About all

Microscopic fleas: Harmful Bugs Hiding in Plain Sight

Harmful Bugs Hiding in Plain Sight

If you’re itching and scratching from what feels like tiny bugs but you can’t see anything, don’t just assume that it’s all in your head. A number of tiny, microscopic pests may be living around you, even in your own home, without your knowledge.

We’ll take a look at some of these microscopic pests and how they can impact your life:

Fleas

Fleas are tiny, wingless creatures that are dark brown/red in color and usually around 2.5 mm in length. Without wings, fleas are unable to fly, but their legs make jumping their preferred form of transportation. They like to hide in and move through the fur on animals.

Flea bites can leave reddish, swollen marks on the skin. Some people and pets may have an allergic reaction to flea bites. Furry pets (cats and dogs) are most at risk. Some fleas may also carry diseases, making it critical to put prevention measures in place when possible.

See Also: What Pests are Harmful to Your Pets?

Mites

A truly microscopic bug that is often difficult to see with the naked eye, mites are normally harmless to humans but some can bite–leaving tiny, itchy red spots. Mites often travel on hosts, such as birds or rodents, meaning that controlling larger pests is a first priority before being able to control mites.

  • Clover mites: often found in stored products during late winter and early spring
  • Grain mites: most frequently found in processed cereals
  • Bird mites: live on birds (especially chickens) and sometimes move into buildings and attack humans
  • Dust mites: feed off of dander and often create allergic reactions and asthma in humans

Bed Bugs

These little guys travel by grabbing onto bedding, clothing, suitcases and more. Bed bugs are small, flat and oval-shaped wingless creatures in a brownish-red color. Sneaky and difficult to find, they hide in the folds in soft furniture (such as mattresses or sofas) and come out at night. Bites on humans are red, itchy and swollen, often occurring in zigzag lines or clusters.  Getting rid of bed bugs almost always requires the help of a professional.

Lice

While these parasitic creatures don’t carry diseases, they can certainly cause massive irritation. Thriving on the scalp and body of humans (especially school-aged children) lice spread when eggs come into contact with hair, hats, combs, or clothing. Small, reddish bites are often found on the back of the neck and behind the ears. Adult lice are dark gray-ish in color and can be seen with the naked eye, but their eggs (called nits) are whitish-gray, shiny, and more difficult to see.

Lice reproduce every couple of weeks so the process needs to be stopped immediately upon discovery. Combing, attentive laundry procedures, vacuuming and specials shampoos may all be enlisted to fight a lice infestation.

See Also: Lice: What You Need to Know

Ticks

Spending time outdoors, especially in brushy or forest areas, can mean picking up these little hitch-hikers along the way. Parasitic ticks make their homes on animals and humans, waiting on leaves or bushes for someone to pass by. In the same family as spiders, ticks are reddish brown with eight legs, and like to burrow into their hosts.

Because of the nasty diseases they can spread, it is important to perform tick checks on people and animals after they come in from outside adventures. Preventative measures such as tick spray and protective clothing are important.

No-See-Ums

Tiny creatures that like to breed in moist places, No-See-Ums are only .03 inches long and easy to mistake for specks of dust or dirt. They’re so small that they can often permeate through standard window screening. Other names include gnats, sand flies, or biting midges.

Similar to mosquitoes, the female injects her saliva under the skin which causes smallish, red splotches to develop. These extremely itchy bites can grow up to 2 inches in diameter. Bug spray and special screening may help with prevention.

Obviously, when it comes to insects and other pests, just because you can’t see them doesn’t mean they aren’t out to get you. That is why it is important to be attentive and aware of pest prevention even before you detect a problem. For Houston Pest Control measures, Cypress Creek offers comprehensive prevention and extermination for all of your pest control needs. Inquire about our Healthy House program to stay pest free year-round.

Cat Fleas & Humans: 6 Things You Need to Know!

This is a great reference guide with all you need to know about cat fleas & humans. Find out all about these irritating and hard to remove feline parasites.

Itching is one of the obvious flea symptoms

We’ll go over the best practices on how to prevent infestations, how to really get rid of these blood-sucking insects and what to do to keep your furry friend flea-free over time.

Sometimes there is no way to avoid having your cat pick up a flea from the surroundings, for example, just going out and meeting other cats can be enough. Our smallest son started getting bites all over his legs and then his body, not something you as parents take lightly. Getting rid of them was very complicated and required testing quite a few different anti-flea medication options, until we got the right prophylactic program.

Unfortunately, cats are pets that are not only loved by their human companions, cat fleas love them too, for them they are tasty, warm and welcoming breeding grounds.

1- How do you recognize cat fleas?

2- Do cat fleas bite humans?

3- What symptoms do fleas cause?

4- What is the Flea’s Life Cycle

5- How do you prevent flea infestations?

6- What diseases can fleas transmit?

 

The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is a very small external wingless insect parasite, one of approximately 2000 species worldwide that affect both birds and mammals and require blood meals from their host [1]. At first glance they look like small shiny black dots, they multiply very quickly and in large numbers (a female flea can lay 20 to 30 eggs a day [2]).

If we live with cats, we will always have to include anti-parasite care and include either flea repellents or treatments for them from time to time, especially if they have permission to go outside your house, if they have a garden where they spend a lot of time, or if we take them out regularly. We also should not forget that fleas can also hitch a hike on our clothes, and end up in your house and on your pet.

Along with all the irritation they cause our pets, can they also affect us? Sadly yes, these disagreeable pests can also harm us.

1- How do you recognize cat fleas?

The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis)

These parasites are very small, less than 4 millimeters when they reach the adult stage. Their bodies include two very long and strong hind legs that they use to jump (200 times their length [6]) and four frontal ones that are somewhat shorter, they have a very small head with a mouth designed to pierce skin and suck blood [1], and a big abdomen where they store the blood they suck.

When they are in their larval phase they look totally different, they are like a very small worm, with an almost transparent body, when you look at them under a microscope you can see some “bristles” that actually are sensory hairs on the upper half.

Eggs are laid by the female on various animals that serve as a host: dogs and cats especially, but also rodents, rabbits, ruminants and humans, although in the latter they do not usually complete their life cycle.

2- Do cat fleas bite humans?

The Cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is one of the most common flea species after dog fleas. These fleas can bite humans, just as they bite cats. However, unlike cats, these fleas do not stay to live on our bodies, that is, they can bite us, attempt to feed on our blood and leave [4], they do not live and breed on us [3]. They are adapted to live on furry hosts, not hairless ones like humans, they have a hard time attaching to humans and are often seen and killed before feeding [5].

3- What symptoms do fleas cause?

The truth is that the symptoms are the same for both cats and humans and they include the following:

  • Itching. Bites itch because fleas release saliva that includes an anticoagulant into your skin and blood flow that makes it easier for the flea to feed, but it’s a foreign substance and your immune system reacts to it.
  • Swelling. The skin around the bite will swell as part of the allergic reaction.
  • Reddened skin as a result of the bite itself and from the allergy, the flea saliva generates.
  • Injuries and Infections in serious cases, injuries can be caused by you scratching the bites and these in turn can become infected, causing even more discomfort and other diseases.
  • Irritability and discomfort. The bites will continue as long as you host the fleas, they will hurt and itch and the affected area will increase. You’ll want to shower try to get rid of them. You’ll be continuously scratching your skin and hair until it’s over.

Anyway, you can see it’s no fun and you’ll no longer be surprised if our cat seems to be irritable when it has fleas. So it makes perfect sense to help your pet and yourself prevent these infestations and to get rid of them as soon as you detect them.

4- What is the Flea’s Life Cycle

As mentioned before, fleas are insects and have a specific life cycle that repeats with small variations in all species within this, the largest arthropod phylum (6 to 10 million insect species) [7]. Egg, larva, pupae, adult and the cycle repeats.

In fleas the cycle will include a host, that is, your cat and lacking a furry pet, they’ll bite you too.

You’ll either bring them yourself into your home on shoes and clothes or your cat will hide them in their fur. They start reproducing within 24 hours.

After feeding on your pet’s blood (or yours) adults lay eggs around the house on your furniture, carpets, crevices, in corners and anywhere your cat goes, eggs will be falling off and into the surroundings [8]. Eggs hatch in one to 12 days depending on the temperature [9], warmer temperatures, faster hatching [8]. White worm-like flea larvae come out of the eggs and within 7 to 14 days it will spin a tiny cocoon and pupates. After a week, more or less, an adult emerges from the pupae and starts its search for food and the cycle repeats [9].

5- How do you prevent flea infestations?

IN CATS

Generally, people who care for cats or have cats at home, also suffer flea bites, so basic prevention includes keeping your pet and the place where it lives clean. Comb and shampoo the cat frequently to remove adult fleas before they irritate the pet or lay eggs [9]. A power tip: start shampooing around the cat’s neck before shampooing the body, as fleas will immediately migrate to the head if they notice the water on the body.

In our specific case, we were able to control the flea infestation with Frontline pipettes, whereas other options never really got rid of them, so personally I can recommend them. In general, there are two treatment options, for best results you need to follow both.

On-Cat Treatment

The most effective method to effectively control fleas is on-animal. The cat is treated with a product that attracts the fleas while it moves around the infested parts of the home. Fleas are then killed by contact with spot-on and sprayed products or by sucking treated blood through pills and oral liquids. This treatment also has the added benefit of reducing the number of pesticides used to treat the premises, which concentrates on killing eggs, larvae, and pupae.

These treatments are weight-based and you need to make sure you use the right amount of product. Your vets can prescribe and apply options not available over the counter [1].

Premise Treatment

Carefully vacuum the whole house to remove flea eggs

Standard means of control of the pet: Wash bedding and vacuum regularly (especially along cracks and crevices). You can also spray baseboards with flea insecticide. Pay particular attention to areas where the pet frequents. Steam clean carpets and upholstery if necessary. Any dirt that’s collected should be disposed of immediately to destroy fleas and larvae.

There are a number of chemicals and methods (pipettes are popular) to control flea infestations such as the application of lufenuron (Program), imidacloprid (Advantage), fipronil (Frontline),

Carbaryl, (Sevin), resmethrin, Methoxychlor and Malathion are available to the general public. Insect growth regulators available through veterinarians, such as Methoprene (Precor) and pyriproxyfen (Nylar, Archer, Biospot), also are effective [1].

Other things you can use are the anti-flea collars (preferably with safety lock), or anti-flea sprays. Be very careful with these last ones, never buy those that carry permethrins or cypermethrins, as they are very toxic to cats. Furthermore, it is best to apply first in a small area, wait to see if it generates any adverse reaction; if all goes well, then finish off the treatment avoiding eyes, nose, mouth, ears and the genital area.

IN HUMANS

Take a good shower, wash the clothes you were wearing as well as the house (tablecloths, sheets, the cat’s bed, etc.), and carefully vacuum clean the whole house.

If the bites itch a lot, we can use a natural Aloe vera cream or gel, it quickly relieves the itching.

Aloe vera cream or gel quickly relieves flea bite itch

For your hair and/or beard, you can use a flea shampoo (the kind for cats or dogs) there aren’t any specifically for humans or maybe lice shampoo. If you can’t get any, then dish soap will kill your fleas too. Apply it to the hair and leave it there for 10 minutes before combing with a flea comb, then wash it out.

Make sure you clean any combs you’ve used and continue combing your hair in the same fashion for a week after you think they’ve gone away.

Spray yourself with anti-flea spray, or make your own version with 90% boiled water mixed with 10% essential oil as a spray [10].

6- What diseases can fleas transmit?

In developed countries, the diseases transmitted by fleas are relatively minor. International travel and global warming will potentially increase the number of diseases and the number of people and pets affected by them [11].

Bubonic plague

Fleas can transmit Bubonic Plague

It’s a disease that in the middle ages killed almost half the population in Europe. It still occurs in our day and age, but only a few cases where fleas transmit it from rodents to humans and pets in the southwestern USA. It can successfully be treated with antibiotics[11].

Typhus

Typhus is an infectious disease transmitted by several species of the Rickettsia bacteria, which uses fleas, mites, lice, and ticks as a host and affects humans. Symptoms are recurrent high fever, chills, headache (headaches) and generalized skin rashes.

Bartonella

It is a genus of bacteria that, using fleas, mites, ticks, and mosquitoes, infect humans causing various symptoms: fever, vomiting, nausea, malaise, weakness.

Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD)

An eczematous itchy skin disease in cats and dogs. Symptoms include redness, bumps, pustules and scabs [12]. As a result, animals may develop crusty lesions and may constantly scratch at their skin, often leading to fur loss [11]. In humans it is rare, but we could also have scab wounds and itching.

Fleas can also be parasite vestors, such as tapeworm, that mainly affects pets when they accidentally ingest infected fleas while grooming [11].

Our vets can help & guide you through any flea issues you may have with your cat and pet. Call us at (419)362-9696 or click the button below to get an appointment and the right treatment or solution for your specific flea situation.

REFERENCES

[1] Cat Flea, Gale E. Ridge. https://portal.ct.gov/CAES/Fact-Sheets/Entomology/Cat-Flea
[2] Fleascience “Can fleas survive and reproduce on human blood?” https://fleascience.com/flea-encyclopedia/life-cycle-of-fleas/adult-fleas/can-fleas-survive-and-reproduce-on-human-blood/
[3] Williams, B. One jump ahead of the flea. New Scientist 31, 37–39 (1986).
[4] Pullen, S. R. & Meola, R. W. Survival and reproduction of the cat flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) fed human blood on an artificial membrane system. J. Med. Entomol. 32, 467–470 (1995).
[5] Fuller, G. K. Observations on flea attachment at low hair densities on man. Journal of Natural History 8, 207–213 (1974).
[6] “Why do flea bites itch so much?” https://www.terminix.com/blog/whats-buzzing/what-do-flea-bites-look-like/
[7] Insect. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Insect – fetched Sept. 8, 2019
[8] The Flea Life Cycle. Pet Basics from Bayer. https://www.petbasics.com/education/understanding-the-flea-tick-life-cycle/
[9] Fleas. University of Florida IFAS Extension. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ig087
[10] Can Fleas Live on Humans. Metro. https://metro.co.uk/2018/06/29/can-fleas-live-humans-7668573
[11] Flea diseases. Ehrlich. https://www.jcehrlich.com/fleas/diseases/
[12] Allergic Flea Dermatitis. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Flea_allergy_dermatitis

Mites in your follicles – BugBitten

Demodex folliculorum. Source: Wiki Creative Commons

Humans have been infested with skin parasites ever since we evolved. Modern hygienic living conditions have rid many of the world’s population of lice and fleas but one group of microscopic inhabitants of human skin have not been eliminated. It appears that 100% of adult human beings worldwide are infested with these mites. Although, in most cases they cause no harm, high densities have been associated with skin conditions such as acne rosacea.

Draw your fingers across your forehead and you are likely to have captured under your nails some of the two species of microscopic mites that live in your hair follicles or sebaceous glands. They are particularly associated with eyelashes and eyebrows and are sometimes known as eyelash mites.

A hair follicle mite. Source: Wikki commons

These mites are only 100-300uM long and have reduced legs and cylindrical bodies that are well adapted to the constricted space of their habitats; suggesting a long co-evolutionary history with mammals. Their pin-like mouth parts are used for eating dead skin cells and sebum from sebaceous glands and they come out and crawl about the skin; usually at night to avoid the light.

An ancient association

Michale Palopoli and colleagues analysed  mitochondrial genome sequences from the two species of eyelash mite that live on humans and found they have an unusual mitochondrial transfer RNA (t-RNA) gene structure, with many truncated t-RNA genes. Molecular clock analyses suggested an ancient split between the two species, which last shared a common ancestor more than 87 million years ago. This indicated that their associations with man likely had different evolutionary histories. Because of their ubiquitous occurrence, these mites have proven to be useful species to provide clues concerning the coevolution of humans and their associated organisms.

A hair follicle. Source: Wikki commons

The two mite species are found in different locations within the hair follicle.  Demodex folliculorum lives in the hair shaft and Demodex brevis lives deep within the sebaceous glands. The group considered D. folliculorum was more likely to move easily between people due to its location near the skin surface and chose this mite for further study.

We do not know exactly how rapidly these mites transfer from human to human but studying the genetic variation and linking this to the geographic location of their host human and the host’s ancestral migrations may help to elucidate this.  Easy and rapid cross infestation would dissociate particular genetic variations from family migration histories, whereas, if variations are associated with distinct geographic regions this would imply lower rates of global gene flow.

A phylogeographical approach

A recent publication from the Palopoli group describes this phylogeographical approach. They took samples from 70 people, almost all living in the USA. These people had diverse ancestries that they grouped into 4, lineages, namely; African, Asian, European and Latin American (which included South America). The mitochondrial DNA from 232 specimens of D. folliculorum mites was extracted and 241 sequences analysed.

They found high genetic diversity amongst the mite samples; suggestive of a very ancient colonisation of human beings, with no population bottlenecks in the recent past. This is despite the bottlenecks that human populations will have gone through when small groups migrated to faraway places. Four deeply divergent lineages were identified as clades A, B, C and D.

Follicle mite phylogeography

Much of the molecular variation reflected the ancestry of the mite’s hosts. People with European ancestry hosted mites that were almost entirely from clade D, whereas clade A and B mites were associated with hosts with Asian, African and Latin American ancestry. Overall ~27% of the variation in mtDNA was related to the historical geographical origin of the host; a highly significant finding.

Interestingly, mtDNA from the mites from the 7 hosts of African origin was particularly varied, with all 4 clades represented, whereas no mites from people of Asian descent were from clade C and none of those from people of Europe descent were in clades B and C. These patterns support the current thinking concerning the pattern of waves of migration out of Africa in human prehistory, with groups of our ancestors being infected with different subsets of mites and mites from some clades having been lost.

Samples from people of “Latin American” descent contained mites from all four divergent clades, probably reflecting the arrival of peoples from Africa during the slave trade as well as from migrants from Europe and N. America.

Follicle mite populations remain stable

Results from a person who was sampled several times over a 3 year period suggested mite lineages on an individual remain stable over time. This conclusion was supported by the evidence that mite populations remained similar to the host’s area of origin even years after they had moved to the USA. Finally, African Americans still contained mites from clade A (probably from African ancestors) despite close contact with those of European descent (who lack mites from clade A) for many generations.

Mites from family members were clustered in the same clades and were shown to share haplotypes, leading the authors to propose that follicle mite transmission required very close contact between hosts, not surprising considering their location within the hair follicles. They further proposed that the maintenance of mite population structure across generations may be due to variation in the particular characteristics of hair follicles that different mite clades may be adapted to (such as follicle morphology, skin hydration, hair density and lipid production) rather than very low transmission rates.

Conclusion

Phylogeographic studies of various organisms closely associated with man have confirmed theories concerning the migration patterns of early humans. Hair follicle mites are proving particularly helpful in this respect as evidence suggests they do not travel easily from person to person.

This study has provided further support for theories concerning our early history and the coevolution of these mites with humans. Present data suggest follicle mites have infected humans since their evolution and migration out of Africa.

How Common Is Ekbom’s Syndrome, or Delusions of Infestation?

A few years ago, a man began telling his family members a horrifying tale: There are bugs living inside him.

These bugs, he said, have hard shells that crunch when he squashes them. He can feel them moving around in his body, especially inside his nose and private parts. At first, his family told him—gently—that it wasn’t possible, but he just tried harder to convince them.

To collect “samples,” the man would dig in his nose with tweezers, pulling out bits of tissue and cartilage until he had bored a hole through his septum; now he whistles when he breathes. After myriad tests and no sign of subcutaneous insects, his doctors seemed to have given up.

He shows the classic signs of what scientists call delusory parasitosis, or Ekbom syndrome, an unwavering but incorrect belief that the patient’s body has been infested with something.

For years, entomologists have insisted that these delusions aren’t as rare as psychiatrists and the public may think. And now, a study by the Mayo Clinic suggests they’re right. The first population-based study of the condition’s prevalence suggests that about 27 out of a hundred thousand Americans a year have delusions of an infestation. That would mean around 89,000 people in the U.S. right now are plagued by the condition.

For many sufferers of such delusions, the infestation takes the form of insects or mites, usually tiny and often described as biting or crawling on the skin. Others report feeling worms or leeches or some kind of unknown parasite.

Many of the afflicted turn up, eventually, in an entomologist’s office. And as the entomologists tell them, only two kinds of arthropods actually infest humans: lice and a mite that causes scabies. Both are easy to identify and cause characteristic symptoms. Bedbugs or fleas might infest a house, but they don’t actually live on or inside the human body; they just feed on us and leave. Likewise, there are mites that live on our skin, especially the face, but they’re a normal part of everyone’s body, much like the bacteria living in our guts.

Often, there really is an underlying condition causing the itching or crawling sensations that lead people to believe they’re infested. Allergies, nutrition, stress, nerve conditions, and reactions to many common drugs can all be root causes. That’s one reason not to be dismissive of claims. But what often starts with an itch or other skin or nerve condition becomes a fixation, often on insects.

“There’s this anxiety that’s prevalent toward arthropods,” says Gale Ridge, an entomologist at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. “So when people believe they’ve been bitten, they naturally default to that. It’s almost instinctive.”

Desperate Calls

Ridge became aware of the man complaining of insects in his nose when a family member emailed her describing his condition. Ridge studies bedbugs and runs the office that handles questions from the public, and she says that in recent years, invisible insects have been taking up much of her time. Last year alone, at least 300 people came to her convinced they’re infested with insects, mites, or other creepy-crawlies.

Microscopic mites are having sex on your face, and researchers from North Carolina State University are eager to study them.

Each of their stories is unique, but with strong similarities, says Nancy Hinkle, an entomologist at the University of Georgia who has also worked with the condition. One common thread is sometimes called the Ziploc sign—sufferers go to great lengths to collect samples of the “bugs” from their bodies and homes, delivering bags that are often full of nothing but dust, lint, hair, and scabs.

Another similarity is a word they use: desperate. “They call and say, Dr. Hinkle, you have to help me—I’m desperate.” Usually by then, they’ve made the rounds to multiple doctors.

If no physical cause can be found for symptoms, any doctor—even a family physician—can prescribe medications to treat delusional thoughts. But after six months of trying to identify the cause of their anguish, Ridge says, it’s harder to sway people toward such treatments.

“A lot of patients won’t take them,” says dermatologist Mark Davis of the Mayo Clinic, an author on the recent study of delusional infestations. “They say, you’re just saying I’m crazy, and I’m not.”

In 2012, Davis and his colleagues reported on 147 cases of delusional infestation seen at the Mayo Clinic over seven years. He couldn’t think of any patients who he knew had successfully overcome their delusions. Often, he said, they come to Mayo expecting to be diagnosed with an exotic new kind of infection, and they leave disappointed, never to be heard from again.

The internet, meanwhile, has likely served to swell the ranks of the infested. Blogs and websites about various infestations, many of which are devoted to conspiracy theories and biologically impossible explanations, give sufferers a sense of community, but also reinforce delusions and often try to sell them on sham solutions.

Insect Therapy

Both Ridge and Hinkle say they start every case that comes to them by looking for actual insects or mites. This can mean examining dozens or hundreds of purported samples. If she can’t find any evidence of insects, an entomologist must tread lightly. Hinkle says she learned from experience that mentioning mental health professionals is the last thing to do—people just get angry.

Ridge says she’s had good outcomes by talking to a sufferer’s family. Once, she says, “I ended up with 11 members of a family in a roundtable conversation.” That support helped the man decide to get the treatment he needed.

Both Hinkle and Ridge are clearly empathetic, but it’s also clear that walking this daily tightrope—trying to persuade the unpersuadable—has taken an emotional toll.

“Sometimes I can’t turn it off,” Hinkle says. “I can’t go to sleep.” She’ll lie in bed remembering a woman she talked to that day, thinking, she’s probably bathing in Clorox right now.

“You could spend the rest of your life following up on delusory parasitosis,” Hinkle warns. And in a sense, she’s doing just that. After years of looking for insects that aren’t there, “you almost have to laugh, or you’ll go crazy.”

Worms, Mites, Ticks and Other Bugs That Live on Cats

Cats are susceptible to many different types of parasites but there are two main classifications of them. Cats will either get internal or external parasites. Internal parasites are inside the body while external parasites live on the outside of the body in the skin or ears of a cat but no parasite is a good parasite. It’s important for cat owners to do what they can to prevent parasites from infecting their pets.

  • Cheyletiella mites are often referred to as walking dandruff.

    Agency-Animal-Picture / Getty Images

    Mites are a tiny type of arachnid but they don’t look like a spider. These external parasites are typically unable to be seen without the use of a microscope and can infect different parts of a cat. Preventative medications can be used to help keep a cat from getting mites but they usually need to be administered monthly. The types of mites seen on cats include:

    • Demodex – Also referred to as demodectic mites and demodectic mange, demodex is a mite that lives on or in the skin of cats and an infection of these mites is called demodecosis. Two different species of demodex can be found on cats: Demodex cati and Demodex gatoi. Normally there are very small amounts of these mites on a healthy cat but if a cat is immunosuppressed they may overpopulate and cause itching, hairloss, skin inflammation, and crusting. Diagnosis of these mites typically requires a scraping of the skin and analysis under a microscope. Treatment involves topical and/or injectable medications to kill the mites and treat the symptoms of the infection.
    • Walking Dandruff – Known technically as Cheyletiella mites, an infection of these mites is called cheyletiellosis. They get their name from the way they look and the scaling that they cause to the skin. They may be able to be seen moving around on a cat without a microscope or otoscope but are very tiny. They cause itching as well as the skin scaling but are easily treated with topical medications.
    • Scabies – Also called notoedric mange, scabies mites burrow into the skin of cats. The specific mite that causes scabies in cats is Notoedres cati and it is very closely related to the sarcoptic mange that dogs get. It is very rare but causes itching, crusting, and scaling of the skin. It is usually treated with topical medications.
    • Ear Mites – Very commonly seen in cat ears, Otodectes cynotis, are mites that cause the typical itching that other mites also cause.  They are usually treated with topical medications and are very contagious to other cats.
  • Fleas are tiny external parasites

     Getty Images/Coopder1

    Fleas are not uncommon external parasites on dogs and cats but since cats are such fastidious groomers they may not be as obvious to a pet owner as they would be on other animals. Fleas can infest an environment quite easily. They take blood meals from cats and reproduce rapidly making it difficult to eradicate them from some homes. Sprays and powders along with topical medications are used to treat a flea infestation but preventative medications can be easily administered to prevent them from causing a problem in the first place.

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, can also transmit serious diseases and parasites in addition to the itching and hairloss that pet owners see. Because of this, preventing fleas is more than just preventing a nuisance. Less commonly, cats can also be infested with the dog flea, Ctenocephalides canis, which can also transmit parasites to a cat.

  • Jerad M Gardner, MD / Wikimedia Commons

    Intestinal parasites are internal parasites that can be worms, eggs, or protozoan. These tiny parasites live inside the stomach and intestinal tract of cats and only the worms are visible to the naked eye. In order to detect them, stool samples are routinely tested by a veterinarian and various medications will be utilized to treat intestinal parasite infections.

    • Giardia – This microscopic protozoan is also a problem for humans and attaches itself to the wall of the intestines of cats. It causes diarrhea and is passed to animals and people in contaminated soil and water.
    • Coccidia – Another microscopic parasite, this parasite also causes diarrhea in cats. There are several different types of intestinal coccidium that can infect cats including Isospora felis, Isospora rivolta, Sarcocystis, and Toxoplasma gondii (which humans can also contract).
    • Whipworms – This intestinal parasite has a larval or worm stage which is often seen by cat owners but the eggs can be noticed microscopically. Trichuris vulpis, the technical name for whipworms, causes diarrhea.
    • Hookworms – Another intestinal parasite that has both a worm stage and microscopic eggs, hookworms also cause diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms in cats. The most common types of hookworms seen in cats are Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Ancylostoma braziliense.
    • Roundworms – A very common type of intestinal parasite, roundworms are usually described as spaghetti-looking worms in the stool of cats. They also have an egg stage that is microscopic. These worms often cause a bloated or round belly appearance in cats along with loose stools and occasionally even vomiting.
    • Tapeworms – If a cat consumes a flea they may get tapeworms. The worms of this intestinal parasite look like pieces of rice in the stool but there are microscopic eggs as well. This worm is known to cause weightloss.
  • Agency-Animal-Picture / Getty Images

    Larger than fleas and mites, ticks are external parasites that latch onto a cat in order to feed off of its blood. Ticks can carry a variety of diseases but preventative medications can keep them off of a cat. There are several different kinds of ticks that cats can get depending on what part of the country the cat is in. Some common kinds of ticks include:

    • Lone Star Tick – This type of tick is only occasionally found on cats. The technical name is Amblyomma americanum and this tick can spread a potentially lethal blood parasite called Cytauxzoon felis.
    • American Dog Tick – Despite the name, this tick can also be found on cats and causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.
    • Deer (Blacklegged) Tick – Ixodes species of ticks are often referred to as Deer ticks and can infect a cat with anaplasmosis.

    Other ticks and tick-borne diseases, including tick paralysis, also exist. Various medications will be used to treat the infection but many types of tick-borne illnesses are not able to be cured in cats. This is why using tick preventatives in cats is so important.

    Continue to 5 of 6 below.

  • Heartworms

    Jim Schemel / Getty Images

    Transmitted through mosquito bites, heartworms commonly infect dogs but cats are also at risk. Dirofilaria immitis, or heartworms as they are more often referred to as, are microscopic internal parasites that often go undetected in cats. This is because cats only have one to three worms in their body and sometimes don’t even have any adult worms. Heartworm tests are looking for special proteins called antigens that the adult female worms give off so if there aren’t any, the test won’t be positive even if there are immature worms in the cat. But even though there are often no adult worms to reproduce in the body, immature worms can still cause serious damage to a cat’s respiratory system and eventually result in death. There is no treatment for feline heartworm disease but prevention with medications is very effective.

  • This parasite creates a hole in the skin of a cat.

    Smith Collection/Gado / Getty Images

    A larvae of the botfly, Cuterebra are also known as warbles in cats. There are several different species of warbles but they all burrow into the skin and cause swelling. Once the larvae is large enough, the swelling usually breaks open leaving a hole in the skin. The larvae is able to be seen in this hole before it emerges but sometimes the larvae must be surgicallly removed. The swelling and inflammation usually leads to an abscess which requires medications and cleaning to manage the infection.

If you suspect your pet is sick, call your vet immediately. For health-related questions, always consult your veterinarian, as they have examined your pet, know the pet’s health history, and can make the best recommendations for your pet.

Ask The Entomologist: Microscopic Bugs – Plunkett’s Pest Control

Question: I am being bitten by microscopic bugs. It started two months ago in my home, but now they seem to be everywhere. I feel them bite in my home and at the office, day and night. They seem to find me wherever I am. It’s driving me crazy! Can you help?

Dr. Cannon’s Answer: The problem you describe is very common in late winter. Months of indoor heating and hot showers leave us all with dry skin, which tends to be more susceptible to irritation. The many causes of skin discomfort fall into three broad categories: biting arthropods (insects and mites), environmental irritants, and medical conditions. My job as an entomologist is to try to establish whether insects are to blame for your discomfort. Fortunately, the list of insects biting people in winter is short: bed bugs, fleas, lice, and mites.

1. Biting arthropods

Once a symptom of filth or squalor, bed bug infestations nowadays are just a sign of bad luck. Bed bugs are excellent hitchhikers and can be picked up almost anywhere. They hide during the day so a bite is often the only indication of their presence. You could check your mattress, box spring, and bed linens for bed bugs, blood smears, or black spots that look like fly speck. However, I strongly recommend an inspection by an experienced pest management professional to confirm. You don’t want to gamble with bed bugs. (Bat bugs are quite similar to bed bugs in both appearance and behavior. They turn up if bats are or have been present in the home. Again, call a pest control professional for inspection and treatment.)

Usually, fleas are easy to spot but can be overlooked in the early stages of an infestation. When in doubt, try the White Sock test. Pull on a pair of white knee socks and stroll around those areas of the home frequented by people or pets. Any fleas present will hop up onto the lower leg, where they are easy to spot against the white sock. DIY flea control products and thorough vacuuming may do the trick, but professional pest control will be quicker and more effective.

Human lice are passed from one person to another and don’t typically go unnoticed for long. Head and pubic lice die quickly if separated from their host, whereas body lice can survive in piles of clothing and bedding. Regardless, human lice are a medical issue requiring diagnosis and treatment by a physician. Elimination can be expedited by laundering and vacuuming, but application of pesticides to the home is not needed.

Several species of mites can bite people, but only two culprits are common in winter. Rodent mites feed on wild or pet rodents. They wander in search of other hosts when the rodent dies or absconds. Professional inspection and treatment will take care of them. (Bird mites resemble rodent mites in appearance, but rarely appear in winter. They tend to surface in spring when young birds fledge. Pet birds, however, may harbor such mites year round.) Scabies mites are a medical issue, much like lice. They burrow into the skin and tend to be associated with health care and child care facilities. Because they are extremely contagious, scabies must be confirmed and treated by a physician. Structural pesticide applications will not help.

2. Environmental irritants

Once insects have been ruled out, we need to consider alternative causes of skin discomfort. Environmental issues are sometimes to blame. Numerous physical and chemical irritants can affect the skin in much the same way as biting insects. Have there have been recent changes in your indoor environment, such as construction or renovation; painting; chemical treatment of furniture or clothing; new personal care products; or the like? Carefully consider every possibility, no matter how small. For example, a military officer once told me that a particular brand of dryer sheets was not permitted on base as it caused a high number of dermatitis complaints. If you need professional help in this area, contact an environmental consultant.

3. Medical causes

While not a medical professional, I know of a number of prescription drugs, OTC drugs, and medical conditions that can produce skin reactions. On this extensive list are such things as anemia, arthritis, cancer, depression, hypoglycemia, pregnancy, stress, analgesics, antibiotics, antidepressants, hormones, sedatives, and drugs for cardiovascular disease, convulsions, hypertension, thyroid conditions, and ulcers. All of these and more can cause dermal itching, stinging, burning, or tingling in some people. It is well worth your while to discuss these possibilities with your physician, especially if insects and environmental issues have been ruled out.

As difficult as the situation is, you need to be patient and open minded. This is sometimes a difficult riddle to solve. It can take time, effort, and determination. But if you persist in investigating all of the potential causes mentioned above, you will resolve the problem. And if you’d like some help investigating the insect part of that equation, we at Plunkett’s are only too happy to help.

Do you have a pest problem that you’d like to learn more about?  Ask Dr. Cannon your question by clicking here!

For more information on the insects and other pests you have encountered this winter, contact Plunkett’s Pest Control today. Providing superior residential and commercial pest control services for Minneapolis, Lincoln and the Quad Cities as well as throughout our service area, Plunkett’s is ready to be your trusted exterminator.

6 Invisible Microscopic Bugs That Bite And The Easy Solutions

Not all bugs that bite you are as easily recognizable as bed bugs or fleas.

Some biting bugs are so tiny that even bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are more prominent than them. 

These bugs are known as microscopic bugs.

Some of these microscopic bugs are parasites on humans. And some are outdoor bugs that sneak inside your home to bite you and hide inside your home.

In this guide, you’ll find a list of 6 tiny and almost invisible microscopic bugs that bite.

To help you recognize them easily, we’ve classified these bugs by the color they’re found.

Plus, you’ll also find out the easy solutions for the invisible biting bugs. 

Keep reading.

Microscopic Bugs That Bite – An Introduction

Do you wake up with bug bites? Or do you feel something crawling on your back and neck while you’re on your bed? 

You wonder, “what’s biting me but I can’t see?”

You think it’s bed bugs, fleas, ants, and mosquitoes. So you check every inch of your home.

But you find nothing. There’s no sign of bugs.

In the pest control world, these types of invisible bugs are known as microscopic bugs. And yes, you’re right. They bite too.

These microscopic bugs, which are known as arthropod pests that bite, can be dangerous too.

They drill themselves into your skin to live and breed. It leads not only to itchy and painful bite marks but also to a severe skin infection. 

This condition of being parasitized by biting microscopic bugs is known as parasitosis. 

Most microscopic bugs that bite infest human skin and clothing. But some don’t.

You’ll find out later in the guide how to protect yourself from microscopic bugs that bite. 

For now, let’s find out what these microscopic bugs are.

The bugs are differentiated based on their color. Unfortunately, these bugs are almost invisible, so you might need a microscope or magnifying glass to view them.  

Microscopic White Bugs That Bite

There are two microscopic white bugs that bite –

  1. Scabies Mites.
  2. Body Lice.

Let’s have a look at each of them. 

Scabies Mites

Sarcoptes Scabiei, or scabies mites, are whitish-brown and only half a millimeter long. These mites cause an infection in humans which is known as scabies. 

But that’s an infestation rather than an infection.

Why?

It’s because scabies mites burrow in the outer layer of your skin and they breed and lay eggs underneath, just like how termites infest wood.

Before burrowing, these microscopic bugs bite on your skin. But they’re so tiny that they’re invisible to the naked eye. 

That’s why you don’t see any sign of bugs even if you look at the bitten area at the very moment when they bite you. 

The symptoms of scabies mites’ presence inside your skin take a long time, four to six weeks, to show up.  

The symptoms are intense itching and pimples like rashes. 

By looking at the symptoms, you might misinterpret them as symptoms of mosquito bites or acne. 

But the most compelling evidence of scabies mites’ presence inside your skin is relentless itching. 

And you’ll also see track-like burrows underneath your skin, which lead to rashes. 

This condition of constant itching and presence of adult scabies mites and their eggs underneath your skin is known as scabies. 

Once inside your skin, female scabies mites lay up to 10 to 25 eggs. If left untreated, newborn scabies will spread underneath your skin and multiply. 

The most common body parts where scabies mites attack are webbing between your fingers, on your wrists, elbows, and knee folds, near the waistline, at the navel, genitals, neck, face, and palms. 

At a time, there can be 10 to 15 mites scabies mites inside your skin. 

To confirm scabies mites, doctors scrape the skin from the infected person and observe it under the microscope. If scabies mites have infested the person, then doctors can easily spot adult scabies, their eggs, and fecal matters from the scraped skin. 

But things can get worse. 

The more sinister form of scabies is crust scabies which are also known as Norwegian scabies

In this condition, tens of thousands of scabies burrow inside the human skin.

The eggs and overpopulation of scabies mites inside the skin make the skin appear as a crust. 

Crust scabies is a very critical scabies infestation, and it’s highly contagious that needs immediate medical intervention to prevent an outbreak.

Scabies mites spread from skin to skin when a healthy person comes in contact with an infected person. 

For example, sexual contact with a person with scabies, sharing personal items like clothes, towels, and bedsheets is why scabies mites spread from one person to another. 

Scabies mites cannot fly or jump. They can only crawl. 

Scabies mites have eight legs, and they use their mouth to dig a tunnel on your skin. 

Crowded places, child and daycare centers, hospitals, and institutional care centers are prone to have scabies mites. In addition, given the weak immune system of the elderly, scabies mites can wreak havoc on them. 

But, children, because of their soft skin, are also an easy target for scabies mites. 

Pets can also have scabies.

But those mites, known as mange, that cause scabies in pets are ineffective on humans. Neither can they burrow in the human skin, nor can they survive on humans. 

If you’ve been observing scabies symptoms like constant itching and rashes, go to the doctor asap.

Repeatedly itching on the infested portion creates open sores that lead to severe and dangerous bacterial skin infections known as impetigo. 

Another microscopic mite is the hair follicle mite. These mites live in the hair follicles, and they’re harmless.  

The worst that hair follicle mite can inflict on you is acne. 

Body Lice

There’s one reason for this microscopic bug to exist, and that’s unhygienic living conditions. 

Body lice infest and lay eggs on the seams of dirty clothes. Like bed bugs, body lice need to feed on human blood to survive. 

But the best part is body lice are not associated with everyday living conditions. 

You’ll find these microscopic biting bugs in utterly dirty places with crowded living conditions. As per CDC, “In the US, you’ll find body lice infestations in homeless people who do not have access to clean living conditions, daily bathing, and clean clothes.”

Symptoms of body lice are intense itching and rash. 

Plus, repeated biting by body lice on the skin causes the skin to thicken and discolor. This condition is known as vagabond disease.

Body lice infestation is unlikely to be on a hygienic person who bathes daily, has access to clean clothes, and has a clean living place.  

An adult body louse is whitish-grey, has 6 legs, and only grows up to 4 mm in size. It only crawls on the human skin when it needs its blood meal to survive. 

Post feeding, it moves back to the cloth where it hides. 

The point to note is that the lice found on the head and scalp are head lice. Head lice are different from body lice.

Unhygienic living conditions caused by war, natural or artificial disasters, and civil unrest creates an ideal situation for the body lice to spread. Under these unsanitary conditions, body lice also cause diseases, such as typhus and trench fever.   

Body lice also spread through direct physical contact with people who have them or using personal items like the infected person’s clothing. 

But body lice infestations in the US are limited to homeless people who don’t have access to basic hygiene like regular bathing, clean clothes, and clean living conditions. 

Microscopic Red Bugs That Bite

Chiggers

Chiggers are tiny parasitic microscopic red bugs that bite humans, birds, and mammals. They’re the larvae of mites belonging to the Trombiculidae family. 

Chiggers are also known as berry bugs, harvest mites, red bugs, and scrub-itch mites. 

Measuring only 1/150 inches in length, you’d need at least a robust magnifying glass, if not a microscope, to see the chiggers. 

When chiggers are born, they’re either red or orange. On humans, they feed on the human skin.

After feeding, chiggers turn yellow or yellowish.

Chiggers’ body shape is oval, and it has six legs that make them effective crawlers. 

Contrary to popular belief, Chiggers don’t burrow themselves under your skin. Nor do they suck your blood.

When chiggers bite your skin, it injects its saliva into your skin. The saliva breaks down the skin making your skin edible for them. 

The bitten area of your skin will develop red welts with a white spot in the middle of the lump. You’ll face severe itching within hours of chiggers’ bite.

The itching gets worse if you don’t treat it, and it can last for weeks.

Do not repeatedly scratch the welts as it’ll lead to infection. Instead, use any itch-relieving lotion or balm on the itchy area and visit a doctor.

Chiggers are outdoor bugs and live in damp and shaded places in your yard or garden. During the spring and summer months, it’s pretty common to find chiggers in shrubs, bushes, potted plants, and grass lawns. 

Chiggers latch onto your skin when you walk in these places. Once they’re onto you, they move to areas where clothing fits tightly onto your skin or where the skin is delicate and loose.

So, chiggers bite you on places around the waistline, genitals, ankles, in the folds of elbows and knees.

Are Chiggers And Clover Mites The Same?

Clover Mites

Given the similarity in the looks of chiggers and clover mites, many people think they’re the same. 

They’re not.

There’s a lot of difference between the two. The only significant difference is that clover mites don’t bite humans.  

But presence of clover mites can cause allergic reactions. And to asthma patients, clover mites can trigger asthmatic attacks.

Many people also think that clover mites, chiggers, and spider mites are the same arachnids.

But each are different.

Another bug that people confuse it with clover mites and chiggers is the spider mite.

Spider mites are also microscopic bugs but they’re plant damaging bugs. They don’t generally bite humans.

Microscopic Yellow Bugs That Bite

The bug that you’re about to find out isn’t typically microscopic, but it’s tiny.

And these bugs are thrips. These tiny yellow thrips’ size ranges from 0.5 mm to 5 mm. 

Thrips plant bugs or outdoor bugs, and there are different colors of thrips.

The yellow ones are the tiniest, and these yellow thrips’ types are known as Frankliniella Occidentalis. They’re tiny enough for you to overlook them.

Many other types of thrips come in different colors like black (these are the biggest thrips), off-white, and yellow.

Thrips are the microscopic yellow bugs that bite humans.

Thrips feed only on plant matter, and they accidentally bite humans.

When thrips land on you, they probe with their mouth, which causes them to bite, to find out if you’re edible or not.

On biting when they realize that you’re not it’s food, they get off your body.

Thrips don’t inject anything inside you when they bite. You can get bite marks that are similar to rashes and lumps.

Microscopic Black Bugs That Bite

Pirate bugs and insidious flower bugs are two tiny black bugs that bite.

There’s nothing microscopic about them. It means although both pirate bugs and insidious flower bugs are tiny, they’re visible to the naked eye. 

But given their smaller size, that makes them quite hard to detect.

Pirate Bugs

Pirate bugs are outdoor bugs, and they’re most likely to bite when you’re engaged in any outdoor activity.

They fly in swarms, so many people confuse them with mosquitoes. But they’re so tiny that they look like black dots, if you can see them.

Pirate bugs are active during the summer months, and outdoors, you’ll find them near moist and damp areas.

Pirate bugs bite repeatedly. But they don’t inject anything inside you, nor do they carry any diseases. 

They’re looking for a new place to hide and sources of food, and when they land on you, they think that you may be that. 

Pirate bugs have a sharp beak-like mouth that they insert into your skin to probe on what they’ve landed on. Their bites are pretty painful, and you’ll get welts and red rashes on the bitten area. 

Insidious Flower Bugs

Insidious flower bugs, twice as big as the period at the end of this sentence, is also an outdoor bug that bites humans. 

Why they bite humans is still unknown. But the best part is that, like pirate bugs, insidious flower bugs don’t inject anything, nor do they transmit any diseases.

When insidious flower bugs bite you, the only thing they leave behind is bite marks. These bite marks are red welts and rashes that are very similar to mosquito bite marks.

Studies have shown that they tend to bite people when they’re sweating. And they also have a habit of entering your home through open doors and windows.

Insidious flower bugs are active during late afternoons, starting from the summer to autumn. 

Solution For Invisible Biting Bugs

There are many ways to protect yourself from the bites of these invisible biting bugs.

There are many solutions, from using essential oils and diatomaceous earth in their hiding places to over-the-counter balms and ointments on your skin to treat the bites or ward off the bugs.

But the most effective and long-term solution for invisible biting bugs is only four. And you don’t need to hire any pest controller for that. These are – 

  1. Cleanliness in and around your home.
  2. Controlling the dampness or moisture levels in and around your home.
  3. Maintaining good personal hygiene and bathing regularly.
  4. Not letting dirty clothes and linen sit around for days and washing them asap.

Maintaining cleanliness and controlling moisture in your home and property denies food supply and hiding places to these bugs.

And knowing the months when they’re active and breed is also essential. 

It’s because many of them can fly in or sneak inside your home through open doors and windows.

During the months when these bugs are active, it’s always a good idea to use window shields with fine meshes and weather stripping to close the gaps in the doors and windows.

Sealing off the cracks and gaps on the walls, windows, and doors with a durable and robust sealant, like silicon-based sealant, denies these bugs entry to your home.

Keep your yard or garden clean and keep them free from pests and bugs.

If you don’t maintain it well, your yard can be an epicenter of invasive and destructive pests like cockroaches, ants, and termites.  

Ensure that there’s no waterlogging in your yard, there’s no garbage or trash, there’s no trash piled in the trash bins, and most importantly, there are no bugs and pests in the soil bed, firewood pile, and mulch layer.

The vital thing to remember is that some people, especially children and the elderly, can display allergic reactions when these microscopic bugs bite them. 

These allergic reactions can range from running nose, burning red eyes, coughing, and sneezing.

In these cases, it’d be best to consult a physician asap. 

Maintaining good hygiene, washing your clothes regularly, and regular bathing get rid of these microscopic bugs in your clothes and skin.

Conclusion

Here’s the list of 6 microscopic bugs that bite –

  1. Scabies mites
  2. Body lice
  3. Chiggers
  4. Thrips
  5. Pirate bugs
  6. Insidious flower bugs

Scabies mites and body lice are parasitic bugs on humans. These bugs are more commonly associated with unhygienic living conditions.

These bugs are so tiny that you’d need a magnifying glass to see them.

Chiggers, thrips, pirate bugs and insidious flower bugs are outdoor bugs that bite. And they can sneak inside your home.

You can bring them inside your home from outdoors because they may latch onto your clothing.

But the solution for the invisible biting bugs is quite straightforward. Hygiene and cleanliness goes a long way to keep them from biting you.

Other visible yet tiny bugs, but not microscopic, that bite and feed on your blood are mosquitoes, bed bugs, fleas, kissing bugs, and bird mites.

To prevent bed bugs, and other tiny bugs, from biting you, check our guide on what to put on your body to prevent bed bug bites.

We’re Mark and Jim. We were serial pest killers for almost all of our lives. Through this blog we spread pest murdering tips to people like you who want to keep their homes pest free.

90,000 Clouds of fleas capture comfortable high-rise buildings. News. Channel One

Hermetically sealed overalls similar to a chemical protection suit, gloves and a mask leaving only a slit for the eyes. Plumber Sergei is preparing to go to an ordinary Moscow basement. A five-minute affair – to check the heating pipes – without such equipment will turn into torment. A step from the threshold, flocks of hungry insects already reign.

Sergei, plumber: “In crowds there, hundreds there. You come in, they come flying straight.In literally ten minutes they just stick around you. They bite. ” Workers say: you need to protect yourself as much as possible Fasten all the zippers and, if there is no mask, wear at least a respirator

Just a few steps, and black dots appear on the white suit.These tiny bloodsuckers, barely visible in the dim light, are a big nuisance for the residents of the first floors. Making their way upstairs through the smallest cracks and cracks, basement fleas become apartment fleas. In this house, their recent invasion will not be forgotten soon.

Valery Pankov, flea victim: “Well, it was just black. They are small, and they jump like this. And all the legs were bitten, and it itches a lot.”

Fleas were driven back to the basement for several days, and the itch from the bites then did not go away for weeks.True, in this case, the doctors assure, everyone can help themselves, and for this it is not necessary to run to the pharmacy.

Vladimir Guryev, dermatologist: “The most elementary thing is vinegar, the same vinegar, it relieves itching very well, plus some alcohol-containing preparations. You can use vodka.”

But skin irritation is the most innocuous thing that these microscopic athletes are dangerous in, who are ready to jump out of the vessel where they were put by the scientists-entomologists.

Svetlana Roslavtseva, Head of the Department of Scientific Foundations of Disinsection, Research Institute of Disinfectology: “Fleas, for example, are associated with a disease such as the plague. In addition, fleas can be carriers of other infections. “

Such as rat typhus and tularemia. Everything that cats, dogs and rats get sick with, on whose skin fleas move to human housing.

In a gas mask and with a knapsack for with his back, an employee of the disinfection station looks like a fantastic movie hero: for parasites, his poison sprayer, like a battle laser for some aliens, hits on the spot. what’s in the suit.

Elena Basova, doctor of the disinfection station: “Heat. Temperature 30 degrees and showers. Everything. Fire. A large number of larvae hatch into adults. Massively. When really, starting from the entrance, a person is covered with fleas.”

Then only the scorched earth tactics remain. For fleas. And for people, drugs in the arsenal of doctors are sometimes completely harmless. But to use the notorious folk remedies is more likely the lot of humanists and fighters for the rights of insects. It is only rumored that ordinary wormwood helps to remove fleas, but no one can guarantee that from such herbal medicine there will be even more fleas in the house.

Presenter: “About animals that are crammed into neighbors against our will, we will continue our conversation with the chief specialist of the Moscow City Disinfection Center Lyudmila Rumyantseva. Lyudmila Nikolaevna, where does such an invasion of fleas come from?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva, chief specialist of the Moscow city disinfection center: “I must say that this is due to the fact that it is summer now, that it is warm, humid. , that is, from a year to a year and a half in the garbage, in the trash, for example, flea pupae were preserved, but now, under the influence of such a temperature regime, they hatch, and it is as if a lot of insects are obtained. “

Host: “What should people do?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “The most common are cat, dog and rat fleas. Therefore, here, of course, you need to look to the origins of this problem, think about stray animals. . They feed on blood. ”

Presenter: “It seems that the same cockroaches appear by some kind of raids. Now they are not there, now they are again. What is this happening?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “But this is due to the fact that, of course, they have the ability to move from apartment to apartment.Because there is a lot of destruction, cracks through which they pass. And if some owner does not pay attention to such a neighborhood and his population is very large, then the insects begin to creep away and conquer other apartments. ” … She says: “Cockroaches will get divorced.” Is she right? “

Lyudmila Rumyantseva:” Of course. Because leaving some food or food leftovers, water, is just good food for cockroaches. “

Presenter: “Well, good. I, stepping over myself, will wash the dishes, but the neighbor will not wash, and his cockroaches will come to me.”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “Well, unfortunately, we can’t do anything here. We can only convince our neighbor.”

Presenter: “What help can citizens expect from the authorities in the fight against parasites?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “This is on the conscience of those who operate the buildings. They must, for the operation of the housing stock, they must constantly carry out deratization work – this is the extermination of rodents, and pest control, that is, against insects.”

Presenter: “That is, you need to contact the housing office if fleas appear?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “Certainly. Certainly.”

Presenter: “How safe are the products that you use against insects?”

Lyudmila Rumyantseva: “There is a very large arsenal now, fortunately. use, the population itself, they are less safe.And therefore, I think if someone has, say, problems with cockroaches, gels, gel forms are very good. Because it is environmentally friendly and they have a lasting residual effect. “

Host:” How serious is bed bugs. They say that even babies can die from them. “

Lyudmila Rumyantseva:” If the appearance of bedbugs somewhere in the infectious diseases hospital, it is clear that, crawling and feeding on the blood of one host, then another host, there can be an infection transfer. But in the house it is basically just a dream that they disturb by the fact that they are disturbing and can cause some kind of dermatitis. But, of course, it’s impossible to die. “

Host:” Thank you very much, Lyudmila Nikolaevna. In our studio was the chief specialist of the Moscow City Disinfection Center, Lyudmila Rumyantseva. We figured out how we can succeed in the fight against fleas, cockroaches and other urban parasites. “

Fleas in dogs – symptoms and remedies. How to remove fleas from a puppy in Moscow. Zoostatus Veterinary Clinic

Detection of flea infestation

Flea Life Cycle

Medicines against fleas in dogs

Fleas in dogs are one of the most common problems that often bother owners.

These small dark brown insects prefer temperatures above 15 degrees Celsius and a humidity level of 75-85 percent – so a strong infestation by fleas is mainly a “summer” problem, however, the resistance in the external environment of eggs and larvae is quite high, and severe itching can cause and just one single bite.

Dogs often become infected with fleas through contact with other animals or get them indirectly. The strong hind legs of this insect allow it to jump from one animal to another or jump off natural objects (fleas have no wings, so they cannot fly to the victim, so the contact should still be close enough).

A flea bite can cause itching in an animal. In sensitive or allergic animals, this itching can be quite severe and lead to hair loss, inflammation and secondary skin infections. Some pets that are hypersensitive to saliva from fleas will itch all over their bodies from the bite of even a single flea!

Unlike the latter, microscopic parasites, fleas can be seen moving along the surface of the skin.The dog flea is dark copper in color, about the size of a pinhead.

Fleas avoid light, so they prefer thick hair, mainly on the animal’s belly and inner thighs. If you are looking for fleas on an animal, your chances of finding them in these areas are very high.

Also, the method of detecting fleas is the detection of the so-called. Flea dirt. Flea mud is like the dark specks of pepper scattered over the skin. If you see flea dirt, which is actually feces and is made up of digested blood, remove some of it from the pet and place it on a damp paper towel.If after a few minutes the tiny specks have spread like a small blood stain, it’s definitely flea mud and your pet has fleas!

To understand which treatment options work and why, it is important to understand the life cycle of a flea, as different treatments affect different stages of that cycle.

There are several stages in the life cycle of a flea: egg, larva, chrysalis (pupa), and adult (imago). The length of time it takes to complete this cycle will vary depending on environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and food availability.

The flea carrier animal is warm-blooded. However, various stages of flea development are quite resistant to negative temperatures. An adult female flea usually lives on the animal for several weeks. At this time, every day she will drink the blood of an animal two or three times and lay twenty to thirty eggs. In total, she can lay several hundred eggs. These eggs are dropped from the fur of the animal in the yard, at home and wherever the dog is.

These eggs then move on to the next stage of development in the place where they ended up.Since the eggs are small in size (about 1/12 the size of an adult flea), they can develop even in small cracks in the floor and between crevices in carpeting. Then the egg is transformed into a larva. These tiny, worm-like larvae live among carpet fibers, in cracks in floors and in the environment. They feed on organic matter, bits of skin, and even the blood-rich feces of adult fleas.

The larvae grow, molt twice and then form a cocoon and pupate, waiting for the right moment to become an adult.These pupae are highly elastic and protected by a cocoon. They can live in a “resting” phase for quite a long time, waiting for favorable environmental conditions. Young adults emerge from their cocoons when they detect heat, vibrations and carbon dioxide, which indicates the proximity of the animal-potential host. An adult flea that has just been “born” from a cocoon can immediately jump onto the animal.

Under optimal conditions, a flea can complete its full life cycle in just fourteen days.

Knowing this life cycle allows us to understand why it is always important to treat an animal and treat the indoor and outdoor environment in order to fully control the number of fleas. Simply spraying a small amount of flea spray on your pet will not work; just vacuuming at home will not work, just using a flea collar will not work, nor will any one-time cleaning of the animal.

There is a wide variety of anti-flea drugs on the market today, but modern drugs from well-known brands make flea control convenient and effective.In some cases, it is even possible to treat only the pet. Some of these opposing foods do not harm the adult flea, but instead prevents its eggs from developing, thus interrupting the flea’s life cycle; without reproducing eggs, the population will eventually disperse until the dog comes into contact with new fleas.

In warm climates, treatment is usually year-round, with changing seasons, treatment should begin in early spring before flea season begins.In addition, larvae-only drugs are not a good choice for animals that are allergic to flea saliva (flea bite hypersensitivity), as adult fleas are not killed and are still able to bite the animal and cause an allergic response and itching.

When it comes to treating a dog for fleas, it is always necessary to treat all warm-blooded animals in the house. In addition, it is likely that the premises and the outdoor environment will need to be treated. When treating rooms, it is important to wash everything in soapy, hot water, especially if pets like to lie on your bed.All carpets must be completely vacuumed. Steam cleaning carpet can also kill some larvae. However, remember that vacuuming and rinsing the carpet will still leave enough fleas alive and chemical treatment may be necessary.

The most effective formulations for the treatment of the external environment are those products that contain two components – an ingredient to kill adult fleas and an ingredient to kill larvae at different stages of the life cycle. The latter is called the insect population regulator.

Metoprene is one such regulator. In some cases, aerosol humidifiers may not work well enough to kill all fleas and larvae. Pyriproxifen is more stable in sunlight and retains the effectiveness of outdoor flea protection for dogs longer than Metoprene.


Varshavskoe highway, 125 bldg. 1. Tel.

Treatments for ecto- and endoparasites of animals in Kiev

Worms (helminths), fleas and ticks are the most common parasites in animals and humans.Diseases caused by helminths are called helminthiases.

The most common helminthiases are toxocariasis, dipylidiosis (intestinal parasites), dirofilariasis (heart and subcutaneous worms). The pathogenic effect of worms is to reduce the host’s immunity, to depletion due to lack of nutrients by the dog or cat in which they live. In addition, by damaging the host’s intestinal mucosa with their suckers and hooks, the worms cause its inflammation, disruption of the gastrointestinal barrier, which contributes to the occurrence of food allergies.

Dirofilariae, worms that live in the chambers of the heart, cause disruption of the normal functioning of the heart, the formation of blood clots, chronic heart failure.

The presence of fleas on an animal can also lead to a number of diseases. In sensitive animals, fleas can cause an allergy to their elephant, which gets into the animal’s skin when bitten. Also, parasitizing a large number of fleas in kittens and puppies can cause anemia (anemia) by sucking out blood. In addition, fleas are carriers of some types of worms when they are ingested by animals.Fleas are also known to carry ringworm from sick animals to healthy ones.

Ticks also pose a disease hazard to the animal. Ixodid ticks carry diseases such as babesiosis, lime disease, anaplasmosis, manifested by general symptoms – weakness, fever, decreased appetite, intoxication, anemia. These diseases are life-threatening, and their prevention is essential for animal health.

Currently, there are many preparations of various actions, methods of administration to an animal.The most popular forms are chewable tablets, drops that are applied to the skin, collars and aerosols. It is very important that the treatments are carried out regularly, with one or another frequency, depending on the duration of the action of a particular drug.

In our clinic you can get detailed advice on various antiparasitic drugs and purchase them. We can also offer services for processing the animal in the clinic.

Beethoven – veterinary clinic, Krasnoyarsk

Flea is a wingless insect with a body flattened on the sides.Ctenocephalides canis and Ctenocephalides felis are flea species that commonly inhabit dogs and cats. They are commonly found in dog habitats: it is estimated that only 10% of the fleas in the environment are found in the dog’s fur. The presence of fleas can be detected by excrement in the form of small black crumbs on the body of the animal in the region of the back and waist. These are the remnants of blood digested in the body of a flea. Fleas cause many diseases in dogs and cats. First, they are themselves a pathogenic agent for the animal, mainly causing itching and alopecia (bald patches).A large number of fleas can lead to severe anemia. Animals may develop hypersensitivity to flea saliva, even if their number is small and not visible. This reaction is manifested by the presence of wounds and alopecia from scratching, usually localized in the lumbar region and the back of the animal’s body.

Otodectosis , or ear scabies caused by the sarcoptoid mite Otodectes cynotis. The causative agent is O. cynotis. The first three pairs of limbs are well developed, the fourth pair in females is rudimentary.Suckers in females are located on the first and second pairs of limbs, in males – on all four. Development cycle: egg, larva, protonymph, teleonymph, adult ticks. Under favorable conditions, the entire development cycle is completed in 18-25 days. Distribution is ubiquitous, more often animals aged from 1.5 to 12 months are affected. The causative agents of the disease live in the external auditory canal and feed on the remnants of the skin (epidermis). Ticks peel off the upper layer of the epidermis, and tissue fluid is released from the damaged areas of the skin, which, drying out, forms scabs and crusts.A characteristic symptom is intense itching (the animal furiously scratches its ears and shakes its head). The discharge from the ear is dark brown, like coffee grounds, and has an unpleasant odor. Constant scratching can lead to hair loss, scabs and bald patches. Secondary bacterial infection often joins. When the second microflora is introduced into the lesion sites, an inflammatory process develops, sometimes the tympanic membrane is perforated and the inflammation transitions to the middle and inner ear. Transmission occurs through direct contact with an infected animal.

Heyletiellosis – (Wandering “scabies) is caused by mites of the genus Cheyletiella. These are small oval-shaped mites. Their gnathosoma is clearly separated from the body, has the form of a cone and dense integuments. On the sides of it are large tentacles (palps) with 5 movably connected segments, ending in claw-like outgrowths. Two pairs of forelimbs are somewhat distant from two pairs of hind limbs. The paws of 1 pair of legs do not have claws. On the dorsal side of the body, females have one, and males have two smooth trapezoidal shields.They are weakly chitinized, yellowish-white in color. Marginal setae covered with hairs. In the male, the genital opening is located in the posterior half on the dorsal side of the body, and in the female it opens with a large longitudinal slit on the ventral side. The development cycle includes the stages of an egg, larva, protonymph, teleonymph, and an adult. Transmission takes place by direct contact or other mechanical means. Crusts and scales appear on the affected areas. Animals often comb these areas. With the help of a scalpel, superficial scrapings are made from them; they are placed on a glass slide in a drop of vaseline oil and microscopic examination is carried out.

Demodecosis is an invasive disease of animals, accompanied by generalized or local skin lesions. It is caused by mites of the genus Demodex parasitizing the skin follicles. Mites are normal inhabitants of the skin, however, with a decrease in skin immunity, they begin to multiply actively and lead to disease. Demodex canis is found in dogs, Demodex cati and Demodex gatoi are found in cats. The latter is transmitted from cat to cat through direct contact.

The worm-like shape of the body sharply distinguishes Demodex from other mites. Small mite. In the head part of the body of the tick, the mouth organs are localized, consisting of paired palps and chelicerae and an unpaired hypostome. The parasite has 4 pairs of very short, three-segmented legs with two chitinized claws on the toes, on which there are no suction cups. The posterior elongated part of the body of the tick is rounded, at the end it has a cylindrical shape with a transverse fine striation of the cuticle. Lemon-shaped egg.Under favorable conditions, the transformation of an egg into a sexually mature parasite takes about three weeks, in a warm period – 14-15 days. During this time, the tick goes through five phases of development: Egg, larva, nymph, imago. The ability to get food is possessed only by the imago, which I provide for it and the offspring. The larva and nymph use the reserves of liquid food obtained by the adult parasite and directly in the lesion focus. Demodectic mange often affects young animals under the age of one year.

Demodectic mange is usually not difficult to diagnose with a series of deep skin scrapings.To increase the chance of a definitive diagnosis, the skin should be compressed immediately prior to skin scraping to expel mites from the hair follicle. The skin should then be scraped until some oozing (capillary bleeding) is noted to make sure the skin is scraped deep enough. If the lesion is single, scrapings are often made in parallel from other (externally unaffected places) to determine the form of demodicosis: localized or generalized.The scraping determines the number of adults in the field of view, the percentage of live individuals, the presence of eggs and larvae. Treatment is canceled only after receiving two negative scrapings taken at an interval of one month. In another case, a relapse of the disease is likely.

Sarcoptosis (Sarcoptoses) – itchy scabies – an invasive animal disease caused by pruritic mites of the genus Sarcoptes and characterized by itching and dermatitis. The causative agent of sarcoptic mange is Sarcoptes scabiei.The body of pruritus mites is rounded. The proboscis is horseshoe-shaped, the jaws are of a gnawing type, the legs are short with a rod sucker at the end. Itchy mites are skin endoparasites that develop and multiply in the thickness of the epidermis.

The source of the causative agent of the invasion is animals with sarcoptic mange. Infection occurs when sick animals are kept together with healthy ones, as well as through invasive care items. Young and emaciated animals are more susceptible to sarcoptic mange. On the host’s body, mites live for 4-6 weeks, outside the host’s body – 3-4 weeks.First, the skin without hair is affected: the head, elbows, then other parts of the host’s body. Combs, hairless spots, abrasions, crusts appear, the skin thickens, its elasticity is lost

Notoedrosis is a disease manifested by inflammation of the scalp, scratching, itching, hair loss. The causative agent is the sarcoptic mite Notoedres cati. The body is almost transparent, spherical in shape. In males, on the fourth pair of legs, bell-shaped suckers on non-segmented rods (ambulacra).In females, the third and fourth pairs of legs do not have bell-shaped suckers. The most important trait that distinguishes these ticks from the genus Sarcoptes is the dorsally displaced anus. Itching parasitizes and multiplies in the passages that gnaw in the deep parts of the stratum corneum, directly bordering the malpighian layer. Here females lay from 2 to 8 eggs per day, during 6-8 weeks of life one female is able to lay from 20 to 50 eggs. The eggs hatch into larvae, which after molting turn into protonymphs, and after the second molt they become teleonymphs.Female teleonymphs crawl to the surface of the skin to copulate with males. The spermatozoa of the male are in the spermatozoa of the teleonymph until it turns into a sexually mature female. After copulation, teleonymphs gnaw through an independent passage in the epidermis, molt and become females. Only after this does internal self-fertilization occur and the new female begins to lay eggs. After copulation, males either die or make a new move. Itching completely completes development under optimal conditions in 15-19 days.The transmission of the pathogen occurs both through direct contact with an infected organism and through various care items. First, the head and neck area is affected.

Psoroptosis is a disease caused by ticks from the genus Psoroptes and is characterized by damage to the inner surface of the auricle, less often other parts of the body with the formation of crusts. The causative agent is the Psoroptes spp. Mite, oval, dark yellow or yellowish in color. Adults have four pairs of legs.Adult rabbits are susceptible to psoroptosis, which become infected by contact with sick animals, through dandruff and scales falling out of the ears along with ticks. They are highly contagious. Also, rabbits become infected through direct contact of patients with healthy ones, through care items, equipment, bedding, when transplanted into cages where sick animals were located. Infection of young animals is possible from their mothers, in whom the disease may be asymptomatic.

Affected rabbits become restless, rub their ears, touch them to the cage, shake their heads.With a mild form of psoroptosis, the inflammatory process is focal in nature and develops as a weeping eczema: first, red bumps appear, then bubbles, which burst after 1-2 days, a light yellow liquid flows out of them, it dries up, and crusts form. In the external auditory canal, the sulfur content increases in the form of brownish-yellow lumps. The disease can be complicated by secondary (secondary) microflora, as a result of which the inflammatory process passes to the membranes of the brain: animals show signs of damage to the central nervous system.In some animals, an asymptomatic form of psoroptosis is noted, which is characterized only by mild periodic itching. For diagnostics, superficial scrapings are taken on the periphery of skin lesions.

Knemidocoptosis (calcareous leg, scabies of the paws, body scabies) of parrots and other birds. Many domestic and decorative birds are ill: chickens, turkeys, geese, pheasants, quails, parrots, passerines. The causative agents are mites of the genus Knemidocoptes. Small yellow mites, with a rounded body and short legs with a horseshoe-shaped proboscis.The female tick produces larvae, from which the first nymphs grow, of which the second nymphs, then transformation into adults – males and females – occurs. Ticks live in the scapula of the tarsus, in feather bags, in the layer of the epidermis of birds near the wax and beak, in the dense outer folds of the skin, where they feed on lymph and blood.

Transmission occurs through direct contact with infected birds. Areas of the body that do not have feathers (paws, beak) are affected. Knemidocoptosis is characterized by itching, symptoms of dermatitis, necrosis of the fingers, less often – the beak.Budgerigars first develop a gray-white coating on the tarsus, on the legs and in the corners of the beak. Further, within a few days, the plaque increases in volume. As a result of enhancing the regenerating properties of the skin, the epidermis grows intensively. Deformed growths from 1-2 mm to 8-10 mm are formed on the wax, on the head (with an approach to the plumage), in the contact zones of the feathered and horns of the paws. Plumage also falls out in these places. The feather shafts develop crusts. The bird often touches places that cause itching with its beak, scratches the skin, until blood appears.She can start plucking feathers here too. In the skin, mites form pinhead-sized nodules containing many young parasites. Adult mites in the layer of skin bore holes. The areas affected by these passages in the beak area look like a sponge. For diagnosis, scrapings are taken at the border of the lesion and healthy skin, then examined under a microscope.

Memo on microsporia | Surgut City Clinical Polyclinic No. 4

Microsporia is a fungal disease caused by fungi of the genus Microsporum.It affects the skin and hair, in some cases – nails, causes damage to the skin, similar to those of trichophytosis, and is also called “ringworm”.

Methods of infection with microsporia:

Microsporia is transmitted to humans from other people and from animals. The main carriers of microsporia are cats and dogs or through things that have gotten skin scales infected with fungi. In addition, the spores of the fungus are able to remain viable in the soil for 1-3 months.The situation is aggravated by the fact that very often in pets, the disease proceeds imperceptibly, without any special external symptoms.

On the territory of our country, microsporia is caused by two types of fungi:

1. Microsporum canis is a microsporia transmitted from animals, the so-called zoophilic microsporia;

2. Microsporum ferruginium is a disease transmitted from person to person, anthropophilic microsporia.

Microsporia is the most contagious disease of all cutaneous mycoses: this means that a person who encounters a fungus has a high risk of contracting it, the disease spreads easily.In external manifestations and by its nature, this disease has much in common with trichophytosis. With microsporia, skin rashes develop more quickly and tend to spread over the skin and to fusion. In the foci of rashes, figures of double and triple rings are formed, which is excluded with trichophytosis.

An increase in the incidence of microsporia is observed at the end of summer, since in summer contacts between children and animals are more frequent than in the cold season. The peak incidence comes at the end of autumn.

Incubation period:

– with zoophilic microsporia lasts 5-7 days.

– with anthroponous microsporia lasts 4-6 weeks.

Types of microsporia:

As the two main types of microsporia, there are microsporia of smooth skin and microsporia of the scalp . They differ in external manifestations, the nature of the course of the disease, and the method of treatment.

With microsporia of smooth skin , the focus of the disease looks like a ring. The manifestation of the disease begins with a red, slightly hyperemic spot. After a short time, in the middle of the affected area, the signs of inflammation disappear. The skin flakes off, bubbles and crusts may appear on it. There are almost no unpleasant sensations, sometimes the affected skin may itch slightly. Usually, microsporia of smooth skin is characterized by a small number of lesions, their size is also small, from 1 to 3 centimeters.They can be located on the skin of the face, on the neck, forearms, and shoulders.

Scalp microsporia usually affects children under the age of 12-13 years. With microsporia of the scalp, the foci have a diameter of 2 to 5 centimeters, with reddened skin, sometimes small ones with a diameter of half a centimeter can be located around the main spot. The place of localization is mainly the crown of the head, temporal regions. Hair begins to break off as early as 6-7 days, leaving “hemp” 5-6 mm long.With improper treatment, a suppurative form of microsporia develops, the surface of the skin becomes covered with abscesses, when pressed on which pus appears from the outside.

Diagnostics:

The methods used to diagnose microsporia are luminescent, microscopic and cultural studies.

Luminescence method is based on the fact that hair affected by the microsporum fungus exhibits an emerald green glow when exposed to a Wood lamp (a lamp that emits in the “soft” ultraviolet range).A study under a Wood’s lamp allows you to assess the scale of the fungus damage, and later serves to adjust the therapy, determining its effectiveness.

For microscopic examination , hair scales are taken from the lesions, and with microsporia of the scalp, hair fragments are taken. Under the microscope, mycelium filaments, spores on the surface of the hair, and disturbances in its structure are visible.

Culture consists in sowing the fungus in a nutrient medium and serves to accurately identify the pathogen.Flakes or hair fragments are also used as seed material. Results usually appear on the third day after sowing.

Preventive measures:

1. Children with microsporia should not attend schools and kindergartens until they are fully recovered.

2. It is necessary to observe sanitary and hygienic rules, that is, use only individual hats, clothes, have a separate bed, towel, comb, washcloth and other personal items.

3. Children should not be allowed to communicate with stray animals. Introduced kittens or puppies should be shown to a veterinarian. Do not let children take animals to bed.

4. In case of contact with a sick animal, wash your hands with soap, grease scratches and abrasions with 5% iodine, change clothes, boil removed things or iron them with a hot iron.

5. Wash your domestic cats and dogs with soap as needed, keep fleas away and be sure to show your veterinarian at least once a year.

6. If peeling spots or lesions appear on the skin or head, you should immediately consult a dermatologist.

REMEMBER!

Untimely access to a dermatologist, self-medication complicates the diagnosis, leads to the spread of rashes and the transition of the disease into a chronic form, which ultimately can lead to irreversible hair loss and the spread of infection in the environment!

90,000 The role of microscopic fungi in plague epizootology | Lopatina

1.Mollaret H. Conservation experimental de la pestedans le sol. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 1963; 56: 1168-1183.

2. Breneva NV, Maramovich AS Modeling of interaction between Y. pestis and Tetraeymenapyriformis in experiment. ZhMEI. 2008; 5: 39-41.

3. Bazanova LP The relationship of the plague microbe (Ypestis) and fleas (Siphoptera) on the example of Siberian natural foci of plague.Abstract of thesis. dis .. dr. biol. sciences. 2010: 45.

4. Breneva NV, Maramovich AS Klimov VT Clonal structure of Y. pestis populations in experimental soil ecosystems MAX. ZhMEI. 2007; 1: 12-16.

5. Karimova T. Yu. Neronov VM, Popov VP Development of views on the natural focus of plague. Zoological. magazine. 2010; 1 (89): 71-78.

6. Vidyaeva NA, Eroshenko GA, Shavina N. Yu., Kuznetsova DS, Kutyrev VV Formation of biofilm of the Y. pestis strain of the main and non-main subspecies of Y.pseulotuberculosis on the Caendrhabditis elegans model. OOI problems. 2009; 1 (99): 31-34.

7. Popov NV, Koshel EI, Eroshenko GA, Kutyrev VV Formation of modern ideas about the mechanism of plague enzootic.OOI problems. 2011; 3 (109): 5-7.

8. Udovikov L.I. Dynamics of epizootic activity of natural plague foci in the European South-East of Russia; forecast for the beginning of the 21st century. Abstract of thesis. dis .. dr. biol. sciences .; 2010: 21.

9. Koshel E. I., Eroshenko E. A., Anisimova L. V., Novichkova L. A., Shirokov A. A., Burova A. I. et al. Estimation of the duration of preservation of Y.pestis in the cells of soil amoeba Acfntthamoeba sp. Under experimental conditions. ZhMEI. 2016; 2: 60-74.

10. Innokentieva T.I. Features of the ecology of Y. pestis altaica. Abstract of thesis. dis .. Dr. med. sciences .; 1997: 59.

11. Litvin V. Yu., Somov G. P., Pushkareva V. N. Sapronoses as natural focal diseases. Epidemiology and Vaccine Prophylaxis.2010; 1 (50): 10-16.

12. Lopatina NV, Sorokina L. Ya, Turchinov G. Ya. Strain of Renicillium funiculosum used to combat plague-carrying fleas. Auth. certificate of the USSR No. 1005462. BI 1984; 24: 1988.

13. Polyakov IV, Sokolova NS Practical guide to medical statistics. Leningrad: Medicine; 1975: 149.

14.Almagambetov K. Kh. Biotechnology of microorganisms. Astana; 2008: 244.

15. Lopatina NV, Tsybin BP, Bryukhanova AA, Lunina EA, Osipova SP Influence of the entomopathogenic fungus P. funiculosum on the reproduction of the plague pathogen in fleas. Honey. parasitol. and Parasitic Diseases. 1988; 3: 28 -29

16. Schlein Y., Jacobson R.L., Yuval B. Mycoses, bacterial infections and antibacterial activity in Sandflies (Ssychodidae) and their possible role in the transmission of Leishmaniasis. Parasitology. 1985; 90 (1): 57-67.

90,000 how to determine if there are fleas?

Besides the fact that we take care of the cat – we make a balanced diet, buy care products, play and scratch behind the ear, the purring pet needs help in the fight against parasites.

Despite the fact that cats are very clean and take care of themselves constantly, fleas are not such rare guests on a pet’s body.

Symptoms of parasites in cats

If the cat behaves nervously, constantly itches and literally bites into the skin, most likely, it has got parasites.

It is necessary to distinguish between fleas and lice (lice), which harass the pet, because the treatment will be different.

The first difference is in appearance, color.Lice are light yellow, almost white, fleas are dark brown, closer to black. If the former are inactive, do not know how to jump, then the latter can jump to a 30-centimeter height.

How to determine if there are fleas

Place the pet on a white sheet or blank sheet of paper, comb the coat.

If the cat has fleas, black-brown crumbs (flea excrement) will fall on the sheet / paper.

You can also look for fleas on the animal’s body. Use a comb to spread the coat in several places. If you have not seen insects, you can see black dots (excrement).

The presence of parasites is also indicated by wounds, red bumps or blisters on the pet’s skin.

In any case, you should consult a doctor to accurately identify the parasite and prescribe the correct and timely treatment.

Allergy to flea bites in cats

In especially advanced cases, flea bites in cats lead to allergic dermatitis.

Bites are red spots, in case of allergies, they begin to swell and swell. A sign of the development of an allergic reaction, in addition to itching, are:

  • Breathing problems: cough, wheezing when inhaling and leaving.

  • Discharge from the eyes and nose.

  • Papules are small red bumps on the skin.

  • Hair loss.

Please note that in addition to allergies, fleas can also cause secondary infections and . The animal scratches the skin, wounds are formed, which become a source of infection by fungi and bacteria.

As you can see, even though fleas are small insects, the consequences from them are quite large. It is easier to carry out prophylactic treatment of a pet with a remedy for parasites than to undergo a long and expensive treatment later.

How to help prevent your pet from getting infected:

  1. Be attentive to your pet, strange or nervous behavior can tell you about the presence of parasites or the onset of the disease.

  2. Rinse your cat’s grooming products, toys, and bedding regularly.

  3. Do not forget to clean the apartment thoroughly and in a timely manner.

  4. Use a cat parasite remedy. Read the instructions in advance or consult a dosage specialist.

If you want to know even more about fleas, read the article “Fleas in a Cat”.