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Acne scars repair: Acne scars: What’s the best treatment?

Treatment, Removal, Best, and More

You may be able to reduce the appearance of acne scars with over-the-counter products, medications, and dermatologist-performed procedures, including microdermabrasion.

Active breakouts are frustrating enough, but the scars acne can leave behind can be frustrating. The good news is that acne scars can be treated.

But before treatment can start, you first have to get rid of any acne once and for all since new breakouts can lead to new acne scars.

Some of the scar treatments below can’t be done alongside typical acne medications, and the inflammation caused by breakouts can also reduce treatment effectiveness.

Scars are formed when a breakout penetrates the skin deeply and damages the tissues beneath it.

Before you try to treat your scars, it’s important to know what type they are. Each type responds to treatment differently, and some treatments are better for particular types than others.

Additionally, your skin tone can also be a factor. For example, for darker skin types, deeper skin laser treatments will not be recommended due to higher chances of scarring and pigmentation.

Most darker skin tones will be pretreated with 4 percent hydroquinone (bleaching cream) prior to treatments like microneedling, peels, and lasers.

Atrophic scars are most common on the face. A depressed scar sits below the surrounding skin. They’re formed when not enough collagen is made while the wound is healing. There are three types of atrophic scars:


These are wide, U-shaped scars that have sharp edges. They can be shallow or deep. The shallower they are, the better they respond to skin resurfacing treatments. Microdermabrasion and gentle peels are great for almost all skin types.

But laser resurfacing has to be done cautiously because more scarring and pigmentary changes in darker skin tones, like post-inflammatory pigmentation. It’s best to pretreat darker skin types with a 4 percent hydroquinone for at least 4-6 weeks prior to starting these treatments.

Ice pick

Ice pick scars are narrow, V-shaped scars that can go deep into the skin. They can look like small round or oval holes, like a chickenpox scar. These are the most difficult scars to treat because they can extend far under the surface of the skin.


These are wide depressions that typically have rounded edges and an irregular, rolling appearance.

These scars are most common with chest and back acne. They stand above the surface of the surrounding skin and are caused by too much collagen during healing.

Discoloration left behind after a zit has cleared isn’t a scar. The purple, red, or brown marks will fade over a few months on their own.

Before you start any treatment for acne scars, it’s important to be seen by a dermatologist or a healthcare professional. They can help you determine the best method to reduce the appearance of your scars and also make sure that the marks on your skin are actually scars and not another condition.

Alpha hydroxy acids

Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) are often found in products made to treat acne since they help to remove dead skin and prevent clogged pores. Even better, AHAs can also help make acne scars appear less noticeable.

The mild acid exfoliates the outer layer of the skin to help remove discoloration and rough skin.

Best for: all types of acne scars

Lactic acid

A small 2010 study found that dermatologist-performed lactic acid peels done once every 2 weeks for 3 months improved the texture, appearance, and pigmentation of the skin and lightened acne scars.

There are countless peels, serums, and ointments with lactic acid, but you can also use diluted apple cider vinegar as a toner or spot treatment thanks to its natural lactic acid. But apple cider, as well as other at-home treatments, are potentially harsh on sensitive skin. They should always be tested to a small area of the skin before starting treatment with the product.

If the skin is sensitive and the product is applied, there’s potential for inflammation and irritation, which can lead to post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

Best for: all types of acne scars


Topical retinoids are another acne treatment with scar-smoothing benefits. In addition to speeding up your cell regeneration and improving your skin’s texture, retinoids can also help reduce discoloration and make scars less noticeable, according to a 2017 review.

But they can also make your skin especially sensitive to the sun. Always wear sunscreen daily when using anything that contains retinoids.

You can find creams and serums with retinoids over the counter, but a healthcare professional can also prescribe you higher concentrations. Look for products that list retinol as one of the active ingredients.

Best for: atrophic or depressed scars

Salicylic acid

Chances are high that you’ve already used salicylic acid to treat your acne in the past. From pads to spot treatments and lotions to face cleansers, it’s in just about every kind of acne treatment these days.

Salicylic acid clears pores, reduces swelling and redness, and exfoliates the skin when applied topically. It’s considered to be one of the best treatments for acne scars.

You can add products with salicylic acid into your daily routine, or your skin care specialist may use it for less frequent chemical peels.

It might take a few weeks to see a difference when using salicylic acid. It can also cause dryness or irritation. You may need to use the product less often or try spot treating if you have sensitive skin.

Best for: all acne scars


Yes, really. It’s vital to wear sunscreen every day over scars. Sun exposure can darken scars making them more noticeable.

If at-home treatments don’t seem to be making a difference, a skin care specialist or healthcare professional can help with your treatments.

Best for: all acne scars


Dermabrasion is one of the most effective and common treatments for facial scars. While it uses the same general principle as the microdermabrasion kits you can do at home, healthcare professionals use tools to more deeply exfoliate the top layer of the skin.

Best for: scars close to the surface like shallow boxcar or rolling scars. But deeper scars may also become less noticeable

Chemical peels

These aren’t the kind of face masks that you wear during a Netflix marathon. A chemical peel is a strong acid that’s used to remove the top layer of the skin to reduce deeper scars.

Some chemical peels are mild enough to be used at home, but a healthcare professional can provide a stronger solution with more dramatic results.

There are many different types of chemical peels, so it’s best to talk with a healthcare professional about which one is right for you.

Best for: all types of acne scars, often used for deeper scars

Laser resurfacing

Much like a chemical peel and dermabrasion, laser resurfacing removes the top layer of the skin. This treatment typically has a faster healing time than other resurfacing treatments.

But you have to keep the area covered with a bandage until it’s completely healed. This treatment is also not a good option for anyone who’s still getting breakouts, and it’s not as effective on darker skin tones.

Best for: all acne scars and lighter skin tones


Healthcare professionals use fillers to fill in acne scars and help even out the skin. The fillers can be made with collagen, your own fat, or a commercial filler. They’re injected under the surface of the skin to help plump up and smooth out depressed scars.

Most fillers last between 6 and 18 months before they need to be redone, but some are permanent.

Best for: someone with a small number of boxcar or rolling scars


This newer treatment uses a small, handheld, needle-studded roller or a handheld “pen” on the surface of the scars. The needles puncture the numbed skin — but don’t go through it like a shot! As the skin heals, it makes collagen.

There’s evidence to suggest that microneedling helps reduce the depth of acne scars. Still, this treatment can take up to 9 months to see changes, according to the American Academy of Dermatology. Outside of the slight fear factor, it’s a safe treatment that works for all skin tones.

Best for: depressed acne scars


There are a few different medications that can be injected into raised scars to help soften and flatten them, including corticosteroids and chemotherapy drugs fluorouracil (5-FU) and interferons. The injections are usually performed as a series, with one every few weeks.

Best for: raised scars

At first brush, it might seem crazy to remove a scar and potentially replace it with a new one, but dermatologists or plastic surgeons can remove a very noticeable scar and leave behind a small scar that will fade with time.

A healthcare professional can also lift the scar by loosening the fibers beneath it to help bring it closer to the surface, so it’s less noticeable. This procedure is called subcision.

Best for: deep, depressed scars and raised scars

Acne scars can be frustrating, but there are many treatments that can make them less noticeable. Most scars are permanent, but a healthcare professional can help you find the right treatment to help reduce the appearance of your scars.

The best way to treat an acne scar is to prevent it in the first place.

You’re less likely to develop acne scars if you break out less. Avoid picking, popping, or squeezing any breakout, no matter how tempting, to prevent irritating the skin and damaging the underlying tissue, which can lead to scars.

Read this article in Spanish.

Acne scars: Diagnosis and treatment

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Treatment of post-acne removal of scars and scars after acne


In the outcome of a long-term acne, with its incorrect treatment or lack thereof at all, persistent changes are formed on the skin (in the epidermis), which are called post-acne.

  • various hyperpigmentations;
  • post-inflammatory congestive reddish-cyanotic spots;
  • dilated pores of various sizes and shapes;
  • atrophic, normotrophic, hypertrophic, and sometimes even keloid scars;
  • formation of cysts of the sebaceous glands and whiteheads (miliums).

All these manifestations of post-acne significantly worsen the appearance of the skin and therefore, they definitely need and are well amenable to correction.

Today, in the arsenal of aesthetic medicine methods, there are enough affordable, safe and very effective medical procedures to eliminate the consequences of acne (blackheads, pimples).

The choice of the optimal technique or set of techniques for the correction of post-acne marks and scars is influenced by the general condition of the skin surface, the nature, depth, localization and number of clinical manifestations of post-acne.

Methods of correction, hardware treatment of acne and removal of scars and post-acne scars

To eliminate dermatological problems and skin defects that have formed as a result of acne, the doctors of our clinic use the following methods:

  1. Procedures for retinoic peels, mesotherapy, biorevitalization and bioreparation, injection carboxytherapy for acne treatment and post-acne removal.

Such procedures are carried out in order to restore the water-lipid mantle of the skin, reduce excess sebum production, improve skin color and turgor, and reduce the manifestations of hyperkeratosis. In addition, intradermal microinjections, which contain anti-inflammatory components, immunomodulators, vitamins, and other active components, contribute not only to the prevention of the formation of new inflammatory comedones, but also to the partial resorption of hypertrophic scars. In addition to the above, mesotherapy / biorevitalization is necessary and important for preparing the skin for laser procedures, which will significantly increase the effectiveness of laser exposure and reduce the number of necessary laser treatments.

At present, it is the impact of various lasers that is recognized as the world standard and the most effective method for correcting and treating post-acne conditions, as evidenced by numerous patient reviews. To achieve maximum results in the treatment and removal of post-acne manifestations is possible only in the case of the use of lasers.

The doctors of our clinic have three professional laser machines with different mechanisms of action for the correction of almost any dermatological and aesthetic problems associated with post-acne marks on the face and body:

  1. Post-inflammatory, stagnant and age spots are removed with high-intensity light lasers (IPL) Quantum SR and Palomar Max G (photorejuvenation).

The use of these two lasers with the same radiation source, but different in functionality, allows you to completely get rid of the pathological pigment and the congestive component of post-acne on the face, chest, forearms and back.

  1. To correct and even out the relief and color of the skin, we use various types of laser peels (cold, hot) and laser resurfacing, using the unique technologies of the Fotona SP Dynamis laser – its erbium laser (Er:Yag).

Taking into account the peculiarities of the skin condition after acne and, in particular, the presence of hyperkeratosis in varying degrees of severity, our doctors recommend periodic laser peeling / resurfacing procedures for such patients.

  1. In order to eliminate various cicatricial deformities of the skin, our clinic has a number of laser therapy methods:

  • Palomar 1540 fractional non-ablative thermolysis and Fotona (Nd:Yag) neodymium deep thermolysis (laser thermolifting). The procedures are performed without damaging the skin surface and are aimed primarily at removing atrophic scars and enlarged pores. It is the use of such technologies that makes it possible to “raise the bottom of craters and holes” after suffering severe forms of acne, as well as even out the skin relief in the presence of pronounced pores. In addition, such procedures significantly improve and “heal” the quality of problem skin.
  • Fractional ablative resurfacing (fractional ablative rejuvenation) with the Fotona (Er:Yag) erbium laser and its more superficial version Palomar 2940. Such procedures are performed with damage to the skin surface and are primarily aimed at the treatment of hypertrophic scars and a significant leveling of the skin relief. During fractional laser resurfacing, the upper layer of the epidermis is fragmentarily removed along with existing damage and defects. The procedure is performed after preliminary application anesthesia, so it is painless. The treatment process is maximally controlled, the depth of exposure is regulated by the intensity of the laser flow purely individually. The procedure significantly improves the condition and appearance of the skin and starts the process of its renewal.

Rehabilitation after fractional ablative laser resurfacing is 5-7 days. The first results of the procedure are visible immediately after skin healing. However, the final effect is visually assessed after 24-30 days.

Laser resurfacing helps to get rid of scars, scars and severe bluish spots caused by acne.

The course of treatment and removal of scars, scars and other manifestations after acne is always selected by our doctors very individually. The number of necessary laser and other procedures, their combination and frequency of performance depends on the severity and degree of manifestations of aesthetic post-acne defects on the face and body.

An important aspect in the complex treatment of skin with acne and post-acne manifestations is proper home care. The doctors of our clinic will select individually for each cosmetic and pharmaceutical external skin care products, which will increase the efficiency and visual effectiveness of the procedures.

Advantages of acne treatment and laser removal of post-acne marks on the face in our clinic in Moscow

  • Accumulated 20 years of experience with various skin defects after acne;
  • The largest possible choice of laser procedures;
  • Modern, professional, safe and versatile laser equipment;
  • High qualification of certified doctors;
  • An individually developed set of procedures, the use of modern effective laser techniques are the key to the most successful result even in the most severe cases of post-acne manifestations.

In the before and after photos you can see the results of laser treatment of acne and acne performed by our cosmetologists, as well as the removal of post-acne, spots, scars and scars. Our specialists are engaged in the treatment of acne and the removal of post-acne on the face and back in adults and adolescents.

Before and after results
  1. Prices for acne treatment with Fotona Nd:Yag laser technology
    1. Single element treatment


    2. Treatment of one area in acute stage


    3. Treatment of acne of the whole face in the acute stage


    4. Treatment of congestive spots and post-acne scars – single elements (up to 10 pieces)


    5. Treatment of congestive spots and post-acne scars – whole face


  2. Prices for acne treatment using Palomar LuxMaxG IPL laser technologies
    1. Treatment of congestive and age spots post-acne – the whole face


    2. Treatment of stasis and age spots post-acne – cheeks


    3. Treatment of stasis and age spots post-acne – forehead


    4. Treatment of stasis and age spots post-acne – chin


    5. Treatment of post-acne stasis and age spots – back


  3. Prices for Fotona Er:Yag laser treatments
    1. Light polishing leather “pearl shine”

    2. Facial polishing


    3. Regional polish (A6/10x14cm)


    4. Cold peeling

    5. Facial peeling


    6. Regional peeling (A6/10x14cm)


    7. Hot peeling

    8. Facial peeling


    9. Regional peeling (A6/10x14cm)


    10. Laser resurfacing

    11. Face resurfacing


    12. Regional sanding (A6/10x14cm)


    13. Scar polishing 1 cm2


    14. Fractional technologies with damage to the skin surface

    15. Fractional treatment of connective tissue, scar treatment/per 1 cm2


    16. Fractional treatment of connective tissue, treatment of scars from 10 cm2 (per 1 cm2)


    17. Regional fractionation (A6/10x14cm)


    18. Therapeutic combined resurfacing (severe post-acne)


  4. Prices for procedures using Palomar 1540 laser technology without damaging the skin surface
    1. Scars, scars treatment 1 cm2


    2. Post-acne treatment treatment area 1 cm2


    3. Cheek acne treatment


    4. Chin acne treatment


Federal State Budgetary Institution National Medical Research Center
Ministry of Health of Russia

Didn’t find the answer to your question?
Call and ask our specialists by phone +7 (495) 500 00 97 or write +7 (910) 455 34 97

Acne Scar Treatment Program

We are all born with the delicate skin of a child. However, throughout life, the skin has to go through many tests: the sun, aging, acne, which are reflected both on the face and in the soul.

“Scars adorn” – this statement does not apply to either women or men today. We do not consciously strive for scars, but if they are, we hide them under makeup. However, this is not an option. Especially when you want naturalness, which is always in fashion.

A program for the treatment of acne scars is being prepared in our clinic. Choose from a trusted combination of the latest generation of laser treatments and other options to help reduce or completely remove acne scars and other surgical and burn scars.

Short-term (6 months) and long-term (more than 1 year) skin care program designed to smooth out acne scars and avoid new ones.

Other treatments or treatments suitable for the specific skin type are discussed on a case-by-case basis.

Acne scar classification:

1. Ice pick, atrophic scar 1

dermis. The scar is wider on the surface and tapers at the base, creating a V-shape. Most often, these scars are localized in the cheek area, placed in groups, creating small, deep, dotted holes. They look like holes in ice, which is why they got their name. Since the scars of this type of acne are deep, it is very difficult to smooth them out using conventional superficial procedures. Procedures are applied that act on the deep layers of the skin.

2. Boxcar, atrophic scar 1

Also common acne scars, especially on the cheeks and temples. Angular, with sharp edges, wide U-shape, often round or linear. They are called small if they reach a depth of 0.1-0.5 mm and are successfully treated with superficial laser procedures. Also, scars of this type can reach the middle layers of the skin or form deep, up to the mesh layer of the skin. In these two cases, a combination of laser treatments is required for superficial, deep or all layers of the skin.

3. “Waves” (rolling), atrophic scars 1

In the presence of damage to deeper layers of the skin, acne scars form in the form of waves – wide, shallow, 4-5 mm in diameter. Under them, fibers of fibrous tissue are localized, which over time “pull” down the upper layers, forming waves on the surface of the skin. Wanting to correct them, often, separation is used during treatment.

4. Hypertrophic (raised) scars

Pineal, irregular, raised scars are often referred to as keloid scars. They are mainly formed in the areas of the chest, back, neck, cheeks, lower jaw. They are created after cystic or nodular acne, with hyper collagen formation – when the scar rises above the surface of the skin. They may decrease over time. Medical injections of combined treatment methods are used, with the help of which amazing results are achieved.

5. Post-inflammatory pigmentation, red or early acne scars

They are hard to hide, and the redness and scars left behind make them more visible, even after the rash has healed. They are not scars. After inflammation, hyperpigmentation occurs – pink spots that tend to form after a deep skin lesion, most often with nodular, cystic acne. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation appears during the healing of acne rashes in the period of 6-12 months and is part of the inflammatory process. If left untreated, it remains for a long time, turns white and scars form.

1 Atrophic scars – formed after inflammation when tissue defects appear.

This classification allows you to determine the most appropriate treatment for each type of scar, and the combination of methods leads to the best results. Treatment is selected individually depending on the degree of complexity of skin damage. Starting with exfoliation of the upper and middle layers of the skin, as well as agents that stimulate the remodeling of deep layers of the skin; renewal of all skin layers with the Fraxel Dual fractional laser, instant filling with stabilizing preparations, ending with skin resurfacing or surgical interventions.

How are scars formed?

Pimples can leave scars on the skin as a result of skin inflammation. In the fat sac of the hair due to colonization (propionebacterium acnes) inflammation occurs. The body responds by producing more white blood cells and inflammatory molecules. Sometimes, after the rash has healed, damaged tissues do not return to their original position. Depending on the nature of the rash and the localization of the damaged area, post-inflammatory pigmentation is formed, scars of various forms, which can be long-term. In more complex forms, on a larger area of ​​​​inflammation, the infection covers the deeper layers of the skin. With an individual tendency, a lack of skin appears, indented scars form. Due to the disturbed reaction of the body, bulging, hypertrophic scars can form.

Prevention of acne scars

Acne is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 85% of young people and 5% of adults. Pimples accompany the most beautiful period of life. It’s hard to come to terms with scars that never seem to go away. However, now medical, aesthetic and laser dermatology offer modern methods of treatment, thanks to which you can say goodbye to acne. The main thing is to diagnose, determine its appearance, development, accompanying factors and start a suitable treatment. It is necessary to pay attention to skin care, take measures to prevent the appearance of various scars. It should be remembered that in order to avoid the formation of scars, it is important not to squeeze or injure acne. Injury to the skin entails: prolonged healing of the rash, the formation of deep skin lesions, more pronounced post-inflammatory pigmentation is possible, and an increase in the likelihood of scarring. It is not uncommon for a secondary infection to develop that worsens the condition of the skin.

How long does it take to treat acne scars?

Several months to a year. This is due to the shape of the scars, their severity and time of formation.

Do I need special skin care after treatment?

It is recommended to avoid direct sunlight for at least 3 weeks before and after laser treatment, follow the doctor’s instructions for skin care after procedures.

After the scars are smoothed, the skin is restored and remains so. After that, you must use daily skin care products prescribed by your doctor.

When is the best time to start treating long or recent scars?

Period up to 6 months

The sooner scar removal treatment is started, the better the result.

Scars appearing before 6 months are considered to be newly formed. During this period, natural remedies are most suitable: the introduction of biologically active substances, hyaluron and plant extracts into the skin and under the skin, mesotherapy, biorevitalization, alpha and beta hydroxy combinations, TCA and other organic acid peeling procedures, collagen synthesis stimulating procedures. As well as Omnilux revive 633 nm red light treatments, which accelerate the healing of inflammatory acne, stimulating the production of new collagen. As well as laser procedures. Combining the effect on the skin of lasers, fruit and hyaluronic acids, as well as active substances, damaged collagen in the areas of scars is restored. Additionally, the skin is nourished by cocktails of biologically active substances and vitamins. A daily skin care program is drawn up individually for each patient, active prophylactic agents are selected to prevent a new rash from appearing.

Period after 6 months

Depending on the form of scars, the following treatment is used:

  • strong exfoliants (exfoliants) – acids;
  • local microsurgical interventions;
  • injection of stabilized excipients;
  • laser therapy is one of the most modern and effective methods of treatment. Under the influence of a laser, collagen synthesis is stimulated in the skin, so the surface of the scar is leveled.

Laser treatments use ablative and non-ablative lasers. Ablative lasers – the surface layer of the skin is removed. Non-ablative lasers – the surface of the skin remains, while the laser affects only the deep layers of the skin. The advantage of non-ablative lasers is that the skin heals without scabs.

Fractional lasers are another category of lasers. During the procedure with this laser, the beam does not affect the entire surface of the skin, but only microfractions – perpendicularly focused columns of laser light, falling on the skin, remove old cells, while leaving healthy skin areas around. In this way, effective results are achieved with the high level of safety characteristic of non-ablative lasers.

In our scar clinic, different lasers are used depending on the shape of the acne and the scars left behind.

In the active form of acne, remission of the disease is first achieved. In this case, the most effective use of the Omnilux Medical system is the combination of blue and red light therapy for 12 weeks. The rash is reduced by up to 89%.

Omnilux Medical blue and revive for active acne

Omnilux blue (blue, 415 nm) and red (red, 633 nm) specific wavelength beams cause long-term remission of acne rashes. Omnilux blue destroys the bacteria involved in the formation of acne. After that, the inflammatory process decreases.

After bacteria are killed, Omnilux revive red light is used, which has an anti-inflammatory effect and stimulates skin healing, soothes irritated skin. In this way, the acne rash heals, new acne does not form, inflammation disappears, and cellular processes normalize. Omnilux LED light reduces the secretion of sebum and the production of inflammatory factors, as a result of which the amount of fat secreted by the adipose glands decreases to a normal level and inflammation disappears. In addition, fibroblasts responsible for the production of collagen are stimulated, so the color and tone of the skin improves after the procedures.

Omnilux Medical’s combined blue and red light system has been scientifically proven to be the only system to cause long-term remission of acne rashes.

VBeam Perfecta for Pimples and Redness

VBeam Perfecta Blood Vessel Pulsed Dye Laser reduces inflammation caused by bacteria in acne. The laser acts on small blood vessels formed at the site of acne inflammation, coagulates them, they are gradually absorbed, effectively removing the redness of acne scars. This stimulates the synthesis of new collagen, the skin relief is leveled. As a result, redness and pink spots are gradually removed, the rash disappears, scars are smoothed out.

CO2RE Scar Resurfacing Laser

CO2RE Laser for fractional skin rejuvenation and stimulates new cell regeneration. The laser is used when performing skin resurfacing, stimulates the formation of new collagen fibers, and is also intended for skin rejuvenation, correction of wrinkles, scars, stretch marks.

Fraxel re:Store Dual 1550/1927 Fraxel Skin Resurfacing for New and Old Scars

Fraxel Laser, revolutionizing skin resurfacing, Fraxel Laser has quickly become a popular technology and the most effective treatment for acne scars.

The newest version of the Fraxel laser is the Fraxel Dual with technology that combines two wavelengths: 1550 nm and 1927 nm. Fraxel Dual is a dual action and double effect laser that rejuvenates the skin and removes all its defects. During one procedure, the effect of two lasers is used. All layers of the skin are restructured: the 1550 nm wave renews the deep layers of the skin, the 1927 nm wave renews the upper layer of the skin and removes pigmentation.

During Fraxel Dual laser treatment, not the entire surface of the skin is heated, but only individual microfractions. Microscopic laser columns renew the skin with MTZ (microthermal zones) without damaging the surrounding tissues. Therefore, faster healing and restoration of the skin is stimulated, while the procedural period is minimal. During treatment, old tissues are replaced by new skin – new healthy cells are formed, the skin is rejuvenated and smoothed again. Using the latest Fraxel Dual 1550/19 laser technology27 nm achieves results that were previously only possible with very aggressive treatments.

The Fraxel Dual laser with two wave levels is effective for both young and old scars of all types: acne scars, surgical, burn, atrophic, hypertrophic and other scars, as well as scars after pregnancy and other skin defects.