About all

Age ms: Multiple sclerosis – Symptoms and causes

Содержание

Multiple sclerosis – NHS

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance.

It’s a lifelong condition that can sometimes cause serious disability, although it can occasionally be mild.

In many cases, it’s possible to treat symptoms. Average life expectancy is slightly reduced for people with MS.

It’s most commonly diagnosed in people in their 20s and 30s, although it can develop at any age. It’s about 2 to 3 times more common in women than men.

MS is 1 of the most common causes of disability in younger adults.

Information:

Coronavirus advice

Symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS)

The symptoms of MS vary widely from person to person and can affect any part of the body.

The main symptoms include:

  • fatigue
  • difficulty walking
  • vision problems, such as blurred vision
  • problems controlling the bladder
  • numbness or tingling in different parts of the body
  • muscle stiffness and spasms
  • problems with balance and co-ordination
  • problems with thinking, learning and planning

Depending on the type of MS you have, your symptoms may come and go in phases or get steadily worse over time (progress).

Getting medical advice

See a GP if you’re worried you might have early signs of MS.

The early symptoms often have many other causes, so they’re not necessarily a sign of MS.

Let your GP know about the specific pattern of symptoms you’re experiencing.

If they think you could have MS, you’ll be referred to a specialist in conditions of the nervous system (a neurologist), who may suggest tests such as an MRI scan to check for features of MS.

Find out more about diagnosing MS

Types of multiple sclerosis (MS)

MS starts in 1 of 2 general ways: with individual relapses (attacks or exacerbations) or with gradual progression.

Relapsing remitting MS

More than 8 out of every 10 people with MS are diagnosed with the relapsing remitting type.

Someone with relapsing remitting MS will have episodes of new or worsening symptoms, known as relapses.

These typically worsen over a few days, last for days to weeks to months, then slowly improve over a similar time period.

Relapses often occur without warning, but are sometimes associated with a period of illness or stress.

The symptoms of a relapse may disappear altogether, with or without treatment, although some symptoms often persist, with repeated attacks happening over several years.

Periods between attacks are known as periods of remission. These can last for years at a time.

After many years (usually decades), many, but not all, people with relapsing remitting MS go on to develop secondary progressive MS.

In this type of MS, symptoms gradually worsen over time without obvious attacks. Some people continue to have infrequent relapses during this stage.

Around half of people with relapsing remitting MS will develop secondary progressive MS within 15 to 20 years, and the risk of this happening increases the longer you have the condition.

Primary progressive MS

Just over 1 in 10 people with the condition start their MS with a gradual worsening of symptoms.

In primary progressive MS, symptoms gradually worsen and accumulate over several years, and there are no periods of remission, though people often have periods where their condition appears to stabilise.

What causes multiple sclerosis (MS)?

MS is an autoimmune condition. This is when something goes wrong with the immune system and it mistakenly attacks a healthy part of the body – in this case, the brain or spinal cord of the nervous system.

In MS, the immune system attacks the layer that surrounds and protects the nerves called the myelin sheath.

This damages and scars the sheath, and potentially the underlying nerves, meaning that messages travelling along the nerves become slowed or disrupted.

Exactly what causes the immune system to act in this way is unclear, but most experts think a combination of genetic and environmental factors is involved.

Treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS)

There’s currently no cure for MS, but a number of treatments can help control the condition.

The treatment you need will depend on the specific symptoms and difficulties you have.

It may include:

  • treating relapses with short courses of steroid medicine to speed up recovery
  • specific treatments for individual MS symptoms
  • treatment to reduce the number of relapses using medicines called disease-modifying therapies

Disease-modifying therapies may also help to slow or reduce the overall worsening of disability in people with a type of MS called relapsing remitting MS, and in those with a type called secondary progressive MS who have relapses.

Unfortunately, there’s currently no treatment that can slow the progress of a type of MS called primary progressive MS, or secondary progressive MS in the absence of relapses.

Many therapies aiming to treat progressive MS are currently being researched.

Living with multiple sclerosis (MS)

If you have been diagnosed with MS, it’s important to take care of your general health.

Read more advice about living with MS

Outlook

MS can be a challenging condition to live with, but new treatments over the past 20 years have considerably improved the quality of life of people with the condition.

MS itself is rarely fatal, but complications may arise from severe MS, such as chest or bladder infections, or swallowing difficulties.

The average life expectancy for people with MS is around 5 to 10 years lower than average, and this gap appears to be getting smaller all the time.

Charities and support groups for multiple sclerosis (MS)

There are 2 main MS charities in the UK:

These organisations offer useful advice, publications, news items about ongoing research, blogs and chatrooms.

They can be very useful if you, or someone you know, has just been diagnosed with MS.

There’s also the shift.ms website, an online community for younger people affected by MS.

Information:

Social care and support guide

If you:

  • need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability
  • care for someone regularly because they’re ill, elderly or disabled, including family members

Our guide to care and support explains your options and where you can get support.

Page last reviewed: 20 December 2018
Next review due: 20 December 2021

Multiple sclerosis before the age of 18

The study of juvenile forms has increased considerably over the past years in the hope of discovering the triggering factors of the disease as close as possible to its onset.

The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs before the age of 18 in 3% to 5% of patients. Among these young patients, 17% had their first flare-up before the age of 10 and 83% between the ages of 10 and 18. The two youngest patients of the author of these lines were six and nine when their illness began.

Making the right diagnosis

The first flare-up is difficult to diagnose as the start of MS. Our paediatric neurologist colleagues have had to include this possibility in their differential diagnosis and distinguish it from a single episode called “post-infectious perivenous encephalomyelitis.” The latter illness is caused by an inflammation of the brain occurring as a result of a viral infection, particularly measles before the era of generalized vaccinations, and sometimes chicken pox or other viruses that may not be identified. The symptomatology of encephalomyelitis is often more acute and brutal. It sometimes includes altered consciousness and epileptic attacks. However, there are no formal clinical criteria to distinguish it from an early onset of MS. On the other hand, the presence of oligoclonal IgG bands in the cerebrospinal fluid is an argument pointing to multiple sclerosis.
It is often necessary to wait for a second flare-up to firmly establish a multiple sclerosis diagnosis in children and adolescents. The second flare-up occurs on average six years after the first one in children under 10 and one year after the first one in children over 10.

The frequency of flare-ups is generally higher in the forms occurring before 18 than in adult forms.

The flare-ups are more inflammatory, with a greater number of lesions visible with magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI). The illness can then evolve into a secondary, progressive form, on average 23 years after it starts, more slowly than in adult forms (which progress after 12 to 15 years of illness, on average). Overall, however, patients who fall ill before the age of 18 will be disabled at a younger age than those whose illness begins between 25 and 35, as is most often the case.

More cognitive problems in children

The symptomatology of juvenile forms does not differ significantly from that of adult forms, with the exception of a higher frequency of cognitive problems from the onset of the illness, that is, in 30% of the children. They interfere significantly with their schooling which can be interrupted by repeated flare-ups. 

First line treatments normally used in adults, such as beta interferons and Copaxone, are equally effective in juvenile forms.  These products significantly reduce the frequency of flare-ups, but no longer work in 50% of patients after a few years. Second line treatments have been much less studied in juvenile forms. However, an Italian series of 20 young patients showed the high effectiveness and good tolerance of Natalizumab (Tysabri).

More research is needed

The study of juvenile forms has increased considerably over the past years in the hope of discovering the triggering factors of the disease as close as possible to its onset. Research has shown that young patients with multiple sclerosis tested positive for the infectious mononucleosis virus (over 85%) more often than children who didn’t have the disease (40%-60%). Vitamin D levels are also lower in these children and increasing the serum concentration of vitamin D results in a decrease in the frequency of flare-ups by a third in 10 ng/ml increases. In addition, the most recent studies haven’t revealed any link between the onset of multiple sclerosis in children and vaccinations, including the hepatitis B vaccine.
To date, the search for an immune system disruption specific to the onset of multiple sclerosis in children and adolescents has been relatively disappointing. The presence of an autoantibody against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) has not been confirmed and may even show that there is no link with multiple sclerosis. These currently disappointing results should not prevent continued, in-depth research on the mechanisms of infantile and juvenile multiple sclerosis.

Explaining the stakes of treatment  

Given the frequent cognitive impact of juvenile forms and their evolution toward a secondary, progressive form, it is important to diagnose them early and treat them aggressively keeping in mind that there may be some psychological barriers to chronic treatment in adolescents. However, the stakes are high given that the goal is to impede a gradual increase in brain lesions and to prevent brain atrophy.

Professor C. Sindic, Chairman

Can MS begin in the over fifties?

Summary

At one time, it was thought that MS rarely developed in people over 50 but opinion is changing as more cases are now being identified. This study looked at the characteristics of MS when it begins over the age of 50.

People in south-east Wales whose MS began at age 50 or above were identified from a regional database of 2654 people with MS. Some distinct differences were found compared with those whose MS began at a younger age. The researchers found that sensory and motor symptoms were more frequently found, there were fewer relapses and faster progression of disability.

The researchers comment that this makes it even more important to identity this group and to ensure that they have the support they need from MS services.

Background

MS is often diagnosed when someone is in their twenties or thirties. At one time, it was thought that MS rarely developed in people over 50 but opinion is changing as more cases are now being identified.

Diagnosing MS can be difficult in a person of any age but there are additional challenges as people get older. This is because there are other age related conditions which need to be taken into consideration when deciding what the correct diagnosis might be. In addition, there is little information available on the long term pattern of MS in people who develop it late in life.

How this study was carried out

People in south-east Wales whose MS began at age 50 or above were identified from a regional database of 2654 people with MS. The over 50’s group was named “late onset MS” and was compared with an adult (under age 50) onset group.

The medical notes of the late onset group were reviewed to see what diagnoses were considered apart from MS.

What was found

132 people (5.2%) had late onset MS which had begun between the ages of 50 and 72. Some distinct differences were found:

  • Over half (58%) of the late onset group were women as compared with just over two thirds (70%) of the adult onset group.
  • Almost half (47%) had primary progressive MS (PPMS) whereas less than one in ten (9%) had PPMS in the adult onset group
  • The average time from first symptoms to diagnosis was 2.7 years as compared with 4.6 years
  • People in the late onset group were more likely to test negative when cerebrospinal fluid from a lumbar puncture was analysed for oligoclonal bands (23% as compared with 16%)

In four out of ten (42%) cases of late onset MS, no other diagnosis was considered likely and so diagnosis was made more rapidly (on average after 1. 8 years).

For those where other possible diagnoses were considered, it took an average of 3.2 years to come to the definite diagnosis of MS. The most common possibilities considered were cerebrovascular disease (16%), degenerative spinal disease (8%) and motor neurone disease (6%).

The most common first symptoms were sensory and cerebellar symptoms for the older age group whereas optic neuritis was most common in the adult onset group.

The late onset group had about half as many relapses in the first ten years compared with the adult onset group. However, they reached disability milestones more quickly as judged by the time taken to reach a particular EDSS score. For example they took an average of 4.8 years to reach an EDSS of 4 as compared with 15.5 years; an average of 5.7 years to reach an EDSS of 6 as compared with 20.4 years; an average of 16.8 years to reach an EDSS of 8 as compared with 39.0 years. However, as their MS had begun later in life, the late onset group were between five and 11 years older when they got to each disability milestone.

What does it mean?

When MS occurs in adults over 50 it can be difficult to diagnose as it may be quite different from MS in younger adults and because it may appear similar to other conditions which occur in older age groups. The most common differences in the older age group are that sensory and motor symptoms are more frequently found, there are fewer relapses and faster progression of disability.

Once MS has begun, disability progresses more rapidly than in younger people with MS. The researchers comment that this makes it even more important to diagnose the older group and to ensure that they have the support they need from MS services.

Harding K, Griffiths M, Wardle M, et al.
Late-onset multiple sclerosis in south-east Wales.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;84(11):e2.
abstract

More about diagnosing MS

MS can be very difficult to diagnose and it often takes a long time to get a definite diagnosis.

All the symptoms of MS can also be symptoms of other conditions so the neurologist has to work out which of all the possibilities is the correct one. This can mean lots of tests to rule out other conditions and then more tests to see if it might be MS. It is sometimes a question of watching and waiting to see how symptoms develop as this can help distinguish MS from the other possibilities. All this can be very frustrating and worrying but it is quite a common experience.

Tests used in the diagnosis of MS

There is no simple test for MS which will say “yes” or “no” like a pregnancy test. The neurologist has to take a multi-pronged approach and use their experience to decide if it is MS or not. Sometimes, it is still impossible to be absolutely certain.

Neurologists will usually ask about any history of unexplained symptoms.The most common next step is to have an MRI scan which can detect the tiny scars caused by MS. These show up as little white patches in the brain and spinal cord and are usually called lesions. Everyone gets more white patches in their brain as they get older so the neurologist has to judge if they are all age-related or possibly due to MS. Sometimes a chemical called gadolinium is injected into a vein before the scan as it can help the radiologist and neurologist distinguish between active MS lesions and old areas of scarring.

Some people will have a lumbar puncture also known as a spinal tap. In this test, a sample is taken of the cerebrospinal fluid which bathes the brain and spinal cord. The fluid can be analysed in the laboratory and if more protein bands are seen than usual (called oligoclonal bands) this can suggest MS.

In some cases, evoked potential tests are carried out. This involves putting small electrodes on the head, arms or legs to measure the speed of messages travelling along the nerves from the eyes, ears or skin on the limbs. If the messages are slowed then this may be due to MS.

The neurologist will review all the test results alongside a person’s medical history to decide if it all adds up to a diagnosis of MS.

Research by topic areas…

Multiple Sclerosis: Prognosis


It is estimated that for all MS patients the chance of walking unaided in 15 years following disease onset is 50%.


1/2 of the patients will need assistance in walking or will be wheelchair bound; another 1/2 of the patients will be able to ambulate unaided.

Frequency of death by suicide was found to be 7.5 times higher among patients with MS compared to the general population. It was found that in suicidal patients, suicide rate did not correlate with disability.

The average longevity in the population of patients with MS is very difficult to estimate because it varies widely from patient to patient. Average life span of 25 to 35 years after the diagnosis of MS is made are often stated. Some of the most common causes of death in MS patients are secondary complications resulting from immobility, chronic urinary tract infections, compromised swallowing and breathing. Some of the complications in this category are chronic bed sores, urogenital sepsis, and aspiration or bacterial pneumonia.

Factors that influence prognosis:
Favorable   Unfavorable
Females   Males
Low rate of relapses per year   High rate of relapses per year
Complete recovery from the first attack   Incomplete recovery from the first attack
Long interval between first and second attack   Short interval between first and second attack
Symptoms predominantly from afferent systems (i.e.,. sensory symptoms)   Symptoms predominantly from efferent systems (i.e.,. symptoms of motor tract involvement)
Younger age of onset   Older age of onset
Low disability at 2 to 5 years from the disease onset   Significant disability at 2 to 5 years from the onset
acute onset
Later cerebellar involvement   Early cerebellar involvement
Involvement of only one CNS system at the time of onset   Involvement of more than one CNS system at the time of onset

Multiple Sclerosis: Epidemiology and Prevalence


 


There are about 300,000 patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis in the North America today.
The age of onset peaks between 20 and 30 years. Almost 70% of patients manifest symptoms between ages 21 and 40. Disease rarely occurs prior to 10 or after 60 years of age. However, patients as young as 3 and as old as 67 years of age have been described. Like other immuno- mediated diseases, females are affected more frequently than males (1.4 to 3.1 times as many women than men affected.)

 


There is a very specific geographic distribution of this disease around the world.
A significantly higher incidence of the disease is found in the northernmost latitudes of the northern and the southern hemispheres compared to southernmost latitudes. This observation is based on the incidence of the disease in Scandinavia, northern United States and Canada, as well as Australia and New Zealand. The data from migration studies shows that if the exposure to a higher risk environment occurs during adolescence (before 15 years of age,) the migrant assumes the higher risk of the environment. This concept is nicely illustrated in studies of native-born South African white population with low incidence of the disease versus high incidence of MS among white immigrants from Great Britain, where the disease is much more prevalent (Saud A. Sadiq,James R. Miller et al.) “Epidemics” of MS have been reported and these provide further evidence of importance of environmental factors in MS. The most notable “epidemic” was described on the Faroe Islands after they were occupied by British troops in W.W.II. Similar increases in incidence of the disease were seen on Shetland and Orkney Islands, in Iceland, and in Sardinia. A specific “point agent” for these “epidemics” never was identified.

See map

 

There are also population studies that show difference in susceptibility to MS between different populations. Lapps in Scandinavia appear to be resistant to the disease, contrary to the expectations based on their geographic distribution. Native Americans and Hutterites very infrequently suffer from MS, as opposed to other residents of the North America. MS is uncommon in Japan, China and South America. It is practically unknown among the indigenous people of equatorial Africa and among native Inuit in Alaska. When the racial differences are correlated, White populations are at greater risk than Asian or African populations. We can not yet explain these obvious inconsistencies in disease distribution, but the knowledge of them may be helpful in assessing specific patients.

 

The incidence of MS in first degree relatives is 20 times higher than in general population, suggesting the influence of genetic factors on the disease. Monozygotic twin studies show the concordance rate of 30%. Dizygotic twins show concordance rate of less than 5%. These results suggest that both the genetic factors and environmental exposure are important in disease expression.

MDWFP – Fishing








Price Agent Fee Process Fee
Sportsman’s License
Does not include saltwater fishing.
$45.00 $1.00 $1.29
All Game Hunting/Freshwater Fishing
Does not include Archery/Primitive Weapon/Crossbow.
$25.00 $1.00 $1.29
Small Game Hunting/Freshwater Fishing $10.00 $1.00 $1.29
3-Day Freshwater Fishing $3.00 $1.00 $1.29
Saltwater Fishing $10.00 $1.00 $1.29
Senior Lifetime Saltwater License – age 65 and over. $5.00 $1.00 $1.29

 








Price Agent Fee Process Fee
Armed Forces 14-Day Hunting/Fishing
Must apply through MDWFP – Application. (Includes Fall Turkey and Archery/Primitive Weapon/Crossbow. Does not include Saltwater Fishing)
$33.00 $0 $1.29
Freshwater Fishing $60.00 $3.00 $1.29
3-Day Freshwater Fishing $15.00 $2.00 $1.29
1-Day Freshwater Fishing $8.00 $1.00 $1.29
Saltwater Fishing $30.00 $3.00 $1.29
3-Day Saltwater Fishing $15.00 $2.00 $1.29

NOTE: Louisiana residents must purchase both the Freshwater and Saltwater license to fish in the marine waters of Mississippi.

 

 

 

Fishing License Regulations

Resident – Each resident of the State of Mississippi ages sixteen (16) through sixty-four (64), fishing in the fresh or marine waters of Mississippi, including lakes and reservoirs but NOT to include privately owned ponds and streams, shall be required to buy a fishing license. A saltwater license is required south of U. S. Highway 90 and a freshwater or saltwater license is valid between I-10 and U. S. Highway 90. Saltwater license is not valid north of I-10. Any person sixty-five (65) or older, or any person otherwise exempted from obtaining a freshwater fishing license, must have documentation with him/her at all times while fishing as described in Exemptions. [MS. Code 49-7-9] Effective July 1, 2010, residents 65 years of age or older are required to purchase a lifetime recreational saltwater fishing license ($7.29, includes all fees).

Non-Resident – All non-resident anglers, except minors under the age of sixteen (16), are required to obtain a fishing license while fishing in the fresh or marine waters of the State of Mississippi.

Exemptions
Residents who are visually impaired, paraplegic, a multiple-amputee, adjudged totally disabled by the Social Security Administration or totally service connected disabled by the Veterans Administration are not required to purchase a HUNTING OR FISHING LICENSE. [MS. Code 49-7-5 and 49-7-9] Residents exempt based on this criteria are required to have proof of their age, residency, disability status or other physical impairment in their possession while engaged in hunting and fishing activities. All exempt licenses previously issued for DISABILITIES are null and void.

Proof of Residency
ONLY PERSONS DOMICILED WITHIN THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI AS DEFINED IN SECTION 49-7-3 OF THE MISSISSIPPI CODE, AS AMENDED, ARE ENTITLED TO OBTAIN A RESIDENT HUNTING/ FISHING LICENSE.
Under this section, a person’s domicile is that person’s principal or primary home or place of abode. Provided, however, a person holding a current driver’s license is deemed to be domiciled within the state that issued the driver’s license. Even if a person currently resides within the State of Mississippi, for purposes of obtaining a hunting license, he/she is considered to be domiciled in the state which issued the driver’s license.
 
I. If you HOLD a current driver’s license:
a. If you hold a current MISSISSIPPI driver’s license, you are entitled to purchase a resident hunting license.
b. If you hold a driver’s license from any state other than Mississippi, you are required to purchase a non-resident hunting license.

II. If you DO NOT hold a current driver’s license from any state:
You are entitled to purchase a resident hunting license if Mississippi is your principal or primary home or place of abode. A current Mississippi resident income tax return or a home stead exemption receipt may be considered as evidence of domicile, but these are not necessarily determinative. You may be denied a resident hunting license if you fail to provide adequate proof.

EXCEPTIONS
Even if you are domiciled in another state, you may purchase a resident hunting license if you provide either (1) a current identification card from a Mississippi college or university; or (2) a current military ID card showing that you are an active member of the Armed Forces (excluding Reserves and the National Guard) and proof that you are stationed on a military base in Mississippi.

Proof of age may be shown by the following:
A. A valid driver’s license; or
B. Copy of birth certificate

Mississippi Lifetime License
Resident lifetime license applicants must prove that they have been domiciled in the State of Mississippi for a minimum of eighteen (18) months immediately prior to issuance of such licenses.

 

Additional Resources

 

What Role Does Age Play in Multiple Sclerosis?

Le Hua, MD

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a difficult disease for physicians to treat, even with the relatively vast arsenal of therapeutics available as treatment options.

Additionally, a wide variety of factors, from the patient’s age at diagnosis to the duration of the disease, can influence the physician’s decisions in managing its progression. Currently, the disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for MS treatment target the early phase of the disease course—characterized by lesion activity and inflammation—while treatments for progressive disease have required a modified approach.

To find out more about the questions MS specialists are facing and the relationship between age, disease duration, and treatment in patients, as well as what can be gleaned from the age-based subanalysis of the EXPAND clinical trial, NeurologyLive sat with Le Hua, MD, director, Multiple Sclerosis Program, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health.

NeurologyLive: How much do we know about the correlation between disease duration and age in MS?

Le Hua, MD: Disease duration and age go hand-in-hand, right? The older you are, the longer you’re likely to have the disease, as the pretty general rule. However, there are some nuances, like late-onset MS. Patients who have onset when they’re a kid will have longer disease duration even though they’re younger, rather than someone who has the first manifestation in their late 30s. But, in general, age will correlate with disease duration.

When we take a different look at the natural history of the disease overall, early on we see a lot of peripheral inflammation, a lot of relapse, there’s a lot of MRI activity. A lot of the studies have shown that the older you get, the fewer relapses there are, the less MRI changes, the less disease activity, and it’s been brought up a couple of times at ACTRIMS and in different analyses—we don’t have a really good idea if we should be treating older patients differently, and if what’s actually underlying the disease is different. For instance, early on patients have a lot of disease activity, a lot of peripheral inflammation—drugs are targeting that. As they get older and their relapse is decreased and MRI changes decrease, do the drugs still treat the current pathophysiology of the disease? We believe that the older patients, when they start having more of the progression and the neurodegeneration, that it’s more smoldering inflammation and compartmentalized inflammation and then loss in metabolic pathways that really aren’t reliant on the peripheral immune system anymore. Our drugs aren’t really targeting that either. As patients get older, they also have different risks. They have greater infection risk. We don’t really understand what the role of our medication is in that age group. We understand that the disease reduces, but we’re not quite sure if our medications still treat what we want to treat in the older age group. That’s kind of what’s the most lacking at this time.

How has age entered the discussion around treatment decisions in MS?

The first MS DMT was approved in 1993, so we’re really talking about a short amount of time, and because our main focus for this time is really the need to get therapies out there—we need to get stronger therapies—we haven’t really thought of age as a factor to consider, until now. We’re seeing that because we’re doing so much better at earlier diagnosis and at treating, the prevalence of MS is shifting. It used to be younger, but now the average age of an MS patient is getting older. That’s because we’re doing much better job at treating and taking care of them, so they’re living longer, they’re able to survive, and then we’ve had them on treatments for a long time. Now, we’re actually starting to think about age in a way that we never had before.

The data is actually fairly lacking because it’s just kind of a recent phenomenon that we’re looking at. For me, how I kind about age is: what’s actually happening in their disease? If they’re a new diagnosis of MS, is it because they had a new enhancing lesion or a new change or new relapse? Or did they finally just come in, they’ve had symptoms for 30 years but they finally just started coming to a doctor? Those are 2 different patients—1 has most likely had the disease, they’ve just never seen anyone, and with the other there’s something new going on. I treat them kind of differently, in that anyone with any new disease activity, new inflammation, there’s still evidence of peripheral inflammation—we treat them just like a brand-new diagnosis. If more likely they’ve had the disease for a while and there’s really no new evidence, then I’m treating them as I would a progressive patient, in that what are their comorbidities, what are their risk factors, is there any real benefit of instituting a medication now versus can we watch it and wait? If I don’t think that they have active disease, I’ll watch them, I’ll check MRIs and then we’ll monitor for disease activity. If they do have active disease, then we treat just like a presenting patient who has new disease activity.

Overall, in both cases, we’re also looking at comorbidities, we’re looking at symptom management, do they have spasticity or leg weakness, would they benefit from physical therapy exercise, do I counsel them on nutrition? Older patients will likely have more comorbidities, so what is their risk of heart disease, risk of cancer? And then their social networks—are they able to kind of do some of the interventions that I talked about? Can they come to clinic and drive, are there social barriers that would affect that? That kind of also seems to correlate with age as well.

How does the subanalysis data from the EXPAND study fit into this discussion of age in MS?

The subanalysis is very unique and I think it’s great because it really does get into that question of can we dichotomize our patients? We know that there’s a younger group and there’s an older group. We really wanted to then look at if there is a difference in the drug working on 1 group or the other. Siponimod is an S1P1 selective, P1P5 selective modulator, so we know it has a peripheral effect. It definitely will reduce peripheral lymphocytes, it should have an effect on inflammation and attacks, which then would make us think that if younger patients have more inflammation, they would also have more effect. But an older patient group which has less peripheral information, is there still an effect?

Now the original siponimod study was looking at secondary progressive MS patients and looking for their primary outcome of 3-month confirmed disability followed by 6-month confirmed disability progression, and in the overall trial, there was a benefit when you looked at the overall group on both of those endpoints. Then we split it because siponimod was approved for active secondary progressive MS, we then defined the subgroup in looking at just active secondary progressive MS patients—they were defined as active if they had either a clinical relapse or a new GD enhancing lesion within the last 2 years. In that subgroup, we then split them into younger than 45 years and older than and including 45 years, and in both groups, it actually looked fairly similar in their efficacy on both of those 2 end points. So, it didn’t seem that age mattered, the drug worked in both age groups on at least disability end points.

The other part of that was then if there were any safety signals that were different between the 2 groups, and they looked fairly similar there as well. The decreasing lymphocytes, lymphopenia, liver abnormalities, and infection risks were similar younger than 45 as well as greater than and including 45. That’s kind of reassuring that this drug works in both a younger population and older population, and safety seems to be about the same. We still kind of need a tease out if 45 is really the age we should be splitting patients into, but the reason why 45 was picked is that it gave us well-balanced numbers to actually be able to make a comparison. If you have way too many patients in 1 group and the other 1, then you’re introducing other biases that might not be as appropriate.

Transcript edited for clarity.

REFERENCES

1. Bar-Or A, Cohan SL, Coyle PK, Lublin FD, Meng X, Su W, Cree BA. Analysis of the effects of disease duration on the efficacy and safety of siponimod in patients with active SPMS from the Expand study. Presented at 2020 ACTRIMS Forum. February 27-29, 2020; West Palm Beach, FL. Abstract P030.

2. Hua L, Bar-Or A, Lublin FD, Meng X, Su W, Cree BA, Fox R. Analyses Of The Effect Of Baseline Age On The Efficacy And Safety Of Siponimod In Patients With Active SPMS From The Expand Study. Presented at 2020 ACTRIMS Forum. February 27-29, 2020; West Palm Beach, FL. Abstract P029.

90,000 Antokha MS – biography, photos, songs, personal life, news 2021

Biography

Antokha MC at the dawn of creativity was constantly compared with other performers – Mikhei, Viktor Tsoi. However, no analogies give an idea of ​​the original, unlike anything else in the musician’s work. In his songs you can hear the echoes of electronics, soul, reggae, and a note of something nostalgic, kind, Soviet bring a solo on the trumpet. In Anton Kuznetsov himself (this is the name of the singer outside the stage) there is not a drop of stellar, superficial – in music, in a conversation with fans and journalists, the guy remains true to himself.

Childhood and adolescence

Anton Kuznetsov, better known under the pseudonym Antokha MC, was born on March 14, 1990 in Moscow. He developed an interest in music as a child. Once the boy got to a jazz concert, which took place in the district House of Culture.

Trumpet player Antokha MC

Having heard the sound of a trumpet, he immediately asked his parents to send him to a music school. So at the age of 8, Anton began to master the musical instrument he liked. By the way, six more children grew up in the Kuznetsov family.One of the singer’s brothers learned to play the trombone, and the older sister learned to play the cello.

Such a “musical” apartment did not irritate the neighbors at all, because the guys observed the regime and did not interfere with anyone. Anton considers the musical center to be almost the main treasure of his childhood and youth. The boy loved to listen to cassette recordings, the performer still calls the classics of the past years his favorite melodies.

Antokha MC (Anton Kuznetsov)

Outside the art school, the future MC was an ordinary child: he studied at the Chemistry and Biology Lyceum, went to summer camps in the summer, was fond of sports and occasionally hooliganed.

The lyceum where Anton studied was with a medical bias. Therefore, the boy’s parents believed that, having received secondary education, the son would want to engage in medical activities. However, this did not happen: Anton did not feel such a calling in himself. After graduating from the Lyceum, he did not apply to the university, but continued to develop in the musical direction. According to some sources, the relatives did not approve of this choice, and they rarely appear at the concerts of their son.

Music

The young artist’s first album was released in 2011.The title of the disc “From the bottom of my heart”, published in an edition of 500 copies, accurately characterizes the work of Antokha MC as a whole. Something sincere, kind, with a slight nostalgic note – this is how you can briefly describe the singer’s debut creation.

Antokha MC

Anton wrote the music and lyrics for all songs included in the track list, and he himself read them to the accompaniment of a trumpet. The performer did not set himself the goal of “spinning off” through the album, according to him, he wanted to collect a kind of promo, a musical portfolio.

Along with the recording of songs, Antokha MC began to try his hand at shooting music videos.The first commercials, “Box” and “New Year”, were made more for a narrow circle of friends than for a wide audience. Nevertheless, they resonated with the audience and inspired the artist to further develop. For some time, Anton collaborated with familiar musicians, acted as an opening act for the group “Mahogany”. The first solo concert of the young performer took place in 2014 at the Chinatown club.

Song of Antokha MC “Rodina”

In 2015, the musician released an EP entitled “Everything will pass.”Music portal The Flow noted the newness and freshness of this mini-album. Other advantages include the genre variety of music (reviewers found echoes of reggae, jazz, electronica and soul in the songs) and recognizable vocals. The same portal included Antokha MC’s single “Provoda” in the list of 50 best songs of 2015. At the same time, the authors of the hit parade compared the style of the track with the work of the “Kino” group.

Album “Kindred”, released in 2016, was included in the 20 best Russian albums of the year according to the site “Afisha Daily”.Simple, a little naive, but very sincere lyrics, unusual arrangements made up of drum machine sounds, computer effects and melodies played on a trumpet won the hearts of listeners. So much so that the portal already mentioned above included the performer among the musical heroes of the new generation.

Antokha MC’s song “Throw tobacco”

New videos appeared on the YouTube channel: “Throw tobacco”, “Rodina” and others. Also in 2016, Antokha MC recorded a joint song with the performer Ivan Dorn.The latter, by the way, has repeatedly confessed his sympathy for the unusual Moscow musician.

True, Anton himself said in an interview that he was not familiar with the proposal to cooperate with Ivan’s work. The fruit of their work was the “New Year” track. Another step in the singer’s musical biography was the collaboration with the rock group Pasosh.

Antokha MC in the show “Evening Urgant”

In September 2017, the performer released the album “Tips for newlyweds”. The disc consists of 14 compositions (“Heart rhythm”, “Thank you” and others), as well as new versions of songs – “Time tok” and “Oh, Music”.By this time, the popularity of Antokha MC had grown significantly, the number of subscribers on Instagram and the official group on VKontakte increased. On September 1, 2017, the singer appeared as a musical guest on the TV show “Evening Urgant”.

Personal life

Not much is known about the musician’s personal life. MS met his wife Maryana Antokha at the beginning of his musical career. At that time, he was not yet known to a wide audience, he performed in small clubs. The young people met at a party and have not parted since then.

Antokha MC and his wife Maryana

They did not have a wedding as such – after the registry office, the newlyweds immediately went home. When Anton became a sought-after artist, of course, some difficulties arose in the family – due to irregular working hours, for example. But the couple resolves all misunderstandings at once.

According to the singer, the main thing for him is that Maryana is happy with him. Antokha MC also notes that his wife is a strong girl and always supports her beloved in difficult times. The couple have no children yet.

Antokha MC in 2018

When the clip “Summer” was released, where the son of director Pyotr Timofeev starred, the journalists decided that the performer dreams of becoming a father. Anton denied these speculations, saying that he was not yet ripe for this. According to him, the optimal age to become parents is after 30 years.

Antokha MC is now

Now the young performer continues to delight fans with new compositions and clips. On October 23, 2018, a video was released for the song “Rhythm of the Heart”.The authors of the video were the participants of the creative association of Kazakhstani directors QARA. By the way, the films of American Wes Anderson have become visual references to “Rhythm of the Heart” – his picture “Kingdom of the Full Moon” is quoted in the video.

Antokha MC’s song “Heart rhythm”

Also in autumn, Antokha MC appeared on the TNT MUSIC TV channel in the “Superstychi” project, recorded the fairy tale “Gingerbread House” for Yandex’s collection “Fairy Tales in Alice”. A big solo concert of the singer is planned for December – on December 16, Anton will perform at the St. Petersburg club “Cosmonaut”.News about the artist’s work is published on his social networks. True, the musician does not lead them himself – photos and videos are posted by his assistant.

Discography

  • 2011 – “With all my heart”
  • 2015 – “Everything will pass”
  • 2016 – “Relatives”
  • 2017 – “Tips for newlyweds”

biography, age, battles, from which rap began- career

Real name: Anna Morozova
Date of birth: 21.05.1997
Place of birth: pos.Petrodolinskoe, Ukraine

Biography of MC Anyuta

MC Anyuta, she is Anna Morozova was born in the village of Petrodolinskoye, which is located in the Odessa region, where the girl lives to this day. From childhood, Anya could not find a common language with her peers, so the girl was constantly offended starting from kindergarten. During her school years, in the fifth grade, the girl was even pushed out of the second floor window; the situation took place in the school toilet. After this incident, the girl was forced to visit doctors for several years due to spinal problems.

After finishing 9th grade, Anya Morozova finishes her studies at school and goes to work at the plant. There, the girl lasted almost a year, but unable to withstand the load she went to work in a local grocery store as a cashier-seller. All this time, for 7 years, the girl recorded tracks, and every year she released at least 1 album.

The beginning of rap art

Anya met rap thanks to the work of the Ukrainian rapper Artem Loik. Anya always wanted to try to record her own rap track, but the girl did not know how to do it.In 2010, when Anya was in the 7th grade, friends from school filmed a video on the phone where the girl freestyle. It was from this moment that the career of MC Anyuta began. A video with Ani’s participation spread throughout the school in a matter of days. Despite the chuckles in the direction of the young rapper, MC Anyuta did not quit filming video and recording tracks.

Between 2010 and 2013, MC Anyuta was very productive and released 7 albums. The video in support of Viktor Yanukovych brought particular popularity to the girl. Later, the girl released such bangers as Pokemon, Shlyager, Dangerous Village, which gained several hundred thousand views on youtube.

Concerts of MC Anyuta

At the end of 2016 MC Anyuta received an invitation to perform at the concert of the famous underground rapper Pasha Technic in Kiev.

Many of Pasha’s listeners liked Anya’s performance; the girl was seen off the stage with applause.

Battle MC Anyuta on RapSoxBattle

In October 2017, on the best Ukrainian battle-rap platform RapSox, an issue with the participation of MC Anyuta was released. The girl’s rival was MC Lina. As a result, the judges gave their votes equally, and the victory was won by a young rapper from the village – Anyuta.

Although Anya does not have a strong flow, double rhymes and does not wear stylish clothes, her rap still clings with its primitiveness. We can confidently say that MC Anyuta is the best rural rapper in Ukraine and Russia.

Biographies are reviewed with this artist:

UPD: 3-4-2019
Published: 7-11-2017

Loading … 90,000 Noize MC – biography, photo, personal life, wife and son, height and weight, listen to songs online 2021

Biography Noize MC

Ivan Alekseev is a popular Russian rapper, better known under the pseudonym Noize MC.He became famous not only for his bright talented tracks, but also for his clear civic position, which he defends, despite the dissatisfaction of the authorities and the attacks of ill-wishers.

In the photo: Noize MC (Ivan Alekseev)

Childhood and adolescence

The future musician was born in the small town of Yartsevo, located in the Smolensk region. This is a typical Russian hinterland, built up with dull houses of the same type, whose residents work at local city-forming enterprises.Ivan’s family was no exception: his grandfather was an engineer at an auto-mechanical plant, his mother worked at a chemical plant.

Noize MC as a child

Ivan inherited his creative abilities from his father, a musician, who left the family when his son was barely nine years old. The divorce of the parents was a great shock for the fragile child’s psyche. The boy reflected his feelings in poetry, which he began to write at such a young age.

At the age of ten, he became interested in music, fell in love with “Nirvana” and “Kino” and entered a music school to learn how to play the guitar as coolly as his idols.Later he became addicted to the Beastie Boys, Wu-Tang Clan, Cypress Hill and Tupac Shakur, but the joint song of Prodigy and Keith Thornton “Diesel Power” became fateful for the guy:

After her, I realized that rap can be really cool, not boring, with pop women on the choruses.

In 1997, Vanya and his mother moved from Yartsevo to Belgorod, where a new life began. At first, I had to live with relatives in a one-room apartment, where six people were accommodated at the same time.

It was also not easy to get used to the new school – Ivan, as a well-performing student, was enrolled in an elite class where children of successful parents studied. And since Vanya belonged to a different social stratum, he had to face ridicule and disdain from his classmates. The boy was poorly dressed, was soft and kind, he could not stand up for himself with fists. I had to earn authority in other ways.

Noise MS in school years

At the age of 13, the young man organized his first rock band, inspired by the work of the Beatles and Nirvana.A little later, a rap group appeared, for which he began to write music and lyrics. Together with his classmate Arkady, who took the pseudonym Adik 228, Ivan already as DJ Noize participated in the local hip-hop group V.I.P. Having gained the necessary experience and proved themselves quite well in the local rap crowd, the guys organized their own team “Face2Face”, participated in regional creative events and even successfully performed at an international competition in Kharkov.

Nozie MC at the beginning of his career

Despite his passion for alternative music and rap, Ivan also did not give up his studies at the music school and twice became a laureate of regional competitions in the academic guitar class.He could no longer imagine his future life without music, although until recently he dreamed of becoming a scientist in the field of cybernetics and robotics. So until the end and not having decided on the choice of profession, the young man decided to enter the Russian State University for the Humanities at the Faculty of Modern Technologies. During the entrance exams, no special difficulties arose – Ivan graduated from school with a gold medal, which gave him certain benefits when enrolling.

In 2002, like other nonresident students, Ivan settled in a dormitory, where he immediately found some musician friends.Soon the group ProtivoGunz was born, with which Noize MC periodically performed for a long time. Money was sorely lacking, I had to live from hand to mouth and even steal food from the nearest supermarket.

Nozie MC in his youth

After the first year, Ivan first began to write beats for money. At the same time he performed on the Old Arbat, participated in rap battles, and traveled as a host with the Snickers Urbania team. With the proceeds he recorded studio material, without losing hope of becoming an independent and successful creative unit soon.

First steps to glory

In 2005, Noize MC took part in the Snickers Guru Klan festival, in the final he fought with the famous rapper MC Molody and came out the winner. This event became a powerful impetus in the development of his career – a few months later the musician signed a contract with the Respect Production label and released his first video for the song “Song on the Radio”.

Noize MC – Song for the radio

Ivan performed both as a solo performer and as part of the ProtivoGunz group.In the fall of 2006, the band became the winner of the prestigious All-Russian competition Urban Sound. After that, their tracks began to be readily played on the radio, and the video “Song on the Radio” was re-shot by a professional director and got into the “top ten” of Muz-TV.

In 2007 Nise MC signed with Universal Music

In 2007, Noize MC signed a contract with the Russian division of Universal Music Group and went international. At the same time, the musician won the 7th Internet battle of the Hip-Hop portal.ru, in which more than 3000 Russian-speaking rappers from all over the world took part. A video clip was filmed for the song “Behind a Closed Door”, which the jury liked, which took the honorable tenth place in the list of “100 best songs of MTV-2007”.

Noize MC – Behind Closed Door

In the same year, Ivan tried his hand at cinematography and played one of the key roles in the film “The Joke”, a remake of the movie of the same name by Vladimir Menshov, filmed in 1976. Noize MC also acted as a composer and wrote almost the entire sound series.

Shot from the film “The Joke”

Flourishing

In May 2008, Ivan unexpectedly terminated his contract with a prestigious label, stating that a real artist must be independent. This decision was completely in the spirit of the musician, who always preferred to act at the behest of his soul and put creative freedom above material ambitions. A couple of months later, Noize MC released his first studio album The Greatest Hits Vol.1, in support of which he went on a tour.

The musician’s second album “The Last Album” was released in 2010 and was also warmly received by the public. By this time, the ranks of the rapper’s fans had noticeably increased due to the socio-political orientation of the texts and high-profile scandals with his participation.

So, for example, a loud traffic accident with the participation of the vice-president of Lukoil Anatoly Barkov, who in his premium Mercedes knocked down two girls to death, caused a wide resonance. To this incident, Noize MC reacted sharply with the song “Mercedes S666”, which caused a heated discussion.It turned out that the victims were his acquaintances. Despite the public outcry, the case was closed, Barkov escaped punishment. Noize MC dedicated the song “Mercedes 777” to the closure of the investigation.

If my attention to the situation had not been drawn so sharply by me, then, I think, it would have been much easier to hush up the matter. I understand that most likely I will have to disentangle it all later, but I could not stand aside.

At concerts, the musician also behaved quite provocatively and once even served ten days in Volgograd, and his wife at that time was in the hospital.During the performance of the song “Grannies in a Hat!” Local authorities interpreted this as an act of begging. In response, Ivan sang the song “Kuri Bamboo”, which is about police brutality. After the concert, the musician was taken to the department and arrested for 10 days for “petty hooliganism and violation of public order.” When he was released, Ivan released a song “10 days” dedicated to these events.

Still from the clip “10 days”

In 2012, the musician released his third “New Album”.On the day of the release of the collection, the rapper’s official page was practically inaccessible due to the huge number of people who wanted to hear and download new tracks. In the same year, clips were shot for the songs “Pool” and “The Universe is Endless”, and a large-scale tour of the cities of Russia and neighboring countries was organized.

Nozie MC – Pool

In 2013, the group “ProtivoGunz” celebrated a decade of creative activity, coinciding with the release of two more albums. The musicians played a large-scale anniversary concert in Moscow, a video version of which was shown by the MTV Russia channel on New Year’s Eve.

2014, which started so successfully for Noize MC, brought him many more creative victories. In September, the sixth studio album, Hard Reboot, was released, which included tracks recorded with the participation of Vera Polozkova and Marina Katsuba, as well as the American rapper Astronautalis.

HARD REBOOT – NOIZE MC Movie

In November, the premiere of the 3D production of the musical Romeo and Juliet, in which the musician played the role of a drug dealer, took place. The director of the play, Yanush Yuzefovich, highly appreciated Ivan’s acting abilities and promised that next time he would invite him to the role of Mercutio.Unfortunately, their collaboration has not yet been continued due to the busy work of the musician.

Noize MC in the musical “Romeo and Juliet”

In 2014, the rapper had a conflict with blogger Yuri Khovansky, who released a video in which he parodied the song Noize MC, replacing all the words with the sounds of farting. After that, at the St. Petersburg Versus Battle, Noise MC approached Yuri and punched him in the face with his fist.

Noize MC: fight with Khovansky

Since then, Khovanskiy periodically mentioned his opponent in his tracks, and Noize MC released a diss on Khovanskiy, which turned out to be an invitation to the presentation of the new album “King of the Hill”.In response, Yuri released a diss on Noize MC called “Noise”.

2015 began with the premiere of the video for the song “Breaking the Leash” recorded for the New Year’s comedy “Shaggy Fir Trees”. All funds raised from the sale of this single on the Internet were sent to the Sunflower Charitable Foundation. In February, Noize MC took part in the international music festival Barents Spektakel, held in Norway, and in mid-March celebrated its 30th birthday with two large-scale concerts in Moscow and St. Petersburg.

The rapper spent the summer on a tour, and in the fall he delighted fans with performances with a live orchestra and a new collection recorded in an acoustic style. At the end of 2015, the musician was named the best performer in the “Hip-Hop of the Year” nomination and won the prestigious “MusicBox 2015” award.

Noize MC – interview for The Question

In the spring of 2016, Noize MC went on a large tour of the former CIS countries, and also visited Germany and the Netherlands.The musician devoted summer to recording a new studio album and working on the hip-hop opera Orpheus and Eurydice, for which he wrote the entire musical part. The premiere took place on July 7 on the Tesla 4000 platform – the musician’s fans were delighted with the appearance of their idol in the role of Orpheus and highly appreciated his acting talent.

In 2017, Noize MC delighted fans not only with new performances and clips, but also with an interesting detailed interview on the vDud channel, which was watched by over six million YouTube users.It is worth noting that the musician quite sincerely and willingly shares his innermost thoughts, so every conversation with him turns out to be lively and instructive.

Cooperation with Coin

In December 2016, another studio album of the musician “King of the Hill” was released, which was recognized as the best according to the Rap.Ru portal. The collection includes a joint track with the singer Monetochka, on which the provocative clip “Childfree” was filmed.

Noize MC – Childfree (feat.Coin)

Ivan ours online tracks of a young self-taught singer and wrote to her with a proposal for cooperation. Liza Gyrdymova (real name Monetochka) was a big fan of Noize MC and was happy to work together. The song “Childfree” later interested the Investigative Committee – in the lines “do not wait until you get old, rather die” they saw a call to suicide. However, the musicians proved that the song is a satire on modern society.

Coin and Noize MC – colleagues and good friends

In the future, they repeatedly recorded joint tracks.For example, shortly after Monetochka’s refusal to perform at Invasion-2018 (the Russian Defense Ministry was the sponsor of the rock festival, which seemed outrageous to many musicians), the song People with Machine Guns was born, in which Lisa and Ivan criticize the militarization of Russia.

In 2020, almost at the same time, Coin’s new album “Decorative and Applied Arts” was released, which included their joint song “Goat” and the song “Live without a remainder” – a satire on the society of uncontrolled consumption.

Noize MC feat.Coin – Live without a trace

Personal life Noize MC

Ivan met his future wife Anna during his student years and for several years sought her location. They were from different worlds, and it seemed that they could not have anything in common. But the aspiring musician fell so deeply in love with the girl that, overcoming his usual shyness and shyness, he did not abandon attempts to achieve reciprocity from her. The unapproachable beauty could not stand such pressure.

Noize MC and his wife Anna

Ivan’s intuition did not disappoint – Anna turned out to be not only a loving, caring wife, but also a loyal military friend who supports her husband in the most difficult and dead-end situations.The couple are raising two wonderful sons – Vasya (2010) and Misha (2012).

Noize MC with children

Despite his busy work schedule, Ivan tries to spend as much time with his family as possible, teaches his sons to good literature and high-quality music and dreams that they will grow up as worthy educated people.

Noize MC now

The musician is constantly experimenting, trying to combine hip-hop with other genres of art and thus make it brighter and more diverse.In 2018, a new version of the rap opera “Orpheus and Eurydice” was presented to the public, supplemented and revised. Many talented musicians were involved in the recording (Leila Magomedova, Oleg Gruz, Anastasia Aleksandrina, rapper ST, etc.), and the main discovery was Timur Rodriguez, who was enchantingly revealed in the image of Narcissus.

Noize MC performs the hip-hop opera “Orpheus and Eurydice”

In the same year, Noize MC released an EP called “No Comments”, in which he used the poems of Joseph Brodsky.Thus, the musician wanted to demonstrate that the connection between generations has not been lost and that classical poetry is still relevant and in demand.

2020, despite the global pandemic, turned out to be quite successful for Ivan Alekseev. The musician spent forced self-isolation with his family in a forgotten village, where for the first time in many years he was able to move away from the frantic rhythm of the metropolis and plunge into silence, peace and tranquility. The result was the track “26.04”, dedicated to the anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, as well as the maxi-single “Voyager-1”, which premiered on the program “Evening Urgant”.

Noize MC – Voyager 1

It is also worth noting the collaboration with the singer Linda “Katatsumuri”, in which the hokku of the Japanese poet Kobayashi Issa was used, and the joint clip with Coin “Live without a remainder”, which touches upon the problem of excessive consumption. And Noize MC’s cover of the song “Civil Defense” “Everything is like the people” (and the video for it) became an adornment of the tribute album “Without me”.

Noize MC – Everything is like people (cover on Yegor Letov)

And, of course, one cannot ignore Ivan’s joint performances with the Belgorod Philharmonic Orchestra of Russian Folk Instruments.Noize MC has been collaborating with populist musicians since 2017, from the Etazhi festival. The idea belonged to Evgeny Aleshnikov, chief conductor of the Belgorod Academic Russian Orchestra and one of the organizers of the festival, who taught young Vanya to play the classical guitar at the local art school in the distant nineties.

Noize MC – Goy esi

The idea turned out to be successful, and in August 2018 Noize MC with the folk orchestra opened the Invasion festival. A huge event was the concert “Cool with the Orchestra”, which took place at Crocus City Hall on November 9, 2019 and collected about two and a half million views on YouTube.In 2020, the musicians were supposed to perform at two more festivals, but the pandemic has made its own adjustments to their creative plans. A poster of performances for 2021 can be found on the artist’s official website and in his Instagram

If you find an error in the text, select it and press Ctrl + Enter

Influence of cholecystectomy at a young age on the course of metabolic syndrome in women | Lebedeva

1. Shen C, Wu X, Xu C, Yu C, Chen P, Li Y.Association of cholecystectomy with metabolic syndrome in a Chinese population. PLoS One. 2014; 9 (2): e88189. doi: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0088189.

2. Kwak MS, Kim D, Chung GE, Kim W, Kim YJ, Yoon JH. Cholecystectomy is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in an Asian population. World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21 (20): 6287–95. doi: 10.3748 / wjg.v21.i20.6287.

3.Wang HG, Wang LZ, Fu HJ, Shen P, Huang XD, Zhang FM, Xie R, Yang XZ, Ji GZ. Cholecystectomy does not significantly increase the risk of fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21 (12): 3614–8. doi: 10.3748 / wjg.v21.i12.3614.

4. Ahmed F, Baloch Q, Memon ZA, Ali I. An observational study on the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome with gall stone disease requiring cholecystectomy.Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2017; 17: 7-13. doi: 10.1016 / j.amsu.2017.03.015.

5. Cortés V, Quezada N, Uribe S, Arrese M, Nervi F. Effect of cholecystectomy on hepatic fat accumulation and insulin resistance in non-obese Hispanic patients: a pilot study. Lipids Health Dis. 2017; 16 (1): 129. doi: 10.1186 / s12944-017-0525-3.

6. Ramos-De la Medina A, Remes-Troche JM, Roesch-Dietlen FB, Pérez-Morales AG, Martinez S, Cid-Juarez S.Routine liver biopsy to screen for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) during cholecystectomy for gallstone disease: is it justified? J Gastrointest Surg. 2008; 12 (12): 2097-102. doi: 10.1007 / s11605-008-0704-7.

7. Loria P, Lonardo A, Lombardini S, Carulli L, Verrone A, Ganazzi D, Rudilosso A, D’Amico R, Bertolotti M, Carulli N. Gallstone disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver: prevalence and associated factors.J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005; 20 (8): 1176–84. doi: 10.1111 / j.1440-1746.2005.03924.x.

8. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, Sogin ML, Jones WJ, Roe BA, Affourtit JP, Egholm M, Henrissat B, Heath AC, Knight R, Gordon JI. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. 2009; 457 (7228): 480-4. doi: 10.1038 / nature07540.

9.Pattni SS, Brydon WG, Dew T, Walters JR. Fibroblast growth factor 19 and 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one in the diagnosis of patients with possible bile acid diarrhea. Clin Transl Gastroenterol. 2012; 3: e18. doi: 10.1038 / ctg.2012.10.

10. Julio-Pieper M, Bravo JA, Aliaga E, Gotteland M. Review article: intestinal barrier dysfunction and central nervous system disorders – a controversial association. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.2014; 40 (10): 1187–201. doi: 10.1111 / apt.12950

11. Teixeira TF, Souza NC, Chiarello PG, Franceschini SC, Bressan J, Ferreira CL, Peluzio Mdo C. Intestinal permeability parameters in obese patients are correlated with metabolic syndrome risk factors. Clin Nutr. 2012; 31 (5): 735-40. doi: 10.1016 / j.clnu.2012.02.009.

12. Berr F, Kullak-Ublick GA, Paumgartner G, Münzing W, Hylemon PB.7 alpha-dehydroxylating bacteria enhance deoxycholic acid input and cholesterol saturation of bile in patients with gallstones. Gastroenterology. 1996; 111 (6): 1611–20.

13. Guo C, Chen WD, Wang YD. TGR5, not only a metabolic regulator. Front Physiol. 2016; 7: 646. doi: 10.3389 / fphys.2016.00646.

14. Trabelsi MS, Daoudi M, Prawitt J, Ducastel S, Touche V, Sayin SI, Perino A, Brighton CA, Sebti Y, Kluza J, Briand O, Dehondt H, Vallez E, Dorchies E, Baud G, Spinelli V , Hennuyer N, Caron S, Bantubungi K, Caiazzo R, Reimann F, Marchetti P, Lefebvre P, Bäckhed F, Gribble FM, Schoonjans K, Pattou F, Tailleux A, Staels B, Lestavel S.Farnesoid X receptor inhibits glucagon-likepeptide-1 production by enteroendocrine L cells. Nat Commun. 2015; 6: 7629. doi: 10.1038 / ncomms8629.

15. Cani PD, Amar J, Iglesias MA, Poggi M, Knauf C, Bastelica D, Neyrinck AM, Fava F, Tuohy KM, Chabo C, Waget A, Delmée E, Cousin B, Sulpice T, Chamontin B, Ferrières J , Tanti JF, Gibson GR, Casteilla L, Delzenne NM, Alessi MC, Burcelin R. Metabolic endotoxemia initiates obesity and insulin resistance.Diabetes. 2007; 56 (7): 1761–72. doi: 10.2337 / db06-1491.

2. Requirements and conditions for their fulfillment for the assignment of the sports title Master of Sports of Russia and the sports category Candidate for Master of Sports

2. Requirements and conditions for their fulfillment for the assignment of the sports title Master of Sports of Russia and the sports category Candidate for Master of Sports.

is performed from the age of 16, the CCM – from the age of 14.

Greco-wrestling

Youth girls (14 – 15 years old)

men, 9000 years old 9000 years

g

50% of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation of the corresponding federal district

9028 women

Olympic Games) 9000 Juniors (up to 21 years old)

28 wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

90 284

Boys, girls (under 18 years old)

902 years)

9000 subject to participation in the weight category of at least 2 MS

category,

grappling – gi, weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category, 9 0005

classic pankration – weight category

9000 <2> Including sports disciplines in the names of which the indicated words are contained.

Status of sports competitions, team place

Sports discipline <2>

Requirement: take place

World First , Youth Olympic Games

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Boys, girls (under 18 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

and up to 180004 Youth

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

Traditional pankration – weight category,

Classic pankration – weight category

– 1

Juniors

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old)

Boys, girls (14 – 15 years old)

European Championship, European Youth Olympic Festival

Freestyle wrestling

Juniors, juniors (under 21 years old)

Boys, girls (under 18 years old)

Boys, girls (up to 16 years old)

9000 Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors (under 21 years old)

Boys (under 18 years old)

Boys

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category,

classic pankration – weight category

Juniors, juniors (18 – 19 years old)

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old)

, girls

– Boys years)

Other international sports competitions included in ETK

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Boys, girls (under 16 years old)

902co 9000 Roman wrestling – weight category

Boys (under 16 years old)

World championship among students

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Juniors, 282 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors (under 28 years old)

9 0235

Championship of Russia, All-Russian Spartakiad between the subjects of the Russian Federation among the strongest athletes

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Men, women

weight

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category,

Classic pankration – weight category

Freestyle wrestling – team competition

Men, women

spend team

Greco-Roman wrestling – team competition

carried out by the team

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

Traditional pankration – weight category,

Classic pankration – weight category

Men, women

Championship of Russia, All-Russian Spartakiad between the constituent entities of the Russian Federation

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Juniors, juniors (under 24 years old)

Freestyle wrestling Juniors, juniors (under 21 years old) 90 005

Freestyle wrestling – team competitions

Juniors (up to 21 years old)

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

, girls

Youths (boys)

Freestyle wrestling – team competitions

Boys (under 18 years old)

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

905 boys), girls (up to 16 years old)

<*> Condition: the requirement is fulfilled if the athlete won at least 50% of the matches held and participated in at least 50% of the matches held by the team

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors (up to 24 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category z

Juniors (under 21)

Greco-Roman wrestling – team competition

Juniors (under 21)

Greco-Roman wrestling category

Boys (up to 18 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling – team competition

Boys (up to 18 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling category

Boys (up to 16 years old)

<*> Condition: the requirement is met if the athlete won at least 50% of the fights held and participated in at least 50% of the meetings held by the team

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category I category,

classic pankration – weight category

Juniors, juniors (18 – 19 years old)

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old)

3

(as amended byOrder of the Ministry of Sports of Russia of 10.02.2021 N 71)

(see the text in the previous edition )

Other all-Russian sports competitions included in the ETK

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

women

Juniors, juniors (up to 24 years old)

Juniors, juniors (up to 21 years old)

Boys, girls (under 16 years old)

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors (under 21)

Boys (under 18)

Boys (up to 16 years old)

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category,

classic pankration –

weight category 9605

Men, women

<*> Condition: the requirement is met if the athlete takes 1st place in two sports competitions in the corresponding sports discipline within two years

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category,

classic pankration – weight category

Juniors, juniors (18 – 19 years old)

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old) )

Boys, girls (14 – 1 5 years)

(as amended byOrder of the Ministry of Sports of Russia of 10.02.2021 N 71)

(see the text in the previous edition )

All-Russian competitions among students

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Juniors under 28 years)

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors (up to 28 years old)

Grappling – weight category

Grappling – weight category

Grappling – weight category

Grappling – weight category

Grappling – weight category

Juniors (up to 28 years old)

Championship of the Federal District, championships in St.Moscow, St. Petersburg, which took the team in the previous year at the Russian championship:

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

5

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

condition

<

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

Traditional pankration – weight category,

Classic pankration – weight category

…Moscow, St. Petersburg, which took the team in the previous year at the Russian Championship:

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category (included in the program of the Olympic Games)

Juniors (up to 24 years old)

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category (included in the program of

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

Juniors (up to 21 years old)

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – traditional weight category 9000 – weight category 9000 – traditional weight category 9000 – weight category ,

pankration – classic – weight category

Juniors, juniors (18 – 19 years old)

Grappling – weight category – 4, 9000

traditional pankration – weight category,

classic pankration – weight category

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old)

Freestyle wrestling – weight category

( introduced by Order of the Ministry of Sports of Russia dated 10.02.2021 N 71)

Championship of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation (except for Moscow and St. Petersburg), which took the team in the previous year at the championship of Russia:

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Men, women

requirement

*

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – weight category,

traditional pankration – weight category,

Classic pankration – weight category

Men, women

905 26

<*> Condition: CCM is assigned with participation in the weight category of at least 2 MS, in the absence of 2 MS, I sports category is assigned

Championship of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation (except for St.Moscow and St. Petersburg), which took the team in the previous year at the Russian Championship:

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors, juniors (up to 24 years old)

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Juniors, 902 years old

Freestyle wrestling – weight category,

Greco-Roman wrestling – weight category

Boys, girls (up to 18 years old)

Juniors, juniors (18 – 19 years old)

Grappling – weight category,

grappling – gi – traditional weight category,

,

classic pankration – weight category

Boys, girls (16 – 17 years old)

To participate in sports competitions, an athlete must reach the specified age in the calendar year of sports competitions

Vascular aging in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome | Shortage

1. Nilsson P. Early vascular aging syndrome: background and proposed definitions. Clinical Investigation. 2011; 1 (11): 1523–31. DOI: 10.4155 / cli.11.141.

2. Nilsson P.M., Olsen M.H., Laurent S. Early Vascular Aging (EVA): New Directions in Cardiovascular Protection.Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc. 2015: 363.

3. Nilsson P. Early vascular aging: consequences and prevention. Vasc. Health Risk Manag. 2008; 4 (3): 547-552. DOI: 10.2147 / VHRM.S1094.

4. Wang M. Central arterial aging. Handbook of hypertension: arterial stiffness in hypertension. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 2006: 137-60.

5.Scuteri A., Nilsson P. M., Tzourio C., Redon J., Laurent S. Microvascular brain damage with aging and hypertension: pathophysiological consideration and clinical implications. Journal of hypertension. 2011; 29 (8): 1469–77. DOI: 10.1097 / HJH.0b013e328347cc17.

6. O’rourke M.F., Hashimoto J. Mechanical factors in arterial aging: a clinical perspective. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2007; 50 (1): 1-13.DOI: 10.1016 / j.jacc.2006.12.050.

7. Greenwald S.E. Ageing of the conduit arteries. The Journal of Pathology: A Journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 2007; 211 (2): 157-172. DOI: 10.1002 / path.2101. |

8. Laurent S., Boutouyrie P. The structural factor of hypertension: large and small artery alterations.Circulation research. 2015; 116 (6): 1007-1021. DOI: 10.1161 / CIRCRESAHA.116.303596.

9. Vlachopoulos C., Aznaouridis K., Stefanadis C. Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2010; .55 (13): 1318–27. DOI: 10.1016 / j.jacc.2009.10.061.

10.Vlachopoulos C., Xaplanteris P., Aboyans V., Brodmann M., Cífková R., Cosentino F., Lekakis J. The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on peripheral circulation: Endorsed by the Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology (ARTERY) Society. Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241 (2): 507-32. DOI: 10.1016 / j.atherosclerosis.2015.05.007.

11.Guimaraes Cunha P., Boutouyrie P., Nilsson P., Laurent S. Early vascular aging (EVA): definitions and clinical applicability. Current hypertension reviews. 2017; 13 (1): 8-15. DOI: 10.2174 / 1573402113666170413094319.

12. Li P., Wang L., Liu C. Overweightness, obesity and arterial stiffness in healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature studies. Postgraduate medicine. 2017; 129 (2): 224-30.DOI: 10.1080 / 00325481.2017.1268903.

13. Nordstrand N., Gjevestad E., Dinh K. N., Hofsø D., Røislien J., Saltvedt E., Hjelmesæth J. The relationship between various measures of obesity and arterial stiffness in morbidly obese patients. BMC cardiovascular disorders. 2011; 11 (1): 7. DOI: 10.1186 / 1471-2261-11-7.

14. Strasser B., Arvandi M., Pasha E.P., Haley A.P., Stanforth P., Tanaka H. Abdominal obesity is associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged adults. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases. 2015; 25 (5): 495-502. DOI: 10.1016 / j.numecd.2015.01.002.

15. Lewis C.E., McTigue K.M., Burke L.E., Poirier P., Eckel R.H., Howard B.V., Pi-Sunyer F.X. Mortality, health outcomes, and body mass index in the overweight range: a science advisory from the American Heart Association.Circulation. 2009; 119 (25): 3263–71. DOI: 10.1161 / CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192574.

16. Leopold J.A. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of arterial stiffness associated with obesity. Hypertension. 2013; 62 (6): 1003. DOI: 10.1161 / HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01872.

17. Weisbrod R.M., Shiang T., Al Sayah L., Fry J.L., Bajpai S., Reinhart-King C.A., Seta F. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity. Hypertension. 2013; 62 (6): 1105-10. DOI: 10.1161 / HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01744.

18. Luft F.C. Molecular mechanisms of arterial stiffness: new insights. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2012; 6 (6): 436–38. DOI: 10.1016 / j.jash.2012.10.004.

19.Windham B.G., Griswold M.E., Farasat S.M., Ling S.M., Carlson O., Egan J.M., Najjar S.S. Influence of leptin, adiponectin, and resistin on the association between abdominal adiposity and arterial stiffness. American journal of hypertension. 2010; 23 (5): 501–507. DOI: 10.1038 / ajh.2010.8.

20. Singhal A., Farooqi I.S., Cole T.J., O’rahilly S., Fewtrell M., Kattenhorn M., Deanfield J. Influence of leptin on arterial distensibility: a novel link between obesity and cardiovascular disease? Circulation.2002; 106 (15): 1919-24. DOI: 10.1161 / 01.CIR.0000033219.24717.52.

21. Mahmud A., Feely J. Adiponectin and arterial stiffness. American journal of hypertension. 2005; 18 (12): 1543–48. DOI: 10.1016 / j. amjhyper. 2005.06.014.

22. Störk S., Bots M. L., Angerer P., von Schacky C., Grobbee D.E., Angermann, C.E., Seufert J. Low levels of adiponectin predict worsening of arterial morphology and function.Atherosclerosis. 2007; 194 (2): e147-e153. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j. atherosclerosis. 2006.11.044.

23. Tsioufis C., Dimitriadis K., Selima M., Thomopoulos C., Mihas C., Skiadas I., Kallikazaros I. Low-grade inflammation and hypoadiponectinaemia have an additive detrimental effect on aortic stiffness in essential hypertensive patients. European heart journal. 2007; 28 (9): 1162–69. DOI: 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehm089.

24. Cuende J.I., Cuende N., Calaveras-Lagartos J. How to calculate vascular age with the SCORE project scales: a new method of cardiovascular risk evaluation. European heart journal. 2010; 31 (19): 2351–58. DOI: 10.1093 / eurheartj / ehq205.

25. Sutton-Tyrrell K., Najjar S.S., Boudreau R.M., Venkitachalam L., Kupelian V., Simonsick E.M., Pahor M. Elevated aortic pulse wave velocity, a marker of arterial stiffness, predicts cardiovascular events in well-functioning older adults. Circulation. 2005; 111 (25): 3384–90. DOI: 10.1161 / CIRCULATIONAHA.104.483628.

26. Meaume S., Benetos A., Henry O.F., Rudnichi A., Safar M.E. Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts cardiovascular mortality in subjects> 70 years of age. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology.2001; 21 (12): 2046-50. DOI: 10.1161 / hq1201.100226

Grappling (wrestling)

Status
sporting events

Floor
athlete, age

Sports
discharges

Youthful
discharges

I

II

III

I

II

III

Quantity
victories

Quantity
victories

Championship of Russia

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

Other all-Russian sports
competitions included in ETUC

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

Championship of the federal district of the Russian Federation,
championships of Moscow and St. Petersburg

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

Championship of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation (except for Moscow and
WITH.P.B.)

men,
women

ten

eight

6

Championship of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation (except for Moscow and
WITH.P.B.)

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

ten

ten

ten

Other official sports
competitions of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation

men,
women

ten

eight

6

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

ten

ten

ten

Municipal Championship

men,
women

ten

eight

6

Championship of the municipality

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

ten

ten

ten

Other official sports
municipal competition

men,
women

ten

eight

6

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

ten

ten

ten

Competitions of sports organizations that have the right to assign the 1st and
other mass discharges

men,
women

ten

eight

6

juniors,
juniors 18-19 years old

ten

eight

6

young men,
girls 16-17 years old

ten

eight

6

ten

ten

ten

Other conditions

1.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *