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Synonyms for hiv: HIV Synonyms: 25 Synonyms & Antonyms for HIV


Hiv Synonyms & Antonyms | Synonyms.com

  • Charlie Sheen:

    Charlie Sheen said Charlie Sheen found out Charlie Sheen was HIV positive about four years ago. Charlie Sheen symptoms began with crushing headaches. I thought I had a brain tumor, Charlie Sheen recalled. I thought it was over. The star said Charlie Sheen was coming forward with the truth because of the rumors in the press surrounding Charlie Sheen health. I have to put a stop to this onslaught, this barrage of attacks and of sub-truths and very harmful and mercurial stories that are about me, that threaten the health of so many others that couldn’t be further from the truth. Charlie Sheen said the most hurtful rumor Charlie Sheen read claimed Charlie Sheen intentionally transmitted the disease to Charlie Sheen partners. That’s as far from the truth as anything can be, Charlie Sheen said. Drug and alcohol use have marred Sheen’s personal and professional life in recent years. Charlie Sheen was kicked off CBS’ Two and a Half Men in 2011 after an explosive meltdown that included calling the show’s producer a contaminated little maggot. Charlie Sheen escapades have also included the revelation that Charlie Sheen spent more than $ 50,000 as a client of Hollywood Madam Heidi Fleiss’ prostitution ring. You can only hear ‘ winning ’ in the streets so many times, i am approaching a time of more of a philanthropic culture in my life.

  • Republican Gov. Paul LePage:

    I have been trying to get the President to pay attention to illegals in our country … because there is a spike in hepatitis C, tuberculosis, HIV, and it is going on deaf ears.

  • Limpho Nteko:

    It was such an honor to meet the Duchess of Sussex in person and share with her the incredible and important work that we do as mothers2mothers, it was an opportunity to shine a light on the impact we have had and the lives we have changed but also to highlight the hard work that still lies ahead to ensure that we create a generation that is healthy and free from HIV.

  • Dan Barouch:

    All HIV cure approaches in general are in their infancy.

  • Ron Wyden:

    If America is to cure Alzheimer’s, cancer, diabetes and HIV in the years ahead, these cures must not be unaffordable and beyond the reach of most Americans.

  • HIV/AIDS – Symptoms and causes


    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight infection and disease.

    HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point that you have AIDS.

    There’s no cure for HIV/AIDS, but medications can dramatically slow the progression of the disease. These drugs have reduced AIDS deaths in many developed nations.

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    The symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary, depending on the phase of infection.

    Primary infection (Acute HIV)

    Some people infected by HIV develop a flu-like illness within two to four weeks after the virus enters the body. This illness, known as primary (acute) HIV infection, may last for a few weeks. Possible signs and symptoms include:

    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Muscle aches and joint pain
    • Rash
    • Sore throat and painful mouth sores
    • Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck
    • Diarrhea
    • Weight loss
    • Cough
    • Night sweats

    These symptoms can be so mild that you might not even notice them. However, the amount of virus in your bloodstream (viral load) is quite high at this time. As a result, the infection spreads more easily during primary infection than during the next stage.

    Clinical latent infection (Chronic HIV)

    In this stage of infection, HIV is still present in the body and in white blood cells. However, many people may not have any symptoms or infections during this time.

    This stage can last for many years if you’re not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Some people develop more severe disease much sooner.

    Symptomatic HIV infection

    As the virus continues to multiply and destroy your immune cells — the cells in your body that help fight off germs — you may develop mild infections or chronic signs and symptoms such as:

    • Fever
    • Fatigue
    • Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection
    • Diarrhea
    • Weight loss
    • Oral yeast infection (thrush)
    • Shingles (herpes zoster)
    • Pneumonia

    Progression to AIDS

    Thanks to better antiviral treatments, most people with HIV in the U.S. today don’t develop AIDS. Untreated, HIV typically turns into AIDS in about 8 to 10 years.

    When AIDS occurs, your immune system has been severely damaged. You’ll be more likely to develop opportunistic infections or opportunistic cancers — diseases that wouldn’t usually cause illness in a person with a healthy immune system.

    The signs and symptoms of some of these infections may include:

    • Sweats
    • Chills
    • Recurring fever
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Swollen lymph glands
    • Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth
    • Persistent, unexplained fatigue
    • Weakness
    • Weight loss
    • Skin rashes or bumps

    When to see a doctor

    If you think you may have been infected with HIV or are at risk of contracting the virus, see a doctor as soon as possible.


    HIV is caused by a virus. It can spread through sexual contact or blood, or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding.

    How does HIV become AIDS?

    HIV destroys CD4 T cells — white blood cells that play a large role in helping your body fight disease. The fewer CD4 T cells you have, the weaker your immune system becomes.

    You can have an HIV infection, with few or no symptoms, for years before it turns into AIDS. AIDS is diagnosed when the CD4 T cell count falls below 200 or you have an AIDS-defining complication, such as a serious infection or cancer.

    How HIV spreads

    To become infected with HIV, infected blood, semen or vaginal secretions must enter your body. This can happen in several ways:

    • By having sex. You may become infected if you have vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected partner whose blood, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body. The virus can enter your body through mouth sores or small tears that sometimes develop in the rectum or vagina during sexual activity.
    • By sharing needles. Sharing contaminated IV drug paraphernalia (needles and syringes) puts you at high risk of HIV and other infectious diseases, such as hepatitis.
    • From blood transfusions. In some cases, the virus may be transmitted through blood transfusions. American hospitals and blood banks now screen the blood supply for HIV antibodies, so this risk is very small.
    • During pregnancy or delivery or through breast-feeding. Infected mothers can pass the virus on to their babies. Mothers who are HIV-positive and get treatment for the infection during pregnancy can significantly lower the risk to their babies.

    How HIV doesn’t spread

    You can’t become infected with HIV through ordinary contact. That means you can’t catch HIV or AIDS by hugging, kissing, dancing or shaking hands with someone who has the infection.

    HIV isn’t spread through the air, water or insect bites.

    Risk factors

    Anyone of any age, race, sex or sexual orientation can be infected with HIV/AIDS. However, you’re at greatest risk of HIV/AIDS if you:

    • Have unprotected sex. Use a new latex or polyurethane condom every time you have sex. Anal sex is more risky than is vaginal sex. Your risk of HIV increases if you have multiple sexual partners.
    • Have an STI. Many STIs produce open sores on your genitals. These sores act as doorways for HIV to enter your body.
    • Use IV drugs. People who use IV drugs often share needles and syringes. This exposes them to droplets of other people’s blood.


    HIV infection weakens your immune system, making you much more likely to develop many infections and certain types of cancers.

    Infections common to HIV/AIDS

    • Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). This fungal infection can cause severe illness. Although it’s declined significantly with current treatments for HIV/AIDS, in the U. S. PCP is still the most common cause of pneumonia in people infected with HIV.
    • Candidiasis (thrush). Candidiasis is a common HIV-related infection. It causes inflammation and a thick, white coating on your mouth, tongue, esophagus or vagina.
    • Tuberculosis (TB). In resource-limited nations, TB is the most common opportunistic infection associated with HIV. It’s a leading cause of death among people with AIDS.
    • Cytomegalovirus. This common herpes virus is transmitted in body fluids such as saliva, blood, urine, semen and breast milk. A healthy immune system inactivates the virus, and it remains dormant in your body. If your immune system weakens, the virus resurfaces — causing damage to your eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs.
    • Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meninges). Cryptococcal meningitis is a common central nervous system infection associated with HIV, caused by a fungus found in soil.
    • Toxoplasmosis. This potentially deadly infection is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite spread primarily by cats. Infected cats pass the parasites in their stools, which may then spread to other animals and humans. Toxoplasmosis can cause heart disease, and seizures occur when it spreads to the brain.

    Cancers common to HIV/AIDS

    • Lymphoma. This cancer starts in the white blood cells. The most common early sign is painless swelling of the lymph nodes in your neck, armpit or groin.
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma. A tumor of the blood vessel walls, Kaposi’s sarcoma usually appears as pink, red or purple lesions on the skin and mouth. In people with darker skin, the lesions may look dark brown or black. Kaposi’s sarcoma can also affect the internal organs, including the digestive tract and lungs.

    Other complications

    • Wasting syndrome. Untreated HIV/AIDS can cause significant weight loss, often accompanied by diarrhea, chronic weakness and fever.
    • Neurological complications. HIV can cause neurological symptoms such as confusion, forgetfulness, depression, anxiety and difficulty walking. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) can range from mild symptoms of behavioral changes and reduced mental functioning to severe dementia causing weakness and inability to function.
    • Kidney disease. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is an inflammation of the tiny filters in your kidneys that remove excess fluid and wastes from your blood and pass them to your urine. It most often affects black or Hispanic people.
    • Liver disease. Liver disease is also a major complication, especially in people who also have hepatitis B or hepatitis C.


    There’s no vaccine to prevent HIV infection and no cure for AIDS. But you can protect yourself and others from infection.

    To help prevent the spread of HIV:

    • Use treatment as prevention (TasP). If you’re living with HIV, taking HIV medication can keep your partner from becoming infected with the virus. If you make sure your viral load stays undetectable — a blood test doesn’t show any virus — you won’t transmit the virus to anyone else. Using TasP means taking your medication exactly as prescribed and getting regular checkups.
    • Use post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) if you’ve been exposed to HIV. If you think you’ve been exposed through sex, needles or in the workplace, contact your doctor or go to the emergency department. Taking PEP as soon as possible within the first 72 hours can greatly reduce your risk of becoming infected with HIV. You will need to take medication for 28 days.
    • Use a new condom every time you have sex. Use a new condom every time you have anal or vaginal sex. Women can use a female condom. If using a lubricant, make sure it’s water-based. Oil-based lubricants can weaken condoms and cause them to break. During oral sex use a nonlubricated, cut-open condom or a dental dam — a piece of medical-grade latex.
    • Consider preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). The combination drugs emtricitabine plus tenofovir (Truvada) and emtricitabine plus tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy) can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted HIV infection in people at very high risk. PrEP can reduce your risk of getting HIV from sex by more than 90% and from injection drug use by more than 70%, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Descovy hasn’t been studied in people who have receptive vaginal sex.

      Your doctor will prescribe these drugs for HIV prevention only if you don’t already have HIV infection. You will need an HIV test before you start taking PrEP and then every three months as long as you’re taking it. Your doctor will also test your kidney function before prescribing Truvada and continue to test it every six months.

      You need to take the drugs every day. They don’t prevent other STIs, so you’ll still need to practice safe sex. If you have hepatitis B, you should be evaluated by an infectious disease or liver specialist before beginning therapy.

    • Tell your sexual partners if you have HIV. It’s important to tell all your current and past sexual partners that you’re HIV-positive. They’ll need to be tested.
    • Use a clean needle. If you use a needle to inject drugs, make sure it’s sterile and don’t share it. Take advantage of needle-exchange programs in your community. Consider seeking help for your drug use.
    • If you’re pregnant, get medical care right away. If you’re HIV-positive, you may pass the infection to your baby. But if you receive treatment during pregnancy, you can significantly cut your baby’s risk.
    • Consider male circumcision. There’s evidence that male circumcision can help reduce the risk of getting HIV infection.

    Feb. 13, 2020

    HIV/AIDS | HIV | HIV Symptoms | AIDS

    What is HIV?

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying a type of white blood cell that helps your body fight infection. This puts you at risk for serious infections and certain cancers.

    What is AIDS?

    AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. It happens when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS.

    How does HIV spread?

    HIV can spread in different ways:

    • Through unprotected sex with a person with HIV. This is the most common way that it spreads.
    • By sharing drug needles
    • Through contact with the blood of a person with HIV
    • From mother to baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding

    Who is at risk for HIV infection?

    Anyone can get HIV, but certain groups have a higher risk of getting it:

    • People who have another sexually transmitted disease (STD). Having an STD can increase your risk of getting or spreading HIV.
    • People who inject drugs with shared needles
    • • Gay and bisexual men, especially those who are Black/African American or Hispanic/Latino American
    • People who engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as not using condoms

    What are the symptoms of HIV/AIDS?

    The first signs of HIV infection may be flu-like symptoms:

    These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection.

    If the infection is not treated, it becomes chronic HIV infection. Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not treated, eventually the virus will weaken your body’s immune system. Then the infection will progress to AIDS. This is the late stage of HIV infection. With AIDS, your immune system is badly damaged. You can get more and more severe infections. These are known as opportunistic infections (OIs).

    Some people may not feel sick during the earlier stages of HIV infection. So the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested.

    How do I know if I have HIV?

    A blood test can tell if you have HIV infection. Your health care provider can do the test, or you can use a home testing kit. You can also use the CDC Testing Locator to find free testing sites.

    What are the treatments for HIV/AIDS?

    There is no cure for HIV infection, but it can be treated with medicines. This is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART can make HIV infection a manageable chronic condition. It also reduces the risk of spreading the virus to others.

    Most people with HIV live long and healthy lives if they get and stay on ART. It’s also important to take care of yourself. Making sure that you have the support you need, living a healthy lifestyle, and getting regular medical care can help you enjoy a better quality of life.

    Can HIV/AIDS be prevented?

    You can reduce the risk of spreading HIV by

    • Getting tested for HIV
    • Choosing less risky sexual behaviors. This includes limiting the number of sexual partners you have and using latex condoms every time you have sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.
    • Getting tested and treated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
    • Not injecting drugs
    • Talking to your health care provider about medicines to prevent HIV:
      • PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who don’t already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. PrEP is daily medicine that can reduce this risk.
      • PEP (post-exposure prophylaxis) is for people who have possibly been exposed to HIV. It is only for emergency situations. PEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.

    NIH: National Institutes of Health

    Urban Thesaurus – Find Synonyms for Slang Words

    As you’ve probably noticed, the slang synonyms for “term” are listed above. Note that due to the nature of the algorithm, some results returned by your query may only be concepts, ideas or words that are related to “term” (perhaps tenuously). This is simply due to the way the search algorithm works.

    You might also have noticed that many of the synonyms or related slang words are racist/sexist/offensive/downright appalling – that’s mostly thanks to the lovely community over at Urban Dictionary (not affiliated with Urban Thesaurus). Urban Thesaurus crawls the web and collects millions of different slang terms, many of which come from UD and turn out to be really terrible and insensitive (this is the nature of urban slang, I suppose). Hopefully the related words and synonyms for “term” are a little tamer than average.

    Urban Thesaurus

    The Urban Thesaurus was created by indexing millions of different slang terms which are defined on sites like Urban Dictionary. These indexes are then used to find usage correlations between slang terms. The official Urban Dictionary API is used to show the hover-definitions. Note that this thesaurus is not in any way affiliated with Urban Dictionary.

    Due to the way the algorithm works, the thesaurus gives you mostly related slang words, rather than exact synonyms. The higher the terms are in the list, the more likely that they’re relevant to the word or phrase that you searched for. The search algorithm handles phrases and strings of words quite well, so for example if you want words that are related to lol and rofl you can type in lol rofl and it should give you a pile of related slang terms. Or you might try boyfriend or girlfriend to get words that can mean either one of these (e.g. bae). Please also note that due to the nature of the internet (and especially UD), there will often be many terrible and offensive terms in the results.

    There is still lots of work to be done to get this slang thesaurus to give consistently good results, but I think it’s at the stage where it could be useful to people, which is why I released it.

    Special thanks to the contributors of the open-source code that was used in this project: @krisk, @HubSpot, and @mongodb.

    Finally, you might like to check out the growing collection of curated slang words for different topics over at Slangpedia.

    Please note that Urban Thesaurus uses third party scripts (such as Google Analytics and advertisements) which use cookies. To learn more, see the privacy policy.

    A Resource for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Mutagenesis and Polymorphism Data


    Huge research effort has been invested over many years to determine the phenotypes of natural or artificial mutations in HIV proteins—interpretation of mutation phenotypes is an invaluable source of new knowledge. The results of this research effort are recorded in the scientific literature, but it is difficult for virologists to rapidly find it. Manually locating data on phenotypic variation within the approximately 270,000 available HIV-related research articles, or the further 1,500 articles that are published each month is a daunting task. Accordingly, the HIV research community would benefit from a resource cataloguing the available HIV mutation literature. We have applied computational text-mining techniques to parse and map mutagenesis and polymorphism information from the HIV literature, have enriched the data with ancillary information and have developed a public, web-based interface through which it can be intuitively explored: the HIV mutation browser. The current release of the HIV mutation browser describes the phenotypes of 7,608 unique mutations at 2,520 sites in the HIV proteome, resulting from the analysis of 120,899 papers. The mutation information for each protein is organised in a residue-centric manner and each residue is linked to the relevant experimental literature. The importance of HIV as a global health burden advocates extensive effort to maximise the efficiency of HIV research. The HIV mutation browser provides a valuable new resource for the research community. The HIV mutation browser is available at: http://hivmut. org.

    Author Summary

    Naturally occurring mutations within the HIV proteome are of therapeutic interest as they can affect the virulence of the virus or result in drug resistance. Furthermore, directed mutagenesis of specific residues is a common method to investigate the function and mechanism of the viral proteins. We have developed novel computational text-mining tools to analyse over 120,000 HIV research articles, identify data on mutations and work out which amino-acid in which protein has been mutated. We have organised these data and made them available in an online resource—The HIV mutation browser. The resource allows HIV researchers to efficiently access previously completed research related to their region of interest in the HIV proteome. The HIV Mutation Browser complements currently available manually curated HIV resources and is a valuable tool for HIV researchers.

    Citation: Davey NE, Satagopam VP, Santiago-Mozos S, Villacorta-Martin C, Bharat TAM, Schneider R, et al. (2014) The HIV Mutation Browser: A Resource for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Mutagenesis and Polymorphism Data. PLoS Comput Biol 10(12):


    Editor: Alan Rein, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

    Received: June 26, 2014; Accepted: September 29, 2014; Published: December 4, 2014

    Copyright: © 2014 Davey et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Data Availability: The authors confirm that, for approved reasons, some access restrictions apply to the data underlying the findings. The resource is available at http://hivmut.org. The articles text-mined to create the resource are accessible at the publishers websites. These articles are linked from the resource, however, access to these articles may require a subscription.

    Funding: This study was partly funded by the ViroQuant (a FORSYS) project (http://www.viroquant.uni-hd.de/). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

    Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), infects millions of people worldwide and, to date, has been responsible for over 25 million deaths [1]. The clinical importance of the virus has prompted substantial funding of HIV/AIDS research across many diverse clinical, therapeutic (drug design, vaccine production) and basic research fields. This research has produced an extensive catalogue of HIV literature and consequently finding literature pertinent to a particular topic is a difficult task. Researchers are often interested in the phenotypic variation resulting from naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism or directed mutagenesis in the HIV genome. Traditionally, mutation data for a particular protein or region must be manually collected by trawling literature repositories such as PubMed using author names, protein/gene names, keywords or a mixture of all three. The scale of the HIV literature (over 270,000 articles) makes such an approach inadequate. Several valuable online resources have provided mutation data to researchers by manually curating polymorphism and mutagenesis data from HIV studies. These include the Stanford Drug Resistance database [2], which curates mutations related to drug resistance, the UniProt knowledgebase [3], which manually annotates articles describing mutagenesis of HIV proteins and the Los Alamos HIV Database, which annotates various sources of HIV data including epitope variants and escape mutations (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/). However, these resources are limited in scope because manual curation cannot feasibly be carried out on all of the available literature.

    The technology exists to quickly computationally scan, annotate and organise scientific literature and these techniques should be applied to facilitate the work of HIV researchers [4], [5]. Consequently, it is surprising that so few resources are available to access the available literature in an organised and structured way. This incongruity can partly be explained by the strict licensing agreements with scientific publishers that prohibit the bulk download and computational processing of scientific research literature. Fortunately, recent pressure from government and scientific bodies and the rise of open access publishing has softened the stance of publishers and many are now receptive to waiving these restrictions. Such advances will pave the way for many large-scale literature text-mining projects and will likely change the way we access scientific literature.

    Here we have applied text-mining techniques to extract data on polymorphisms and mutations from the available HIV literature. We have organised this data in a protein and residue-centric way and have made it available through an online resource, the HIV mutation browser (http://hivmut.org). This publicly available resource will simplify the task of virologists attempting to identify the relevant literature for their research, thereby aiding experimental design and reducing replication of efforts.


    Creation of the HIV mutation browser required a number of steps (Figure 1). First, we obtained permission from publishers, identified, and accessed the relevant literature. Second, we established and applied text-mining techniques to retrieve data on mutagenesis and polymorphism from the HIV literature. Third, we associated the mutation data to the appropriate residues within the HIV proteome. Finally, we developed a browser through which the data can be accessed in an intuitive and informative way.

    Figure 1. Schema describing article acquisition, mutation curation and data presentation for the HIV mutation browser.

    A list of HIV-related PubMed article identifiers (PMIDs) are retrieved from PubMed. The publishing journal of each article is compared against a list of participating publishers (i.e. publishers that have given permission for bulk PDF downloading, computational parsing of PDF and display of articles details). Permitted articles are retrieved from the publishers website as PDF files. Retrieved articles are computationally text-mined to parse patterns commonly used in the literature to denote mutations. Each mutation is then mapped onto the HIV proteome. Mutations are stored in a relational database and accessed through a web interface, the HIV mutation browser. The HIV mutation browser organises the data by protein and residue and integrates ancillary information relevant to the users. See methods section for more details.


    Data mining and mutation statistics

    We identified ∼270,000 articles containing the search term “HIV” or “Human Immunodeficiency Virus” indexed in the PubMed database (from a total of ∼23 million publications). We retained 120,899 of these articles, published across 2,614 journals, representing approximately 45% of the total (see materials and methods, Figure 1). For the remaining ∼150,000 citations, permission for computational processing of articles was not obtained from the publisher. The 120,899 articles from participating publishers were text-mined for mutagenesis or polymorphism information, and the mutations were mapped to particular residues within the HIV proteome. This required the development of a method to retrieve the text of these articles, scan the articles for patterns that are widely used to describe directed mutations in mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms, and to map these mutations to the correct position in the correct protein (see materials and methods). A total of 7,608 distinct mutations (a unique non-wildtype amino acid at a given residue in a given protein) were collected. As each mutation can be described in multiple articles and each article can describe multiple mutations, the 7,608 distinct mutations were defined by 43,264 unique references to 5,267 articles.

    The identified mutations shed light on the nature of the HIV research effort of the last decades. On the one hand it has been broad in scope: 2,520 of the 3,118 residues in the HIV proteome have one or more associated references to a mutation in the repository. On the other hand it has been narrow in focus: the coverage is far from uniform and certain regions such as the catalytic sites of the protease and reverse transcriptase, as well as host interaction interfaces, are much more highly studied (Figure 2).

    Figure 2. Overview of the distribution of mutation data across the HIV proteome.

    (A) Barplot of the counts of (i) the number of articles describing mutations, (ii) the number of distinct mutations and (iii) the number of residues with mutation data in the database for each protein in the HIV proteome. (B) Barplot of the counts of the number of curated articles in the database describing mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms for each residue mapped onto the HIV proteome/genome. (C) Reverse transcriptase p66 subunit with residues coloured by number of articles referring to them. Most highly cited residues are in contact with the nucleotides or are known drug resistance mutations. White denotes no papers, full red denotes 50 or more papers, colouring is linearly scaled between 0 and 50.


    HIV Mutation Browser interface

    The above analysis resulted in a database within which each reference to a mutagenesis experiment or polymorphism in a citation is indexed using three pieces of information: the protein in which the mutation is present, the position in the protein which has been mutated, and the non-wildtype amino acid to which the wildtype residue has been mutated. To make this data accessible to virologists in a simple, intuitive and informative manner, we designed the HIV Mutation Browser, as a web-interface that acts as a front end for the database. The browser presents the data in a hierarchically organised manner. The user selects a gene of interest, then a position of interest, and the citations relating to this position are presented to the user grouped by non-wildtype amino acid.

    The web interface is organised in three panels: the navigation panel at the top; the protein panel in the middle; and the residue panel at the bottom (Figure 3).

    Figure 3. HIV Mutation Browser interface for Vpu residue 51 showing the navigation, protein and residue panels.

    (1) Options bar for the residue view section of the interface. (2) Mutation information. (3) User feedback buttons. (4) Mutation information download links. (5) Ancillary residue information panel.


    Navigation panel.

    The navigation panel (Figure 3) contains a set of buttons that allows users to navigate the site. The most important of these buttons allow users to access the mutation information by choosing the gene of interest (tagged gene) and one of three different options for visualising the data in the protein panel (tagged view). The search button gives users access to a tool to query the resource by full text, author and PubMed identifier. The left hand side of the panel contains links to access the home page, the help page (containing all the information necessary to understand the information displayed on the website) and the about pages (containing up-to-date statistics about the website and information about participating publishers).

    Protein panel.

    The mutagenesis and polymorphism data can be visualised and accessed by the user in three ways corresponding to the Sequence, Feature and Table view. All views are accessible by clicking on the relevant button, tagged “view”, in the navigation bar (Figure 3). All views show the primary protein sequence of the selected HIV-1 gene – clicking on an amino acid of interest can access detailed mutagenesis data for that residue. The Sequence view displays the amino acid sequence of the protein of interest. Residues with mutation data are displayed in blue boxes. The Feature view displays the selected protein sequence annotated and enriched with known functional data, structural data and modular features (See Figure 3). The number of distinct mutations for each residue is displayed as a bar plot below the protein sequence. The Table view displays information on conservation, structure and chain, as well as the number of mutagenesis and polymorphism experiments available for each position in a tabulated format.

    Residue panel.

    The residue panel displays the mutation information for the residue currently selected in the protein panel. The left side of the residue panel displays a list of citations that include mutation information for the residue. Each residue can have one or more distinct mutations and citations are grouped by the non-wild type amino acid to which the wild type amino acid has been mutated. Within these groupings, if more than one citation is present, the citations are presented in an order that is based first on the results of manual curation, then on user feedback (see below) and finally on number of views. Each distinct mutation in each article has a unique citation (i.e. the same article may appear multiple times for the same residue entry but with different non-wild type amino acids).

    For each citation, the information presented includes details of the residue: its position in the reference proteome, the wild type amino acid and the non-wild type amino acid described in the article; as well as information on the article (title, author list, publishing journal, publication, year, direct link to the article at the publishers website). The ‘show sentences’ button reveals the sentences from the original article that describe the mutation and phenotype.

    The right hand side of the residue panel contains supplementary contextual information. When available, the position of the residue is displayed on a solved structure of the protein domain, retrieved from RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) [6]. Hovering the cursor over the structure can rotate it to allow viewing from different directions. Alternatively, the user can choose to display a multiple sequence alignment of homologous reference HIV subtype protein sequences for the 10 flanking residues either side of the residue of interest.

    User feedback and curation.

    The database has been populated by text-mining, and it is therefore unavoidable that the database contains incorrectly assigned citations (see discussion). We have therefore incorporated a user feedback system that allows users to flag the quality of an entry either positively or negatively. This feedback is presented for each entry and influences the order in which citations are presented to the user when multiple papers describing a given mutation are available. The feedback will also be used to guide manual curation by the HIV Mutation Browser team on a quarterly basis coinciding with each new releases of the HIV Mutation Browser. An emphasis will be put on the curation of entries that have received negative feedback and are likely to contain inaccuracies. Manually curated entries are indicated with a green tick (a good entry) or a red cross (a bad entry). This curation relates to the accuracy of the text-mining and does not reflect the quality of the paper.


    The available mutagenesis and polymorphism data for a residue can be downloaded in both tab delimited text and Excel formats directly from the web interface.


    HIV is an important therapeutic target and has been the subject of a major research effort as evidenced by the large catalogue of HIV experimental literature. Appropriate organisation and categorisation of the available HIV literature is necessary to allow efficient and intuitive access to relevant data. In this paper, we have presented the HIV Mutation Browser, a residue-centric resource of HIV mutagenesis and polymorphism literature designed for use by those carrying out basic and applied HIV research. The HIV Mutation Browser is one of the first resources to computationally text-mine mutagenesis and polymorphism data [7], [8], [9], and the first to apply such methods to the extensive corpus of HIV literature. As such the HIV Mutation Browser will complement the available manually annotated and curated HIV resources such as the Stanford Drug Resistance database [2], the UniProt knowledgebase [3] the Los Alamos HIV Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/). In the coming years, we expect this method or similar methods to be applied to other viral or cellular systems.

    The resource will continue to evolve in the following ways. Firstly, HIV literature is produced continuously at a rate of approximately 1,500 articles a month and consequently the HIV Mutation Browser resource will be updated on a quarterly basis. Secondly, while the resource does contain the majority of important HIV and general interest journals, it is still incomplete, as we did not receive permission from all publishers to text-mine their HIV related articles. Journals from additional publishers will be added when possible. Thirdly, not all mutations can be correctly identified and assigned by the text-mining methods. There are various reasons for this. Many mutations are annotated in an article using non-standard patterns that are not widely used to describe directed mutations in mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms. For example, consider the following excerpt taken from an article by Mitchell et al., “The phenotype of the combination mutant VpuD51A-S52/56N was indistinguishable from that of Vpu-D51A and Vpu-S52/56N” [10]. The pattern “S52/56N” is a non-canonical construct for describing a mutagenesis experiment and currently will not be discovered by the text-mining method. Furthermore, the position of a mutation in a paper can be ambiguous and as a result mapping of the mutation information to the correct residue and protein can be a difficult task. For example, when multiple proteins are referenced and only a single mutation is discussed (more than one possible mapping can be possible), when unconventional numbering is used (particularly when describing mutations in Gag or Env as both are translated as polypeptide chains and subsequently cleaved) or when unusual strains with insertions and deletions are used (this shifts the numbering of residues). We will continue to improve the methods for text-mining and assignment. We request that members of the community utilise the feedback system for misannotated mutations in the resource and contact us about mutation data that should be in the resource yet is not present. This community input will improve the quality of the annotated data and will pinpoint parts of the text-mining method that require improvement.

    In summary, the HIV Mutation Browser is a valuable addition to the currently available HIV resources that will allow researchers to quickly and intuitively access data on mutagenesis and phenotypic variation. We expect the database to aid the process of experimental design and be a key resource for the HIV community.

    Materials and Methods

    Construction of the HIV literature dataset

    A list of HIV-related articles was programmatically retrieved from PubMed using the search terms “HIV” and “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”. A list of target journals was constructed based on the number of published HIV-related articles. The licensing agreements of the majority of scientific journals prohibit a licensee from (1) downloading articles in bulk and (2) computationally processing the text of an article. Permission to waive these aspects of the licensing agreement was requested and received from the majority of virology and general interest scientific journals. The text of all HIV-related articles from the participating journals was retrieved programmatically from the publisher’s websites to create a HIV literature dataset. An up to date list of the participating journals and publishers is available on the HIV Mutation Browsers website.

    Mutation text-mining of HIV literature

    There is no globally applied nomenclature to define directed mutations in mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms [5], [11], [12]. A set of templates that define phrases and shorthand widely used to describe directed mutations in mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms was created based on the work of Caporaso et al. [5] (Figure 4A, see Table S1 for full list). Each article in the HIV literature dataset was converted to plain text and scanned using this set of templates. These templates consist of 3 pieces of information: the position in the protein which has been mutated, the amino acid present in that position in the wildtype sequence of the isolate, and the non-wildtype amino acid to which the residue has been mutated. For example, consider the sentence “As reported previously, S52A and S56A mutations of Vpu had no effect on virus release” [13]. S52A and S56A refer to the experimental mutagenesis of a serine to an alanine at position 52 and 56 in the Vpu protein.

    Figure 4. Example illustrations of issues associated with parsing and mapping mutation data.

    (A) Representative simple and complex examples of sentences recognised by the templates used to perform the mutation text-mining of articles (see Table S1 for complete list). Information of interest representing the wildtype residue (blue) and mutated residue (green) are coloured and position of the mutations are underlined. (B) Illustration of the distinct numbering schemes for different chains of the same protein. The shown peptide sequence is a short region (497–527) of the HIV Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env) overlapping the site cleaved by the host furin to produce the Surface protein gp120 and Transmembrane protein gp41 chains. The cleavage site is denoted by a grey triangle. The numbering above the sequence defines the position relative to the start of the gp160 protein and the numbering below the sequence defines the position relative to the start of the gp41 chain. (C) Examples of three sentences from the HIV literature where each article uses a different nomenclature or numbering scheme (blue) to describe the same mutation at the same site, Valine at residue 513 in the gp160 protein. Each article also refers to the protein by the chain name, gp41, rather than the name of the unprocessed protein, Envelope glycoprotein gp160 (Env), used for mapping in the HIV mutation resource. One example sentence refers to the gp41 chain while utilising the numbering for the unprocessed protein.


    Mapping of mutations to the HIV proteome

    The annotation of a mutation text-mined from papers in the HIV literature dataset requires three piece of information: the sequence of the isolate used in the study; the protein containing the mutation; and the position of the mutation within the protein. This information is sufficient to map a mutation to a reference HIV-1 proteome, but cannot always be directly extracted from the text-mined paper. The nomenclature for describing isolates, genes, proteins, chains and domains have not been standardised. Therefore, mapping dictionaries for HIV isolates and HIV proteins were constructed. The isolate mapping dictionary was constructed from isolate names and their synonyms retrieved from HIV data within the UniProt [3] and Allie [14] resources (Table S2). The protein mapping dictionary was constructed from synonyms for genes, proteins, cleavage products, chains and domain names from the HIV data, also retrieved from the UniProt [3] and Allie [14] resources (Table S3). The highly-studied HIV group M subtype B HXB2 isolate was selected as the reference proteome and all HIV genes, proteins, cleavage products, chains and domain names, and their synonyms, were mapped onto the 9 proteins of the isolate (Gag, Gag-Pol, Env, Tat, Nef, Rev, Vif, Vpr, Vpu). This mapping included normalised start positions to correct the inconsistent numbering schemes of cleavage products, chains and domain (Figure 4B). Both dictionaries were further manually curated to improve upon the computationally retrieved mapping.

    Several different experimental isolates are commonly used in HIV experiments. Each paper in the HIV literature dataset was scanned using the contents of the isolate mapping dictionary to identify the experimental isolate used in the study (Table S2). If no isolate information was retrieved, the Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M subtype B HXB2 isolate was set as the experimental isolate for the paper. The numbering of a mutation in the HIV literature can refer to the numbering of a protein, chain, domain or cleavage product, consequently, for a defined mutation numbering a conclusive mapping may not possible. Inconclusively mapped mutations text-mined from the HIV literature dataset were mapped to the HIV proteome using a co-occurrence based approach (Figure 4C). The co-occurrence based approach utilised the Reflect tool for automated tagging of biological entities to scan mutation-containing sentences for protein identifying terms from the protein mapping dictionary [4]. Each mutation’s position was normalised to the protein-numbering scheme of the full-length protein based on the co-occurring protein identifying terms. If the mutation wildtype amino acid matched the amino acid at the normalised mutation position in the experimental isolate, the mutation was retained as a mapped mutation. In the cases where no information relating to the mutated protein was available, all HIV HXB2 proteins were scanned at their full-length protein, chain and domain levels. In the case of chain and domain, a displacement factor was applied to adjust the mutation’s position and map the mutation to all possible positions in the proteome. A mutation mapping score (see below) was calculated for each putative mutation mapping and the top scoring mapping was retained as the mapped position of the mutation. In the cases where no matches to the experimental isolate proteome were found, the search was expanded to other commonly studied HIV isolates (Table S2).

    Scoring mutation matches

    For each mutation mapped using the above approach, a mutation mapping score, S, is calculated. The score is the function of three parameters: the probability of a match by chance; the number of mapped mutations in the paper; and the displacement from the reference protein position numbering scheme. The score ranges from 0 to 1, with values closer to 1 representing high confidence mapping of a mutation. The top-scoring mapping was retained as the mapped position of the mutation.

    The score, S, is calculated as:where M is the number of mapped mutations in the paper, N is the total number of mutations mentioned in the paper, d is the distance between the defined mutation position and the mapped position, L is the sequence length of the protein, the values of a, b, and c are constants to weight the contribution of each parameter in the equation (a = 0.7, b = 0.15 and c = 0.15) and P is the probability that the mapped mutation would map to the protein by chance and is calculated as:where p is 0.05, the probability of matching an amino acid by chance given a 20 amino acid alphabet and assuming an equal frequency for each amino acid in the HIV proteome, and r is the number of mutations that have been mapped unambiguously to the protein.

    Sources of ancillary data

    The HIV Mutation Browser interface integrates information from several resources to increase the ease of interpretation of the available HIV mutation and mutagenesis data. Conservation information is displayed using multiple sequence alignments (aligned using the MAAFT algorithm [15]) retrieved from the HIV Subtype Reference Protein sequences from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/). Structural information is displayed using structures of HIV proteins retrieved from the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB) [6]. Intrinsic disorder predictions for the proteins are calculated using the IUPred algorithm [16]. Enzymatic active sites, sites of post-translational moiety addition, sites of proteolytic cleavage and other sites of functional importance are retrieved from the UniProt resource [3]. Short linear motif interaction interfaces are retrieved from the ELM databases [17]. An up to date list of the ancillary information used and displayed is available on the HIV Mutation Browsers website.

    Supporting Information

    Table S1.

    Regular expressions for mutation identification and harmonization. A list of templates/regular expressions, based on the work of Caporaso et al. [5], used to search the publications for sentences describing mutagenesis experiments or polymorphisms.




    We would like to thank members of the Schneider and Briggs groups, and Aino I Järvelin for their helpful comments on the manuscript. We acknowledge Ricardo Santiago-Mozos, Björn Karges, Vladimir Kuryshev, Barbara Müller, Marc Johnson, Oliver Fackler, Mark Marsh and Anna Schneider for testing the server and their useful suggestions. We thank the participating publishers who have given permission to text-mine their collection of HIV-related literature. We are grateful to Tobias Sack for assisting us in our negotiations with the various publishers.

    Author Contributions

    Conceived and designed the experiments: JAGB RS. Performed the experiments: NED VPS SSM. Analyzed the data: VPS SSM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: NED VPS SSM CVM. Wrote the paper: NED VPS JAGB. Conceived and constructed the mutation retrieval and mapping software: SSM VPS RS. Designed and constructed the article retrieval software: NED VPS SSM. Designed and constructed the HIV mutation database: VPS SSM. Designed and constructed the HIV mutation browser website: NED CV TAMB. Negotiated permission for copyrighted articles: JAGB NED VPS RS.


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    Hiv: Igbo translation, definition, meaning, synonyms, pronunciation, transcription, antonyms, examples | HTML Translate | English – Igbo Translator

    For this reason, most people who have HIV infection do not know it.”.

    N’ihi nke a, imirikiti ndị bu nje HIV amaghị ya. ”

    But the cost also covers an HIV test as well as STD testing.

    Mana ọnụ ahịa ahụ kpuchikwara ule HIV yana nyocha STD.

    Some persons appear to be resistant to HIV infection.

    ụfọdụ mmadụ na – egosi eguzogide nje HIV.

    Send that up for HIV and hepatitis.

    Zipu ya maka nje HIV na ịba ọcha n’anya.

    Co – infection with HIV exacerbates all aspects of malaria in pregnancy.

    Nje oria nje HIV na – akpo ihe nile banyere iba iba na ime.

    This week, we celebrate the tremendous progress that has been made in the struggle against HIV and AIDS.

    N’izu a, anyị na – eme emume dị egwu e nwegoworo n’ọgụ megide HIV na AIDS.

    Do all HIV – positive people develop AIDS?

    Ndi mmadu nile bu nje HIV na – ebute oria AIDS?

    There is also a resurgence of the diseases which were thought to be long under control, such as tuberculosis, and a rapid spread of HIV/AIDS .

    E nweghachikwara nlọghachi nke ọrịa ndị e chere na a ga – achịkwa ogologo oge, dịka ụkwara nta, na mgbasa ngwa ngwa nke HIV / AIDS.

    The multi – sectorial and interdisciplinary involvement is essential for an appropriate response to HIV epidemic.

    Ntinye aka na otutu ndi mmadu na ndi mmadu di nkpa maka ihe kwesiri ekwesi na oria HIV.

    Some say the United Nations mission itself was responsible for the rapid spread and possibly even the introduction of HIV in Cambodia.

    Somefọdụ na – ekwu na ndị ọrụ mba United Nations n’onwe ha kpatara mgbasa ngwa ngwa na ikekwe ọbụna iwebata HIV na Cambodia.

    With international support, more developing countries are developing strategic plans that place access to care at the heart of their national responses to HIV/AIDS .

    Site na nkwado mba ụwa, ọtụtụ mba ndị na etolite etolite na – emepụta atụmatụ dị iche iche nke na – eme ka enwee ohere lekwasịrị anya n’etiti mba ha na – aza HIV / AIDS.

    Svetlana Moroz spoke about the experience at an Odessa forum for HIV – positive women last September.

    Svetlana Moroz kwuru banyere ahụmahụ na ihe Odessa forum maka nje HIV inyom ikpeazụ September.

    Smoking alone kills more than drugs, alcohol, HIV, suicide, homicide and car crashes combined.

    Sm Smụ sịga naanị na – egbu karịa ọgwụ, mmanya, HIV, igbu onwe, igbu ọchụ na mkpọka ụgbọ ala jikọtara.

    For HIV – positive eastern Ukrainians, the struggle against Russian – backed separatists isn’t just about dignity — it’s about their right to stay alive.

    Maka ndị ọwụwa anyanwụ Yukren nwere nje HIV, ọgụ a na – alụ megide ndị na – ekewapụ onwe ha na Russia abụghị naanị banyere ugwu – ọ bụ maka ikike ha nwere ịdị ndụ.

    Nevertheless, Nicaragua has the lowest rate of infection by HIV and AIDS in Central America.

    , Nicaragua nwere ọnụ ọgụgụ

    …and fighting HIV/AIDS , micronutrient supplements…

    … na ịlụ ọgụ megide HIV / AIDS, obere ihe mgbakwunye …

    VandeWoude studies lentiviruses — a type of retrovirus that includes HIV — in mountain lions and bobcats.

    VandeWoude na – amụ lentiviruses – ụdị retrovirus nke gụnyere HIV – na ọdụm ugwu na bobcats.

    People living with HIV are exposed to persistent bullying in schools.

    Ndị bu nje HIV na – ahụ maka nrụgide na – adịgide adịgide n’ụlọ akwụkwọ.

    Look, everyone that makes these videos has to get tested, so if somebody knowingly transmitted HIV to Molly, that’s a crime.

    Lee, onye ọ bụla na – eme vidio ndị a ga – anwale, yabụ ọ bụrụ na mmadụ akpachara anya butere HIV na Molly, nke ahụ bụ mpụ.

    Preventing the vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS ; – Introduction of screening programmes for the prevention and early detection of reproductive system diseases.

    Na – egbochi nnyefe nke HIV / AIDS; – Okwu mmalite nke mmemme nyocha maka mgbochi na nchọpụta oge nrịanrịa banyere usoro ịmụ nwa.

    A survey showed that health education in poor urban areas, which reached some 145,000 women, had increased awareness of HIV/AIDS .

    Nnyocha e mere gosiri na agụmakwụkwọ ahụike n’obodo ndị mepere emepe, nke ruru ihe dị ka ụmụ nwanyị 145,000, amụbawanyela banyere HIV / AIDS.

    It means 1,100 children infected each day – 1,100 children each day, infected with HIV.

    Ọ pụtara na ụmụaka 1,100 na – ebute ọrịa kwa ụbọchị – ụmụaka 1,100 kwa ụbọchị, bu nje HIV.

    Members also asked whether health education included information on family planning and prevention of HIV/AIDS .

    Ndị otu a jụkwara ma agụmakwụkwọ ahụike gụnyere ozi gbasara atụmatụ ezinụlọ na mgbochi nke HIV / AIDS.

    The association, along with carring and housing of under – supported HIV – infected people in Taiwan then have been under heavy disputes.

    Mkpakọrịta ahụ, yana ịzụ na ụlọ nke ndị bu nje HIV na – akwadoghị na Taiwan enweela nnukwu esemokwu.

    The HIV epidemic varies throughout the Dutch Kingdom.

    Ọrịa nje HIV dị iche na mba Dutch niile.

    With regard to those who are HIV – positive, I believe that antiretroviral treatment must be available to everybody who needs it.

    Banyere ndị bu nje HIV, ekwenyere m na ọgwụgwọ ga – adị maka onye ọ bụla chọrọ ya.

    Maybe there’s something you’ve come into contact with that hinders HIV from growing.

    Ma eleghị anya, ọ dị ihe ị na – enweta na – egbochi nje HIV ịmalite.

    You’ve tested positive for HIV.

    Those medicines are for HIV.

    Ọgwụ ndị ahụ bụ maka nje HIV.

    They found that dealing with HIV/AIDS , hunger, free trade, and malaria were the world’s top priorities, where we could do the most good for our money.

    Ha chọpụtara na azụmahịa HIV / AIDS, agụụ, azụmaahịa na ịba bụ ihe kachasị mkpa n’ụwa, ebe anyị nwere ike ime ihe kacha mma maka ego anyị.

    Um, well, HIV is a terrible burden, and I’m very happy to be helping families who are affected by it.

    Um, well, HIV is a terrible burden, and I’m very happy to be helping families who are affected by it.

    What we’ve found is a whole range of new viruses in these individuals, including new viruses in the same group as HIV – so, brand new retroviruses.

    Ihe anyị chọtara bụ nje virus ọhụrụ na ndị a, gụnyere nje ọhụrụ n’ime otu otu nje HIV – ya mere, retroviruses ọhụrụ.

    Only those adults who escape HIV infection can expect to survive to middle and old age.

    Naanị ndị toro eto na – agbanahụ nje HIV nwere ike ịtụ anya ịlanarị ruo na etiti na nká.

    Pence was slow to support a needle exchange program in Indiana to combat a major HIV outbreak related to needle – sharing among opioid drug users.

    Pence adịghị ngwa ngwa iji kwado usoro mgbanaka agịga na Indiana iji lụsoo nnukwu ọrịa ntiwapụ HIV metụtara metụtara ntụtụ agịga n’etiti ndị ọrụ ọgwụ opioid.

    Research shows that infections and exposure to toxins such as HIV and streptococcus cause dementia and OCD respectively.

    Nchoputa gosiri na oria na ibute nsí dika HIV na streptococcus na – akpata dementia na OCD n’otu n’otu.

    While Falsettos never explicitly mentions the words HIV or AIDS, the disease plays a major role in the second half of the musical.

    Ọ bụ ezie na Falsettos ekwughị hoo haa okwu ndị a bụ HIV ma ọ bụ AIDS, ọrịa ahụ na – arụ ọrụ dị ukwuu na ọkara nke abụọ nke egwu.

    The most common acquired causes of chorea are cerebrovascular disease and, in the developing world, HIV infection—usually through its association with cryptococcal disease.

    Ihe ndị na – akpatakarị chorea bụ ọrịa cerebrovascular na, n’ime mba ndị na – emepe emepe, nje HIV — na – abụkarị site ná mkpakọrịta ya na ọrịa cryptococcal.

    Ritonavir is a common drug used in the treatment of HIV.

    Ritonavir bụ ọgwụ a na – ejikarị agwọ HIV.

    Methadone maintenance has been shown to reduce the transmission of blood borne viruses associated with opioid injection, such as hepatitis B and C, and/or HIV.

    Egosiwo mmezi nke Methadone iji belata nzipu nke nje virus na – ebute ọbara metụtara opioid injection, dị ka ịba ọcha n’anya B na C, na / ma ọ bụ HIV.

    It has long been recognized that infection with HIV is characterized not only by development of profound immunodeficiency but also by sustained inflammation and immune activation.

    Ọ dịwo anya a ghọtara na ọrịa nje HIV abụghị naanị site na mmepe nke nnukwu mgbochi kamakwa site na mbufụt na ịmalite ọrụ.

    Life expectancy has fallen drastically in Southern Africa a result of HIV/AIDS .

    Oge ndu mmadu adabala nke oma na South Africa site na HIV / AIDS.

    Viral load monitoring for HIV is of particular interest in the treatment of people with HIV, as this is continually discussed in the context of management of HIV/AIDS .

    Nyochaa nje virus maka nje HIV nwere mmasị na ọgwụgwọ ndị nwere nje HIV, ebe a na – atụle nke a mgbe niile na njikwa nke HIV / AIDS.

    HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia stood at 1.1% in 2014, a dramatic decrease from 4.5% 15 years ago.

    HIV / AIDS na Etiopia guzoro na 1.1% na 2014, oke dị egwu site na 4.5% afọ 15 gara aga.

    Duke teamed with screenwriter Bayard Johnson to co – produce Cover, a 2007 film which explores the HIV epidemic.

    Duke jikọrọ ya na Bayard Johnson onye na – ede akwụkwọ iji mepụta Cover, ihe nkiri 2007 nke na – enyocha ọrịa HIV.

    In South Africa, there have been multiple reports of HIV – positive women sterilized without their informed consent and sometimes without their knowledge.

    Na South Africa, e nweela ọtụtụ akụkọ gbasara ụmụ nwanyị bu nje HIV na – enweghị ọgwụ mgbochi na nkwenye ha na mgbe ụfọdụ na – enweghị ihe ọmụma ha.

    Liberace was secretly diagnosed HIV positive in August 1985 by his private physician in Las Vegas, 18 months before his death.

    Liberace chọpụtara na ọ bụ nje HIV na August 1985 site n’aka dọkịta ya na Las Vegas, ọnwa 18 tupu ọnwụ ya.

    As of 2018, Lesotho’s adult HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 23.6% was the second highest in the world, after eSwatini.

    N’ihe banyere 2018, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị HIV na ọrịa AIDS nke Lesotho nke 23.6% bụ nke abụọ kachasị elu n’ụwa, mgbe eSwatini gasịrị.

    Gay bars have been heavily impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

    Ndi oria nwoke na ndi nwoke nwere oria mmikpo ebe obula banyere oria mmikpo a.

    One of the more long – term effects brought about by drug use in Kenya is the transmission of HIV among the populace.

    Otu n’ime mmetụta dị ogologo oge nke iji ọgwụ ọjọọ eme ihe na Kenya bụ nnyefe nke HIV n’etiti ọha mmadụ.

    In the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, many believed that the disease received less attention than warranted, in part due to the stigma attached to its sufferers.

    N’afọ ndị mbụ nke ọrịa HIV / AIDS, ọtụtụ kwenyere na a na – elebara ọrịa ahụ anya dị ka nke a chọrọ, otu akụkụ n’ihi ihere ndị na – arịa ya.

    There is some evidence that PrP may play a role in innate immunity, as the expression of PRNP, the PrP gene, is upregulated in many viral infections and PrP has antiviral properties against many viruses, including HIV.

    Enwere ụfọdụ ihe akaebe na PrP nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ na mgbochi ọgụ, dịka okwu nke PRNP, mkpụrụ ndụ PrP, ka a na – achịkwa n’ọtụtụ ọrịa nje na PrP nwere antiviral Njirimara megide ọtụtụ nje, gụnyere HIV.

    In November 2007, the CDC reported the first – ever case of HIV and Hepatitis C being simultaneously transferred through an organ transplant.

    N’ọnwa Nọvemba afọ 2007, CDC kọọrọ ka ana – ebutefe na mbụ ọrịa HIV na ịba ọcha n’anya C n’otu oge n’ịghafe akụkụ ahụ.

    Grady has worked in nursing, clinical research, and clinical care, with a specialization in HIV.

    Grady rụrụ ọrụ na ọrụ nọọsụ, nyocha ụlọ ọgwụ, na nlekọta nlekọta ụlọ ọgwụ, ya na ọkachamara na HIV.

    To prevent his HIV infection from progressing to AIDS, Johnson takes a daily combination of drugs.

    Iji gbochie nje HIV ibute ọrịa AIDS, Johnson na – a combinationụ ọgwụ kwa ụbọchị.

    Mandatory HIV testing began in 1986 and a mandatory condom law was passed in 1988.

    Ekwesiri inyocha nje HIV na 1986 ma nye iwu iwu condom na 1988.

    The Vel’ d’Hiv’ had a glass roof, which had been painted dark blue to avoid attracting bomber navigators.

    Vel ‘d’Hiv’ nwere enyo iko, nke e sere na – acha anụnụ anụnụ iji zere ịdọrọ ndị na – anya ụgbọ mmiri.

    Investigations into potential transmission of HIV, MRSA, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E have not shown that bed bugs can spread these diseases.

    Nchọpụta banyere mbufe nje HIV, MRSA, ịba ọcha n’anya B, ịba ọcha n’anya C, na ịba ọcha n’anya E egosipụtaghị na ahụhụ nwere ike ịgbasa ọrịa ndị a.

    In 2014, shortages of antiretroviral medicines to treat HIV/AIDS affected about 50,000 Venezuelans, potentially causing thousands of Venezuelans with HIV to develop AIDS.

    Na 2014, ụkọ ọgwụ ndị na – alụso nje HIV ọgụ iji gwọọ HIV / AIDS metụtara metụtara ndị Venezuela 50,000, nwere ike ime ka ọtụtụ puku ndị Venezuelan nwere nje HIV nwee ọrịa AIDS.

    In 2008, The Tiffany & Co. Foundation donated $2 million to the University of Pennsylvania for the construction of an HIV/AIDS treatment facility in Botswana.

    Na 2008, Tiffany & Co. Foundation nyere $ 2 nde na Mahadum Pennsylvania maka owuwu nke usoro ọgwụgwọ HIV / AIDS na Botswana.

    In March 2020, AbbVie announced plans to evaluate the Kaletra/Aluvia HIV medicine as possible Covid – 19 treatment.

    Na Machị 2020, AbbVie kwupụtara atụmatụ iji nyochaa ọgwụ Kaletra / Aluvia HIV dị ka ọgwụgwọ Covid – 19 kwere omume.

    Like the song itself, the video tackles issues of illegal drug trade and HIV/AIDS , two crises that plagued the 1990s.

    Dị ka abụ ahụ n’onwe ya, vidio ahụ na – ekwu okwu banyere ịzụ ahịa ọgwụ ọjọọ na HIV / AIDS, ọgba aghara abụọ metụtara 1990s.

    People living with chronic conditions like HIV and diabetes are at higher risk for developing a mental disorder.

    Ndị mmadụ na – arịa ọrịa na – adịghị ala ala dị ka nje HIV na ọrịa shuga nọ n’ihe ize ndụ dị elu maka ịmalite ọrịa uche.

    In light of the ongoing HIV pandemic, many gay men re – evaluated their sexual and erotic desires and practices.

    N’iburu ọrịa AIDS na – aga n’ihu, ọtụtụ ụmụ nwoke na – edina ụdị onwe ha tụlere agụụ mmekọahụ na agụụ mmekọahụ na omume ha.

    The official HIV prevalence in Mozambique in 2011 was 11.5% of the population aged between 15 and 49 years.

    Ọrịa HIV juru na Mozambique na 2011 bụ 11.5% nke ndị bi n’agbata afọ 15 na 49.

    The majority of specimens are received quarterly in frozen form, following completion of all HIV testing.

    A na – anabatakarị ọtụtụ ụdị ndapụta ụzọ anọ kwa n’ụzọ oyi, mgbe emechara nyocha HIV niile.

    In Zimbabwe, Dr A Tariro Makadzange has researched perinatally infected children with HIV and HIV – positive adults with cryptococcal disease.

    Na Zimbabwe, Dr A Tariro Makadzange emeela nchọpụta banyere ụmụaka ndị nwere ọrịa HIV na ndị okenye nwere nje HIV nwere ọrịa cryptococcal.

    Since his retirement, Johnson has been an advocate for HIV/AIDS prevention and safe sex, as well as an entrepreneur, philanthropist, broadcaster and motivational speaker.

    Kemgbe ezumike nká ya, Johnson abụwo onye nkwado maka mgbochi HIV / AIDS na mmekọahụ na – adịghị ize ndụ, yana onye ọchụnta ego, onye ọrụ ebere, onye mgbasa ozi na onye na – akpali akpali.

    In May 2003, Robinson left the UK for Cambodia to devise and produce a HIV health – related TV drama.

    Na Mee 2003, Robinson hapụrụ UK ịga Cambodia iji chepụta ma mepụta ihe nkiri TV metụtara ọrịa HIV.

    On 23 November 2016, a court in Malawi sentenced an HIV – positive man to two years in prison with forced labour after having sex with 100 women without disclosing his status.

    N’abalị iri abụọ na atọ n’ọnwa Nọvemba afọ 2016, ụlọ ikpe dị na Malawi mara nwoke nwoke nwere nje HIV n’ụlọ mkpọrọ afọ abụọ site n’ịrụ ndị ọrụ mmanye mgbe ya na ụmụ nwanyị nwere mmekọahụ 100 na – akọwaghị ọkwa ya.

    Zinc – acetylides are used in the HIV – 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor Efavirenz as well as in Merck’s ephedrine derivatives .

    A na – eji zinc – acetylides eme ihe na nje HIV – 1 ntụgharị transcriptase inhibitor Efavirenz yana na ọgwụ ephedrine Epckrine.

    The Association of LGBTQ Journalists or NLGJA nominated both Tim Teeman 2016 Journalist of the Year and Heather Boerner Excellence in HIV/AIDS Coverage.

    Ndi LGBTQ ndi oru nta akuko ma obu NLGJA hoputara Tim Teeman onye oru nta akuko nke aho na Heather Boerner tozuru oke na nkpuchi HIV / AIDS

    There is a growing trend in attempting to integrate spiritual and religious beliefs into HIV prevention and addiction treatment.

    E nwere ihe na – abawanye na ịgbalị ịtinye nkwenye ime mmụọ na nkwenkwe na mgbochi na ọgwụgwọ ọgwụ riri ahụ.

    Anthony Fauci received the 2011 prize for his pioneering work in the field of HIV/AIDS research.

    Anthony Fauci natara ihe nrite nke 2011 maka ọrụ ọsụ ụzọ ya na nyocha nke HIV / AIDS.

    Similarly, progress has been made on increasing access to clean water and sanitation and on reducing malaria, tuberculosis, polio, and the spread of HIV/AIDS .

    N’otu aka ahu, enweela oganihu n’inyebawanye mmiri di ocha na idi ocha na mbenata oria, oria, oria na ikesa HIV / AIDS.

    There are currently a few social interventions that have been combined with micro financing to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS .

    E nwere ugbu a mmechi mmekọrịta mmadụ ole na ole ejikọtara yana obere ego iji mee ka mmata banyere HIV / AIDS.

    López initially intended to construct a bomb filled with hypodermic needles containing HIV – tainted blood, which satisfied his desire to have a lasting effect on Björk’s life.

    López bu ụzọ mepụta bọmbụ jupụtara na agịga hypodermic nke nwere ọbara oria HIV, nke mejuru ọchịchọ ya inwe ndụ na – adịgide adịgide na ndụ Björk.

    According to Encyclopedia of Women’s Health, published in 2004, there has been an increased effort to provide contraception to adolescents via family planning services and school – based health, such as HIV prevention education.

    Dabere na Encyclopedia of Women Health, nke e bipụtara na 2004, enwekwu mbọ iji nye ndị na – eto eto ọgwụ mgbochi site na ọrụ atụmatụ ezinụlọ na ahụike sitere n’ụlọ akwụkwọ, dị ka agụmakwụkwọ mgbochi HIV.

    UNDP works to help countries prevent further spreading of and reduce the impact of HIV/AIDS , convening The Global Commission on HIV and the Law which reported in 2012.

    UNDP na aru oru inyere ndi obodo aka igbochi igbasa na igbusi onodu oria mmikpo a, igbako Global Commission on HIV na Law nke

    The DoDSR, along with its precursor repositories, were designated as the ultimate storage facility for all serologically negative HIV specimens obtained through military HIV testing programs.

    Edebere DoDSR, tinyere ebe nchekwa ya nke mbụ, dị ka ebe nchekwa kachasị maka ụdị HIV niile na – adịghị mma nke enwetara site na mmemme nyocha HIV.

    HIV/AIDS — What You Need to Know

    What is HIV? What is AIDS?

    HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body’s natural defense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV.

    White blood cells are an important part of the immune system. HIV invades and destroys certain white blood cells called CD4+ cells. If too many CD4+ cells are destroyed, the body can no longer defend itself against infection.

    The last stage of HIV infection is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). People with AIDS have a low number of CD4+ cells and get infections or cancers that rarely occur in healthy people. These can be deadly.

    Having HIV does not mean you have AIDS. Even without treatment, it takes a long time for HIV to progress to AIDS—usually 10 to 12 years. If HIV is diagnosed before it becomes AIDS, medicines can slow or stop the damage to the immune system. With treatment, many people with HIV are able to live long and active lives.

    What causes HIV?

    HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. You can get HIV from contact with infected blood, semen, or vaginal fluids.

    • Most people get the virus by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV.
    • Another common way of getting the virus is by sharing drug needles with someone who is infected with HIV.
    • The virus can also be passed from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding.

    HIV doesn’t survive well outside the body. So it cannot be spread by casual contact such as kissing or sharing drinking glasses with an infected person.

    How is HIV diagnosed?

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved tests that detect HIV antibodies in urine, fluid from the mouth (oral fluid), or blood. If a test on urine or oral fluid shows that you are infected with HIV, you will probably need a blood test to confirm the results. If you have been exposed to HIV, your immune system will make antibodies to try to destroy the virus. Blood tests can find these antibodies in your blood.

    Most doctors use a screening blood test. If the screening is positive (meaning that HIV antibodies are found), the blood sample is tested again to verify the result. If the second test is positive, a test called a Western blot is performed for further confirmation.

    It may take as long as six months for HIV antibodies to show up in a blood sample. If you think you have been exposed to HIV but you test negative for it:

    • Get tested again in six months to be sure you are not infected.
    • Meanwhile, take steps to prevent the spread of the virus. If you are infected, you can still pass HIV to another person at this time.

    Some people are afraid to be tested for HIV. But if there is any chance you could be infected, it is very important to find out. HIV can be treated. Getting early treatment can slow down the virus and help you stay healthy. And you need to know if you are infected so you can prevent spreading the infection to other people.

    You can get HIV testing in most doctors’ offices, public health clinics, and hospitals. Additionally, as part of our My Lab ReQuest service, you can order your own HIV test at any of our patient service centers across Arizona.  

    You can also buy a home HIV test kit in a drugstore or by mail order. Be very careful to choose only a test that has been approved by he U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). If a home test is positive, see a doctor to have the result confirmed and to find out what to do next.

    How is HIV treated?

    The standard treatment for HIV is a combination of medicines called Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART). Anti-retroviral medicines slow the rate at which the virus multiplies. Taking these medicines can reduce the amount of virus in your body and help you stay healthy.

    It may not be easy to decide the best time to start treatment. There are pros and cons to taking HAART before you have symptoms. Discuss these with your doctor so you understand your choices.

    First, to determine the best treatment regimen, your doctor may order an HIV Genotype test. Next, to monitor the HIV infection and its effect on your immune system, or to check on your response to therapy, a doctor may order these tests:

    • Viral Load, which shows the amount of virus in your blood.
    • CD4+ Cell Count, which shows you how well your immune system is working.

    If you have no symptoms and your CD4+ cell count is at a healthy level, you may not need treatment yet. Your doctor will repeat the tests on a regular basis to see how you are doing. If you have symptoms, you should consider starting treatment, whatever your CD4+ count is.

    After you start treatment, it is important to take your medicines exactly as directed by your doctor. When treatment doesn’t work, it is often because HIV has become resistant to the medicine. This can happen if you don’t take your medicines correctly. Ask your doctor if you have questions about your treatment.

    Treatment has become much easier to follow over the past few years. New combination medicines include two or three different medicines in one pill. Many people with HIV get the treatment they need by taking just one or two pills a day.

    To stay as healthy as possible during treatment:

    • Don’t smoke. People with HIV are more likely to have a heart attack or get lung cancer.1,2 Smoking can increase these risks even more.
    • Eat a healthy, balanced diet to keep your immune system strong.
    • Get regular exercise to reduce stress and improve the quality of your life.
    • Don’t use illegal drugs, and limit your use of alcohol.

    Learn all you can about HIV so you can take an active role in your treatment. Your doctor can help you understand HIV and how best to treat it. Also, consider joining an HIV support group. Support groups can be a great place to share information and emotions about HIV infection.

    How can you prevent HIV?

    HIV can be spread by people who don’t know they are infected. To protect yourself and others:

    • Practice safe sex. Use a condom every time you have sex (including oral sex) until you are sure you and your partner are not infected with HIV.
    • Don’t have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest sex is with one partner who has sex only with you.
    • Talk to your partner before you have sex the first time. Find out if he or she is at risk for HIV.
    • Get tested together and retested 6 months later. Use condoms in the meantime.
    • Don’t drink a lot of alcohol or use illegal drugs before sex. You might let down your guard and not practice safe sex.
    • Don’t share personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors.
    • Never share needles or syringes with anyone.

    Sonora Quest Laboratories is committed to the fight against HIV and AIDS, supporting various programs and fund-raising events through The Apothecary Shops, Aunt Rita’s Foundation, the Southern Arizona AIDS Foundation, and the Southwest Center for HIV/AIDS. Our expansive HIV test offerings allow us to assist doctors and patients in all stages of the disease.

    To learn more about HIV/AIDS, talk with your doctor, go to your local health department, or visit:





    1.“Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection.” Quest Diagnostics. Accessed 2 Feb. 2010. http://www.questdiagnostics.com/kbase/topic/major/hw151408/descrip.htm

    2. Triant VA, et al. (2007). Increased acute myocardial infarction rates and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with HIV disease. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Available online: http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/rapidpdf/jc.2006-2190v1 (e-pub ahead of print).

    3. Chaturvedi AK, et al. (2007). Elevated risk of lung cancer among people with AIDS. AIDS, 21(2): 207–213.

    Synonyms, dictionary of synonyms

    Selection of synonyms can come in handy at the most unexpected moment, and if such a need arises, but you cannot solve the problem on your own, pay attention to the WordMap service. Here you will be helped to find a synonym in a few seconds – just enter the word of interest in the search bar.

    Synonyms: what is it?

    Synonyms are words that are close in meaning, which sound, pronounce and spell in different ways.An elementary example: “Water” and “Liquid” – these terms are not similar to each other, but at the same time they have a similar lexical meaning.

    Such expressions make it possible to convey the author’s thoughts to listeners and / or readers as accurately, beautifully and clearly as possible, write a beautiful text, prepare a speech that is pleasant to listen to.

    What kind of service?

    WordMap is a platform where everyone can choose synonyms for any words and at any time. This function can come in handy in the following situations:

    • Writing text.For example, to avoid a lot of tautologies.
    • To replace incorrect or rude expressions with more neutral and pleasant ones.
    • For a more accurate expression of thoughts.
    • Paraphrasing famous quotes and expressions in order to convey to the audience your thoughts, requirements, wishes.
    • To increase your vocabulary.

    Who is it for?

    The service for selecting synonyms WordMap is suitable:

    • Schoolchildren and students for writing essays, stories, reports, essays.
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    • Poets. Poets without a regular selection of synonyms are unlikely to be able to create sweet-sounding poems, so they always keep such services “at hand”.
    • Copywriters, that is, people who write commercial and informational texts to order.
    • Journalists.

    Features of WordMap

    WordMap is a universal platform for working with words, which, among other functions, is ready to offer users to choose phrases and phrases that are similar in meaning to almost any word.A large dictionary of synonyms is built into the system, so there will be no problems using the site. In addition, the site boasts a clear interface, wide functionality and fast page loading speed. You can see this for yourself right now!

    Synonyms for the word AIDS in the dictionary of synonyms, similar words.

    We have found for you 113 synonyms for the word “AIDS”, of which 8 are synonyms, and 105 are similar words and phrases:

    We tried the same way, and found 105 more words close to the word “speed” in meaning:



    2 HIV P 0, VN, DT, ED, ZV, IM, MN, NO, OD, PR, RD, TV


    3 DIRTY S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    4 DIRT S ED, ZhR, IM, NO

    90 120 0

    5 DRUG S ED, IM, MR, NO


    6 BRUSH S ED, ZhR, IM, NO










    3 WASTE S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    4 SKERNA S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    5 NICE S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    6 DRAGON S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    7 LOW S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    8 BURN S ED, ZhR, IM, NO






    11 SCORE S ED, ZhR, IM, NO




    13 SORITY S ED, ZhR, IM, NO




    15 GNUSH S ED, ZhR, IM, NO




    17 ABATH S DFST, ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    18 NOSE S DFST, ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    19 NICE S ED, IM, NO, SR




    22 MOUTH S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    23 OBOSOK S ZhR, MN, NO, RD




    25 FUKA S ED, MR, NO, RD




    27 STAND S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    28 GRAY S ED, ZhR, IM, OD


    29 LOW ACT S ED, IM, MR, NO




    31 FIG. WITH ED, ZhR, IM, NO, RAZG




    33 FI INTER


    34 LOW P ED, IM, KACH, MR, NO, OD












    42 LUZHA S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    43 TINA S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    44 BOLOT S ED, IM, NO, SR


    45 SPOT S ED, IM, NO, SR










    50 SCRAP P IM, MN, NO, OD


    51 MUD S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    52 DIRT S DFST, ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    53 DIRT S DFST, ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    54 OIL S ED, ZhR, IM, NO




    56 MESIVO C ED, IM, NO, SR






    59 SHARE S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    60 HOST C ED, IM, NO, SR










    65 TIME C ED, IM, NO, SR




    67 BEDS S ED, IM, MR, NO












    73 ANASHA S ED, MR, NO, RD




    75 SCREW S ED, IM, MR, NO




    77 HEROIN S ED, IM, MR, NO


    78 DURMAN S ED, IM, MR, NO


    79 CODEIN S ED, IM, MR, NO


    80 WHEELS S ED, NO, RD, SR










    86 DRUG S ED, MR, NO, RD


    87 OPIAT S ED, IM, MR, NO


    88 OPIUM S ED, IM, MR, NO




    90 SONNIK S ED, IM, MR, NO


    91 GRASS S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    92 GRASS S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    93 HANKA S 0, VN, DT, ED, ZV, IM, LOK, NO, PR, RD, SR, TV












    99 ShIZA S ED, MR, NO, RD




    101 SHIRKA S ED, ZhR, IM, NO


    102 CONS S ED, ZhR, NO, RD


    103 SPIGATE S ED, ZhR, IM, OD


    104 ECSTASI G 2L, DST, ED, PVL, PE, SV




    Synonyms for the word “AIDS”




    03 acrophalia 0 disease



    918ism10 0

    aneurysm2 …..

    76 0 0 aeroembolism, illness, …

    62 [More]


    62 0 disease




    aberration, disease



    abortion, avitamines..



    abrasion, anatexis, …



    vitamin deficiency, disease



    vitamin deficiency, disease



    vitamin deficiency, illness, …






    avitaminosis, illness, scurvy, …



    autointoxication, illness, …

    [ More]


    agoraphobia, illness, neurosis



    adenocarcinoma, adenoma, …

    [More] 0 0 adenocarcinoma, amphipods ,…



    adenomyxosarcoma, …



    adenomyoma, disease, …


    adnexitis, illness, …



    excitement, illness, …



    illness, fervor ,…



    acariasis, disease



    acariasis, disease, itching, …



    akiezis, childlessness, …



    acrocephaly, disease



    axon, disease, neuritis ,…



    aleukemia, leukemia, …



    aleukemia, disease, …



    alkaloid, medicine, …



    alkaloid, medicine, …


    cocaine alkaloid, medicine,…


    substance abuse

    alcoholism, illness, …



    alopecia, illness, …



    amebiasis, disease



    amentia, brainlessness, …


    periodontal disease

    amphodontosis, disease…



    anaplasmosis, illness, …



    anasarca, ascites, illness, …

    [ More]


    angina, disease



    angina, disease, inflammation



    anoplocephalosis, illness



    anoplocephalosis, illness

    9000 anthodin, air, height, …



    anthonov fire, disease, …



    anthracosis, illness



    anthrax, disease, sore ,…



    apathy, …



    appendicitis, disease

    [More] 9006

    apoplexy, illness, …



    apoplexy, illness, …



    apoplexy, illness, stroke



    arthritism, disease



    ataxia, disease, tabes ,…



    atheroma, disease



    aeroembolism, illness

    [More] [More]


    butterfly, illness, …



    drug ,…



    pampering, illness, …



    bang, drug



    barbiturate, depressor, …



    barite, disease, calcite, …



    lack of will, illness



    brainlessness, illness ,…



    madness, insanity, …



    madness, disease, …



    leukemia, disease, leukemia



    benzedrine, narcotic


    -avitaminosis, bery …..



    unconsciousness, insensibility, …



    weakness, soreness, …



    impotence, illness, …



    impotence, illness, …



    impotence, illness ,…



    vomiting, illness, …



    black mouth, illness



    black-mouth, disease



    myopia, illness



    illness 9000











    b desease





    allergic dermatosis



    amoeboz More]
















    [Subr. more]


















    English translation, synonyms, antonyms, example sentences, definition, meaning, phrases

    They are immune to many diseases, including HIV / AIDS and genetic diseases. They’re immune to a host of health conditions, including HIV / AIDS and genetic diseases.
    Depression has surpassed HIV, AIDS, malaria, diabetes and war as the world’s leading cause of disability. Depression has actually now surpassed HIV / AIDS, malaria, diabetes and war as the leading cause of disability worldwide.
    And suddenly we have at our disposal a kind of multidimensional chessboard, where we can change human genetics, setting viruses on things like AIDS. And all of a sudden, what we’re doing is we’ve got this multidimensional chess board where we can change human genetics by using viruses to attack things like AIDS.
    AIDS is an abbreviation for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
    AIDS is believed to be caused primarily by a virus that attacks white blood cells (lymphocytes) and some other cells in the body, including the brain. Is thought to be caused primarily by a virus that invades white blood cells (lymphocytes) and certain other body cells including the brain.
    There is a cure for AIDS and HIV, but it only slows down the course of the disease, it cannot cure the disease. Although treatments for both AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus’ progression in a human patient, there is no known cure.
    AIDS is believed to have originated in the Sahara Desert, Africa in the 20th century and is now causing a global epidemic. AIDS is thought to have originated in sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century and is now a global epidemic.
    AIDS, for example, is already a problem for more than 30 million people. AIDS, for instance, is the misfortune of more than 30 million people.
    He confessed to me that his condition worsened and AIDS developed. He confessed to me that his condition had worsened into AIDS.
    I would like to find a vaccine for a very serious disease called AIDS. I’d like to find a vaccine for a very serious disease called AIDS.
    Another speaker highlighted the need to fund the global HIV / AIDS program so that implementation becomes a priority for all countries. Another speaker underscored the need for funding the global program to combat HIV / AIDS to become a priority for all.
    In one word, a frivolous approach to AIDS is tantamount to the crime of genocide. Put simply, taking AIDS lightly trivializes the crime of genocide.
    The mortality rate is also higher among uninfected children whose parents either suffer from AIDS or have died from it. Death rates are also higher among those uninfected children whose parents either suffer from or have already died of AIDS.
    We continue to invest in our human resources development, but HIV / AIDS continues to consume those investments. As we continue to invest in development of our human capital, HIV / AIDS continues to eat away at those investments.
    HIV / AIDS prevention through screening programs is also difficult due to its high cost. The prevention of HIV / AIDS through screening programs was also difficult because of the high cost involved.
    The state is taking all measures to prevent HIV / AIDS, in particular on the transmission of the virus from mother to child. Preventing the vertical transmission of HIV / AIDS; – Introduction of screening programs for the prevention and early detection of reproductive system diseases.
    Affecting young people of working age in the first place, AIDS triggers a chain of successive events that can lead to the collapse of an entire society. By targeting young, working-age adults, AIDS unleashes a chain of events that threatens to cause entire societies to unravel.
    Discrimination against women on the basis of gender can create an additional burden for women who have HIV / AIDS. Discrimination against women on the basis of gender may lead to additional burdens for the woman who has HIV / AIDS.
    Safeguards against dismissal of workers diagnosed with HIV / AIDS have been further strengthened. Guarantees have been reinforced to ensure that workers diagnosed with HIV / AIDS cannot be fired.
    And during all this time, none of the doctors, nurses, other employees of the institution – none of them thought to force me to take an AIDS test. And for all that time, all those doctors, all those nurses, all those facilities, not one of them ever thought to give me an AIDS test.
    I have a teenage girl refusing treatment and a guy on my soccer team might have AIDS. I got a teenage girl refusing treatment, guy on my soccer team who may have AIDS.
    In summary, almost all countries now recognize that HIV / AIDS is a serious problem. In summary, virtually all countries now recognize HIV / AIDS as a major concern.
    Research is assessing the impact on families of rising elderly populations, migration and major pandemics such as HIV / AIDS. The studies assess the impact on families of the growing number of elderly people, migration and major pandemics such as HIV / AIDS.
    Combination therapy, however, does not yet cure HIV / AIDS, and its long-term consequences are not yet clear. However, combination therapy is not a cure for HIV / AIDS and its long-term effects are not clear.
    The rapid spread of the HIV / AIDS pandemic is another major threat to human security, and the Secretary-General’s report gives due attention to this issue. The rapid spread of the HIV / AIDS pandemic is another major threat to human security and is appropriately given attention in the Secretary-General’s report.
    During this time, 992 AIDS diagnoses were made and 525 people died from this disease. Nine hundred and ninety-two AIDS cases have been diagnosed, and 525 deaths due to AIDS have been registered for the period.
    Over the past two decades, HIV / AIDS has spread dramatically to all corners of the earth. Over the past two decades, HIV / AIDS has dramatically spread to the every corner of the Earth.
    The AIDS / HIV epidemic is more widespread in the 18 to 45 age group. The HIV / AIDS epidemic is more widespread within the 18 to 45 age bracket.
    The members of the Committee also asked if health education covered family planning and HIV / AIDS prevention. Members also asked whether health education included information on family planning and prevention of HIV / AIDS.
    Despite significant progress, AIDS is far from over and the results are reversible. Despite considerable progress, AIDS is far from vanquished, and gains are reversible.
    Free HIV / AIDS tests are available for all pregnant women who wish to do so. All pregnant women who so desire may undergo a free HIV / AIDS test.
    He called on UNICEF to step up its action for children orphaned by AIDS-related parents’ deaths. He urged UNICEF to accelerate action for AIDS orphans.
    The most dangerous epidemic of today – HIV / AIDS – affects millions of children who become directly ill or become orphans. Today’s worst epidemic, HIV / AIDS, affects millions of children directly or by making them orphans.
    Cumulative global spending on HIV / AIDS in Africa in the 1990s was only US $ 70 million per year, i.e. $ 3 for each person infected with HIV. Total global health spending for HIV / AIDS in Africa in the 1990s has been just $ 70 million a year, which amounts to $ 3 per HIV-infected person.
    The Declaration also calls on regional organizations and partners to actively participate in the search for solutions to the HIV / AIDS crisis. The Declaration also urges regional organizations and partners actively to participate in the quest for solutions to the HIV / AIDS crisis.
    Harm reduction and substitution therapy programs are also included in the National HIV / AIDS Strategy. Harm reduction programs and the substitution therapy program are also incorporated in the National HIV / AIDS Strategy.
    An important part of the portal are real stories of infection and open blogs of people living with HIV / AIDS and taking replacement therapy. A big part of our social network portal is the ability to read-through genuine accounts given by people living with HIV and treated with substitution therapy.
    Vanuatu does not currently have counseling services or equipment for HIV / AIDS testing. Currently, Vanuatu has no counseling services or HIV / AIDS testing facilities.
    Millions of people could be saved from malaria, HIV / AIDS, hunger and slum life. Millions of people could be spared malaria, HIV / AIDS, hunger, and life in slums.
    My motto is Cigarettes and weed, glue and speed, but I make a clear distinction. My motto is Fags and weed, glue and speed, but I draws the line at crack.
    Today, about 1.5 million people in Russia are diagnosed with HIV or AIDS. Roughly 1.5 million people currently in Russia have been diagnosed with HIV or AIDS.
    Why do more young people not know how to reduce their risk of contracting HIV / AIDS? Is it because they are sometimes close to being illiterate even after primary school, or because it is unaffordable?
    And his best friend Speed ​​came to him and said: Lincoln, you need to pull yourself together, otherwise you will die. And his great friend Speed ​​went to his side and said, Lincoln, you must rally or you will die.
    Most people would say that malaria or even HIV / AIDS is the main killer of children. Most people would say that malaria or even HIV / AIDS are the leading child killers.
    The MDGs also address scourges such as maternal deaths during childbirth, lack of clean drinking water and deadly diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and AIDS. The MDG’s also address the scourges of maternal death in childbirth, lack of access to safe drinking water, and killer diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and AIDS.
    Here, AIDS shows that there is justice for people like you Bah, AIDS shows there’s a justice for people like you
    Let’s say you have an HIV test – the virus that causes AIDS – and this test says that this person is sick. Let’s suppose there’s a test for HIV – the virus that causes AIDS – and the test says the person has the disease.
    It follows that the more we treat AIDS, the more we need to step up HIV prevention. It means we need to be doing more prevention the more treatment we have.
    AIDS is an absolute taboo, says Annette Lennartz, because it is associated with sexuality. AIDS is an absolute taboo subject, said Annette Lennartz, because it is associated with sexuality.
    Meanwhile, she is rotting in a one-room apartment and waiting for HIV to turn into AIDS. And here she is festering away in a one-bedroom apartment waiting for the HIV to turn into AIDS.
    AIDS, sickle cell, tuberculosis, cancer, Jerry’s kids are still limping around. aids, sickle cell, tuberculosis, cancer, Jerry’s kids still limping around.
    Incurable cancers, AIDS – all the plagues of the human race will be destroyed. Incurable cancers, AIDS – all the scourges of the human race wiped out.
    I mean, Foy got $ 2 billion from Bartlett for HIV and AIDS research. Unless Foy got some of the $ 2 billion Bartlet earmarked for AIDS research.
    I’m saying this thing can eat brains and vomit space AIDS. It might eat brains and exhale space AIDS.
    It is quite obvious that the scenario of the end of the world … has a real basis, in the form of a contagious disease. Whether it’s plague, smallpox, or AIDS. Obviously, this plague-doomsday scenario is more compelling … when reality supports it with a virulent disease, whether it’s the bubonic plague, smallpox or AIDS.
    So you are HIV positive and develop full-blown AIDS. It means you’re HIV positive, and you’ve progressed to full-blown AIDS.
    I have three names on the AIDS America donor list. I got three families that donated to A.I.D.S. America
    Max Julion, Carol Speed ​​and Richard Pryer. Max Julian, Carol Speed ​​and Richard Pryor.
    The AIDS test was negative. You tested negative for the HIV antibody.
    Doctor, you know, I work with people at risk. And I would like to get tested for AIDS. Listen, Doctor, I work with people who are high-risk … so I’d like to have an AIDS test as well.

    Synonyms, dictionary of synonyms, replace a word with a synonym

    Makeword.ru includes the largest database of Russian synonyms and offers to use a synonym dictionary absolutely free.Synonyms are used mainly to avoid repetition in the text. Synonyms are words that have a similar or identical meaning, but are spelled differently.

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    90,000 “HIV and AIDS are not synonymous.” What you need to know about Human Immunodeficiency Virus? | HEALTH: Events | HEALTH

    December 1 – World AIDS Day.We need to start with what all doctors talk about. Human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are not synonymous. The second is the last, terminal stage of the first. It is impossible to cure HIV infection, at least for now, but if antiretroviral therapy is started at an early stage, then a person can fully live up to 70-80 years. Moreover, patients receive medicines free of charge.

    Live to old age

    “This disease is not so much a medical problem as a social one, a state problem,” says Alexander Palaguta, deputy chief physician of the Clinical Center for the Prevention and Control of AIDS of the Ministry of Health of the Krasnodar Territory , .“Therefore, it is not only doctors who should fight it, but also the authorities, the media – through prevention, explanation”.

    By joint efforts, according to Palaguta, we managed to do a lot – if seventeen years ago the region ranked second in the country in terms of the number of HIV-infected people, now it is 23rd.

    In the summer, all the media spread the news about a Tuapse resident who had been treated for a non-existent HIV infection for 13 years. How did that story end? As the doctors of the regional center for the prevention and fight against AIDS said, the man came with a certificate of the disease from places of imprisonment, where its presence gives some preferences: more high-calorie food, a ban on certain types of work.That is, in prison, a man could have obtained this certificate fraudulently in order to make his life easier. Of course, in the Tuapse AIDS Center, the diagnosis had to be checked – and this is the main mistake of the doctors. At the same time, according to the doctors, no medicine was given to him, although the pseudo-patient claimed the opposite. And when the analysis in the regional center showed that there was no HIV infection in the blood, he was removed from the register. And the man, they say, again got to the zone, only now without help making life easier.

    “The situation has stabilized thanks to the joint work of the regional Ministry of Health, the administration of the Krasnodar Territory, Rospotrebnadzor,” he continues.”As a result, the incidence and infection rate in our country is two times lower than the average in Russia.”

    According to official statistics, 19,600 HIV-infected people are registered in the Krasnodar Territory, in order to represent the true scale of the problem, this figure, according to doctors, must be multiplied by ten, that is, there are about 200 thousand people with HIV in the Kuban. Since 1987, 6161 people with the immunodeficiency virus have died in the region, but only three thousand of them due to the disease itself, the rest in an accident, took their own lives, died from an overdose.

    Drugs and sex

    The human immunodeficiency virus is not transmitted by household means – doctors repeat this constantly. The main routes of infection are intravenous drugs (31% of those infected in the region) and unprotected sex (67%). Moreover, it is not worth renouncing these troubles: doctors know cases when good girls became infected, the only time they went to a disco and after a couple of glasses of champagne allowed the man – the first in life – too much.

    “With unprotected sex, women are the most vulnerable,” says Alexander Palaguta.”If the chances of a man getting infected in this case are 15%, then women are 85%.”

    Therefore, according to doctors, it is necessary to honestly tell adolescents about the consequences of unprotected sex and drug use. It is precisely at informing as many people as possible that the state strategy for combating AIDS is aimed.

    “Therefore, we carry out prophylaxis in Krasnodar universities, in crowded places: airports, parks, train stations, shopping centers,” says Palaguta.“And we observe a decrease in the incidence rate among young people from 15 to 25 years old”.

    Women are most vulnerable to unprotected sex. If the chances of a man getting infected in this case are 15%, then women – 85%

    It is necessary to explain and carry out prevention not only among healthy people, but also among those who have already been infected – if an HIV-infected woman registers for pregnancy on time, the child will be born healthy. According to Palaguta, all children infected from their mothers were not registered in the antenatal clinic.And we are talking not only about the transmission of HIV infection, but also other dangerous diseases: syphilis, hepatitis, tuberculosis.

    “And we need to make sure that all pregnant women go to consultations at once,” is sure Deputy Chief Physician of the Krasnodar Regional Clinical Dermatovenerologic Dispensary Alexey Shevchenko . “If everyone is registered before the 12-week deadline, it will be a huge breakthrough.”

    How to talk to teens about HIV?

    What should a person do who, after the analysis, learns about the diagnosis?

    “We are engaged in prevention, but already among those who have encountered a problem,” says Anna Kulakova, psychologist of the GBUZ Narcological Dispensary of the Ministry of Health of the Krasnodar Territory, . – When a person finds out about such a diagnosis, his whole system of values ​​collapses. Most ask questions: “How and why to live now?” Difficulties arise in the family, where they begin to be afraid of a loved one – they have to explain the difference between HIV and AIDS, tell them that it is impossible to get infected in everyday life. The infected are stigmatized in society – they are afraid of such people, they cannot find a job. As a result, a person finds himself alone, and it is the worst tolerated. ”

    A person with HIV infection may at first deny its presence, bargain with himself and the disease, take offense at the world and everyone around.And then psychologists come to the rescue, who in conversations inform that it is possible to continue living with the disease. If you look deeper – why people choose the simplest and most destructive of all types of pleasure: drugs, alcohol, promiscuous sex, then the roots of all this should be sought in society and family.

    “Drugs and chaotic sexual intercourse indicate a lack of pleasure,” continues Anna Kulakova. “We need to work with a system of values ​​and ideals so that people understand that there are much more important things in life: family, children, true love.”

    And to talk about this with children and adolescents, firstly, it is necessary to be as honest as possible – they will feel any lie right away, and secondly, in their language.

    It is necessary to explain and carry out prevention not only among healthy people, but also among those already infected: if an HIV-infected woman registers for pregnancy on time, the child will be born healthy.

    “Children themselves are now in a crisis, because adults are busy with themselves, earnings, survival,” says the psychologist.“But you have to find time and talk to them. Prevention of drug addiction can be started at the age of 9 – not in the form of a rude prohibition, if you try, they say, I’ll kill you – this only piques interest, no. We need to watch films together, discuss – it is necessary to start with the family. ”

    “And an important line – upbringing by sports, especially in the yard – this creates healthy competition, – says Oleksiy Shevchenko. – In the region, special attention is paid to this – if earlier the one who drinks, smokes and offends others was considered the king of the court, now, on the contrary, the one who protects the weak.This is a good Cossack tradition. ”

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  • SPORT – (eng.: game, entertainment), in everyday life, an occupation associated with competition, hobby and passion. In S.’s physical education, one of the most important components, covers very heterogeneous physical.