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Allergic reaction to multivitamin: Multivitamin Allergies | Livestrong.com

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Multivitamin Allergies | Livestrong.com

A vitamin allergy is uncommon.

Taking a multivitamin is a seemingly healthy thing to do, but for people who are allergic to multivitamins, it can cause unpleasant symptoms. Some symptoms that develop after taking a multivitamin are not related to an allergy. They may include common side effects of taking a multivitamin, such as nausea, an upset stomach and headaches, according to Drugs.com. A vitamin allergy is considered uncommon, but can occur to anyone at any age. Any adverse reactions you experience after taking a multivitamin need to be reported to your doctor.

Background

A multivitamin is a single pill that contains various types of vitamins. If you suspect that you’re allergic to a multivitamin, you need to see an allergist to identify which ingredients in the vitamin are causing the allergy. The allergic reaction may be the result of a single vitamin or other ingredients related, such as soy or whey. Some multivitamins include a fish oil supplement that may cause an allergic reaction if you’re allergic to fish. Keep a log of your symptoms and discuss them with your doctor.

Cause

If you’re allergic to a vitamin or an ingredient in the multivitamin, your immune system mistakes a substance in the supplement as harmful. Your immune system protects your body from dangerous substances, such as bacteria and viruses. During an allergic reaction, your immune system reacts to an ingredient in the multivitamin the same way it would to a virus. This triggers the production of immunoglobulin E, or IgE antibodies and histamine, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Histamine causes inflammation and restriction in soft tissues throughout the body, leading to most allergy symptoms.

Symptoms

Symptoms of a multivitamin allergy will occur within a few minutes after ingesting the supplement. Most symptoms are mild to moderate and in rare cases can become severe. Common symptoms, as defined by Healthtree include headaches, itchiness, skin rashes, hive, eczema, fatigue, asthma, sneezing, nasal congestion, wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and a runny nose. More severe symptoms include hives, difficulty breathing and swelling in the lips, face or throat, according to Drugs.com.

Identification

An allergist is the most qualified medical professional that can diagnose your condition. Because multivitamins contain multiple vitamins, the allergist will perform allergy tests to determine which vitamin or ingredient is causing the allergic reaction. The most common allergy tests include blood tests and skin prick tests. These tests determine if your body creates IgE antibodies when exposed to certain substances.

Body Reactions to Vitamins | Livestrong.com

Vitamins can cause various reactions.

Image Credit: nikesidoroff/iStock/Getty Images

A daily multivitamin should not cause severe body reactions, although you may experience mild reactions. Vitamin supplements are taken to maintain the proper levels of vitamins and minerals in the body. Drugs.com warns that you should not take more than the recommended dose on the bottle to avoid adverse reactions. Some body reactions to vitamins may include common side effects, allergic reactions and skin reactions. Any side effects you experience after taking vitamins need to be reported to your doctor for further evaluation.

Common Side Effects

According to MedlinePlus, the most common side effects of a vitamin are an upset stomach and a bad taste in the mouth. An upset stomach may cause nausea, diarrhea, cramping, bloating and vomiting. Drugs.com recommends taking vitamins with a full glass of water and with meals to prevent common side effects. If you develop more complex or concerning side effects, call your doctor.

Allergic Reactions

An allergic reaction to vitamins is rare but can occur. HealthTree states that a vitamin allergy will cause distinctive symptoms, such as nasal congestion, asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, fatigue, headaches, itchiness, skin rashes and sniffling. An allergic reaction is a malfunction of the immune system that causes the body to build a defense against the vitamin. If you’re allergic to a certain vitamin, it is recommended to avoid consuming it.

Skin Reactions

Skin reactions can form after taking vitamins. Skin reactions may be the result of an allergic reaction or an intolerance. The most common skin reactions from a vitamin allergy include hives, eczema and general inflammation in the skin, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Skin reactions will cause inflammation, irritation, swelling and redness on the skin. You may experience minor to severe burning or itching.

Treatment

If you suspect the reaction to taking the vitamin is related to an allergy, talk to your doctor about using an antihistamine. Antihistamines restrict the body from producing histamine, alleviating minor allergy symptoms, such as hives, sneezing and watery eyes. Skin reactions can be treated with topical steroid creams, such as hydrocortisone cream, according to the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

Warning

Drugs.com warns that taking vitamins risks anaphylactic shock, a rare all-body allergic reaction. If you experience lightheadedness, a rapid but faint pulse, mental confusion and constricted airways, call 911 immediately.

Use of multivitamin supplements in relation to allergic disease in 8-y-old children | The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

ABSTRACT

Background: Multivitamins are frequently consumed by children, but it is unclear whether this affects the risk of allergic disease.

Objective: We sought to study the association between multivitamin supplementation and allergic disease in 8-y-old children.

Design: Data were obtained from a Swedish birth cohort study. Information on lifestyle factors, including use of vitamin supplements, environmental exposures, and symptoms and diagnoses of allergic diseases, was obtained by parental questionnaires. In addition, allergen-specific IgE concentrations of food and airborne allergens were measured in blood samples collected at age 8 y. A total of 2423 children were included in the study. The association between use of vitamin supplements and the selected health outcomes was analyzed with logistic regression.

Results: Overall, no strong and consistent associations were observed between current multivitamin use and asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, or atopic sensitization at age 8 y. However, children who reported that they started taking multivitamins before or at age 4 y had a decreased risk of sensitization to food allergens (odds ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97) and tendencies toward inverse associations with allergic rhinitis. In contrast, there was no consistent association among children who started to use multivitamins at or after age 5 y.

Conclusion: Our results show no association between current use of multivitamins and risk of allergic disease but suggest that supplementation with multivitamins during the first years of life may reduce the risk of allergic disease at school age.

INTRODUCTION

The escalating rates of asthma and allergic disease seen in the past decades are most evident in industrialized countries and have recently been proposed to partly be a consequence of changed dietary habits characterized by a fall in consumption of fish, fresh fruit, and vegetables rich in antioxidants and minerals (1, 2). Antioxidants—for example, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin A, and selenium—have been the most widely studied nutrients with regard to allergic diseases, either as individual nutrients or in analyses assessing fruit and vegetable intakes. A protective role of antioxidants in allergic disease is plausible because of their ability to scavenge free radicals generated by the inflammatory response with can exacerbate the disease process (2, 3). Moreover, epidemiologic studies support an association between antioxidants and asthma as well as allergic disease (4–7).

The consumption of dietary supplements among children has become quite common (8, 9). Data from the 1999–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) show that >30% of children in the United States take dietary supplements regularly, with the most frequent use among 4- to 8-y-old children (8). Multivitamins and multiminerals were the most commonly used supplements (18%). Likewise, a Swedish national survey performed in 2003 showed that 33% of the children consumed vitamin supplements, most often multivitamins (9). Information on dietary supplement intake in relation to allergy in children is scarce; however, current evidence indicates that supplementation with antioxidants may have an influence on asthmatic symptoms (10) and lung function in asthmatic children exposed to high levels of ozone or air pollution (11). The relation between vitamin supplement use and health status still remains unclear for most dietary supplements but excessive consumption could be of questionable benefit (12–15).

The aim of the current study was to examine the association between use of multivitamin supplementation and allergic disease in 8-y-old children by using data from a Swedish birth cohort. We further investigated this association in relation to age at first use of multivitamin supplementation.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

Study design

From February 1994 until November 1996, 4089 newborns were included in a prospective study (BAMSE, Swedish abbreviation for Children, Allergic disease, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology). These infants comprised 75% of all eligible children in a predefined area of Stockholm, Sweden. The study design was described in detail elsewhere (16, 17). In brief, information on various background exposures, allergic heredity, and other demographic data were obtained through a parental questionnaire when the children were on average 2 mo old. Questionnaires focusing on symptoms related to allergic disease and on key exposures were also answered by the parents when the children were 1, 2, 4, and 8 y old. The response rates were 96%, 94%, 91%, and 84%, respectively. All children with answered questionnaires at age 8 y were invited to a clinical investigation including blood sampling. Sera of 2470 children (60%) were analyzed for specific IgE to common inhalant and food allergens. At the clinical examination, parents (together with their child) were asked to fill in a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) containing questions about 98 foods and beverages frequently consumed in Sweden as well as consumption of vitamin supplements. In total, 2614 families (64%) filled out the FFQ. Most often the FFQ was filled out by a parent (57%) or by a parent together with their child (40%). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Assessment of exposures to dietary supplements

Information about vitamin supplementation was collected from the FFQ at age 8 y. The use of vitamin supplements during the past 12 mo was reported to be either regular, occasional, or never. Parents of regular and occasional users further specified what kind of predefined supplement their child had used (multivitamins with minerals, multivitamins without minerals, vitamins A and D combined, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin C, and other) and since which year the supplement had been taken by the child. We analyzed ever use of any vitamin supplement or multivitamins as well as age at first use of multivitamins (≤4 or ≥5 y). Age 4 y was chosen as the cutoff because most children in the analyzes (n = 1986) also participated in a clinical examination (including measurement of antibodies to IgE) at age 4 y, and their parents were informed about the results of the IgE test.

Multivitamins were the most frequently used supplements among the children in our study, and most of the brands common in Sweden contain the Recommended Daily Allowance (18) of vitamins A, C, D, and E and the B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12). Several brands also contain the Recommended Daily Allowance of minerals, mainly iron, zinc, iodine, manganese, chromium, and selenium.

Definition of health outcomes

Assessments of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema were based on the follow-up questionnaire at age 8 y.

  • Asthma was defined as having ≥4 episodes of wheeze in the past 12 mo or ≥1 episode of wheeze during the same period in combination with prescribed inhaled steroids occasionally or regularly (17, 19).

  • Allergic rhinitis was defined as showing symptoms of sneezing, a runny or blocked nose, or itchy, red, and watery eyes after exposure to furred pets or pollen (according to the questionnaire) or having received a physician’s diagnosis of allergic rhinitis between the time of the previous questionnaire at age 4 y and the questionnaire at age 8 y (17, 19).

  • Eczema was defined as dry skin in combination with itchy rash for ≥2 wk with typical localization during the past 12 mo and/or a physician’s diagnosis of eczema from the age of 4 y (17).

  • Any allergic disease was indicated if the child had at least one of asthma, allergic rhinitis, or eczema at 8 y of age.

  • Atopic sensitization was indicated if the child had at least one allergen-specific IgE result of ≥0.35 kU/L against common inhalant allergens (Phadiatop: cat, dog, horse, birch, timothy, mugwort, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Cladosporium species) and/or food allergens (fx5: cow milk, hen’s egg, cod fish, soy bean, peanut, and wheat) using the ImmunoCAP System (Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden).

  • Early symptoms of wheeze was defined as at least one episode of wheeze after 3 mo and up to 1 y of life reported in the parental questionnaire at age 1 y.

  • Early symptoms of eczema was defined as dry skin, itchy rashes for ≥2 wk, and specific localization of rash and/or physician’s diagnosis of eczema up to age 1 y reported in the parental questionnaire at age 1 y.

Statistical methods

Differences in the distribution of selected characteristics between the 2 groups (intake of any vitamin supplements vs no use of vitamin supplements) were tested with the chi-square test. The associations between intake of any vitamin supplements or any multivitamins and the selected health outcomes were analyzed with logistic regression. To distinguish between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated disease, analyses were also performed for each outcome in combination with atopic sensitization. All results are presented as adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. Several models were tested to identify potential confounders, and the final logistic regression model was adjusted for parental history of allergic disease (defined as physician’s diagnosis of asthma, hay fever, or both in combination with allergy to furred pets and/or pollen in one or both parents), socioeconomic status (blue collar worker and white collar worker), maternal smoking during pregnancy and/or at baseline (the mother smoked at least one cigarette per day at any point of time during the pregnancy or when the child was ≈2 mo old), and breastfeeding (exclusive breastfeeding <4 or ≥4mo) because these variables changed the OR estimates. Further adjustment for intake of dietary antioxidants, either as selected nutrients (vitamin C, E, D, and A as well as minerals such as selenium and magnesium) or as a total intake of fruit and vegetables, had little effect on the observed ORs and was therefore not included in the final model.

To test for disease-related modification of exposure (reverse causality), we adjusted the model for early symptoms of wheeze and eczema. Moreover, because parents were informed about the result of the IgE-test performed at age 4 y, we also adjusted for atopic sensitization at age 4 y (yes, no). However, this had no major influence on the obtained OR and was therefore not included in the extended model.

The Wald test was used to assess interaction between covariates (departure from a multiplicative model). All statistical analyses were performed with STATA Statistical Software (release 8.0; StataCorp, College Station, TX).

To be included in the analyzes, answers on the questionnaires at age 2 mo (baseline data) and 8 y (symptoms of allergic disease) were required, together with information on vitamin supplement intake at age 8 y (from the FFQ) and information on atopic sensitization at age 8 y. A total of 2423 children fulfilled these criteria.

RESULTS

Children included in the present study were highly representative when compared with the children in the baseline cohort regarding distribution of exposure factors such as sex, parental allergic diseases, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking, and breastfeeding (data not shown). The prevalence of asthma (7.5%), allergic rhinitis (15.3%), and eczema (17.5%) at age 8 y tended to be higher but not significantly different from that of the cohort as a whole (6.3%, 13.3%, and 16.3%, respectively).

In total, 40.3% of the children reported to ever have used any type of vitamin supplement during the past 12 mo (Table 1). The most frequently used vitamin supplements were multivitamins with minerals (25.0%), multivitamins without minerals (9.5%), and vitamin C (6.1%). Among children who had taken “other” supplements (n = 44), fish oil/omega-3 capsules (n = 18) and calcium tablets (n = 8) were most frequently used. Supplement use was more frequent among children with parental history of allergic disease (45.0% compared with 38.0%; P = 0.004), children with a higher socioeconomic status (41.9% compared with 31.6%; P = 0.001), and children with early symptoms of eczema (45.9% compared with 39.1%; P = 0.034) (Table 2).

TABLE 1

Current intake of vitamin supplements at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Frequency of intake 
Supplement  Regular  Occasional  Ever 
    n (%)   
Any vitamin  317 (13.1)  660 (27.2)  977 (40.3) 
Multivitamins with minerals  212 (8.7)  393 (16.2)  605 (25.0) 
Multivitamins without minerals  78 (3.2)  151 (6.2)  229 (9.5) 
Vitamins A + D  22 (0.9)  50 (2.1)  72 (3.0) 
Vitamin A  4 (0.2)  1 (0.0)  5 (0.2) 
Vitamin D  3 (0.1)  0 (0.0)  3 (0.1) 
Vitamin C  25 (1.0)  122 (5.0)  147 (6.1) 
Other (eg, fish oil, calcium)  27 (1.1)  26 (1.1)  53 (2.2) 
  Frequency of intake 
Supplement  Regular  Occasional  Ever 
    n (%)   
Any vitamin  317 (13.1)  660 (27.2)  977 (40.3) 
Multivitamins with minerals  212 (8.7)  393 (16.2)  605 (25.0) 
Multivitamins without minerals  78 (3.2)  151 (6.2)  229 (9.5) 
Vitamins A + D  22 (0.9)  50 (2.1)  72 (3.0) 
Vitamin A  4 (0.2)  1 (0.0)  5 (0.2) 
Vitamin D  3 (0.1)  0 (0.0)  3 (0.1) 
Vitamin C  25 (1.0)  122 (5.0)  147 (6.1) 
Other (eg, fish oil, calcium)  27 (1.1)  26 (1.1)  53 (2.2) 

TABLE 1

Current intake of vitamin supplements at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Frequency of intake 
Supplement  Regular  Occasional  Ever 
    n (%)   
Any vitamin  317 (13.1)  660 (27.2)  977 (40.3) 
Multivitamins with minerals  212 (8.7)  393 (16.2)  605 (25.0) 
Multivitamins without minerals  78 (3.2)  151 (6.2)  229 (9.5) 
Vitamins A + D  22 (0.9)  50 (2.1)  72 (3.0) 
Vitamin A  4 (0.2)  1 (0.0)  5 (0.2) 
Vitamin D  3 (0.1)  0 (0.0)  3 (0.1) 
Vitamin C  25 (1.0)  122 (5.0)  147 (6.1) 
Other (eg, fish oil, calcium)  27 (1.1)  26 (1.1)  53 (2.2) 
  Frequency of intake 
Supplement  Regular  Occasional  Ever 
    n (%)   
Any vitamin  317 (13.1)  660 (27.2)  977 (40.3) 
Multivitamins with minerals  212 (8.7)  393 (16.2)  605 (25.0) 
Multivitamins without minerals  78 (3.2)  151 (6.2)  229 (9.5) 
Vitamins A + D  22 (0.9)  50 (2.1)  72 (3.0) 
Vitamin A  4 (0.2)  1 (0.0)  5 (0.2) 
Vitamin D  3 (0.1)  0 (0.0)  3 (0.1) 
Vitamin C  25 (1.0)  122 (5.0)  147 (6.1) 
Other (eg, fish oil, calcium)  27 (1.1)  26 (1.1)  53 (2.2) 

TABLE 2

Distribution of selected exposure characteristics at age 2 mo and symptoms during the first year of life in relation to current intake of vitamin supplements at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Use of vitamin supplements 
  n/Total n  Percentage  95% CI 
Total  977/2423  40.3  38, 42 
Child’s sex 
 Boy  511/1252  40.8  38, 44 
 Girl  466/1171  39.8  37, 43 
Parental history of allergic disease2 
 No  620/1631  38.0  36, 40 
 Yes  348/773  45.0  41, 493 
Socioeconomic status 
 Blue collar worker  115/364  31.6  27, 37 
 White collar worker  848/2025  41.9  40, 443 
Exclusive breastfeeding 
 <4 mo  170/443  38.4  34, 43 
 ≥4 mo  785/1928  40.7  39, 43 
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and/or at baseline 
 No  857/2118  40.5  38, 43 
 Yes  120/303  39.6  34, 45 
Early symptoms of wheeze4 
 Yes  151/356  42.4  37, 48 
 No  806/2018  39.9  38, 42 
Early symptoms of eczema5 
 Yes  185/403  45.9  41, 51 
 No  770/1970  39.1  37, 413 
  Use of vitamin supplements 
  n/Total n  Percentage  95% CI 
Total  977/2423  40.3  38, 42 
Child’s sex 
 Boy  511/1252  40.8  38, 44 
 Girl  466/1171  39.8  37, 43 
Parental history of allergic disease2 
 No  620/1631  38.0  36, 40 
 Yes  348/773  45.0  41, 493 
Socioeconomic status 
 Blue collar worker  115/364  31.6  27, 37 
 White collar worker  848/2025  41.9  40, 443 
Exclusive breastfeeding 
 <4 mo  170/443  38.4  34, 43 
 ≥4 mo  785/1928  40.7  39, 43 
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and/or at baseline 
 No  857/2118  40.5  38, 43 
 Yes  120/303  39.6  34, 45 
Early symptoms of wheeze4 
 Yes  151/356  42.4  37, 48 
 No  806/2018  39.9  38, 42 
Early symptoms of eczema5 
 Yes  185/403  45.9  41, 51 
 No  770/1970  39.1  37, 413 

TABLE 2

Distribution of selected exposure characteristics at age 2 mo and symptoms during the first year of life in relation to current intake of vitamin supplements at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Use of vitamin supplements 
  n/Total n  Percentage  95% CI 
Total  977/2423  40.3  38, 42 
Child’s sex 
 Boy  511/1252  40.8  38, 44 
 Girl  466/1171  39.8  37, 43 
Parental history of allergic disease2 
 No  620/1631  38.0  36, 40 
 Yes  348/773  45.0  41, 493 
Socioeconomic status 
 Blue collar worker  115/364  31.6  27, 37 
 White collar worker  848/2025  41.9  40, 443 
Exclusive breastfeeding 
 <4 mo  170/443  38.4  34, 43 
 ≥4 mo  785/1928  40.7  39, 43 
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and/or at baseline 
 No  857/2118  40.5  38, 43 
 Yes  120/303  39.6  34, 45 
Early symptoms of wheeze4 
 Yes  151/356  42.4  37, 48 
 No  806/2018  39.9  38, 42 
Early symptoms of eczema5 
 Yes  185/403  45.9  41, 51 
 No  770/1970  39.1  37, 413 
  Use of vitamin supplements 
  n/Total n  Percentage  95% CI 
Total  977/2423  40.3  38, 42 
Child’s sex 
 Boy  511/1252  40.8  38, 44 
 Girl  466/1171  39.8  37, 43 
Parental history of allergic disease2 
 No  620/1631  38.0  36, 40 
 Yes  348/773  45.0  41, 493 
Socioeconomic status 
 Blue collar worker  115/364  31.6  27, 37 
 White collar worker  848/2025  41.9  40, 443 
Exclusive breastfeeding 
 <4 mo  170/443  38.4  34, 43 
 ≥4 mo  785/1928  40.7  39, 43 
Maternal smoking during pregnancy and/or at baseline 
 No  857/2118  40.5  38, 43 
 Yes  120/303  39.6  34, 45 
Early symptoms of wheeze4 
 Yes  151/356  42.4  37, 48 
 No  806/2018  39.9  38, 42 
Early symptoms of eczema5 
 Yes  185/403  45.9  41, 51 
 No  770/1970  39.1  37, 413 

The association between intake of any vitamin supplement or multivitamin and allergic disease as well as atopic sensitization in 8-y-old children are shown in Table 3. Because multivitamins with minerals and multivitamins without minerals yielded similar ORs, they were combined into one exposure, hereafter called multivitamins. In adjusted models there was no statistically significant association between current use of any vitamin supplement or multivitamins and asthma, allergic rhinitis, eczema, or atopic sensitization at age 8 y. Further adjustment for early symptoms of wheeze or eczema had no major influence on the observed ORs (data not shown).

TABLE 3

Association between current intake of any vitamin supplements or multivitamins at age 8 y and allergic diseases and atopic sensitization at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Use of vitamin supplements 
  No  Yes 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Any vitamin supplement 
 Asthma  103/1387  1.0  72/970  0.95 (0.69, 1.31) 
 Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  149/974  1.01 (0.80, 1.28) 
 Eczema  225/1356  1.0  181/952  1.17 (0.93, 1.46) 
 Any allergic disease3  403/1352  1.0  304/953  1.06 (0.88, 1.28) 
 Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  340/967  1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  255/968  0.99 (0.81, 1.20) 
  Food allergens  276/1381  1.0  193/967  0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 
Multivitamins 
 Asthma  120/1598  1.0  61/812  0.96 (0.69, 1.33) 
 Allergic rhinitis  246/1593  1.0  123/815  0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 
 Eczema  266/1563  1.0  148/797  1.11 (0.88, 1.40) 
 Any allergic disease3  481/1560  1.0  249/797  0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 
 Atopic sensitization  547/1590  1.0  287/811  1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  407/1594  1.0  219/811  1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 
  Food allergens  324/1591  1.0  159/811  0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 
  Use of vitamin supplements 
  No  Yes 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Any vitamin supplement 
 Asthma  103/1387  1.0  72/970  0.95 (0.69, 1.31) 
 Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  149/974  1.01 (0.80, 1.28) 
 Eczema  225/1356  1.0  181/952  1.17 (0.93, 1.46) 
 Any allergic disease3  403/1352  1.0  304/953  1.06 (0.88, 1.28) 
 Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  340/967  1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  255/968  0.99 (0.81, 1.20) 
  Food allergens  276/1381  1.0  193/967  0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 
Multivitamins 
 Asthma  120/1598  1.0  61/812  0.96 (0.69, 1.33) 
 Allergic rhinitis  246/1593  1.0  123/815  0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 
 Eczema  266/1563  1.0  148/797  1.11 (0.88, 1.40) 
 Any allergic disease3  481/1560  1.0  249/797  0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 
 Atopic sensitization  547/1590  1.0  287/811  1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  407/1594  1.0  219/811  1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 
  Food allergens  324/1591  1.0  159/811  0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 

TABLE 3

Association between current intake of any vitamin supplements or multivitamins at age 8 y and allergic diseases and atopic sensitization at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Use of vitamin supplements 
  No  Yes 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Any vitamin supplement 
 Asthma  103/1387  1.0  72/970  0.95 (0.69, 1.31) 
 Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  149/974  1.01 (0.80, 1.28) 
 Eczema  225/1356  1.0  181/952  1.17 (0.93, 1.46) 
 Any allergic disease3  403/1352  1.0  304/953  1.06 (0.88, 1.28) 
 Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  340/967  1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  255/968  0.99 (0.81, 1.20) 
  Food allergens  276/1381  1.0  193/967  0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 
Multivitamins 
 Asthma  120/1598  1.0  61/812  0.96 (0.69, 1.33) 
 Allergic rhinitis  246/1593  1.0  123/815  0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 
 Eczema  266/1563  1.0  148/797  1.11 (0.88, 1.40) 
 Any allergic disease3  481/1560  1.0  249/797  0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 
 Atopic sensitization  547/1590  1.0  287/811  1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  407/1594  1.0  219/811  1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 
  Food allergens  324/1591  1.0  159/811  0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 
  Use of vitamin supplements 
  No  Yes 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Any vitamin supplement 
 Asthma  103/1387  1.0  72/970  0.95 (0.69, 1.31) 
 Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  149/974  1.01 (0.80, 1.28) 
 Eczema  225/1356  1.0  181/952  1.17 (0.93, 1.46) 
 Any allergic disease3  403/1352  1.0  304/953  1.06 (0.88, 1.28) 
 Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  340/967  1.02 (0.85, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  255/968  0.99 (0.81, 1.20) 
  Food allergens  276/1381  1.0  193/967  0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 
Multivitamins 
 Asthma  120/1598  1.0  61/812  0.96 (0.69, 1.33) 
 Allergic rhinitis  246/1593  1.0  123/815  0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 
 Eczema  266/1563  1.0  148/797  1.11 (0.88, 1.40) 
 Any allergic disease3  481/1560  1.0  249/797  0.99 (0.82, 1.20) 
 Atopic sensitization  547/1590  1.0  287/811  1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 
  Inhalant allergens  407/1594  1.0  219/811  1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 
  Food allergens  324/1591  1.0  159/811  0.94 (0.75, 1.17) 

Among children who used multivitamins during the past 12 mo, we investigated age at first use in relation to allergic disease and atopic sensitization (Table 4). On average, the children had started to use multivitamins at age 5.7 y. Children who started taking multivitamins before or at age 4 y had an inverse association with sensitization to food allergens (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.97) as well as tendencies toward inverse associations with allergic rhinitis (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38, 1.03). These results persisted when early symptoms of wheeze and eczema were added to the model (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.96 for sensitization to food allergens; OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.00 for allergic rhinitis). In contrast, we observed nonsignificant associations with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.60) and eczema (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.63) among children who started to consume multivitamins at or after the age of 5 y. These associations were somewhat attenuated after adjustment for early symptoms of wheeze and eczema (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.45 allergic rhinitis; OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.51 for eczema).

TABLE 4

Association between age at first use of multivitamins in relation to allergic diseases and atopic sensitization at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Age at “first time” intake of multivitamins 
  Never  ≤4 y  ≥5 y 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Asthma  103/1387  1.0  13/181  0.87 (0.47, 1.64)  37/501  0.99 (0.67, 1.47) 
Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  20/182  0.62 (0.38, 1.03)3  88/504  1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 
Eczema  225/1356  1.0  26/177  0.85 (0.54, 1.34)  98/494  1.24 (0.95, 1.63) 
Any allergic disease4  403/1352  1.0  44/177  0.73 (0.51, 1.07)  164/495  1.14 (0.91, 1.43) 
Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  55/180  0.79 (0.55, 1.12)  185/502  1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 
 Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  45/180  0.86 (0.59, 1.24)  141/502  1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 
 Food allergens  276/1383  1.0  25/179  0.61 (0.39, 0.97)5  107/502  1.09 (0.84, 1.41) 
  Age at “first time” intake of multivitamins 
  Never  ≤4 y  ≥5 y 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Asthma  103/1387  1.0  13/181  0.87 (0.47, 1.64)  37/501  0.99 (0.67, 1.47) 
Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  20/182  0.62 (0.38, 1.03)3  88/504  1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 
Eczema  225/1356  1.0  26/177  0.85 (0.54, 1.34)  98/494  1.24 (0.95, 1.63) 
Any allergic disease4  403/1352  1.0  44/177  0.73 (0.51, 1.07)  164/495  1.14 (0.91, 1.43) 
Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  55/180  0.79 (0.55, 1.12)  185/502  1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 
 Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  45/180  0.86 (0.59, 1.24)  141/502  1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 
 Food allergens  276/1383  1.0  25/179  0.61 (0.39, 0.97)5  107/502  1.09 (0.84, 1.41) 

TABLE 4

Association between age at first use of multivitamins in relation to allergic diseases and atopic sensitization at age 8 y among children in the BAMSE cohort (n = 2423)1

  Age at “first time” intake of multivitamins 
  Never  ≤4 y  ≥5 y 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Asthma  103/1387  1.0  13/181  0.87 (0.47, 1.64)  37/501  0.99 (0.67, 1.47) 
Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  20/182  0.62 (0.38, 1.03)3  88/504  1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 
Eczema  225/1356  1.0  26/177  0.85 (0.54, 1.34)  98/494  1.24 (0.95, 1.63) 
Any allergic disease4  403/1352  1.0  44/177  0.73 (0.51, 1.07)  164/495  1.14 (0.91, 1.43) 
Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  55/180  0.79 (0.55, 1.12)  185/502  1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 
 Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  45/180  0.86 (0.59, 1.24)  141/502  1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 
 Food allergens  276/1383  1.0  25/179  0.61 (0.39, 0.97)5  107/502  1.09 (0.84, 1.41) 
  Age at “first time” intake of multivitamins 
  Never  ≤4 y  ≥5 y 
  n/Total n  OR (referent)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI)  n/Total n  ORadj2 (95% CI) 
Asthma  103/1387  1.0  13/181  0.87 (0.47, 1.64)  37/501  0.99 (0.67, 1.47) 
Allergic rhinitis  203/1381  1.0  20/182  0.62 (0.38, 1.03)3  88/504  1.21 (0.91, 1.60) 
Eczema  225/1356  1.0  26/177  0.85 (0.54, 1.34)  98/494  1.24 (0.95, 1.63) 
Any allergic disease4  403/1352  1.0  44/177  0.73 (0.51, 1.07)  164/495  1.14 (0.91, 1.43) 
Atopic sensitization  471/1380  1.0  55/180  0.79 (0.55, 1.12)  185/502  1.10 (0.88, 1.37) 
 Inhalant allergens  354/1383  1.0  45/180  0.86 (0.59, 1.24)  141/502  1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 
 Food allergens  276/1383  1.0  25/179  0.61 (0.39, 0.97)5  107/502  1.09 (0.84, 1.41) 

To distinguish between IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated disease, each outcome was also analyzed in combination with atopic sensitization to inhalant or food allergens. The results for asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in combination with atopic sensitization resembled the results described above (data not shown).

Consumption of multivitamins showed no evidence of statistical interaction with sex, parental allergy, maternal smoking and consumption of fruit and vegetables when tested for asthma (P = 0.51, 0.27, 0.88, and 0.34, respectively), allergic rhinitis (P = 0.43, 0.91, 0.57, and 0.41, respectively), eczema (P = 0.13, 0.17, 0.89, and 0.99, respectively), or atopic sensitization (P = 0.69, 0.93, 0.96, and 0.99, respectively).

DISCUSSION

In our study of 2423 Swedish 8-y-olds, there was no strong and consistent association between use of any vitamin supplement during the past 12 mo and allergic disease. Likewise, no association was observed when multivitamin supplementation was analyzed separately. However, for children who reported that they started to use multivitamins at age ≤4 y, we observed an inverse association for sensitization to food allergens and tendencies toward inverse associations for allergic rhinitis. In contrast, there was no consistent association among children who started to use multivitamins at age ≥5 y. The use of vitamin supplements was common, ie, 40% reported having taken any vitamin supplements during the past year. Also, children who used supplements displayed more hereditary traits of allergy, had parents with higher socioeconomic status, and more often had symptoms of eczema during the first year of life when compared with nonusers.

The strengths of the present study included the large number of participants, limited loss to follow-up, and detailed assessment of phenotypes as well as of exposure, including vitamin supplements. However, misclassification of exposure might affect our results. We only asked for the frequency of consumption during the past 12 mo, and parents of vitamin supplement users were asked to remember when the child first started taking the supplements. If parents of children with allergic diseases recall previous supplement use differently from other parents, it may give rise to recall bias. The use of dietary supplements among children as reported in a FFQ has not been validated to our knowledge. FFQs have, however, proven to be adequate when ranking and assessing dietary macronutrient, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in children (20, 21). For adults, on the other hand, a brief questionnaire can accurately and reproducibly capture data on supplement use for frequently consumed products, but it may perform less well for products used less often or more intermittently (22, 23).

The cross-sectional design, which used both exposure and outcome information obtained at 8 y of age, is a drawback of this study. In epidemiologic reports on allergic diseases in childhood, disease-related modification of exposure may be a major bias, which is not always easy to control for and may lead to misinterpretation of the results. This has been discussed in several articles investigating behavioral factors, such as breastfeeding (24), vaccination (25), pet ownership (26), and consumption of specific food items (27) in relation to allergic diseases. Therefore, we cannot exclude a disease-related modification of exposure, ie, that the observed risk estimate was affected by the fact that children started to take dietary supplements (or avoided to do so) because of their allergic symptoms, rather than because of a true effect of dietary supplements on allergic diseases. We tried to investigate this by grouping individuals according to age at the start of multivitamin consumption and by adjusting for early symptoms of wheeze and eczema in the multivariate analyzes. These adjustments had no major influence on the observed ORs among children who started to use multivitamins at age 4 y or earlier, whereas the nonsignificant increments in risk observed for allergic rhinitis, eczema, and any allergic disease among children who started to consume multivitamins at age ≥5 y were somewhat attenuated. Furthermore, it should be noted that most of the data on other risk factors used in our analyses, such as breastfeeding and parental smoking habits, where obtained before onset of disease.

Multivitamins are the most commonly purchased and regularly used supplement by adults and children (8, 28, 29). Despite this, there is limited evidence on multivitamin use in relation to allergic disease in children. Milner et al (14) reported an increased risk of asthma among infants who consumed multivitamin supplements during the first 6 mo of life, although restricted to black infants. However, they found no association between multivitamin use at 3 y of age and asthma. Likewise, in a Norwegian study, intake of vitamin supplements during the first year of life was associated with a borderline significant increased risk of sensitization at school age (15). In our study there was no increased risk of allergic diseases among children who started to use multivitamins at an early age. Instead, we observed an inverse association with sensitization to food allergens in this group. There may be several explanations for the differences in results. First, the earlier studies investigated the effect of vitamin supplementation during the first year of life, whereas most of the children in the present study started to consume multivitamins after age 1 y. It should be noted, though, that 98% of the children in our study received supplementation of vitamins A and D from 2 wk of age and through the first years of life (17). Second, the composition, dose, and duration of the consumed supplements may differ between the studies. Third, differences in nutritional status between the populations might cause different responses to vitamin supplementation. Fourth, Milner et al did not consider disease-related modification of exposure in their analyses, whereas the Norwegian study excluded children with asthma during the first year of life; thus, their results are less likely to be affected by this potential bias.

An association between use of multivitamins and allergic disease is biologically plausible because of the antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of certain vitamins. Many of the pathophysiological changes associated with allergic diseases are produced by activated inflammatory cells, which generate an excessive amount of oxygen free radicals. A postulated hypothesis is that antioxidants, because of their ability to quench free radicals, prevent chain reactions that could result in lipid peroxidation and damage to cell membranes, ie, of immune cells (3) or DNA, both of which have been suggested to be involved in the allergic disease process (30, 31). On the other hand, it has been proposed that several antioxidant nutrients can act as pro-oxidants at higher doses through a reduction of transition metal ions (32). Vitamins have also been postulated to exert nonantioxidant immunomodulatory effects (33, 34). Previous research has shown that a variety of vitamins commonly found in multivitamins can cause naive T cells to differentiate toward the extremes of the T helper type 1 and T helper type 2 phenotypes (3, 33), each characterized by different cytokine profiles, which leads to physiologic states that may increase the odds of an allergic response when encountering certain antigens (13, 14, 34, 35).

Overall, the scientific evidence regarding the beneficial or harmful effects of vitamin supplements in relation to allergic diseases appears contradictory. In previous studies in which the effect of single nutrient supplementation has been investigated and found not to be effective, it has been suggested that perhaps a combination of antioxidants would have given different results (36), a finding not supported by the present study. Rather, dose and duration of supplementation seem to be important conditioning factors (37, 38). Furthermore, Feary and Britton (39) propose that perhaps vitamin supplements only work in nutritionally deplete populations and that no additional beneficial effect will occur in well-fed and consequently oversupplemented individuals. The variability in individual susceptibility to oxidative stress may also explain the conflicting results between studies on antioxidant supplementation (40). Hence, the effectiveness of vitamin supplementation is still an unresolved matter that warrants rigorous scientific evaluation (38, 41, 42), and further exploration of the association between vitamin supplementation and allergic diseases is very important from a public health point of view.

In conclusion, our study of 2423 Swedish boys and girls showed no association between current multivitamin use and risk of allergic disease, but suggests that supplementation with multivitamins in early life may reduce the risk of allergic disease at school age. The cross-sectional nature of the data implies that the findings should be interpreted with caution.

We express our gratitude to the BAMSE cohort participants, nurses, and research team, especially Stina Gustavsson, Eva Hallner, and André Lauber (Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden).

The authors’ responsibilities were as follows—MW (principal investigator of the BAMSE project) and GP: initiated the BAMSE project; KM, HR, IK, and AB: planned the study; IK: supervised the data collection; KM, HR, IK, NH, and AB: prepared the data for analyses; KM and AB: performed the analyses; KM, HR, IK, and AB: interpreted the data; KM: drafted the manuscript; and HR, IK, NH, MW, GP, and AB: provided critical review of the manuscript. None of the authors had a conflict of interest related to the data in the manuscript.

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Early infant multivitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for food allergy and asthma


Objective:

Dietary vitamins have potent immunomodulating effects in vitro. Individual vitamins have been shown to skew T cells toward either T-helper 1 or T-helper 2 phenotypic classes, suggesting that they may participate in inflammatory or allergic disease. With the exception of antioxidant protection, there has been little study on the effect of early vitamin supplementation on the subsequent risk for asthma and allergic disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether early vitamin supplementation during infancy affects the risk for asthma and allergic disease during early childhood.


Methods:

Cohort data were analyzed from the National Center for Health Statistics 1988 National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, which followed pregnant women and their newborns, and the 1991 Longitudinal Follow-up of the same patients, which measured health and disease outcomes. Patients were stratified by race and breastfeeding status. Factors that are known to be associated with alteration of risk for asthma or food allergies were identified using univariate logistic regression. Those factors were then analyzed in multivariate logistic regression models. Early vitamin supplementation was defined as vitamin use within the first 6 months.


Results:

There were >8000 total patients in the study. The overall incidence of asthma was 10.5% and of food allergy was 4.9%. In univariate analysis, male gender, smoker in the household, child care, prematurity (<37 weeks), being black, no history of breastfeeding, lower income, and lower education were associated with higher risk for asthma. Child care, higher levels of education, income, and history of breastfeeding were associated with a higher risk for food allergies. In multivariate logistic analyses, a history of vitamin use within the first 6 months of life was associated with a higher risk for asthma in black infants (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.56). Early vitamin use was also associated with a higher risk for food allergies in the exclusively formula-fed population (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21-2.20). Vitamin use at 3 years of age was associated with increased risk for food allergies but not asthma in both breastfed (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.19-2.21) and exclusively formula-fed infants (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.88).


Conclusions:

Early vitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for asthma in black children and food allergies in exclusively formula-fed children. Additional study is warranted to examine which components most strongly contribute to this risk.

Hypersensitivity to Vitamins with a Focus on Immediate-Type Reactions: Food or Drug Allergy?

Vitamins are essential substances for normal cell functions, growth, and development. However, they cannot be produced by the human organism, so intake must be through the diet. Vitamin deficiency causes the onset of different diseases, ranging from pellagra to pernicious anemia, which can be corrected by reintroducing the missing vitamin form. To supply the right amount of vitamins to the body, every vitamin naturally occurring in foodstuff has been identified, extracted and synthetically produced, thus allowing either food fortification with these compounds or their pharmaceutical production. Furthermore, the increased importance attributed nowadays to body wellness and the pursuit of a permanent status of health at all costs has greatly encouraged a high consumption of vitamin supplements in modern society, since vitamin deficiencies may be responsible for adverse or toxic effects. However, excess vitamins can induce hypervitaminosis. In the USA, a national survey confirmed that 52% of adult Americans take at least one or more supplement product, vitamins and minerals being the most popular supplements in that country. Although vitamins are widespread natural substances, they may induce immediate or delayed type hypersensitivity reactions. Such adverse events are still underestimated and poorly recognized because only single cases have been reported in literature but no general review has yet collected and investigated the mechanisms underlying sensitization to each vitamin, the diagnosis, and the management strategies adopted for vitamin hypersensitivity. Although delayed-type reactions to different vitamins are described in literature, in our review, attention was focused mainly on immediate type reactions. Due to the importance of vitamins, further information about the above aspects [pathomechanisms, diagnosis and management) would be highly desirable to focus the state of the art on this particular, underestimated form of allergy, thus increasing allergists’ awareness of these elusive hypersensitivity reactions.


Keywords:

Vitamins; anaphylaxis; drug allergy; food allergy; immediate-type reaction; multivitamins..

multivitamins and minerals | Michigan Medicine

What is the most important information I should know about multivitamins and minerals?

Never take more than the recommended dose of multivitamins and minerals.

An overdose of vitamins A, D, E, or K can cause serious or life-threatening side effects if taken in large doses. Certain minerals may also cause serious overdose symptoms if you take too much.

Do not take this medication with milk, other dairy products, calcium supplements, or antacids that contain calcium.

What is multivitamins and minerals?

This medicine is a combination of many different vitamins and minerals that are normally found in foods and other natural sources.

Multivitamins and minerals are used to provide substances that are not taken in through the diet. Multivitamins and minerals are also used to treat vitamin or mineral deficiencies caused by illness, pregnancy, poor nutrition, digestive disorders, certain medications, and many other conditions.

Multivitamins and minerals may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking multivitamins and minerals?

Multivitamins and minerals can cause serious or life-threatening side effects if taken in large doses. Do not take more of this medicine than directed on the label or prescribed by your doctor.

Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use multivitamins and minerals if you have other medical conditions or allergies.

Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Your dose needs may be different during pregnancy. Some vitamins and minerals can be harmful if taken in large doses. You may need to use a specially formulated prenatal vitamin.

How should I take multivitamins and minerals?

Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor.

Never take more than the recommended dose of multivitamins and minerals.

Read the label of any vitamin and mineral product you take to make sure you are aware of what it contains.

Take this medicine with a full glass of water. Avoid milk or other dairy products.

You must chew the chewable tablet before you swallow it.

Measure liquid medicine carefully. Use the dosing syringe provided, or use a medicine dose-measuring device (not a kitchen spoon).

Dissolve the effervescent tablet in at least 4 ounces of water. Stir and drink this mixture right away.

Swallow a capsule or tablet whole and do not crush, chew, or break it.

Use multivitamins and minerals regularly to get the most benefit.

Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the liquid medicine from freezing.

Store this medicine in its original container. Storing multivitamins in a glass container can ruin the medication.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Take the medicine as soon as you can, but skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next dose. Do not take two doses at one time.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222. An overdose of vitamins A, D, E, or K can cause serious or life-threatening side effects if taken in large doses. Certain minerals may also cause serious overdose symptoms if you take too much.

Overdose symptoms may include increased thirst or urination, severe stomach pain, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, black and tarry stools, hair loss, peeling skin, tingly feeling in or around your mouth, changes in menstrual periods, weight loss, severe headache, severe back pain, blood in your urine, pale skin, easy bruising or bleeding, severe drowsiness, slow heart rate, shallow breathing, weak and rapid pulse, confusion, muscle weakness, cold and clammy skin, blue lips, and seizure (convulsions).

What should I avoid while taking multivitamins and minerals?

Avoid taking more than one multivitamin product at the same time unless your doctor tells you to. Taking similar products together can result in an overdose or serious side effects.

Avoid the use of salt substitutes in your diet if your multivitamin and mineral contains potassium. If you are on a low-salt diet, ask your doctor before taking a vitamin or mineral supplement.

Do not take this medicine with milk, other dairy products, calcium supplements, or antacids that contain calcium. Calcium may make it harder for your body to absorb certain minerals.

What are the possible side effects of multivitamins and minerals?

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Minerals (especially taken in large doses) can cause side effects such as tooth staining, increased urination, stomach bleeding, uneven heart rate, confusion, and muscle weakness or limp feeling.

When taken as directed, multivitamins and minerals are not expected to cause serious side effects. Common side effects may include:

  • upset stomach;
  • headache; or
  • unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

What other drugs will affect multivitamins and minerals?

Vitamin and mineral supplements can interact with certain medications, or affect how medications work in your body. Ask a doctor or pharmacist before using multivitamins and minerals with any other medications, especially:

  • tretinoin or isotretinoin;
  • an antacid;
  • an antibiotic;
  • a diuretic or “water pill”;
  • heart or blood pressure medications;
  • a sulfa drug; or
  • NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) –ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), celecoxib, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, and others.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect multivitamins and minerals, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.

Where can I get more information?

Your pharmacist can provide more information about multivitamins and minerals.

Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.

Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. (‘Multum’) is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum’s drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum’s drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 3.03. Revision date: 8/23/2019.

Early Infant Multivitamin Supplementation Is Associated With Increased Risk for Food Allergy and Asthma

Abstract

Objective. Dietary vitamins have potent immunomodulating effects in vitro. Individual vitamins have been shown to skew T cells toward either T-helper 1 or T-helper 2 phenotypic classes, suggesting that they may participate in inflammatory or allergic disease. With the exception of antioxidant protection, there has been little study on the effect of early vitamin supplementation on the subsequent risk for asthma and allergic disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether early vitamin supplementation during infancy affects the risk for asthma and allergic disease during early childhood.

Methods. Cohort data were analyzed from the National Center for Health Statistics 1988 National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, which followed pregnant women and their newborns, and the 1991 Longitudinal Follow-up of the same patients, which measured health and disease outcomes. Patients were stratified by race and breastfeeding status. Factors that are known to be associated with alteration of risk for asthma or food allergies were identified using univariate logistic regression. Those factors were then analyzed in multivariate logistic regression models. Early vitamin supplementation was defined as vitamin use within the first 6 months.

Results. There were >8000 total patients in the study. The overall incidence of asthma was 10.5% and of food allergy was 4.9%. In univariate analysis, male gender, smoker in the household, child care, prematurity (<37 weeks), being black, no history of breastfeeding, lower income, and lower education were associated with higher risk for asthma. Child care, higher levels of education, income, and history of breastfeeding were associated with a higher risk for food allergies. In multivariate logistic analyses, a history of vitamin use within the first 6 months of life was associated with a higher risk for asthma in black infants (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.56). Early vitamin use was also associated with a higher risk for food allergies in the exclusively formula-fed population (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21–2.20). Vitamin use at 3 years of age was associated with increased risk for food allergies but not asthma in both breastfed (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.19–2.21) and exclusively formula-fed infants (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03–1.88).

Conclusions. Early vitamin supplementation is associated with increased risk for asthma in black children and food allergies in exclusively formula-fed children. Additional study is warranted to examine which components most strongly contribute to this risk.

90,000 Vitamin allergies: which ones provoke it the most?

When we talk about food allergies, we usually mean sensitivity to certain proteins that cause the reaction. However, some carbohydrates, metals – in particular, nickel and gold , salt. And there is also an allergy to vitamins.

There are few reports of such allergies.

But scientists note: vitamins that enter the body with food are less dangerous than synthetic ones that we use in the form of tablets or injections.

Allergy to B-group vitamins

So, some compounds of group B, in particular B1, can cause allergic reactions in the form of itching, hives, blisters and edema.These symptoms were reported to have developed after injections of the drugs as well as after oral administration.

In addition, vitamin B12, although very rare, can cause life-threatening anaphylaxis. Her symptoms include:

Like vitamin B7, B12 can provoke an allergic reaction from the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, its symptoms can be:

  • stomach pain;
  • 90,061 gas and spasms;

  • vomiting and / or diarrhea.

However, as some experts note, the real reason for allergy to injectable vitamins, and not only group B, can be the substances that make up the solutions.For example preservatives.

Allergy to vitamin C

This applies, in particular, to vitamin C. An allergic reaction to it or to the additives that make up the tablets develops within a few minutes.

This could be:

  • tingling sensation;
  • 90,061 itching or swelling of the face;

    90,061 swelling of the lips or mouth;

  • as well as skin rashes and / or hives.

Other symptoms of ascorbic acid allergy may include:

Can later react to the allergen and the digestive system.As a result, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain appear.

Allergic reactions to vitamins K and E

Another compound reported by scientists to be allergenic is vitamin K. Symptoms after injections include eczema and anaphylaxis, among others.

Allergic reactions to vitamin E have also been reported, including skin rashes and swelling of the lips.

According to some reports, the number of such cases has been growing lately.After all, vitamin E is included in many cosmetics, including lipstick.

But vitamin D allergy is not such an unambiguous question. The role of vitamins A and D in the development of allergic reactions may be the opposite: the lack of these substances in the body, on the contrary, provokes the body’s predisposition to hypersensitivity.

Diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity to vitamins

Allergic reactions can develop against the background of both mono- and multivitamin therapy.In the second case, the diagnosis is complicated by the need to determine which vitamin or supplement caused the reaction.

After all, additional ingredients of some vitamin complexes and tablets containing one substance can be, for example, soy or fish oil. These ingredients can cause an allergic reaction in those who are hypersensitive to legumes or fish.

Dyes, both synthetic and natural, can also become a real cause of “vitamin” allergies.

In addition, more often than an allergic one, after the use of synthetic vitamins, an adverse reaction may develop. Caused, in particular, by overdose. Like allergies, it can be hazardous to human health and life.

Therefore, if after vitamin injections or tablets you have any discomfort, be sure to consult a doctor, including functional medicine.

The specialist will be able to accurately determine if your reaction is of an allergic or other nature, and also prescribe the correct treatment.It will consist in the selection of a balanced diet and the rational use of vitamin and mineral complexes.

Immunologist spoke about the health risks of haphazard intake of vitamins | News | Izvestia

Synthetic vitamins can be beneficial to humans as an additional food supplement, but only if they are used as directed and strictly according to instructions. However, if taken on their own and beyond measure, they can be dangerous.This opinion was expressed by the immunologist Anna Shulyaeva.

“So, it can be allergies, increased load on the liver, intoxication and even the development of oncological pathologies. In addition, it is important to understand that vitamins must be combined with each other, since some of them are ways to flush others out of the body in case of excessive consumption, and also delay absorption in the body of others, ”the site aif.ru quotes the immunologist.

According to the immunologist, the most dangerous are fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K.

Vitamin E is a natural antioxidant. It is found in abundance in leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds. An excess of it in the body increases the risk of prostate cancer and stroke.

Vitamin D helps reduce the risk of heart disease and improve endurance. Too much of it can cause kidney and heart problems, as well as heart rhythm disturbances and skin cancer.

The main risk of excess vitamin D is the deposition of excess calcium in tissues.Because of this, the risk of developing atherosclerosis, headaches and stones in different body systems increases over time.

Vitamins of group B allow you to put in order the nervous system, have a general stimulating effect on the body, and also improve the condition of hair and skin. But due to an excess of this substance, heart rhythm disturbances, acne, allergies, drowsiness, decreased muscle tone, heartburn, nausea and loss of appetite occur.

Vitamin C is one of the most common synthetic vitamins.Excessive intake of it affects the antioxidant system, which causes metabolic problems.

Shulyaeva stressed that only a specialist can prescribe vitamins, based on test data and external examination. “Independently, without harm to health, it is allowed to take only multivitamins in a short course of 1 month, once a quarter or six months,” she said.

On April 3, Izvestia was told at the Federal Research Center for Nutrition, Biotechnology and Food Safety (FRC) that vitamin and mineral complexes can be added to the new consumer basket, the composition of which may be approved as early as 2021.

It is assumed that to fill the lack of vitamins, citizens will take pills for three months a year, but this will cost them an additional 604.8 rubles. At the same time, the subsistence minimum, which is calculated on the basis of the consumer basket, will increase by almost 6%.

READ ALSO

Allergy to vitamin D: symptoms and treatment

Vitamin D is one of the substances vital for the human body for normal functioning. In terms of the structure of the molecule, vitamin D resembles a hormone and is actively involved in many physiological processes in the body.At the same time, vitamin D itself is partly produced in human skin, partly must come from the outside – with food and, if they are not enough, with vitamin supplements. Moreover, in some (fortunately, infrequent) cases, allergic reactions to vitamin D may occur. Why is this happening? What are the symptoms of vitamin D allergy? How to avoid this and what to do if an allergy occurs?

When is vitamin D3 allergy in adults and children?

Considering that vitamin D appears in the human body in two ways, it should be emphasized: there are no allergic reactions to endogenous cholecalciferol, which is produced in the skin under the influence of ultraviolet radiation.Simply because the substance is produced in the course of physiological reactions in the body, and, accordingly, the immune system is perceived as “its own”. Allergy is possible only to vitamin D from outside, and in the overwhelming majority of cases – as part of multivitamin preparations and supplements enriched with cholecalciferol. Theoretically, allergic reactions to the “natural” vitamin D contained in food are also possible, but it is almost impossible to differentiate specifically an allergy to cholecalciferol from an allergy to the product as a whole.Therefore, in such cases, it is usually said about the immune response to red fish, cod liver, egg yolk and other products, and not about the allergy to the vitamin D contained in them. Moreover, one of the predisposing factors of a pathological immune response is often an overdose of cholecalciferol its entry into the body with food is almost impossible. Therefore, speaking about an allergy to vitamin D, we are still talking about an allergy to a component of vitamin complexes and supplements.

The cause of allergic reactions to cholecalciferol is an individual reaction to synthetic vitamin D.This reaction is due to the genetic characteristics of a particular organism. Therefore, there are often cases of familial immunity to synthetic cholecalciferol. Pathology can manifest itself as an acute allergy, and a delayed-type immune reaction, which manifests itself gradually, in parallel with the accumulation of an allergy-provoking substance in the human body.

Allergy … not to vitamin D?

In some cases, the symptoms of an allergic reaction do not arise on the cholecalciferol itself, but on any auxiliary components of the multivitamin preparation.Any preparations or additives contain certain additional components that are formative (starch, talc in tablets, gelatin in capsules, etc.), solvents for the active substance (oils for oil solutions of vitamin D, the base of chewable tablets), are designed to make the taste, the color and aroma of the product are attractive for taking it (this is especially true for children’s multivitamins). An allergic reaction can also occur to any of these components, whatever the high-quality product.Therefore, having discovered an allergy “to vitamin D”, it is important to find out whether cholecalciferol is really its “culprit.” Or the reason is not at all in him, but in the orange flavoring or yellow dye added to the product.

Now about the reactions to a substandard product. There are a lot of multivitamin supplements containing cholecalciferol in their composition on the shelves of pharmacies and in online stores. And if certified goods are sold in pharmacies, and the regulatory authorities constantly monitor the assortment, then you cannot say the same about online stores and network distributors of all kinds of dietary supplements, complexes and preparations for health.It is not safe to buy cholecalciferol supplements from such sellers, and the vitamin complexes themselves can cause not only allergic reactions, but also poisoning.

In addition, it is fraught with allergies, and even intoxication, taking benign, but expired multivitamins or supplements with a disturbed storage regime. For some reason, there is a strong stereotype in society that it is important to observe the expiration date and storage conditions exclusively for medicines, while vitamins “will not be lost” even if they stand on a lighted shelf for several years.Naturally, this is a mistake. Multivitamin preparations can also become hazardous to health after the expiration date or violation of the recommended storage conditions, in particular, they can begin to provoke undesirable reactions, even if the drug had not previously caused problems.

Symptoms of Vitamin D Allergy

Symptoms of a synthetic cholecalciferol allergy are generally not very different from any other food or drug allergy symptoms. Among the most common symptoms are the following:

  • dyspeptic symptoms – nausea, vomiting, discomfort and discomfort from the digestive system;
  • bloating and stool disturbance – its relaxation, less often constipation;
  • headache, general weakness;
  • skin manifestations – urticaria-type rashes, eczema, pruritus;
  • edema;
  • rarely – bronchospasm, asthmatic cough;
  • rarely – convulsions;
  • rarely – acute generalized allergic reactions (angioedema, anaphylactic shock).

The insidiousness of an allergic reaction lies in the fact that a person does not always perceive a malaise as a sign of a pathological immune reaction. Dyspepsia and stool disturbances can be mistakenly thought to be manifestations of dysbiosis, while sleep disturbances and chronic fatigue can be attributed to stress and overwork at work.

Treatment of vitamin D allergy

The most important condition for the successful treatment of any allergic reaction is the cessation of contact with the allergen.Therefore, at the slightest suspicion that the cause of the pathological reaction of the immune system is a supplement with vitamin D, you need to stop taking it and consult an allergist. During the examination, the doctor will determine which specific component of the additive has caused the pathology, will advise to replace the agent (if we are talking about allergies to its auxiliary components), or will recommend to completely abandon the intake of synthetic cholecalciferol, if possible compensating for this by an increase in the duration of insolation and the use of foods rich vitamin D.

To relieve the symptoms of an allergic reaction – rash, stool disorders, swelling – the patient is advised to take antihistamines that interrupt the pathological immune reaction. In case of an acute generalized allergic reaction – Quincke’s edema or anaphylactic shock – you must immediately call an ambulance, since we are talking about life-threatening conditions that cannot be stopped by means of a home first-aid kit.

It should be noted that in children an allergic reaction, including a life-threatening, generalized one, can develop very quickly.Therefore, swelling, cramps, intense rashes on the baby’s body are a good reason for an urgent call to a doctor.

Allergies or overdose?

Symptoms of a supplement overdose are often mistaken for vitamin D allergy. Exceeding the permissible dose most often occurs with uncontrolled intake of vitamins by a child. “Children’s” vitamins often contain flavoring and aromatic additives, due to which the product is perceived by the child as a sweetness. It is not surprising that a baby, if he has access to a dietary supplement, can eat it in the same way as ordinary candies, and get a serious overdose.Therefore, it is important that adults give vitamin supplements to the child exactly in the dose that he needs. Vitamin D overdose is dangerous and requires medical attention.

Signs of vitamin D overdose are as follows:

  • impaired consciousness, weakness, severe drowsiness or, conversely, insomnia, agitation;
  • fluctuations in blood pressure, more often its increase;
  • vomiting;
  • increased urination up to dehydration;
  • swelling, aching pain in muscles and joints;
  • pronounced pallor;
  • arrhythmia.

Some manifestations of an overdose resemble those of an allergic reaction, but overdose does not result in anaphylactic shock or angioedema. In case of severe discomfort, you need to consult a doctor as soon as possible, who will determine the cause of the pathology and recommend the necessary treatment.

Novozhilova Olga Alexandrovna – Vitamins

Vitamins

There are 13 known essential nutrients that are certainly vitamins.They are usually divided into water-soluble and fat-soluble.

Water-soluble vitamins include vitamin C and B vitamins: thiamine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, B6, B12, niacin, folate and biotin.

Vitamins A, E, D and K are fat-soluble.

Most of the known vitamins are represented not by one, but by several compounds (vitamers) with similar biological activity. Letters are used to name groups of similar related compounds; Vitamers are usually denoted by terms reflecting their chemical nature.An example is vitamin B6, the group of which includes three vitamers: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine

What to focus on when choosing vitamins for children?

The term “vitamin” comes from the Latin word vita, meaning life. Ancient scientists definitely gave the name to vitamins – without the bottom it is difficult to imagine the normal development of the body.

From childhood, we are taught that it is useful to eat fruits and vegetables, because they contain vitamins. In fact, these foods only contain folic acid and ascorbic acid.And even then, the concentration of nutrients is so low that it does not meet the daily needs of the body. The rest of the vitamins and minerals we get from meat, fish, eggs, oil and other products. But the smallest children do not always eat dishes from them! They have a different diet. Therefore, manufacturers offer special vitamins for children.

When choosing them, it is important to take into account the age of the child, the individual characteristics of his body. For example, jars labeled “vitamins for children 3 years old” have a completely different composition than those labeled “vitamins for children 5 years old” .Children develop and grow rapidly, so they need to be constantly recharged, that is, vitamins. Vitamins affect the growth of the child, the development of his internal organs and systems.

Choice of vitamins for children at 3 years old

Three years is the most dangerous age: a child goes to kindergarten, begins to actively communicate with other children. Mom is no longer able to protect him from all kinds of diseases. Therefore, it is very important to choose the right complex of vitamins and minerals.

Children at the age of 3 are recommended to be given vitamins with a high content of calcium and phosphorus.”CalciumMishki” contain the amount of these substances the child needs. At the age of three, children grow intensively and their body needs a large amount of phosphorus and calcium. Also “CalciumMishki” can be given to children aged 5-7 years and 11-15 years old.

VitaMishki are chewable pastilles with strawberry, lemon, orange and cherry flavors. They are produced in the form of bear figurines, and the child will never guess that this is not just a tasty treat, but a vitamin supplement. VitaMishek contains vitamins A, D, E, C, B6, B12, choline, inositol, pantothenic acid, folic acid, biotin, magnesium, zinc, iodine.”VitaMishki” are made on the basis of natural juices and do not contain preservatives or artificial colors, therefore they do not cause allergies in babies (with the exception of individual intolerance).

Three-year-olds are given vitamins for the purpose of general strengthening of the body. “VitaMishki” replenishes the deficiency of vitamins and microelements in the body, normalizes metabolism and strengthens the immune system.

Attention! Before starting the course, consult your pediatrician. Do not give your child CalciumMishki or VitaMishki lozenges if the child does not chew well.In this case, syrups are preferable.

Vitamins for children 4 years old

At this age, the presence or absence of allergies in a child (possibly an allergic reaction to vitamins), a lack of certain vitamins or microelements usually becomes obvious. Therefore, the intake of vitamins becomes more targeted. You give your child the vitamins he needs. Again, this is one of those rules that you need to check with your doctor. The kid can periodically drink the course of “VitaMish” for general strengthening of the body.Also in this line are “ImmunoMishki”.

“ImmunoMishki” should be given to a child not when he is already sick, but to prevent colds and ARVI diseases!

It is also recommended to give “ImmunoMishki” to a child after a severe lingering illness. The complex contains echinacea extract and vitamin C – ascorbic acid is necessary for children who are often ill.

At the age of 4, a child may begin to give up milk and dairy products. Also, children may have congenital milk intolerance.But it is this product that is so necessary for a child: milk is the main source of calcium. In this case, the child can periodically be given CalciumMishki. Also, this complex of vitamins for children 4 years old is recommended for stunted growth, posture disorders, diseases of the teeth and gums, fragility of bones.

Vitamins for children with allergies

Allergy is an increased sensitivity of the body’s immune system to certain substances. In young children, allergies are diagnosed very often.A rash, itchy skin, and watery eyes can be caused by foods high in protein or carbohydrates. Therefore, it is so important to make up the right diet for an allergic child. In addition, at certain times of the year, it is useful to further strengthen the immune system. For this, vitamins are intended. They need to be drunk in courses.

But children are also allergic to vitamins, especially group B. Remember that an allergic reaction may indicate the opposite – a lack of nutrients in the body .Very often, an allergy manifests itself with a lack of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). The symptoms are dermatitis, depigmentation. Also, the cause of allergies can be flavoring additives, chemical components. If you look at the composition of vitamins for children with allergies, then you should definitely find vitamin B5 there. If vitamins contain chemical elements, it is better to refuse them.

What to do if a child is allergic to vitamins?

First of all, you need to visit your pediatrician.He will establish the allergy and the cause of its occurrence. Do not engage in uncontrolled treatment – this can only worsen the child’s condition. There is a danger of vitamin overdose, especially in young children. Many beneficial substances accumulate in the body.

Make sure your child’s nutrition is correct. Remember the words: “A man is what he eats”? This also applies to baby food. The correct diet strengthens the health of the child, the diet lays the necessary foundation for subsequent harmonious development.And vitamins are a supplement.

Unfortunately or fortunately, but without them – nowhere. And for a small person vitamins, trace elements are especially important. Otherwise, how will his internal organs, musculoskeletal system and brain develop? There are special vitamins for allergic children .

Correct selection of vitamins for children with allergies

The vitamins for allergy sufferers contain only natural ingredients. Chemically synthesized elements are excluded! A reduced amount of minerals is allowed, since they are often allergens.

Pay attention to the amount of vitamin B and C. You may need to take them separately. You cannot do without them: B vitamins do not accumulate in the body, so they need to be taken every day. Vitamin C is not synthesized, but enters the body only with food .

Carefully observe the change in the child’s condition while drinking the vitamin complex. There are often cases of so-called age-related allergies. For example, at the age of 4, a baby may be allergic to vitamin C, but after a year, he will no longer.In addition, vitamin C is often used in the fight against allergic reactions, successfully replacing antihistamines.

Vitamins for children with allergies should not contain artificial colors and preservatives.

Choice of vitamins for children 5 years old

From 4 to 7 years old, the child is actively growing. And this happens in leaps and bounds. See how babies stretch literally over the summer. The proportions of the body change, the load on the musculoskeletal system increases. Therefore, you need to pay attention to the intake of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D.

If the child is not sick, it is better to give him “CalciumMishki” and “VitaMishki”. But in no case at the same time, but in different courses. In winter, you can go to “ImmunoMishki”.

Thus, vitamins “Kid’s formula” provide all-round protection of the body and provide it with the necessary elements for normal growth and development.

Recipes for children’s meals

Vitamins against allergies!

03/22/2018

About 10% of the population suffers from what doctors call atopic allergy.This broad group of diseases includes hay fever (pain in the eyes, runny nose that occurs upon contact with pollen and mold), allergic eczema (inflamed, red, flaky skin, food and pollen allergies), allergic asthma (difficulty breathing as a result of inhaled substances, to which there is sensitivity) and an anaphylactic reaction (a life-threatening extreme reaction to allergens, culminating in a rash, swelling, shortness of breath and ultimately “shock”, by which medicine does not mean an emotional crisis, but a collapse: a condition in which blood pressure drops below the level necessary to sustain life).

Allergic symptoms exist due to a violation of identification in some part of the immune defense. Defense systems function normally, protecting us from everything alien. By the latter, I mean something external: either bacteria, viruses, or fungi trying to infect us, or one of our own cells about to germinate and trying to become cancerous, or really foreign substances such as drugs, pollen and mold spores. Most of us have an immune system that “makes peace” with our environment, and therefore we do not react with watery eyes, runny nose or rashes to flying pollen or cat hair.Some of us, however, have excessive immune defenses that fight intensely when outside substances invade. And in the wake of this battle, the allergic sufferer – the human body – pays with various painful symptoms. The main culprit behind these symptoms is a substance released by a specific type of immune fighter – mast cells, called histamine. This is why antihistamines – other substances that prevent mast cells from releasing their histamine – help curb allergic reactions.There are also foods that help desensitize the world around us. Let’s take a look at them.

What helps?
Nicotinic acid and its derivative, nicotinamide, in laboratory experiments prevented the release of histamine by mast cells. Likewise, in the case of allergies in humans, niacin helps to reduce the severity of the allergic reaction. Indeed, in human studies where intramuscular or intravenous nicotinamide injections were given, seasonal allergic sufferers experienced a rapid reduction in hay fever symptoms.Since these treatments are difficult to use at home, nicotinamide can be taken for up to a month. Recommendations: 200 to 300 mg nicotinamide daily should help reduce seasonal allergic symptoms.

Pantothenic acid has been shown in a number of clinical reports to reduce allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. Recommendations: Start with a dose of 100 mg at night. The first signs of symptom relief may take 15-30 minutes. If the drug relieves symptoms, you can increase the dose to 250 mg once or even twice a day.

For people who are sensitive to glutamine (and as a result cannot tolerate food prepared with monosodium glutamate), some benefit has been shown with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine). There is no information that would indicate that this vitamin can be useful for allergies to other substances. Recommendations: Take 50 mg of vitamin B6 daily for at least 12 weeks.

The use of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) has been shown to be beneficial for allergic asthma, chronic rash (urticaria), chronic allergic dermatitis and sensitivity to sulfites (found, for example, in egg yolk and some wines).Recommendations: Take vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) by mouth or by injection at a dose of 500 mcg weekly for four weeks to relieve allergic symptoms. Some medical research suggests that the use of 2,000 to 4,000 mcg of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) in the sublingual form (dissolves under the tongue) due to the rapid – in 15 minutes – absorption and preservation of action for 24 hours is ideal for combating accidental, but not systematic effects allergens.(Such exposures can occur when cleaning the attic, visiting relatives who keep cats, or drinking unknown wine that may contain sulfites.)

A variety of clinical studies indicate that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) helps relieve seasonal allergic symptoms possibly by decreasing the release of histamine by mast cells, and serves as a defense against life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Recommendation: Take 1 to 4 g of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) daily.If you have not been taking vitamin C for any other indication, start gradually, at 500 mg per day, and work up to 4 g per day for a week or two. It is recommended to use the crystalline (powder) form of ascorbic acid instead of tablets or capsules because it is more convenient when the dose is increased. The usual measure of powder, one teaspoon, is equivalent to 4 g. Mix this dose with a citrus-flavored beverage (lemon, orange, or grapefruit) to soften the flavor. It is advisable to use a carbonated drink.

Vitamin E also has some antihistaminic properties, at least in clinical trials, but precise scientific studies have so far been sketchy. There are many other reasons to take vitamin E, and those of us interested in our health and longevity are already taking it. Recommendations: Take at least 200 to 400 IU of vitamin E daily. Start with a dose of 100 IU and monitor your blood pressure. In some people, the use of vitamin E causes an increase in blood pressure.If your pressure stays no higher than 140/90 in four or five dimensions, you can increase the dose to 200 IU. Measure again. If your blood pressure remains normal, increase your dose to 400 IU.

Lack of calcium and magnesium may worsen allergic asthmatic symptoms. According to the literature, the relationship between calcium and magnesium deficiency and allergic symptoms is reliable. Recommendations: To prevent a deficiency of these two elements, take at least 500 mg of calcium and 200 mg of magnesium daily.

Molybdenum is a trace mineral necessary for the detoxification of sulfites, and its content is reduced in most people sensitive to sulfites (in egg yolk or wine). Cases of severe sulfite allergy in asthma are treated with vein injections of molybdenum twice a week (doses of 250, 500, then 750 mcg). Since intravenous administration is inconvenient at home, you can take the element by mouth for a month. Recommendations: Start with about 100 mcg daily for two to three weeks, then work up to 200 mcg and finally 400 mcg if needed.

In people with chemical sensitivities, zinc deficiency appears to worsen the condition. The use of this trace element to compensate for its deficiency helps to suppress the release of histamine from mast cells. Recommendations: Start with 50-60 mg of complex zinc (picolinate, aspartate) daily. Double or triple the daily dose if necessary. Caution: Taking zinc in ionic form (not complexed) from an inorganic compound such as zinc sulfate can cause copper deficiency, leading to anemia.

Research has shown that quercetin, one of the bioflavonoids, reduces allergic symptoms by preventing the release of histamine from mast cells and suppressing inflammation. Recommendations: Take a total daily dose of 1 to 2 g of bioflavonoid complex (containing quercetin) in divided doses (for example, 500 mg three times a day), but no longer than two to three weeks.

Olive oil oleic acid has been shown to inhibit the release of histamine.Recommendations: Use this oil wherever possible when preparing food. Linoleic acid and fish oil also prevent inflammatory processes of allergic origin – runny nose, watery eyes, red eyes, wheezing, itching and redness of the skin, rash. Recommendations: two capsules of EicoPro or a similar domestic drug – polyene, one to three times a day. An acceptable substitute for this product: 500 mg evening primrose oil (a source of linoleic acid in capsules), 100 mg fish oil, 200 IU of vitamin E.Take this combination one to three times. (A word of caution for diabetics: Fish oil can cause unexpected changes in blood sugar in some diabetics. Watch your blood sugar closely when you are taking these fats and stop using them if blood sugar becomes difficult to control.)

What makes it worse?

Continued exposure to irritating substances naturally complicates the problem. Although this statement sounds trite, it is important to pay attention to it.If you are an “allergic” or “sensitive” person and have not been tested by an allergist for environmental, food and additive allergens, this should be done. The best remedy for your painful symptoms is to rule out the cause, if the latter is feasible. Sometimes it seems that you are “hurting” your immune defenses, but if you are not going to live under a glass cover, you must find suitable ways to solve your problem. In addition to nutritional treatment, artificially desensitizing (with allergic injections) can give you some peace with your body’s overly active immune system.

Recommended vitamin preparations for allergies
Calcium, magnesium, zinc
Natural vitamin E
Natural Vitamin E with Selenium
Natural Vitamin C
Centuri 2000
Stress formula + E

“Multivitamin complexes still have a right to exist”

What vitamins are and how useful they are, everyone knows from school, or even earlier. And the term “antivitamins” is not so widely known.Meanwhile, such substances also exist and have a great impact on the absorption and the degree of beneficial effects of vitamins.

We asked Susanna Sologova, Associate Professor of the Department of Pharmacology of the First Moscow State Medical University named after Sechenov, Candidate of Biological Sciences, about everything.

– Susanna Sergeevna, what are anti-vitamins?
– Antivitamins – substances that cause a decrease or complete loss of the biological activity of vitamins, which makes vitamins ineffective.They were discovered quite by accident in the 70s of the last century, when, during an experiment to enhance the biological properties of vitamin B9 (folic acid), scientists accidentally obtained a new substance. The chemical structure of the substance was the same as that of B9, but the usual properties of folic acid were not. The resulting substance did not possess the expected beneficial properties of vitamin B9. But, by the way, the vitamin twin inhibited the growth of cancer cells.

– Is this not what is commonly called a “vitamin conflict”?
– No, not only.Vitamin conflict occurs not only in situations where the beneficial effect of a vitamin is blocked by the corresponding antivitamin. Some vitamins, interacting with each other in our body, can neutralize each other or even cause unwanted reactions. This is what is called vitamin conflict. For example, vitamins A and D are able to neutralize each other when taken together.
Vitamin B2 promotes the oxidation of vitamin B1 and is not compatible with vitamin C. Taking vitamin B1 can cause allergies.The simultaneous intake of vitamin B12 can aggravate the allergic reaction. Vitamin B12 should not be taken with vitamins C, E and PP. Vitamin D is hardly absorbed when taken with vitamin E. Pharmaceutical companies work hard to group incompatible vitamins into one pill. They came up with the idea of ​​enclosing the “conflicting” ingredients in microcapsules. As a result, various substances combined in one tablet are absorbed at a certain interval. Therefore, multivitamin complexes still have a right to exist.And that is why you should not “prescribe” vitamins yourself – a vitamin conflict may occur, and you will not get any benefit. So before taking vitamins and dietary supplements, it is still useful to consult a doctor.

– Does the opposite situation happen when vitamins are beneficially combined with each other?
– Of course, yes. Vitamin A is an ideal “companion” for vitamin E, but only if the latter is small. An excess of vitamin E, on the other hand, interferes with the absorption of vitamin A.Vitamins B2 and B6 interact very well. Vitamin B2 goes well with vitamin K. Vitamin B12 is compatible with vitamin B5. Vitamin P enhances the effect of vitamin C, which is perfectly combined with vitamin E, folic acid (vitamin B9) and vitamin PP. Vitamin F can enhance the effect of vitamins A, D, E and B vitamins.

– Is it true that when we finely chop fruits for salad and they darken, they form an anti-vitamin that blocks vitamin C?
– It really is.The anti-vitamin ascorbate oxidase appears in fruits when they are oxidized with oxygen. This enzyme is responsible for the destruction of vitamin C during the technological processing of plant materials, but at the same time it has a positive effect on the color and aroma of plant products, such as juices, by binding oxygen. But the undesirable action of the enzyme can be prevented by subjecting the raw material to a short-term heat treatment – blanching.

– I also heard the opinion that the caffeine contained in tea and coffee interferes with the absorption of a number of nutrients .
– Caffeine has a mild diuretic effect. As a result, the amount of water-soluble vitamins such as B vitamins can be greatly reduced as a result of fluid loss. In addition, caffeine disrupts the metabolism of certain B vitamins. The only exception to this rule is vitamin B12. Caffeine stimulates the production of gastric juice, which actually helps the body absorb B12. Caffeine also minimizes the beneficial effects of vitamin C.
Therefore, you should not drink tea or coffee immediately after eating.In addition, due to the action of caffeine, the situation with vitamin D worsens, which is very important for the absorption and use of calcium in building bones. And it can also lower bone mineral density, which leads to an increased risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, if you take multivitamins containing vitamins B, C and D, then you should be careful with coffee and tea.

– Eh, many people like to sip coffee from a cup while smoking a cigarette. Unaware that at the same time they cause themselves even more harm in terms of full absorption of vitamins.
– Quite right. Smoking has been shown to reduce plasma levels of vitamin C and B-carotene. It also increases the production of free radicals in the body, which can predispose to tissue damage, leading to heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E are part of our body’s defense system, neutralizing free radicals before they harm. Unfortunately, the content of these vitamins is significantly reduced in smokers.
This leads to the fact that there are more free radicals, and the amount of vitamins to fight them decreases. And, as the results of various studies show, no amount of nutritional supplements can help with this. The best option is to quit smoking.

– Having talked about coffee and smoking, I just can’t help but ask you about alcohol. How does alcohol, so beloved by many, affect the absorption and supply of vitamins to the body?
– Definitely bad. Alcohol, especially in large quantities, accelerates the absorption of fat and thereby impairs the absorption of vitamins A, E and D, which are usually absorbed along with dietary fat.Vitamin A deficiency can be associated with night blindness, and vitamin D deficiency, as I said, is associated with softening of the bones. Vitamins A, C, D, E, K and B vitamins, also deficient in some alcoholics, are involved in wound healing and cell maintenance. In particular, since vitamin K is essential for blood clotting, a deficiency in this vitamin can delay blood clotting and lead to excessive bleeding. Lack of other vitamins involved in brain function can cause serious neurological damage.

Favorable combinations of vitamins
A + E (in small quantities!) 90 155
B2 + B6 90 155
B2 + K
B12 + B5 90 155
R + S
C + E
C + B9 (folic acid)
C + RR
F + A
F + D
F + E
F + B vitamins

Do not work together:
A and D
B2 and B1
B2 and C
B12 and C,
B12 and E
B12 and PP
D and E.


Publication link:
Komsomolskaya Pravda

90,000 Is it possible to drink vitamins without a doctor’s recommendation and how can it be dangerous? – News – Patients

In the spring, when you already want to take off your winter clothes faster, there is slush on the street, and the body is weakened by the cold and short daylight hours, the immune system especially needs vitamins.But is it possible to self-medicate and drink vitamins without the advice of doctors?
It is very rash to run to the pharmacy and buy vitamins A, B, C, D. Before taking any drugs, you need to find out whether a person really needs them or not.
Avitaminosis is a complete absence of vitamins in the body, and hypovitaminosis is a decrease in the required level. As a rule, in the spring we all suffer from hypovitaminosis: after all, some part of the vitamins enters our body with food.
A 2018 Bloomberg study found that not all vitamins are as healthy and safe as people think they are.For example, vitamin D is poorly absorbed by the body, and vitamin C provokes allergic reactions. It is especially dangerous to take these funds without the testimony of doctors, since it is not known how the body will behave if the daily norm is exceeded.
– Multivitamin complexes, which are actively advertised and sold in pharmacies, do not contain therapeutic dosages, therefore it is not dangerous to drink them without a doctor’s recommendation. They are preventive in nature. But I would advise discussing any drugs with a doctor before use, since an allergic reaction to the components of multivitamin complexes can be unpredictable, – say therapists of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution “Central City Hospital No. 2”.
Individual vitamins in monovariant or in combination should be prescribed by the attending physician, since they should be drunk according to indications. You cannot buy vitamin A and vitamin B12 and choose your own dosage and duration of intake: this can be dangerous for all body systems. Despite the deficiency of vitamin D in those who rarely outdoors and work indoors (according to Forbes, 42% of people live with extremely low levels of vitamin D), you do not need to prescribe it unless you are a doctor.Otherwise, you can disrupt the work of the gastrointestinal tract and excretory system.
– Many vitamins have a toxic effect, in particular fat-soluble A and E. Uncontrolled intake can poison the body, not improve its condition, the doctors explain.

How to save yourself from colds in the spring?

Doctors pay attention to the fact that wearing protective masks can protect not only from coronavirus, but also from seasonal respiratory diseases.
As a preventive measure in the spring, experts recommend switching to a balanced, healthy diet consisting of animal fats, proteins, plant foods, cereals and legumes.It is better to refuse harmful, excessively fatty foods and fast carbohydrates so that the body does not waste time digesting and assimilating them, but can repel harmful bacteria and viruses.
Another important factor is the daily routine. During the winter, due to the small amount of sunlight, the production of hormones is disrupted, which affects the nervous system and immunity. Therefore, sleep for at least seven to eight hours, walks in the fresh air, good nutrition, and not snacks with sandwiches and chocolates are necessary not only for a normal mood and a good figure, but also for a healthy state without colds.