us from the effects of secondhand and tertiary smoke in all public places and at work.

And who will protect us, our loved ones and our children at home, if not ourselves?

Especially now, when all our life is concentrated on our small planets called home. When the threat of a new coronavirus infection is especially significant for those who are systematically poisoned by tobacco smoke, no matter which one counts!

So let’s take care of “our planet” and the health of our loved ones.

Do not smoke at home.

And take care of yourself!

source :

Hang B, Wang P, Zhao Y, Chang H, Mao JH, Snijders AM.

Thirdhand smoke: Genotoxicity and carcinogenic potential Chronic Dis Transl Med. 2019 Sep 26; 6 (1): 27-34 . eCollection 2020 Mar. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095882X19300672

# coronavirus # stop coronavirus # health priority # better at home # stay at home # self-isolation # covid_19

90,000 Quit smoking at your best!

It’s no secret that the modern way of our life has changed.Its pace has increased significantly in recent years. The so-called “bad habits,” especially smoking, have become widespread. About one third of the world’s adult population, or 1.1 billion people, of which 200 million are women, are smokers. Data show that globally 47% of men and 12% of women smoke.

Tobacco causes 3.5 million deaths annually, or 10,000 every day. It turns out that if a person smokes from 1 to 9 cigarettes a day, he shortens his life (on average) by 4.6 years in comparison with a non-smoker; if he smokes from 10 to 19 cigarettes, then for 5.5 years; if 20 to 30 cigarettes are smoked – by 6.2 years.

Long-term and heavy smokers are 13 times more likely to develop angina pectoris, 12 times more often with myocardial infarction, 10 times more with stomach ulcers and 30 times more with lung cancer.

The most dangerous for the human body are considered: carcinogenic resins, primarily benzpyrene, nicotine, carbon monoxide (carbon monoxide), acid and alkaline radicals formed as a result of dry distillation of tobacco at high temperatures, radioactive elements (for example, polonium – 210), and also the high temperature of tobacco smoke.

In the smoker’s body, complex metabolic disorders occur, in particular fat metabolism, which is characterized by an increase in the content of fatty substances in the blood – lipids, mainly cholesterol. The increased content of carbon monoxide, nicotine and a number of other toxic compounds of tobacco smoke in the blood contributes to the deposition of cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels. Vessels lose their elasticity, their lumen narrows – there is a disease called atherosclerosis. Harmful substances released during the combustion of tobacco are a powerful factor damaging arteries.A serious disease of the arteries of the extremities (mainly legs) is obliterating endarteritis, which is often severe and can lead to disability.

Summing up, we can say that there is no such organ or system of organs in the human body, on which smoking would not have a harmful effect.

Smoking not only shortens life expectancy, but also leads to an early loss of a person’s working capacity, limits his vigorous activity.

There is no more harmful opinion that smoking cessation can contribute to poor health.In those who quit smoking, the frequency of coughing decreased, the frequency of exacerbations of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, chronic bronchitis decreased, lung function significantly improved, and efficiency increased, while smokers showed a tendency to decrease it.

For many smokers, weight gain after quitting is the main reason they continue to smoke. Observations have shown that, indeed, after quitting smoking, body weight increases.But firstly, the overwhelming majority of smokers have a weight below their age norms (which is associated with chronic nicotine intoxication), and secondly, the recorded increase in weight did not exceed an average of two kg.

Increase in body weight is a normal reaction of the body, freed from chronic poisoning. Anyone can quit smoking, if they strongly desire it.

Most smokers, heavy or lesser smokers, from time to time make repeated attempts to quit smoking before they succeed.For some, quitting smoking becomes more difficult each time, while others do not notice much of a difference. If you’ve already tried to quit smoking and haven’t succeeded, don’t assume another failure is inevitable. You have some positive experience from which you need to draw useful lessons, even if this possibility is not immediately obvious, carefully analyze everything that happened to avoid possible pitfalls in the future.

Many smokers are convinced that the painful urge to smoke will haunt them for the rest of their lives.If this were so, no one would ever be able to get rid of nicotinism!

The shorter the period of time during which a person quit smoking, the better the result.

First of all, you need to clearly justify the reason that prompted you to quit smoking. Preserving and strengthening your health, increasing your ability to work, a desire to avoid a chronic illness, advice from a doctor or a loved one, a desire to save others from the dangerous effects of tobacco smoke, and children from a harmful example, any of these, and maybe other reasons, should be you carefully analyzed.

Keep the list of reasons handy and at least twice a day, morning and evening, read it carefully. Choose the period during which you will quit smoking, determine the specific date for smoking the last cigarette in your life. Carefully analyze your smoking habit, that is, identify those situations in which the desire to quit smoking is strongest. Try not to smoke in these situations, work out the tactics of your behavior in such moments.

When a smoker raises his hands to the sky and exclaims: “I can’t help myself,” then it is usually behind this: “I am not the master of my destiny.”But your life belongs only to you. And you have enough intelligence and strength to dispose of it at your own discretion. For the desire to quit smoking, no matter how much you are addicted to nicotine, a positive attitude towards the future is very important.

Remember that you are not the only one to quit smoking at the moment, neither you are the first nor you are the last – every year millions of people on the globe quit smoking, quit so that they never touch a cigarette again and they succeed. You can do it too!

90,000 Does tobacco use spoil my teeth? | Hambaravi – Läänemere Hambakliinik

Tobacco is a substance derived from the leaves of the tobacco plant family that contains a neurotropic poison called nicotine.In small amounts, nicotine is a stimulant, so it is one of the main reasons for the consumption of tobacco products. Tobacco can be introduced into the body by smoking (cigarette, cigar, or pipe), sniffing (snuff), or chewing (chewing tobacco).

Harmfulness of smoking to oral health

Smoking can cause a variety of health problems and illnesses, and in some cases, they can be fatal. While most people are aware of how tobacco consumption affects the body and overall health, many people are unaware of the effects it has on their oral health.Nicotine intake slows down blood circulation, which limits the mouth’s ability to fight infections, causing bacteria to spread more quickly.

The spread of bacteria in the mouth causes the following:

  • Pigmentation of teeth and caries.
  • Bad breath.
  • Slow down wound healing.
  • Gum prolapse, periodontitis.
  • Cancer.

Pigmented Teeth

The most common signs of poor oral hygiene are chronic bad breath and pigmented teeth, in the worst case, tooth loss.Tobacco products contain many toxic chemicals, including tar, nicotine, and hydrocyanic acid (hydrogen cyanide). Adhering to the teeth, these chemical residues stain and cause bad breath.

The teeth, like the skin, have pores. The nicotine and tar contained in tobacco are absorbed into the pores, which causes yellow or brown teeth. Nicotine itself is colorless, but when it comes into contact with oxygen, it turns yellow.

Smoking and gum disease

The use of tobacco products affects the normal functioning of the cells of the gum tissue.This exposure makes smokers susceptible to gum disease. Gum disease begins with bacteria on the teeth. If bacteria remain on the teeth for a long time, plaque and tartar layers will grow, which can lead to gum inflammation. As the inflammation progresses, the gums move away from the teeth, which causes destruction of bones and tissues, which in turn can lead to tooth loss. This gum disease is called periodontitis.

Diseases caused by tobacco use can cause:

  • gum swelling, soreness;
  • easy bleeding;
  • gum separation from the tooth neck;
  • Also, the use of tobacco products causes tooth decay, as tobacco makes saliva acidic.

Also, the use of tobacco products causes tooth decay, as tobacco makes saliva acidic.

Smoking and cancer

Many studies on different populations have shown that smokers have a significantly higher risk of mouth cancer than non-smokers. The mucous membrane in the mouth of the tobacco user becomes thicker and white spots develop, which can lead to a precancerous condition.

Toxic elements in tobacco damage cells, which can lead to cancer.Smoking is associated with 75% of all oral cancers.

Various possibilities for tobacco use and the resulting cancer risk

Cigarettes

Cigarettes are the most common form of tobacco use, accounting for about 90% of all lung cancer cases. Smokers are 10 times more likely to develop oral cancer than non-smokers. Also, smoking is associated with an increased risk of contracting more than 12 other types of cancer.Cigarettes contain over 60 known cancer-causing substances.

Cigars and pipes

Cigars and pipes are often considered the least harmful way to use tobacco. However, those who smoke cigars and pipes are still at risk for cancers of the mouth, esophagus and lungs. Pipe smokers have a higher risk of lip cancer. Finally, a cigar burns longer and contains more tobacco than a cigarette.

Chewing tobacco

Although chewing tobacco is a smokeless tobacco product, harmful chemicals, including nicotine, are ingested during use.Chewing tobacco causes cancer primarily in the cheeks, gums and lips. Smokeless tobacco cancers often start with a white or red spot that develops further in the mouth or larynx.

How to quit smoking?

Nicotine is an addictive substance, so quitting the smoking habit is not easy. Quitting smoking is still an important step, both for improving oral health and overall health. There are many different nicotine replacement therapy products for rejection: nicotine gum, nicotine patches, sprays, and inhalers.

There is evidence that smoking weaning is more effective with a combination of different nicotine replacement therapy products than with a single product.

90,000 Heartburn and sour belching – the causes, symptoms of which diseases, treatment methods

Heartburn is an unpleasant burning sensation that occurs in the epigastric region and spreads upward 2 .May be accompanied by sour eructations and pain. According to statistics, heartburn at least once a week worries 47.5% of adults in Russia, and in 9% the symptom manifests itself more often 1 .

Heartburn is based on gastroesophageal reflux – the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus 3 . The walls of the esophagus have no protection from gastric juice and the hydrochloric acid contained in it. There is irritation, which is felt in the form of a burning sensation. You can get rid of this symptom if you adhere to comprehensive recommendations.These include lifestyle changes, nutritional management, and acid suppressants 2 . These funds include Omez 10 mg.

Why can you get heartburn from sweets?

An unpleasant burning sensation behind the breastbone has a direct connection with nutrition. An excess of simple carbohydrates in the diet can increase acid production, and also provoke increased gas production 1 . Both parameters increase the risk of food being thrown from the stomach into the esophagus, which can lead to heartburn.

Carbohydrate foods that can cause burning:

  • chocolate;
  • cakes, butter biscuits;
  • sweet carbonated drinks;
  • sweet coffee and tea;
  • any muffin;
  • fruit juices with sugar;
  • candy 2.3 .

Heartburn from sweets does not occur in every person. The risk of developing a symptom increases in the presence of additional factors:

  • overeating;
  • the use of fried, fatty foods;
  • smoking;
  • alcohol consumption;
  • overweight;
  • pregnancy;
  • wearing tight belts;
  • Excessive exercise after eating, especially bending over;
  • horizontal position after eating 3 .

The occurrence of heartburn after sweets more often than once a week for several months may indicate the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease 2 . The main symptoms are: heartburn and sour belching 3 . The disease occurs due to a persistent weakening of the muscular sphincter between the stomach and the esophagus 2 .

How to deal with heartburn?

If you experience episodic heartburn, you should reconsider your diet and diet, as well as change some daily habits.General tips to prevent recurrence of sweet heartburn:

  • Eating food in small portions at least 3 times a day. Dinner should be 2-3 hours before bedtime.
  • After eating, it is recommended to take a walk in the fresh air. But in no case go to bed.
  • Food should be varied, contain the necessary macro- and microelements. It is recommended to give up fried, fatty, spices, smoked meats, canned food. You need to add proteins and plant foods to the diet.Simple carbohydrates should be limited as much as possible.
  • Normalize body weight. Increase physical activity, but it should not be done immediately after eating. Keep track of the calorie intake.
  • Give up bad habits. Smoking helps to relax the esophageal sphincter. Alcohol increases acid production.
  • Wear comfortable clothing. Do not tighten your waist with belts on trousers, coats, robes. This physically promotes the reverse movement of food.
  • It is recommended to sleep with the raised head end.
  • Physical activities involving lifting weights, bending, overstraining the abdominal muscles should be abandoned 2.3 .

Additionally, you can use drugs that alleviate the condition. Antacids are known to many people to fight heartburn. These agents neutralize stomach acid. To influence the very cause of heartburn, agents are used that suppress acid production – proton pump inhibitors , 3 .

Omez 10 mg for heartburn

Omez 10 mg belongs to the group of proton pump inhibitors used to treat heartburn 4 . The drug helps to suppress the production of acid in the stomach. Omez 10 mg is recommended to be taken 30 minutes before meals, so that it has time to reach the parietal cells of the stomach and block the work of the proton pump – the last stage of acid production. The maximum recommended course of treatment without consulting a doctor is 14 days 4 .

Omez 10 mg is produced in a special aluminum strip that protects the drug from the effects of environmental factors. Pillets (small granules, inside which the active substance is located) have three layers, two of which contribute to the full delivery of the active substance to the parietal cells. The drug passes 37 control tests. It is recommended to take 2 capsules of Omez 10 mg per day 4 .

The causes of heartburn after sweets are the overproduction of stomach acid.Omez 10 mg helps to reduce the production of this acid, therefore it can be used to treat and combat heartburn and sour belching caused by sweets 4 .

References:

  1. I.G. Pakhomova. Heartburn: modern principles of examination and treatment of patients // BC. 2015. No. 21, pp. 1249–1252. https: //www.rmj.ru/articles/gastroenterologiya/Izghoga_sovremennye_principy_obsledovaniyai_lecheniya …
  2. Ivashkin V.T., Mayev I.V., Trukhmanov A.S., Baranskaya E.K., Dronova O.B., Zayratyants O.V., Sayfutdinov R.G., Sheptulin A.A., Lapina T.L., Pirogov S.S., Kucheryavy Yu.A., Storonova O.A., Andreev D.N. Clinical guidelines of the Russian Gastroenterological Association for the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Ros jurn gastroenterol hepatol coloproctol 2017; 27 (4): 75-95. (http://webmed.irkutsk.ru/doc/pdf/gerdru.pdf)
  3. Osadchuk A.M., Davydkin I.L., Gritsenko T.A., Khairetdinov R.K., Kurtov I.V., Danilova O.E., Rogozina L.A., Kosyakova Yu.A., Krivova S.P. Heartburn Syndrome. Topical issues of pathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment // Modern problems of science and education. – 2017. – No. 5 .;
    URL: http://www.science-education.ru/ru/article/view?id=26974 (date of access: 09/22/2020).
  4. Instructions for the use of a medicinal product for medical use OMEZ ® 10 mg LP 00328 from 11.07.17 Date of treatment 09.22.20.

Analysis of blood gases and its acid-base state

The acid-base state of the body is a set of processes (physicochemical, biological, biochemical) that maintain the relative constancy of the active reaction of the internal environment of the body.Maintaining an optimal acid-base state is a prerequisite for normal metabolism and maintaining the activity of enzyme systems.

INDICATIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF BLOOD GASES AND ITS ACID-ALKALINE STATE

A blood test for acid base balance is a study based on the results of which the doctor can judge the functioning of the body as a whole. The analysis of blood gases and its acid-base state is of great importance in the diagnosis of various conditions in surgery, resuscitation, anesthesiology and plays an equally important role in treatment.

IN THE LABORATORY PERFORM:

  • Determination of indicators of CBS (acid base balance) blood. Any deviations in the acid-base state of the body indicate the development of a pathological process. The study of the gas composition of the blood is prescribed, as a rule, when the patient suspects the presence of respiratory diseases or in case of disruptions in metabolism. The results of repeated analyzes allow tracking the dynamics and assessing the effectiveness of the prescribed therapy.
  • Blood osmolality. Allows you to identify a wide variety of pathologies present in the body at their early stages.

Blood sampling for acid base balance is carried out using PICO samplers, which ensure High analytical quality (minimal risk of preanalytical errors, samplers contain dry lyophilized heparin, balanced in electrolytes, use of PICO samplers with dry heparin
minimizes the risk of clumping, distortion
values ​​of electrolytes and sample dilution)
manufactured by Radiometr Medical ApS, Denmark.

The study of indicators of the acid-base state is carried out on the ABL800FLEX blood gas analyzer.

Blood osmolality is determined on an analyzer for measuring osmotic pressure in liquids OSMO STATION OM-6060, manufactured by ARKRAY Factory, Inc, Japan.

PREPARATION FOR BLOOD ANALYSIS

Rules for preparing a patient for blood donation for a biochemical study

HOW TO GET A BLOOD ANALYSIS

  1. At the registry, conclude an agreement for the provision of paid services (if there is a referral from a doctor – show the medical registrar)
  2. Pay an invoice

  3. checkout RKMC or through ERIP
  4. Pass the analysis.

Material for research is accepted on a scheduled basis (Monday-Friday) from 8:00 to 10:00, the research results are available for the doctor and the patient from 15:00 on the same day.

Scientists talked about the deadly danger of heartburn

https://ria.ru/20210222/izzhoga-1598208593.html

Scientists talked about the deadly danger of heartburn

Scientists talked about the deadly danger of heartburn – RIA Novosti, 22.02.2021

Scientists talked about the deadly danger of heartburn

The results of a large prospective study conducted in the United States showed that with gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which … RIA Novosti, 22.02.2021

2021-02-22T08: 00

2021-02-22T08: 00

2021-02-22T13: 00

science

us

health

cancer

nih

American Cancer Society

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MOSCOW, 22 Feb – RIA Novosti. A large prospective US study showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which is heartburn, is associated with a high risk of cancer of the larynx and esophagus. Published in the American Cancer Society’s journal CANCER, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal disease that affects 20 to 40 percent of adults in developed countries.The disease occurs when acidic gastric juice is pumped into the esophagus. This phenomenon, called acid reflux, or heartburn, causes damage to the tissues of the esophagus and larynx, and with prolonged exposure can lead to the development of cancer. This is the conclusion reached by American scientists led by Dr. Christian Abnet of the National Cancer Institute, part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 1995-1996, the NIH, together with the American Association of Retired Persons AARP, conducted the Diet and Health Study. which was attended by 3.5 million people aged 50 to 71 years, living in various states and cities of the United States.The study aimed to clarify the relationship between nutrition and health. 16 years after its completion, the researchers collected and analyzed data from 490,605 participants in the Diet and Health Study, comparing their questionnaires completed at the beginning of the study with the requests for medical care that they had received during that time. enrolled through the national health insurance program Medicare. 107,258 people, or 24 percent of participants, were found to have a history of GERD initially. Over the next 16 years, 931 of them developed esophageal adenocarcinoma, 301 developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 876 developed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.Finding that approximately 17 percent of these cases are associated with GERD, the authors estimate that people with GERD are about twice as likely to develop each of these cancers as those who do not have acid reflux. At the same time, they normalized the risk by groups allocated depending on gender, attitudes towards smoking and alcohol consumption. The authors note that their results are preliminary, and the study itself is aimed at drawing attention to such a dangerous symptom of possible cancer development as acid reflux.”This study alone is not enough to establish GERD as a risk factor for cancer and other diseases. Further action is needed to assess whether treatment aimed at treating GERD symptoms will make a difference,” said study leader Dr. Christian Abnett in a press release from the publisher.

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MOSCOW, 22 Feb – RIA Novosti. A large prospective study conducted in the United States has shown that gastroesophageal reflux disease, one of the manifestations of which is heartburn, is associated with a high risk of developing cancer of the larynx and esophagus.The article was published in the journal of the American Cancer Society CANCER.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a gastrointestinal disease that affects 20 to 40 percent of the adult population in developed countries. The disease occurs when acidic gastric juice is pumped into the esophagus.

This phenomenon, called acid reflux, or heartburn, causes damage to the tissues of the esophagus and larynx, and with prolonged exposure can lead to the development of cancer.This is the conclusion reached by American scientists led by Dr. Christian Abnet (Christian Abnet) from the National Cancer Institute, part of the US National Institutes of Health (NIH).

In 1995-1996, the NIH collaborated with the American Association of Retired Persons, AARP, to conduct the Diet and Health Study of 3.5 million people aged 50 to 71 in various states and cities in the United States. The aim of the study was to clarify the relationship between nutrition and health.February 4, 4 p.m. Science Scientists named the most common type of cancer

16 years after graduation, scientists collected and analyzed data from 490,605 participants in the Diet and Health Study, comparing their questionnaires completed at the beginning of the study with medical claims that while they were enrolling through the national health insurance program Medicare.

It was found that 107,258 people, or 24 percent of the participants, had a history of GERD initially. Over the next 16 years, 931 of them developed esophageal adenocarcinoma, 301 developed esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 876 developed laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.