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Anatomy of the human body male: Male Reproductive Anatomy Location, Parts, and Function

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Male Reproductive System: Structure & Function

Overview

Male Reproductive Anatomy

What’s the male reproductive system?

The male reproductive system includes a group of organs that make up a man’s reproductive and urinary system. These organs do the following jobs within your body:

  • They produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and semen (the protective fluid around sperm).
  • They discharge sperm into the female reproductive tract.
  • They produce and secrete male sex hormones.

The male reproductive system is made up of internal (inside your body) and external (outside your body) parts. Together, these organs help you urinate (rid your body of liquid waste materials), have sexual intercourse and make children.

Function

How does the male reproductive system function?

The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones. These are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of your cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland. It’s located at the base of your brain and it’s responsible for many functions in your body. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis). LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone is also important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive.

Anatomy

What are the external male reproductive structures?

Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Penis

The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts:

  • The root: This is the part of the penis that attaches to the wall of your abdomen.
  • The body or shaft: Shaped like a tube or cylinder, the body of the penis is made up of three internal chambers. Inside these chambers there’s a special, sponge-like erectile tissue that contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when you’re sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sex. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic, allowing for changes in penis size during an erection.
  • The glans: This is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which is also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.

The opening of the urethra — the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body — is located at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains many sensitive nerve endings.

Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when a man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It holds the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum protects your testes, as well as providing a sort of climate control system. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes)

The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.

Epididymis

The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It carries and stores sperm cells that are created in the testes. It’s also the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity — the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

What are the internal male reproductive organs?

You have several internal organs — also called accessory organs — that play a big part in the male reproductive system. These organs include:

  • Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory ducts: These ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
  • Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of your body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when you reach orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  • Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles make a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ ability to move (motility). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of your ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  • Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that’s located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  • Bulbourethral glands: The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra, just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Conditions and Disorders

Can a man go through menopause?

Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s normal menstrual function. In women, this is marked by changes in hormone production. One of the biggest changes for a woman after menopause is that she can no longer have children. The testes, unlike the ovaries, don’t lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer.

On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes can happen as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of 70. For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on. This can sometimes be a result of an illness, such as diabetes.

It’s unclear whether decreasing testicular function contributes to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence.

Care

Can “male menopause” be treated?

If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) worse, also.

You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.

Male Reproductive System: Structure & Function

Overview

Male Reproductive Anatomy

What’s the male reproductive system?

The male reproductive system includes a group of organs that make up a man’s reproductive and urinary system. These organs do the following jobs within your body:

  • They produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and semen (the protective fluid around sperm).
  • They discharge sperm into the female reproductive tract.
  • They produce and secrete male sex hormones.

The male reproductive system is made up of internal (inside your body) and external (outside your body) parts. Together, these organs help you urinate (rid your body of liquid waste materials), have sexual intercourse and make children.

Function

How does the male reproductive system function?

The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones. These are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of your cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland. It’s located at the base of your brain and it’s responsible for many functions in your body. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis). LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone is also important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive.

Anatomy

What are the external male reproductive structures?

Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Penis

The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts:

  • The root: This is the part of the penis that attaches to the wall of your abdomen.
  • The body or shaft: Shaped like a tube or cylinder, the body of the penis is made up of three internal chambers. Inside these chambers there’s a special, sponge-like erectile tissue that contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when you’re sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sex. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic, allowing for changes in penis size during an erection.
  • The glans: This is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which is also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.

The opening of the urethra — the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body — is located at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains many sensitive nerve endings.

Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when a man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It holds the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum protects your testes, as well as providing a sort of climate control system. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes)

The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.

Epididymis

The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It carries and stores sperm cells that are created in the testes. It’s also the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity — the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

What are the internal male reproductive organs?

You have several internal organs — also called accessory organs — that play a big part in the male reproductive system. These organs include:

  • Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory ducts: These ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
  • Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of your body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when you reach orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  • Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles make a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ ability to move (motility). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of your ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  • Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that’s located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  • Bulbourethral glands: The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra, just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Conditions and Disorders

Can a man go through menopause?

Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s normal menstrual function. In women, this is marked by changes in hormone production. One of the biggest changes for a woman after menopause is that she can no longer have children. The testes, unlike the ovaries, don’t lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer.

On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes can happen as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of 70. For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on. This can sometimes be a result of an illness, such as diabetes.

It’s unclear whether decreasing testicular function contributes to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence.

Care

Can “male menopause” be treated?

If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) worse, also.

You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.

Male Reproductive System: Structure & Function

Overview

Male Reproductive Anatomy

What’s the male reproductive system?

The male reproductive system includes a group of organs that make up a man’s reproductive and urinary system. These organs do the following jobs within your body:

  • They produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and semen (the protective fluid around sperm).
  • They discharge sperm into the female reproductive tract.
  • They produce and secrete male sex hormones.

The male reproductive system is made up of internal (inside your body) and external (outside your body) parts. Together, these organs help you urinate (rid your body of liquid waste materials), have sexual intercourse and make children.

Function

How does the male reproductive system function?

The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones. These are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of your cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland. It’s located at the base of your brain and it’s responsible for many functions in your body. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis). LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone is also important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive.

Anatomy

What are the external male reproductive structures?

Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Penis

The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts:

  • The root: This is the part of the penis that attaches to the wall of your abdomen.
  • The body or shaft: Shaped like a tube or cylinder, the body of the penis is made up of three internal chambers. Inside these chambers there’s a special, sponge-like erectile tissue that contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when you’re sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sex. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic, allowing for changes in penis size during an erection.
  • The glans: This is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which is also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.

The opening of the urethra — the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body — is located at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains many sensitive nerve endings.

Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when a man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It holds the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum protects your testes, as well as providing a sort of climate control system. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes)

The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.

Epididymis

The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It carries and stores sperm cells that are created in the testes. It’s also the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity — the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

What are the internal male reproductive organs?

You have several internal organs — also called accessory organs — that play a big part in the male reproductive system. These organs include:

  • Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory ducts: These ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
  • Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of your body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when you reach orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  • Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles make a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ ability to move (motility). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of your ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  • Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that’s located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  • Bulbourethral glands: The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra, just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Conditions and Disorders

Can a man go through menopause?

Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s normal menstrual function. In women, this is marked by changes in hormone production. One of the biggest changes for a woman after menopause is that she can no longer have children. The testes, unlike the ovaries, don’t lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer.

On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes can happen as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of 70. For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on. This can sometimes be a result of an illness, such as diabetes.

It’s unclear whether decreasing testicular function contributes to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence.

Care

Can “male menopause” be treated?

If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) worse, also.

You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.

Male Reproductive System: Structure & Function

Overview

Male Reproductive Anatomy

What’s the male reproductive system?

The male reproductive system includes a group of organs that make up a man’s reproductive and urinary system. These organs do the following jobs within your body:

  • They produce, maintain and transport sperm (the male reproductive cells) and semen (the protective fluid around sperm).
  • They discharge sperm into the female reproductive tract.
  • They produce and secrete male sex hormones.

The male reproductive system is made up of internal (inside your body) and external (outside your body) parts. Together, these organs help you urinate (rid your body of liquid waste materials), have sexual intercourse and make children.

Function

How does the male reproductive system function?

The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones. These are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of your cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.

FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland. It’s located at the base of your brain and it’s responsible for many functions in your body. FSH is necessary for sperm production (spermatogenesis). LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone is also important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive.

Anatomy

What are the external male reproductive structures?

Most of the male reproductive system is located outside of your abdominal cavity or pelvis. The external parts of the male reproductive system include the penis, the scrotum and the testicles.

Penis

The penis is the male organ for sexual intercourse. It has three parts:

  • The root: This is the part of the penis that attaches to the wall of your abdomen.
  • The body or shaft: Shaped like a tube or cylinder, the body of the penis is made up of three internal chambers. Inside these chambers there’s a special, sponge-like erectile tissue that contains thousands of large spaces that fill with blood when you’re sexually aroused. As the penis fills with blood, it becomes rigid and erect, which allows for penetration during sex. The skin of the penis is loose and elastic, allowing for changes in penis size during an erection.
  • The glans: This is the cone-shaped end of the penis. The glans, which is also called the head of the penis, is covered with a loose layer of skin called foreskin. This skin is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision.

The opening of the urethra — the tube that transports both semen and urine out of the body — is located at the tip of the glans penis. The penis also contains many sensitive nerve endings.

Semen, which contains sperm, is expelled (ejaculated) through the end of the penis when a man reaches sexual climax (orgasm). When the penis is erect, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.

Scrotum

The scrotum is the loose pouch-like sac of skin that hangs behind the penis. It holds the testicles (also called testes), as well as many nerves and blood vessels. The scrotum protects your testes, as well as providing a sort of climate control system. For normal sperm development, the testes must be at a temperature slightly cooler than the body temperature. Special muscles in the wall of the scrotum allow it to contract (tighten) and relax, moving the testicles closer to the body for warmth and protection or farther away from the body to cool the temperature.

Testicles (testes)

The testes are oval organs about the size of very large olives that lie in the scrotum, secured at either end by a structure called the spermatic cord. Most men have two testes. The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm. Within the testes are coiled masses of tubes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules are responsible for producing the sperm cells through a process called spermatogenesis.

Epididymis

The epididymis is a long, coiled tube that rests on the backside of each testicle. It carries and stores sperm cells that are created in the testes. It’s also the job of the epididymis to bring the sperm to maturity — the sperm that emerge from the testes are immature and incapable of fertilization. During sexual arousal, contractions force the sperm into the vas deferens.

What are the internal male reproductive organs?

You have several internal organs — also called accessory organs — that play a big part in the male reproductive system. These organs include:

  • Vas deferens: The vas deferens is a long, muscular tube that travels from the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just behind the bladder. The vas deferens transports mature sperm to the urethra in preparation for ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory ducts: These ducts are formed by the fusion of the vas deferens and the seminal vesicles. The ejaculatory ducts empty into the urethra.
  • Urethra: The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside of your body. In males, it has the additional function of expelling (ejaculating) semen when you reach orgasm. When the penis is erect during sex, the flow of urine is blocked from the urethra, allowing only semen to be ejaculated at orgasm.
  • Seminal vesicles: The seminal vesicles are sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the base of the bladder. The seminal vesicles make a sugar-rich fluid (fructose) that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps with the sperms’ ability to move (motility). The fluid of the seminal vesicles makes up most of the volume of your ejaculatory fluid, or ejaculate.
  • Prostate gland: The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure that’s located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. The prostate gland contributes additional fluid to the ejaculate. Prostate fluids also help to nourish the sperm. The urethra, which carries the ejaculate to be expelled during orgasm, runs through the center of the prostate gland.
  • Bulbourethral glands: The bulbourethral glands, or Cowper’s glands, are pea-sized structures located on the sides of the urethra, just below the prostate gland. These glands produce a clear, slippery fluid that empties directly into the urethra. This fluid serves to lubricate the urethra and to neutralize any acidity that may be present due to residual drops of urine in the urethra.

Conditions and Disorders

Can a man go through menopause?

Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman’s normal menstrual function. In women, this is marked by changes in hormone production. One of the biggest changes for a woman after menopause is that she can no longer have children. The testes, unlike the ovaries, don’t lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer.

On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes can happen as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of 70. For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on. This can sometimes be a result of an illness, such as diabetes.

It’s unclear whether decreasing testicular function contributes to symptoms like fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence.

Care

Can “male menopause” be treated?

If your testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) worse, also.

You should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed before starting hormone replacement therapy. There are still many unanswered questions about how many middle-aged men could benefit from hormone replacement therapy. Talk to your healthcare provider about all the pros and cons of this treatment and what the best option is for you.

A-Z Index | Acland’s Video Atlas of Human Anatomy



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Overview of the Male Anatomy

The following is an overview of the male reproductive anatomy:

Anus. The opening at the end of the digestive tract where bowel contents leave the body.

Bladder. A triangular shaped, hollow organ located in the lower abdomen. It is held in place by ligaments that are attached to other organs and the pelvic bones. The bladder’s walls relax and expand to store urine and contract and flatten to empty urine through the urethra.

Epididymis. A long tube that is located near each testicle. The epididymis is the tube which moves the sperm from the testicles.

Penis. The external reproductive organ of the male. The penis is made up of two parts, the shaft and the glans. The glans is the tip of the penis, while the shaft is the main part of the penis and contains the tube (urethra) that drains the bladder. All boys are born with a foreskin, or a covering over the tip of the penis. Some boys are circumcised, which means that this covering of skin is removed. Other boys are not circumcised and may have skin that covers the tip of the penis.

Prostate gland. A sex gland in men. It is about the size of a walnut, and surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra–the tube that carries urine from the bladder. It is partly muscular and partly glandular with ducts opening into the prostatic portion of the urethra. It is made up of three lobes: a center lobe with one lobe on each side. The prostate gland secretes a slightly alkaline fluid that forms part of the seminal fluid, a fluid that carries sperm.

Rectum. The lower end of the large intestine, leading to the anus.

Scrotum. The bag of skin that holds and helps to protect the testicles. The testicles make sperm and, to do this, the temperature of the testicles needs to be cooler than the inside of the body. This is why the scrotum is located outside of the body.

Seminal vesicles. The sac-like glands that lie behind the bladder and release a fluid that forms part of semen.

Testes (testicles). The testes are two small organs that are found inside the scrotum. The testes are responsible for making sperm and are also involved in producing a hormone called testosterone. Testosterone is an important hormone during male development and maturation for developing muscles, deepening the voice, and growing body hair.

Urethra. The tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. The brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, which squeezes urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax to let urine exit the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.

Vas deferens. This is a tube in which the sperm is stored and it carries the sperm out of the scrotal sac. The vas deferens is between the epididymis and the urethra and connects these together.

 

Anatomy of the whole human body (male cadaver)

Images from the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project®

  

This module presents the anatomy of the whole human body based on cross-sectional photographs of a male cadaver. 1300 anatomical structures have been labeled on 463 photographs of axial cross-sections. This atlas is based on the Visible Human Project ran by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) under the direction of Michael J. Ackerman.

 

Photographs of the male cadaver

The male cadaver is from Joseph Paul Jernigan, a 38-year-old Texas murderer who was executed by lethal injection on August 5, 1993.
The male cadaver was encased and frozen in a mixture of gelatin and water in order to stabilize the specimen for cutting. The specimen was then “cut” in the axial plane at 1 millimeter intervals. Each of the resulting 1,871 “slices” was photographed in both analogue and digital, yielding 15 gigabytes of data.
 

Anatomy of the whole human body (male cadaver) : Brain

 

To provide a web-based application, we reduced the number of slices (463) and the images resolution (640X368 pixels). We also removed the frozen water around the body.
Furthermore, we chose to redirect the slices by rotation and horizontal symmetry, in order to give an axis similar to a CT-scan (and not the standard anatomical axis, which reverses the right and left sides). Original pictures show the body in procubitus with a cranial view. The images presented in this module are therefore “false” because we now have to imagine the patient on decubitus, with a caudal view, which does not match the original cut of the body.

 

Position and abnormalities of this male human body 

Freezing caused the man’s brain to become slightly swollen, and his inner ear ossicles were lost during preparation of the slices.

 

Visible Human Project: Head , Face

 

Small blood vessels were collapsed by the freezing process.
Tendons are difficult to cut cleanly, and they occasionally smear across the slice surfaces.
The male has only one testicle, is missing his appendix, and has tissue deterioration at the lethal injection site. Also visible are tissue damage to the dorsum of each forearm from the formalin injection and damage to the right sartorius and femoral vessels from opening the right femoral vein for drainage. The male was also not “cut” while in anatomical position, so the cuts through his arms are oblique.

 

Visible Human Project (male cadaver): Neck

 

Visible Human Project: Thorax, Lungs, Heart

 

Visible Human Project; Abdomen, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Alimentary system

 

Abdominopelvic cavity : Urinary system (Urinary bladder, Ureter), Male genital system

 

Anatomy of the whole human body: display anatomical labels

The “anatomical” menu displays 20 types of labels which correspond to the 16 chapters of Terminologia Anatomica (we divided the cardiovascular system into heart, arteries and veins, and the nervous system into central nervous system, peripheral and autonomic):

  • General Anatomy
  • Bones; Skeletal system
  • Joints; Articular system
  • Muscles; Muscular system
  • Alimentary system
  • Respiratory system
  • Thoracic cavity; Thorax
  • Urinary system
  • Male genital system
  • Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Endocrine glands
  • Heart
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Lymphoid system
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sense organs
  • Integumentary system

 

Cross-sectional anatomy-thigh: Muscles, Nerves

 

The Visible Human Project is a fantastic tool that allows you to view almost all anatomical structures of the body. For didactic purposes and practice, we labeled one tenth of the possible structures to not overload the module. We deliberately set main names of bones, and summarily labeled the brain, almost all muscles of the body are listed.
The anatomical labels of the Visible Human Project are available in Latin (Terminologia Anatomica), French, English, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese, Italian, Korean and Japanese.
The feature “Quick access” takes the user to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, legs or feet in one click.
 

Atlas of human anatomy : Visible Human Project (Leg)

 

Bibliography:

90,000 The proportions of the human figure. Ideal proportions of women, men, children, old people

Proportions of the human figure

The proportions of the human figure have been of interest to artists, philosophers and educators over the past 20 centuries and more. The Roman architect Vitruvius wrote at the beginning of the 1st century AD: “Nature has folded the human figure so well that the face, from the chin to the roots of the hair, is a tenth of the entire body.” He also argued that the navel is the center of the body, so a circle drawn around this point will touch the outstretched fingers and toes of a person lying on their back.It is this theory that is illustrated in by Leonardo da Vinci’s famous drawing below.

Unfortunately, theory only works in practice if the hands are at a very specific angle . However, you will notice that when the arms are extended to the sides, the distance between the tips of the fingers is about the same as between the crown of the head and the soles of the feet. This is a useful rule of thumb when determining hand lengths.

During the Renaissance, human anatomy became the subject of detailed research, and artists became involved in the search for meaningful mathematical relationships between the sizes of different parts of the body.Comprehensive approaches have been invented to determine the “ ideal figure “. Since then, hundreds of such approaches have been developed using different parts of the body as units of measurement, including the head, face, legs, forearms, index finger, nose, spine, and so on. But, since , none of the approaches was universal , since there is no denying the obvious fact that all people are different, these approaches are of interest only to the classics. The ideal proportions of the figure adopted by and change from one generation to the next.Therefore, we must in general resort to observing the wide range of sizes and shapes of the people we see around us.

For our purposes, however, is useful to study the medium-sized figure , as this gives us a base on which to build the proportions .

The most common method of is to use head height as the unit of measure for relative measurements of different parts of the body. The average figure is seven goals , but the range between six and eight heads is also considered normal.In fact, most often in drawing guides, the “ideal” figure is depicted as with a height of eight heads – mainly as I suspect, because then you can divide the body vertically into eight comfortable parts: chin, nipples, navel, crotch, mid-thigh , knees, calves and feet, making life easier for the instructor!

However, the rules are there to be broken! We can admire the remarkable accomplishments of Roman architects and Renaissance painters / mathematicians, all of which should offer us a convenient check of proportions, but it would be foolish to limit ourselves to just that.

Proportions of children

When drawing children, you will find that the head takes up a much larger proportion of the total height of . The head of a newborn baby is about a quarter of the total height, and the legs are much shorter. But as the child grows, the legs increase in length much more than other parts of the body in relation to the total height of the body, so that the head becomes proportionally smaller.

Distribution of subcutaneous fat

In childhood, male and female body shapes are very similar.The shape of the average adult male body is mainly dictated by the size of the muscle mass, while the shape of the average woman depends mainly on the size of the fat masses. When girls reach puberty, there is an increase in body fat in very specific places to round up the breasts and thighs of an adult woman.

Below are illustrations of where subcutaneous fat is deposited in women and men . Both sexes have reserves high in the back between the shoulder blades, which are manifested in obesity of people of both sexes with hunched shoulders and a short neck.However, the other areas of fat accumulation in the sexes are different. Overweight men tend to be more at the waist than at the hips. Excess fat in males is stored above the hipbone at the back on either side of the spine and on the upper abdomen. Overweight women , on the other hand, tend to gain more at the hips than at the waist. Their main fat storage areas are the lower abdomen, buttocks, and thighs, and the chest and back between the shoulder blades, just like in men.

Fat distribution in a woman

Fat distribution in a man

Proportions of elderly people

In old age flexor muscles , as a rule, contract , become shorter. This makes the body flexed, when in a normal standing position. The shoulders are rounded, the natural curve of the spine increases in the thoracic spine, and the neck pushes the face forward. Even when the body is relaxed, the arms and legs remain slightly bent.

The skin and subcutaneous fat become thinner and the muscles contract. Elbow joints and wrists appear larger, and veins may become prominent and protrude from under the skin. All fat deposits on the body and face become softer and tend to sag on the elbows and under the chin.

From the next lesson we move on to the practice of drawing a person .

Hope you enjoyed this tutorial! Leave your comments and remarks about the course “How to draw a person” .

The article used materials from books:
– Ron Tiner “Figure Drawing without a model”;
– Loomis E. Nude. Drawing guide.

Ideas for drawing for every day 🎨

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Men and women, p.2

Nevertheless, there are attempts to associate differences in the brain with differences in behavior. In 2014, American scientists tested almost 1,000 people aged 8-22 and announced a “fundamental” difference between the sexes: boys and young men have higher connectivity within the hemispheres, and girls and girls – between them. The study participants also performed tests: the guys turned out to be better in spatial orientation, they had higher motor and sensorimotor speed, but they lagged behind in tasks for attention, memorization of words, faces, and where you need to understand what is on the mind of another person.Scientists concluded that these results are precisely due to the difference in brain anatomy. Of course, they were soon criticized by another group for lack of data, interpretation, and questionable connection to behavior.

If we are our brain, then at least people with different brains, men and women, are different themselves, and behind the features that they have in common lie the same brain structures. But even this simple conclusion is not always correct.

In males of most mammals in two areas of the brain, there are significantly more cells that produce vasopressin (in popular literature, this substance is called the hormone of tenderness and affection, in scientific literature – antidiuretic, that is, anti-diuretic).The difference is especially great in yellow-bellied voles – animals that are also notable for the fact that males are not more aggressive than females and often take care of their offspring equally with them.

In male voles, but not in females, more vasopressin is produced during the mating season. Neuroendocrinologist Gert de Vries suggested that due to this, the parental instinct awakens in them, while in females another mechanism leads to this – triggered by pregnancy and childbirth. The hypothesis is supported by the fact that after the administration of drugs that block the action of vasopressin, voles become reckless dads. It turns out that sometimes differences in the brain smooth out the difference between the sexes, just as the “shutdown” of one of the two X-chromosomes in female cells brings them closer to the male at the molecular level.

It is difficult to test de Vries’s hypothesis in humans, as well as other guesses about the connection of sex differences in the brain with the psyche, thinking and behavior. “Why does Elon Musk want to get into the brain? This is out of despair: there is no other way to understand how to manipulate a person normally. Except how to stick electrodes, nothing better was invented – this is what they are promoting.We do not know anything especially about consciousness. And if we don’t know anything, then we can make at least a million theories, “Philip Haytovich argues.

Until we know, it is worth getting ready for new sensations that actually do not clarify much. Although the brains of men and women are different, it is usually difficult say what the difference is.But because biological traits seem more solid, permanent and important, we overestimate biological explanations, losing sight of the fact that our knowledge is not so great, and we ourselves are not only genes, not only the brain, not only men and women.

The structure of the male reproductive system

The male genital organs are anatomically divided into external – the penis and scrotum and internal – the testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate gland, seminal vesicles. In the area of ​​the external genital organs, receptors are concentrated that perceive erogenous stimuli (erogenous zones).

External genital organs

Penis (penis, phallus) – the external genital organ of a man, which serves for sexual intercourse, delivery of sperm (ejaculate) into the woman’s vagina, as well as the removal of urine from the bladder.

Distinguish between root (base), body (trunk) and glans penis. The trunk is formed by two cavernous and spongy bodies containing a large number of depressions (lacunae) that are easily filled with blood. The spongy body at the end of the penis ends in a cone-shaped thickening – the head of the penis. The edge of the head, covering the ends of the cavernous bodies, grows together with them, forming a thickening (corolla) around the circumference, behind which is the coronal groove. The head is covered with thin, delicate skin (foreskin) with a large number of glands that produce smegma.

The glans penis has a large number of nerve endings, which makes it the most sensitive to touch. The shaft of the penis is also highly sensitive, especially its lower zone in the region of 2-3 cm from the head. Stimulating the penis leads to increased erection. On the top of the head there is a hole – this is the exit of the urethra, through which both urination and the release of sperm are carried out.

The appearance of the penis, like other parts of the human body, is very individual.A straight penis is rare, often the penis in a calm state seems to be straight, but with an erection it bends.

The size of the penis of an adult man on average at rest is 5-10 cm, in an erection state – 14-16 cm, that is, approximately corresponds to the size of a woman’s vagina. Often, with an erection, the short penis proportionally increases more than the long one. The shape of the penis during erection and the angle of inclination are individual. An erect penis with a length of 16-18 cm is considered large, and 18-20 cm or more – giant.The diameter of such a penis, as a rule, does not exceed 3-4 cm.

The average length of the penis at birth is from 2.4 to 5.5 cm, at the beginning of puberty – 6 cm, reaching adult size occurs during subsequent years, up to 17 years of age the penis grows actively, up to 25 years – insignificantly.

With sexual arousal, the penis increases in volume by 2-8 times, while becoming quite dense. Maintaining an erection is provided by a decrease in venous outflow, which is facilitated by the contraction of special muscles that are located at the root of the penis.At the end of the excitement, the muscles relax and the blood filling the penis easily flows out, after which it decreases to its usual size and becomes soft. The head of the penis during erection always remains less elastic and more elastic than its body, which prevents trauma to the female genital organs.

In the anterior part of the body of the penis, the skin forms a fold of skin – the foreskin, which completely or partially covers the glans. The foreskin, if it completely covers the glans, usually slides back easily, exposing it.On the back of the penis, the foreskin is connected to the head by a longitudinal fold called the frenum. Between the glans penis and the foreskin there is a slit-like (preputial) cavity, which is finally formed by the age of two. The preputial sac usually accumulates smegma.

With age, hair follicles become visible on the skin of the penis, and later a small amount of hair. Sometimes hair follicles with enlarged sebaceous glands are perceived by teenagers as “pimples”.

Smegma (preputial lubrication) – the secret of the glands of the foreskin, accumulating under its inner leaflet and in the coronal groove of the penis. The main components are fats and mycobacteria. Fresh discharge is white and evenly distributed on the surface of the head; after a while, they acquire a yellowish or greenish tint. Smegma plays the role of a lubricant that covers the head and reduces friction on the foreskin. Smegma formation increases during the period of greatest sexual activity (18 – 25 years) and is practically absent in old age.

Prolonged stagnation of smegma in the preputial sac with phimosis, violations of the rules of personal hygiene contributes to the development of inflammatory and precancerous diseases of the penis. In order to prevent it, it is necessary to prevent stagnation of smegma, starting from early childhood, to observe the rules of hygiene of the male genitals. Smegma, like other substances that serve as a lubricant, should be removed daily. Daily thorough washing is an absolute must. This rule also applies to men who have undergone circumcision – in them smegma can accumulate in the folds of the frenum, if it is preserved, and the coronal groove.

Usually adolescents have troubles from accumulated smegma if they neglect the rules of hygiene. They call smegma “putty” and remove it with dirty hands when it hardens. In adolescence, it is the lack of hygiene that is the most common cause of infectious diseases of the genital organs. With proper care, smegma does not pose a health hazard.

Sperm (seminal fluid, ejaculate) – a mixture of secretion products of male genital organs secreted during ejaculation: testicles and their appendages, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, urethra.Sperm consists of two separate parts: seminal plasma – mainly formed from the secretion of the prostate gland, secretions of the testicles, their appendages and ducts of the seminal gland, and from the formed elements (spermatozoa or primary germ cells of the testicles).

  • Seminal vesicle fluid (65%)
  • Prostate fluid (30%)
  • Sperm (5%).

The sperm of an adult male is a sticky, viscous, mucoid, heterogeneous and opaque liquid with a characteristic odor.The taste of semen, as well as the smell, is determined by the nature of the diet and is usually slightly sweet-salty with a sour or bitter aftertaste. With frequent ejaculations, the semen becomes less sweet and the taste of bitterness increases. Within 20-30 seconds, the semen liquefies, becomes homogeneous, viscous and has an opaque whitish-gray color. Its amount is individual and can range from 1-2 to 10 ml or more. Sperm count can fluctuate depending on age, health status, the amount of fluid you drink, the frequency of ejaculation, and so on.The more often sexual or masturbatory acts are performed, the less the volume of each subsequent portion of ejaculate. A large semen volume does not mean a higher fertilizing capacity. The average semen volume, assuming ejaculation occurs at intervals of 3 days, is 3 to 5 ml.

The fertilizing ability of sperm is characterized by the number of sperm in 1 ml of sperm, which is normally 60-120 million.Motile sperm should be at least 70% of their total number, the lower limit of the norm (according to WHO) is considered to be at least 20 million …sperm in 1 ml spermogram).

Scrotum – musculocutaneous organ, in the cavity of which the testes, epididymis and the initial section of the spermatic cord are located, separated by a septum, which corresponds to the outside of the embryonic suture. The seam can be clearly visible or, conversely, almost invisible. This does not affect health in any way.

The skin of the scrotum is pigmented, covered with sparse hair, contains a large number of sweat and sebaceous glands, the secret of which has a specific odor.Placing the testicles in the scrotum creates a temperature lower for them than inside the body. The optimum temperature is 34-34.5 ° C. The temperature is kept approximately constant due to the fact that the scrotum sinks lower in warm conditions and is pulled up to the body in cold conditions. The scrotum is also the male sexual sense organ (erogenous zone).

Internal genital organs

Testicles (testes, testicles) – a paired male sex gland, the main function of which is the formation of sperm and the release of male sex hormones (testosterone) into the bloodstream.The testicles are located inside the scrotum and are usually located at different levels (usually the left below the right), and may also differ in size. The dimensions of each testicle are 4-6 cm long and 2.5-3.5 cm wide.

Testicles require special attention to comply with the rules of hygiene of the male genital organs. Testicular temperature should be 4 degrees lower than body temperature, as too high a temperature interferes with sperm production. Even a one-time immersion of the testicles in hot water can disrupt fertility for the next six months.Sedentary men should get up and walk from time to time so that the testicles move away from the hot body.

The vas deferens (vas deferens) are the ducts that carry sperm out of the testicles. They are a continuation of the epididymis canal, pass through the inguinal canal, then, connecting with each other, form a single ejaculatory duct. which passes through the prostate gland and opens with an opening at the back of the urethra. The advancement of sperm along the vas deferens is carried out by their wave-like contraction, at the time of orgasm, sperm through the common vas deferens into the urethra, and from it out or into the vagina.

The spermatic cord – paired anatomical organ, going from the epididymis to the place of confluence with the duct of the seminal vesicle. Its main functions are blood supply to the testicle and the excretion of semen from the epididymis to the vas deferens.

The prostate gland (prostate) is an unpaired organ of the male reproductive system that produces a secretion that is part of the sperm, which is located between the bladder and rectum. The urethra passes through the prostate gland.

The size of the prostate depends on age, the full development of iron reaches 17 years. Outside, the prostate is covered with a capsule of dense connective tissue. The glandular tissue consists of glands that open into the prostate part of the urethra by excretory ducts. The removal of secretions from the prostatic glands is facilitated by the contraction of the smooth muscles of the gland. Massive secretion is observed during ejaculation .

The secret of the prostate (prostatic juice) is a cloudy white liquid, which is involved in the dilution of sperm, activates the movement of sperm.The prostate gland ensures the movement of sperm along the vas deferens and ejaculation, participates in the formation of libido and orgasm.

Seminal vesicles – paired glandular formations that produce a secret that is part of the sperm. Its contents consist of a viscous protein liquid with a high content of fructose, which is a source of energy for sperm and gives them great resistance.

Sources

  • Pardo LM., Zara FJ., Riveros MP., Paschke K., Pretterebner K., Mantelatto FL. Integrative depiction of the male reproductive system of the commercial purple crab Homalaspis plana (Platyxanthidae): Structure and function. // J Morphol – 2019 – Vol280 – N11 – p.1693-1705; PMID: 31454103
  • Ö Koçakoğlu N., Candan S., Güllü M. The histomorphological structure of the male reproductive system of maize leaf weevil Tanymecus dilaticollis Gyllenhal, 1834 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). // Microsc Res Tech – 2019 – Vol82 – N8 – p.1345-1352; PMID: 31087461
  • Candan S., Özyurt Koçakoğlu N., Suludere Z. Morphological and histological structure of the male reproductive system of the water strider Gerris lacustris (Linnaeus 1758) (Gerridae, Heteroptera). // Microsc Res Tech – 2018 – Vol81 – N7 – p.770-780; PMID: 29663597
  • Spiegel CN., Bretas JA., Peixoto AA., Vigoder FM., Bruno RV., Soares MJ. Fine structure of the male reproductive system and reproductive behavior of Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).// PLoS One – 2013 – Vol8 – N9 – p.e74898; PMID: 24058637
  • Dallai R, Mercati D, Gottardo M, Machida R, Mashimo Y., Beutel RG. The male reproductive system of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera): Sperm structure and spermiogenesis. // Arthropod Struct Dev – 2011 – Vol40 – N6 – p.531-47; PMID: 21996133

Differences between men and women: from biology to freedom of choice | Culture and Lifestyle in Germany and Europe | DW

Differences between men and women have been argued since time immemorial.Scientists are studying this issue, numerous studies are being carried out on it, and even more numerous books are being published. But the hopes of those who seek in them a scientifically grounded catalog of typically masculine and typically feminine qualities are in vain.

Gender does not determine fate

Woman driving – typical or not typical?

“Probably, there was no such thing in the history of mankind that there were no stereotypes on this topic. As for those books that can be bought now in Germany, it is often simply a shame for them.They are like rumors: there is a small grain of truth in them, but on its basis completely unacceptable generalizations are made, “says Professor Onur Güntürkün from Bochum University.

Onur Güntürkün is a biopsychologist specializing in brain research. the conclusion: “We cannot say:” There are no biological differences between a man and a woman! ” They are. But on the other hand, we cannot say: “Because of these biological differences, the fate of men and women is predetermined!” This is not true.As a matter of fact, we are absolutely free. “

Who is afraid of mathematics?

This freedom exists, however, only in theory, says American sociologist Professor Heather Hofmeister. The scientist is convinced that the development of a child’s abilities is predetermined by society. Heather Hofmeister cites as an example There is a widespread belief that women have less ability in science and mathematics than men, a stereotype, the researcher is convinced, has a negative impact on the development of girls:

Barbara Mayer is studying mathematics at the university.In 2007, she was chosen as the top model on the TV show Heidi Klum.

“Women have good math skills. Girls very often have even better math scores than boys. But in the end, girls start to think that they are worse than boys, because this is the opinion prevalent in society. There was even such a Barbie doll that said: “Mathematics is difficult!”The results of his research were completely unexpected. Female probands were often worse at solving spatial imagination problems than men. But only at a certain stage of physiological processes characteristic of women.

“We were able to show that during menstruation, women are as good at tasks as men,” explains the scientist. That is, it’s just a myth that women’s ability in mathematics is worse than men. tasks are worse in a certain period.Namely, on about the 20th day of the monthly cycle, their results were indeed much worse. “

Stereotypes in a scientific way

What makes a woman a good mother – nature or nurture? women are a serious barrier to the progressive development of society. These ideas exist, the scientist believes, even in considered progressive countries. In Germany, Austria and Switzerland, for example, the true role of women is seen in being a “good mother”, and for the same representatives of a weak sexes who have achieved success in their careers are looked upon with disbelief.This affects the upbringing of girls, says Heather Hofmeister.

Indeed, in these countries, the percentage of women in leadership positions is very low, says Professor Henning Sass, medical director of the University Hospital in Aachen: “About 65 percent of women study in the initial medical courses. women are less than five percent. ”

The reason for this is not only the upbringing factor, says Henning Sas, and points to the biological differences between the sexes.”This, of course, is a sensitive topic. We want to promote gender equality, increase the chances of women. But I think there is a relationship with biological prerequisites. The behavior of men is largely determined by such elements as struggle, aggressiveness, domination and achievement of their goals, self-affirmation, leadership “.

Freedom is the basis of harmonious relations between the sexes

Biological differences between a man and a woman are important only for procreation, – this is the opinion of another specialist – socioanthropologist from the Free University of Berlin Wassilios Fthenakis (Wassilios Fthenakis).

Victor, Philip and Louise: It’s not just boys who are interested in cubes. The picture was taken in a kindergarten in Erfurt in January 2006

“Typical behavior” for boys and girls, children learn at a very early age, says Vassilios Ftenakis. The scientist observed the behavior of children in kindergartens and concluded: children who behave contrary to established ideas do not find understanding among their peers: this applies to both girls interested in cranes and boys playing with dolls.

“These children succumb to the pressure of the group, they are forced to either play with adults, or alone, so that no one sees what they are doing, or lie,” – says the scientist. The anthropologist’s views are reflected in the educational plans he developed for the federal states of Hesse and Bavaria, as well as the Italian region of South Tyrol. Vassilios Ftenakis’s idea is to break with established structures in society in the early stages of a child’s development.

Each child should be perceived in its uniqueness, regardless of gender, to accept it as it is, and from this position to contribute to its development.The scientist calls for this, and cites as an example a kindergarten in distant Australia. There, says Vassilios Ftenakis with admiration, children are given the chance to “define and design their own gender.” And in no other kindergarten, the scientist claims, has he seen such a harmonious relationship between boys and girls.

Miriam Shaq

90,000 “Can gender change?”

Our gender is determined at birth based on our body structure.However, in the future, some people feel a mismatch between biological sex and internal identity. Why it happens? What is gender and how is it formed? These and other questions are answered by Sally Hines, Associate Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at the University of Leeds, in the book Can Gender Change? translation by D. Simanovsky. N + 1 invites its readers to read an excerpt on the rise of the bisexual model and why science is increasingly criticizing the established view of gender.

Gender as a manifestation of biological sex

For most of history, humanity has not had a complete understanding of the degree to which biological body structure affects gender behavior and social roles.The American sexuality historian Thomas Lucker (born 1945) argues that the foundations of today’s concepts of sex and sexuality were laid in the Enlightenment in 18th century Europe. At that time, the scientific approach replaced religion in explaining gender and gender issues.

The Age of Enlightenment is a period in European history of the late 17th – early 19th centuries, marked by the development of scientific, philosophical and social thought, as a result of which the scientific approach, rationalism and individualism prevailed over religion and tradition.

Lucker defines this shift as a meaningful transition from “same-sex” to “bisexual” human models. It demonstrates that from the time of Ancient Greece until the 18th century, women and men were understood as “the same sex.” It was believed that men and women have variations of the same type of human body: the male genitals were on the outside, and the female ones were something like a mirror image of the same anatomical structure from the inside.

Male and female anatomical figures in ivory (1701-1730).The organs are depicted in general terms, so the models are unlikely to be used for teaching medicine.

The idea that the female body is an inferior or underdeveloped version of the male has been entrenched for centuries through the research work of men such as the ancient physician Galen or the medieval Flemish anatomist Andreas Vesalius, who, back in the 16th century, proposed using autopsy to study the human body.

From the late Middle Ages onward throughout the Enlightenment, there were consistent changes in views on gender issues. New methods of scientific research, such as autopsy, revealed more and more differences between the male and female body, not always associated with reproductive function.

The historian of science Londa Schiebinger (born 1952) writes in his book Skeletons in the Closet (1986), them in every bone, muscle, nerve, or vein.This became one of the priority areas of anatomical research at that time. ” So the binary gender model emphasized the fundamental differences in the structure of the male and female bodies.

Binary gender system distinguishes two categories of gender – male and female. These categories are considered separate and opposed to each other. This system sometimes confuses biological and social aspects of gender.

It is this change that Lucker calls the transition to the “bisexual” model.Schiebinger and Lucker point out how the depictions of the human skeleton in Western European medical textbooks changed at that time. Previously, there was only one skeleton in the images – a male, which corresponded to the “same-sex” model. As ideas about fundamental differences between the sexes became more widespread, images of one skeleton in the pages of textbooks were replaced by drawings of two rather different skeletons – a female and a male.

Male skeleton with a horse.

From a series of engravings by Edward Mitchell for The Anatomy of the Bones of the Human Body by Dr. John Barclay.

Female skeleton with an ostrich

From a series of engravings by Edward Mitchell for The Anatomy of the Bones of the Human Body by Dr. John Barclay.

When the attention of scientists was attracted by the difference between the sexes, they wondered what exactly makes women women and men men. The scientific, philosophical and social thought of the Enlightenment was focused on the ideas of personal freedom and the equality of people. Then, for the first time, the question of the equality of women arose. Charles de Montesquieu in his Persian Letters (1721) argues: “The big question for men: isn’t it more profitable to take away freedom from women than to give it to them? I think there are many reasons for and against. “This reasoning reflects one of the main problems of the era: is a woman’s position dependent on men justified by natural law?

Apparently, scientific theories about the differences between men and women, developing against the background of grandiose transformations in political philosophy and ethics, were in the hands of supporters of the secondary role of women in society. Of course, the argument that a woman’s skull is on average smaller than a man’s was associated with a smaller brain size in women and was used in the 19th century to justify women’s inability to think rationally.

With the development of the “bisexual” model, male and female social roles began to be viewed as different from the point of view of science, just as they were previously considered as such within the social and religious paradigm, Lucker notes. The development of scientific ideas about gender binarity contributed to the biological substantiation of the association of men with reason and culture, and women with emotionality and nature.

The painting “First Steps, or Nursing Mother” (Les premiers pas ou La mère nourrice; 1803–1804) Marguerite Gerard dedicated to the theme of maternal affection and care, thanks to which the artist gained fame.Caring has historically been associated with the image of a woman.

In the 18th century, the female body was identified with motherhood and care. New approaches to understanding gender have brought about profound social change, reinforcing pre-existing religious, cultural and philosophical beliefs. Many influential philosophers, including Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), have argued that men are better suited for social activities, while it is more natural for women to be in private and subordinate positions.During the Enlightenment, social activity acquired a higher status, and men reached new levels of power in society, using the arguments of a new system of gender differences.

It should be noted, however, that in those days not all women agreed with social isolation. For example, women of the upper and middle class organized intellectual salons, where they discussed literature, politics and philosophy on an equal basis with men. The Enlightenment saw the emergence of women writers, especially in the novel genre, and in 1792, Mary Wollstonecraft (1759–1797) published A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: With Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects ”), in which she condemned male theorists justifying restrictions on education for women.However, according to the dominant gender norms of the time, the space of most women, especially those from the working class, was confined to the home.

This power imbalance in society is not easy to change. The emphasis on biological differences between men and women characteristic of the “bisexual” model is clearly seen in modern views on gender. However, a serious flaw in traditional biological theories is that they do not in any way cover people who do not fall either under the category of men or under the category of women.

The work of female biologist Anne Fausto-Sterling marked a radical departure from conventional theories of gender and biology. Fausto-Sterling argues that the concept of only two biological sexes is highly problematic. In her book Sexing the Body (2000), she emphasizes that the binary gender system is a consequence of a misunderstanding of human biology that has become true over time. In fact, writes Fausto-Sterling, “the complete set of masculine or feminine characteristics are just the poles of a vast spectrum of possible constructions of human bodies.”That is, there are many variations between the poles of bodily masculinity and femininity. Most people concentrate around one of the two “extreme” categories, but there are other significant groups in between. Variations in the chromosome set that determine sex are much more diverse than the usual XX and XY chromosomes. For example, there are many conditions of intersex (literally, between the sexes) and even within the same category there is gender diversity.

Not without irony Fausto-Sterling proposes a model not of two, but of five genders: men, women, mermaids, germs and herms (short for hermaphrodite).

Intersex studies confirm that gender development is much more diverse than the bi-sex system would suggest. It is difficult to determine the exact percentage of children born intersex, since doctors traditionally recommend “reassignment” of sex at an early age, so that the child develops as either a boy or a girl. According to the Intersex Equality Movement, the most accurate study says 1.7–2% of intersex people in the world, which is comparable to the number of redheads (1% to 2%).

Intersexuality describes different anatomical or reproductive characteristics of a person that go beyond the typical concept of a female or male body. Such features in modern medicine are understood as disorders (variations, differences) of sexual development, although people diagnosed in this way more often prefer the name “intersex”.

Intersexuality is stigmatized in society, and children are often not told that they underwent gender reassignment surgery in infancy.The Internet-assisted intersex communities around the world today, especially in North America, are opposed to surgery. According to activists, these operations are unethical because they are carried out without the consent of the child and can lead to serious physical and psychological problems in adulthood.

Despite the existence of intersex people and transgender people (more details in chapters 2 and 3), there is a high probability of the coincidence of gender identity with biological sex.Many people sense this coincidence, and for this reason they are called cisgenders . The binary biological approach, based on the existence of this coincidence, still prevails in scientific research in sociobiology.

Transgender is an umbrella term for people whose intrinsic gender identity or gender expression is different from the sex acquired at birth. Some transgender people decide to change their biological sex, after which they are often referred to as “transsexuals”.Others choose not to perform this operation.

Cisgender experience their gender identity, gender manifestation and biological sex as coinciding with each other. The term also applies to people whose gender behavior matches their gender in terms of conventional social attitudes. The abbreviation “cis” is sometimes used.

Adherents of this approach believe that differences at the hormonal level and in the structure of the brain explain differences in gender behavior, perception and social roles.The idea of ​​the innate nature of these differences, which can be seen with a tomograph, has gained great popularity thanks to such bestsellers as Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (2002) by John Gray. Gray argues, for example, that men have a highly developed spatial perception, so they can orient themselves better on the map and park better; whereas women are more emotional and capable of languages.

According to Gray and many others, these differences in ability are brain-related and predetermine the gender roles that men and women naturally assume.Despite this, science is increasingly challenging the gender model based on differences. Instead, it is suggested to look for similarities between the sexes. In particular, a number of scientists refute the grounds for the so-called “neurosexism” – the idea of ​​the differences between the male and female brains.

In Delusions of Gender (2010), Cordelia Fine argues that both male and female brains are flexible, malleable, and changeable. Medical researcher Liz Eliot also refutes the opinion that men and women are “made” differently, and in one of the works (2010) notes: “… there is nothing that is predetermined by our brain.All skills, characteristics and personal qualities are formed by our experience. ” From this point of view, human psychology both determines and is conditioned by behavior. Our experience programs our brain, but also affects how we perceive the world around us.

Read more:
Hines, Sally Can Gender Change? / Sally Hines. [; Per. from English Workshop of literary translation by D. Simanovsky] – M.: Ad Marginem Press, ABCdesign, 2019. – 144 p. : ill.- (The Big Idea).

90,000 Fine nerve: how motivation differs between men and women

Until recently, relatively little was known about the gender characteristics of the central nervous system, since the brain was studied mainly after the death of patients. For a long time, size was considered the main difference: the brain of men is actually 8-15% larger than that of women.In the 19th century, this fact reinforced the opinion that men are smarter, and women are more fragile and dependent.

Interestingly, even at the end of the 20th century, when it became possible with the help of MRI to study the structure of the contents of our skull and see how the brain is similar in people of different sexes, the idea of ​​a “male” and “female” brain still prevailed in science and media. In general, today it is generally accepted that we think differently. Is it so?

In the 2000s, scientists began to investigate more actively the anatomical differences in the brain between men and women.Differences in neuroanatomy were identified already in the early stages of the study. So, in 2006, scientists discovered that each important part of the brain has its own characteristics depending on gender. Then the study “Why gender matters in neuroscience” was released, which concluded that many areas of the brain responsible for cognitive processes, for example, the hippocampus, amygdala and neocortex, differ between men and women.

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The amygdala, or amygdala, is significantly larger in males, even when overall brain size is taken into account.This area is responsible for emotional responses, including the generation of anxiety and fear, and emotional memory. The study shows that women have more gray matter, which is responsible for analytical skills, while men have more white matter, which is responsible for connecting neurons to each other. Global cerebral blood flow in women is also stronger. In general, the neurochemical composition of the brain differs depending on gender.

In general, scientists can determine the gender of a person from a 3D image of his brain: according to one study, the accuracy is approximately 93.3%.So the brain is different after all? Yes, but the main difference is still mainly in size. But it is precisely the qualitative differences that seriously affect the behavioral characteristics of persons of different sexes that have not been finally proven to date.

Gina Rippon, author of The Gender Brain. Modern neuroscience debunks the myth of the female brain, ”argues that the concepts of“ male ”and“ female ”brain are just stereotypes. Moreover, a number of studies that Rippon refers to in the book, for example, the scientific work of Simon Baron-Cohen, prove that the “male” type of brain can be in women, and vice versa.

Today we know about the so-called neuroplasticity – the ability of the brain to change, form new neural connections and adjust its work in response to changes in the environment. That is, our brain knows how to adapt. Rippon explains that boys and girls are treated differently from childhood and this leads to the fact that their brains develop differently. For example, dressing your son in a T-shirt with a tractor, and your daughter with a princess, you are already influencing them. Given this circumstance, almost any evidence of differences in the brains of men and women can be questioned.Yes, the brain is different for different sexes, but it is difficult to say whether this is a structural feature of the body or simply the result of different attitudes and upbringing. Most likely, it is neuroplasticity that makes the brain different with age.

Do men and women need to be motivated differently?

Where men and women are different is their reaction to stress. The general response of a person is most often described as “hit and run”, but women often exhibit a “take care and befriend” response along with it.The reason is most likely that women have elevated levels of the hormone oxytocin, which is responsible for affection and trust in other people. Men have higher levels of adrenaline, a hormone associated with stress and responsiveness.

And neurotransmitter-hormonal responses can explain the difference in motivation of different sexes. It can be concluded that men are more important about measurable results and the anticipation of victory – this is an adrenaline response to stress. And it is important for women to be praised and noticed more often for their achievements – this is an oxytocin response to stress.

This is confirmed by research. For example, in a survey conducted by Hay Group, men cite personal independence and the right to make decisions as their main motivations. In general, men are achievers. Male employees need to set clear goals, deadlines and deadlines. In addition, it is important for men to feel needed.

Women are more motivated by emotional factors. It is important for them to feel that they are respected and their feelings are noticed. In addition, women respond better to praise – although it is important for both genders, women need a little more recognition for their merits.It can even be small praises: it is worth stopping again next to the employee’s desk and saying thank you for a small task completed, paying attention even to a not too large result. And if we are talking about a large project, it is worth recognizing success at every stage.

What about financial motivation? According to one psychological test, monetary reward is not one of the top motivation options for both sexes. Men put this parameter in fifth place, and women – in twelfth place.Of course, if employees feel they are underpaid, their level of motivation drops. But for many, regardless of gender, the offer of monetary rewards is not such a strong incentive to work. Such motivators as achieving results, learning, inspiration (or the ability to inspire others), and creativity have won over the monetary reward.

A later study showed that office workers still place a high value on financial incentives: the size of the salary is one of the decisive factors in their motivation.However, the atmosphere in the workplace and good relationships in the team practically do not lose in terms of the average score for either men or women.

Simply put, building friendships, building a cohesive team, giving your employees an exciting challenge, and setting measurable results and timelines together motivates them more than a quarterly bonus.

However, we must not forget about the difference in motivation between men and women. According to a 2018 study, the main gender differences are in the area of ​​success motivation, which consists of two parts: fear of failure and hope of success.Women are usually a little more fearful of failure than men, and women, in turn, are somewhat more likely to expect to win. Therefore, for the motivation of men, the SCARF model is suitable, which helps to move towards success, and women need authorization of the results, which shows what they have already achieved.

How to motivate? Option for men: SCARF model

Men are more effectively motivated by showing them the future they can achieve in the company. They are most inspired when they see clear goals and can get clear, measurable results.The SCARF model helps with this.

The SCARF model includes five areas of human social experience:

Status – Show that work is important to others. Creation of professional communities, mentoring of some employees, training of others helps.

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Certainty – give confidence in the future. Difficult projects should be divided into clear steps and tasks. Regular meetings and discussion of progress made and future steps are also helpful.

Autonomy – Allow choice and a sense of control over events. In teamwork, autonomy usually decreases, so it is important to give the team an area in which they themselves make decisions – at least to allow them to independently equip their workplaces, to express themselves.

Relatedness – Demonstrate friendship, safety of the environment. Feelings of connectedness are promoted by informal meetings outside of work. Also, small teams are more friendly than large teams.

Fairness is perhaps the most subjective lever. For team members to feel fair, everyone must be treated equally. It helps to increase transparency, a similar level of payment, rules that are clear and applicable to all.

The SCARF model is based on brain research, and in this case, motivation is based on the perception of a task as a threat or reward. Motivation is controlled primarily by the subcortical parts of the brain, and when setting a task, it is important to understand what the employee’s first true reaction will be, how he will perceive it.

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To roughly estimate this, do the following exercise. For each of the SCARF parameters, for example, status, ask yourself the following question: how can a person perceive my message? Is it raising its status now or in the long term, or is it lowering it? For each increase, put +1, for each decrease, take off one point, if the message does not change anything, leave 0. As a result, you will get a number from -5 to +5. If you get a minus, then the task will be perceived by the brain as a threat, which means that there will be no motivation to complete it.If you are in the black, then the brain will see this task as a reward, which means that the person will initially have internal motivation to complete it.

Authorization of the result for motivating women

Women are not so much important about clear and measurable goals as authorization of the result. It is important to demonstrate that you see the effort and value it.

Result authorization is a protocol, that is, a list of questions that need to be answered after the task is completed. Ideally, authorization of the result should be done after each task, but at least once a day.It can be done mentally, but it is better in writing. Authorization of the result helps to understand what exactly the person did, in what he excelled (and if the result is negative, then what is the next step). Also, using the protocol, you can understand how to repeat the steps to achieve a result, and most importantly, attach the result to the role and personality. Thanks to authorization, the employee ceases to doubt his value, will be able to take on more ambitious tasks and be less dependent on external conditions and reinforcements. Motivation in this case will be reinforced from within.

The result authorization protocol looks like this:

Step 1: Write what were the starting conditions for the task and what external conditions. Whether the task was started or not, what are the introductory.
Step 2: List everything you did to complete the task. It is important to use the words “I did, I went, I typed” – so the brain is clearly aware of what exactly you were doing. If this is not done, the risk of imposter syndrome is high. The brain will decide that it is “accidentally lucky” because it will not track what you actually did to get the result.
Step 3: Describe the result. What it looks like, what it is. This helps to accurately determine that the result is actually obtained.
Step 4: Determine how you will use the result. Does he help you with other tasks? Will he make you feel valuable in the team? Will it show you what you have done to achieve the company’s goal?

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The manager can train employees to authorize the result and thus increase their motivation to perform tasks, or can use these steps for motivational conversations with subordinates, then the employee will feel effective, achieving results and accepted in the team.

How much water does a person have? What is the percentage of water in the body? We will surprise you

We constantly say that 3/4 of the human body is water, but what does this really mean? How much water is in a person? Where is 80% of the water in our body?

Without water, our body cannot function normally. Every cell that makes up our tissues, and of which our organs are made, needs water. In other words, we ourselves must provide ourselves with this water in the amount of 2-3 liters per day.Only then is it “enough” to reach every cell. How much water should there be in the human body and how to maintain balance in order for health to be normal?

How much water is in each body

What percentage of a person is water? Total body water is:

  • 50 – 55% of a woman’s body weight;

  • 60 – 65% of a man’s body weight;

  • 65-75% of the baby’s body.

The difference between the amount of water in men and women is explained by the anatomical structure – much more water accumulates in muscle tissue than in fat, and the fair sex has a higher percentage of fat cells.

All our hydration is divided into: intracellular 60% of the water of which our body consists and extracellular 40%. Intracellular hydration consists mainly of organs and body fluids. In the digestive juice it is 97%, and in sweat – more than 99%! In addition, most of our blood (over 90%) is water.These indicators vary depending on our health, age, increase in body fat, lifestyle, climate, etc. Each of us should strive for a state of water balance.

Brain – 83% water

Most of our brain is made up of water. It contains as much as 1.5 liters – and this is just one organ! Now you understand why you need to drink up to 3 liters of fluid a day? In addition to water, the brain is made up of proteins (130 g), fats (95 g), and mineral salts. Your brain is hydrated and ready to work, and drinking water can help reduce migraines.One or two glasses will allow us to wake up faster and switch to the “ready for action” mode from the “sleepy” mode. Our brains just love water. Thanks to him, he conducts nerve impulses faster, that is, we think faster, work more efficiently, and act more creatively. Water makes the brain work.

Kidneys – 82% water

The kidneys are one of the most hydrated organs in our body. Therefore, even a small loss of it significantly reduces their effectiveness, but at the same time they perform extremely important functions – they filter blood and produce urine.The kidneys remove drug residues, capture dangerous compounds and toxins from the blood – excreting them. But they also look for valuable vitamins and amino acids to “send” them back into the bloodstream. The most important kidney functions – filtration and detoxification – cannot be performed effectively without water. A glass of water in the morning is a great gift for the kidneys to start the day.

Heart – 79% water

Blood – 90% water

Water also has a significant effect on the proper functioning of our circulatory system and heart.The heart is 79% water, and the blood is 90%! When we are not properly hydrated, our blood pressure drops and its volume in the body decreases. The heart is overworked and must work faster to maintain a normal circulation. What does this mean for us? We feel a very unpleasant heartbeat, we lose concentration, we cannot concentrate. Prolonged dehydration leads to serious diseases of the heart and circulatory system . However, it is worth drinking pure non-carbonated water, and not sugary drinks, which also indirectly weaken the heart, leading to the development of atherosclerosis.

Properly hydrated blood is thin enough to squeeze through tiny capillaries into every, even the smallest, cell in the body. Then it collects the metabolic products it throws away and removes them from the body. The lymphatic system works in a similar way. Without adequate hydration, it will not be able to cleanse the body of toxins and other metabolic products.

Light – 80% water

The lungs are the next largest hydrated organ.The lungs are 80 percent water. It is assumed that a person loses about 600 ml of water per day through the lungs (along with breathing). However, this amount can increase significantly with increasing temperature and humidity of the exhaled air. These values ​​are especially increased in patients with fever, since they have an increased metabolism and an increased body temperature. This is why fluid replacement is so important in diseases, especially those associated with airway inflammation.

  • Bones – 22% water
  • Muscle – 75% water
  • Liver – 71% water
  • Leather – 64% water

Experts agree that none, even the most expensive, moisturizing cosmetic product will give such an impressive and lasting effect as good hydration of body cells.After just 2 weeks of drinking 8 glasses of water a day, we can notice a clear change! Drinking water has a profound and positive effect on health and beauty. Visibly reduces wrinkles by hydrating facial cells. After all, wrinkles are nothing more than the result of increasingly deteriorating cell hydration. In addition, water helps fight skin conditions and imperfections such as acne, discoloration and eczema. PH alkaline water replenishes the skin cells on our face, which contributes to a reduction in wrinkles, greater firmness and a radiant complexion.But that’s not all. Drinking alkaline water helps slow down the graying process and improves hair quality by strengthening the roots. The effect of alkaline water on sweat is also known – the unpleasant sour smell disappears because it is neutralized by an alkaline reaction.

After we indicated what percentage of water is in a person , we hope that you have learned how important it is for every organ in our body to replenish fluid stores every day!

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