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Avoid indigestion: Symptoms, Causes, Remedies, and Treatment


Symptoms, Causes, Remedies, and Treatment

You know it when you feel it: that full, uncomfortable sensation in your belly during or after a meal. You might have burning or pain in the upper part of your stomach, too. It’s indigestion, also called dyspepsia.


Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own. Any treatment you get will depend on what the cause is. But there are ways you can feel better or avoid getting it.


You might have:

These symptoms might be worse when you’re stressed. If you swallow too much air when you eat, that can make belching and bloating worse.

People often have indigestion along with heartburn (a burning feeling deep in the chest), which happens when stomach acids rise into the esophagus.


Men and women of all ages can get indigestion. It’s a common condition. But certain things make some people more prone to it. Causes include:




  • Eating too much, too fast, or when you’re stressed. High-fat foods can also add to the problem.
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Smoking
  • Stress and fatigue

Sometimes people have long-lasting indigestion that isn’t related to any of these things. This type is called functional or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

Many women have indigestion during the middle and later parts of pregnancy. The problem might come from hormones, which relax the muscles of the digestive tract, and from the pressure the growing baby puts on the stomach.

Getting a Diagnosis

Because indigestion is such a broad term, it’s helpful to give your doctor a precise idea of how you’re feeling. Be specific about where in your belly you usually feel pain or bloating.

First, your doctor will try to rule out other health conditions that could be causing your symptoms. They might do blood tests and X-rays of your stomach or small intestine. They might also use a thin, flexible tube with a light and a camera to look closely at the inside of your stomach, a procedure called an upper endoscopy.


You might not need any treatment at all. Indigestion often goes away on its own after a few hours. But let your doctor know if your symptoms get worse.

Any treatment you get will depend on what’s causing your indigestion. You can also do some things on your own to ease your symptoms:

  • Try not to chew with your mouth open, talk while you chew, or eat too fast. This makes you swallow too much air, which can add to indigestion.
  • Drink beverages after rather than during meals.
  • Avoid late-night eating.
  • Try to relax after meals.
  • Avoid spicy foods.
  • If you smoke, quit.
  • Avoid alcohol.

If you don’t feel better after these changes, your doctor may prescribe medications for you.

How Can I Prevent Indigestion?

The best way to avoid getting it is to steer clear of the foods and situations that seem to cause it. You can keep a food diary to figure out what you eat that gives you trouble. Other ways to prevent the problem:

  • Eat small meals so your stomach doesn’t have to work as hard or as long.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Avoid foods with a lot of acid, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
  • Limit spicy foods
  • Limit fried and greasy foods
  • Cut back on or avoid foods and drinks that have caffeine.
  • If stress is a trigger, learn new ways to manage it, such as relaxation and biofeedback techniques.
  • If you smoke, quit. Or at least, don’t light up right before or after you eat, since smoking can irritate your stomach.
  • Cut back on alcohol.
  • Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothes. They can put pressure on your stomach, which can make the food you’ve eaten move up into your esophagus.
  • Don’t exercise with a full stomach. Do it before a meal or at least 1 hour after you eat.
  • Don’t lie down right after you’ve eaten.
  • Wait at least 3 hours after your last meal of the day before you go to bed.

Raise the top of your bed so that your head and chest are higher than your feet. You can do this by placing 6-inch blocks under the top bedposts. Don’t use piles of pillows to achieve the same goal. You’ll only put your head at an angle that can increase pressure on your stomach and make heartburn worse.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, let your doctor know if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting or blood in your vomit. It may look like coffee grounds.
  • Weight loss you can’t explain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stools that are bloody, black, or tarry
  • Severe pain in your upper-right belly
  • Pain in the upper- or lower-right parts of your belly
  • Feeling uncomfortable even if you haven’t eaten

A heart attack can cause symptoms that feel like indigestion. Get medical help right away if you have shortness of breath, sweating, or pain that spreads along your jaw, neck, or arm.

Symptoms, Causes, Diet, and Treatments


Indigestion is often a sign of an underlying problem, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), ulcers, or gallbladder disease, rather than a condition of its own.

Also called dyspepsia, it is defined as a persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen.

What Are the Symptoms of Indigestion?

The symptoms of indigestion can include:

These symptoms may increase in times of stress.

People often have heartburn (a burning sensation deep in the chest) along with indigestion. But heartburn itself is a different symptom that may indicate another problem.

Who Is at Risk for Indigestion?

People of all ages and of both sexes are affected by indigestion. It’s extremely common. An individual’s risk increases with:

  • Excess alcohol consumption
  • Use of drugs that may irritate the stomach, such as aspirin and other pain relievers
  • Conditions where there is an abnormality in the digestive tract, such as an ulcer
  • Emotional problems, such as anxiety or depression

What Causes Indigestion?

Indigestion has many causes, including:




  • Eating too much, eating too fast, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Stress and fatigue

Indigestion is not caused by excess stomach acid.

Swallowing excessive air when eating may increase the symptoms of belching and bloating, which are often associated with indigestion.

Sometimes people have persistent indigestion that is not related to any of these factors. This type of indigestion is called functional, or non-ulcer dyspepsia.

How Is Indigestion Diagnosed?

If you are experiencing symptoms of indigestion, make an appointment to see your doctor. Because indigestion is such a broad term, it is helpful to provide your doctor with a precise description of the discomfort you are experiencing. In describing the symptoms, try to define where in the abdomen the discomfort usually occurs.

Your doctor will rule out any underlying conditions that may be causing your symptoms. Your doctor may perform several blood tests and you may have X-rays of the stomach or small intestine. Your doctor may also suggest you have an upper endoscopy to look closely at the inside of the stomach. During the procedure, an endoscope — a flexible tube that contains a light and a camera to produce images from inside the body — is used to look inside your stomach.

What Is the Treatment for Indigestion?

Because indigestion is a symptom rather than a disease, treatment usually depends upon the underlying condition causing the indigestion.

How Can I Prevent Indigestion?

The best way to prevent indigestion is to avoid the foods and situations that seem to cause it. Keeping a food diary is helpful in identifying foods that cause indigestion. Here are some other suggestions:

  • Eat small meals so the stomach does not have to work as hard or as long.
  • Eat slowly.
  • Avoid foods that contain high amounts of acids, such as citrus fruits and tomatoes.
  • Reduce or avoid foods and beverages that contain caffeine.
  • If stress is a trigger for your indigestion, learn new methods for managing stress, such as relaxation and biofeedback techniques.
  • If you smoke, quit. Smoking can irritate the lining of the stomach.
  • Cut back on alcohol consumption, because alcohol can also irritate the stomach lining.
  • Avoid wearing tight-fitting garments, because they tend to compress the stomach, which can cause its contents to enter the esophagus.
  • Don’t exercise with a full stomach. Rather, exercise before a meal or at least one hour after eating a meal.
  • Don’t lie down right after eating.
  • Wait at least three hours after your last meal of the day before going to bed.
  • Sleep with your head elevated (at least 6 inches) above your feet and use pillows to prop yourself up. This will help allow digestive juices to flow into the intestines rather than to the esophagus.

When Should I Call the Doctor About Indigestion?

Because indigestion can be a sign of a more serious health problem, call your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Vomiting or blood in vomit (the vomit may look like coffee grounds)
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Black, tarry stools or visible blood in stools
  • Severe pain in the abdomen
  • Discomfort unrelated to eating

Symptoms similar to indigestion may be caused by heart attacks. If indigestion is unusual, accompanied by shortness of breath, sweating, chest pain, or pain radiating to the jaw, neck, or arm, seek medical attention immediately.


How to avoid indigestion – BBC Good Food

The majority of the time we never give our digestive systems a second thought. It’s only when they play up, and we suffer indigestion or uncomfortable bloating that we sit up and take notice. Yet our digestion is a remarkable part of the body. Take, for example, your digestive tract. It’s about 9 metres long – that’s the length of a double decker bus! The gut also has the highest rate of cell turnover in the body which means it renews itself faster than any other tissue.

But don’t be fooled – this doesn’t mean you can abuse your digestive system because it also plays a huge part in your wellbeing. It has been dubbed our ‘second brain’, as there’s more to it than simply breaking down and absorbing the food we eat.

Scientists have discovered the cells that line the gut are similar to those that form our central nervous system which is why you might feel ‘butterflies’ when you’re nervous, and why the state of your gut can influence the illnesses you get, and even the mood you’re in.  So if you treat your gut with respect, you can expect to feel better from top to toe – and that’s exactly what a client of mine found…

Discover more tips for digestive health and browse our gut-friendly recipes. Also check out our health and nutrition page for more recipe inspiration, health benefits guides and advice on special diets.

Kerry’s case study

A businessman in his early 40s, my client had begun to suffer from indigestion and heartburn. These conditions typically result from the acid in your stomach, which helps break down your food, upsetting the upper part of your gut.

As well as the burning sensations combined with pain in the upper abdomen, my client also recounted symptoms of bloating, wind and nausea. In addition to these gut problems he had become more prone to colds and infections, which had started to affect his ability to meet his work commitments.

A family man who ran his own business, my client was subject to a high degree of stress. With time in short supply he would often skip lunch and to prevent this, his wife started to pack up leftovers from the family’s evening meal to ensure he ate something during the day. A social smoker, who took little exercise, my client considered regular nights out with his friends as his main form of relaxation. After a few drinks the group would typically wind up in a local Indian restaurant.

My advice…


  • Be mindful about meals. Focus on your food, sit down, take your time and chew thoroughly giving yourself at least 20 minutes before you carry on with your day. Try to avoid bending or lying down too soon after eating – even loading the dishwasher can trigger a reflux.
  • Consider what you eat. Make sound choices, thinking about how the food makes you feel and what it gives you nutritionally. Plan your meals and snacks.
  • Keep a food diary to work out what food and drinks are triggers for you. When possible limit these triggers – common ones include caffeine, chocolate and spicy food. If you find this difficult, select the food triggers you know you can eliminate and manage the others – for example swap your typical jalfrezi for a milder korma.
  • Eat regularly, little and often. Breaking down your daily food intake into five smaller meals makes lighter work for your digestive system.
  • De-stress before you eat, so you can fully savour your food. When you can, take a walk after main meals – this helps to beat bloating and ease indigestion, and can even help stabilise blood sugar levels.
  • Keep to a healthy weight. Acid reflux tends to be aggravated when you carry a few extra pounds. Light, regular exercise combined with a healthy balanced diet is key. Think about the activities you’ve enjoyed in the past – cycling, golf or sessions in the gym – then commit to making them part of your weekly routine.


  • Rush meals or eat when you’re busy. Even sending emails, chatting on the phone or watching TV while eating sends mixed messages to the brain and can compromise your digestion.
  • Grab whatever’s available, or eat ‘on the hoof’.
  • Allow food to disturb your sleep – try having your main meal at lunchtime to allow your body time to digest it properly. Consider sleeping with your head slightly raised – add an extra pillow or raise the head off the bed to avoid reflux symptoms during the night.
  • Eat when you’re stressed. Your gut reacts to all forms of stress and will be less effective in breaking down your food under these conditions.
  • Smoke. As well as the many other health risks it presents, smoking encourages the production of stomach acid which aggravates acid reflux.

Cut down or cut out…

Fizzy drinks
These are a common cause of bloating, so instead opt for a glass of still water naturally flavoured with a slice of lemon, lime or orange, or a cup of herbal tea.  Aim for at least eight cups of liquids a day.

Fatty foods
Fats slow your digestion and can leave you feeling uncomfortably full and lethargic. Moderate your intake and balance your meals with lean sources of protein like poultry and fish.

High-fibre foods
Although fibre eases constipation, it may worsen wind, bloating and abdominal cramps. If cabbage, sprouts, beans and pulses are a problem for you, swap them for less fibrous choices such as courgettes and asparagus. Top up fibre levels gradually by adding some ground flaxseed to breakfast cereals or yogurt; flaxseed is a good source of gentle soluble fibre (the type that dissolves in water), as well as some of the insoluble variety (the type that doesn’t).

It’s great to use up your leftovers, but some cooked and cooled foods contain greater amounts of resistant starch which our digestive systems don’t break down, instead our gut bacteria process it through fermentation. For many of us this is not a problem, and is actually beneficial, but if you have a sensitive digestive system or you’re not used to resistant starch in your diet, it may cause symptoms such as excess gas and bloating. If this sounds familiar, limit your intake of leftover cooked potato, rice and pasta, and reheated breads like garlic bread and pizza bases. It’s important not to skip meals so be sure to eat at lunchtime but choose freshly cooked meals, where possible, such as a bowl of chunky soup.

Building up your defences

There are hundreds of different bacteria in your gut, which help you digest food, manufacture certain vitamins and generally support your defences against illness. You can top up these bacteria by taking a probiotic supplement, or by adding live yogurt to your daily diet. Studies suggest probiotics help to support the normal function of the immune system and may reduce bloating. Check that the product contains a high dose of lactobacilli and bifido-bacteria, that it is “enteric” coated (which helps the bacteria pass through your stomach and arrive where they are needed) and is within its use-by date.

Prebiotics are different to probiotics. They are specific, non-digestible carbohydrates which act as food for your beneficial bacteria. Prebiotics are available as supplements and may be combined with probiotics. Alternatively, you can eat foods rich in natural prebiotics, including onions, garlic, leeks, chicory, bananas and artichokes.

Nutritional advice is never a substitute for professional medical attention if you experience chronic bloating and/or other persistent gut problems consult your GP.

This page was last reviewed on 27 June 2019 by Kerry Torrens.

Kerry Torrens is a qualified Nutritionist (MBANT) with a post graduate diploma in Personalised Nutrition & Nutritional Therapy. She is a member of the British Association for Applied Nutrition and Nutritional Therapy (BANT) and a member of the Guild of Food Writers. Over the last 15 years she has been a contributing author to a number of nutritional and cookery publications including BBC Good Food.

All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other healthcare professional. If you have any concerns about your general health, you should contact your local healthcare provider. See our website terms and conditions for more information.

List of the Best and Worst Foods for Acid Reflux — What to Eat and Avoid

April 15, 2014


A hot burning in the chest, a bitter taste in the throat, a gassy bloating in the stomach – acid reflux is no picnic. What you eat, however, can have an impact. The best and worst foods for acid reflux could spell the difference between sweet relief and sour misery.

What Aggravates Acid Reflux?

Acid reflux occurs when the sphincter at the base of the esophagus isn’t working well, allowing fluid from the stomach to enter the esophagus. The worst foods for reflux can worsen painful symptoms, while other foods can soothe them, says UH gastrointestinal surgeon Leena Khaitan, MD

“Diet changes can significantly affect acid reflux and allow you to avoid other treatments,” Dr. Khaitan says.

Best Foods for Acid Reflux

“A diet balanced with vegetables, protein and fruits is best,” Dr. Khaitan says. Examples of the best foods for acid reflux include:

  • Chicken breast – Be sure to remove the fatty skin. Skip fried and instead choose baked, broiled or grilled.
  • Lettuce, celery and sweet peppers – These mild green veggies are easy on the stomach – and won’t cause painful gas.
  • Brown rice – This complex carbohydrate is mild and filling – just don’t serve it fried.
  • Melons – Watermelon, cantaloupe and honeydew are all low-acid fruits that are among the best foods for acid reflux.
  • Oatmeal – Filling, hearty and healthy, this comforting breakfast standard also works for lunch.
  • Fennel – This low-acid crunchy vegetable has a mild licorice flavor and a natural soothing effect.
  • Ginger – Steep caffeine-free ginger tea or chew on low-sugar dried ginger for a natural tummy tamer.

Worst Foods for Reflux

In general, anything that is fatty, acidic or highly caffeinated should be avoided. The worst foods for acid reflux list includes:

  • Coffee and tea – Caffeinated beverages aggravate acid reflux. Opt for teas without caffeine.
  • Carbonated beverages – The bubbles expand in your stomach, creating more pressure and pain. Choose plain water or decaf iced tea.
  • Chocolate – This treat has a trifecta of acid reflux problems: caffeine, fat and cocoa.
  • Peppermint Don’t be fooled by its reputation for soothing the tummy; peppermint is an acid reflux trigger.
  • Grapefruit and orange – The high acidity of citrus fruits relaxes the esophagus sphincter and worsens symptoms.
  • Tomatoes – Also avoid marinara sauce, ketchup and tomato soup – they’re all naturally high in acid.
  • Alcohol This has a double whammy effect. Alcohol relaxes the sphincter valve but it also stimulates acid production in the stomach.
  • Fried foods – These are some of the worst foods for reflux. Skip the french fries, onion rings and fried chicken — cook on the grill or in the oven at home.
  • Late-night snacks – Avoid eating anything in the two hours before you go to bed. Also, you can try eating four to five smaller meals throughout the day instead of two to three large meals.

When to Talk to Your Doctor About Acid Reflux

It’s a good idea to speak with your doctor if the best foods for acid reflux do not relieve your symptoms, Dr. Khaitan says. Other options can include lifestyle changes, medications to block acid, and surgical procedures on the esophagus sphincter.

It is important to make a doctor’s appointment if you have heartburn or acid reflux that is severe or frequent, Dr. Khaitan adds. Chronic acid reflux is known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and can lead to esophageal cancer.

Related Links

University Hospitals Digestive Health Institute physicians and surgeons treat each patients with esophageal disease on an individual basis. Esophageal diseases span a broad spectrum of benign and malignant conditions, and treatment options may vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Learn more about treatment for esophageal and swallowing conditions at UH Esophageal Swallowing Center.

9 ways to relieve acid reflux without medication

Image: Bigstock

A few lifestyle changes are worth trying before resorting to drugs for controlling gastroesophageal reflux.

If you are sounding a little hoarse and have a sore throat, you may be bracing for a cold or a bout of the flu. But if you’ve had these symptoms for a while, they might be caused not by a virus but by a valve—your lower esophageal sphincter. That’s the muscle that controls the passage between the esophagus and stomach, and when it doesn’t close completely, stomach acid and food flow back into the esophagus. The medical term for this process is gastroesophageal reflux; the backward flow of acid is called acid reflux.

Acid reflux can cause sore throats and hoarseness and may literally leave a bad taste in your mouth. When acid reflux produces chronic symptoms, it is known as gastroesophageal reflux disorder, or GERD. The most common symptom of GERD is heartburn—pain in the upper abdomen and chest that sometimes feel like you’re having a heart attack.

Three conditions—poor clearance of food or acid from the esophagus, too much acid in the stomach, and delayed stomach emptying—contribute to acid reflux, says Dr. Jacqueline Wolf, a gastroenterologist and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and author of A Woman’s Guide to a Healthy Stomach: Taking Control of Your Digestive Health.

If you’ve been having repeated episodes of heartburn—or any other symptoms of acid reflux—you might try the following:

1. Eat sparingly and slowly

When the stomach is very full, there can be more reflux into the esophagus. If it fits into your schedule, you may want to try what is sometimes called “grazing”—eating small meals more frequently rather than three large meals daily.

2. Avoid certain foods

People with acid reflux were once instructed to eliminate all but the blandest foods from their diets. But that’s no longer the case. “We’ve evolved from the days when you couldn’t eat anything,” Dr. Wolf says. But there are still some foods that are more likely than others to trigger reflux, including mint, fatty foods, spicy foods, tomatoes, onions, garlic, coffee, tea, chocolate, and alcohol. If you eat any of these foods regularly, you might try eliminating them to see if doing so controls your reflux, and then try adding them back one by one. The Foodicine Health website at www.foodicinehealth.org has diet tips for people with acid reflux and GERD as well as for other gastrointestinal disorders.

3. Don’t drink carbonated beverages

They make you burp, which sends acid into the esophagus. Drink flat water instead of sparkling water.

4. Stay up after eating

When you’re standing, or even sitting, gravity alone helps keeps acid in the stomach, where it belongs. Finish eating three hours before you go to bed. This means no naps after lunch, and no late suppers or midnight snacks.

5. Don’t move too fast

Avoid vigorous exercise for a couple of hours after eating. An after-dinner stroll is fine, but a more strenuous workout, especially if it involves bending over, can send acid into your esophagus.

6. Sleep on an incline

Ideally, your head should be 6 to 8 inches higher than your feet. You can achieve this by using “extra-tall” bed risers on the legs supporting the head of your bed. If your sleeping partner objects to this change, try using a foam wedge support for your upper body. Don’t try to create a wedge by stacking pillows. They won’t provide the uniform support you need.

7. Lose weight if it’s advised

Increased weight spreads the muscular structure that supports the lower esophageal sphincter, decreasing the pressure that holds the sphincter closed. This leads to reflux and heartburn.

8. If you smoke, quit

Nicotine may relax the lower esophageal sphincter.

9. Check your medications

Some—including postmenopausal estrogen, tricyclic antidepressants, and anti-inflammatory painkillers—can relax the sphincter, while others—particularly bisphosphonates like alendronate (Fosamax), ibandronate (Boniva), or risedronate (Actonel), which are taken to increase bone density—can irritate the esophagus.

If these steps aren’t effective or if you have severe pain or difficulty swallowing, see your doctor to rule out other causes. You may also need medication to control reflux even as you pursue lifestyle changes.

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.
Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date,
should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

11 stomach-soothing steps for heartburn

Heartburn, that uncomfortable burning sensation that radiates up the middle of the chest, is the most common digestive malady. It’s the result of a condition known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), often called acid reflux, in which stomach acid leaks upward from the stomach into the esophagus.

While heartburn should not be ignored, there are many stomach-soothing steps you can try before going to a doctor. These can help cool your symptoms and prevent bigger problems later on.  

  1. Eat smaller meals, but more often. A full stomach puts pressure on the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), a valve-like muscle that keeps stomach acid from backing up into the esophagus.
  2. Eat in a slow, relaxed manner. Wolfing down your food fills your stomach faster, putting more pressure on the LES.
  3. Remain upright after meals. Lying down increases pressure on the LES, which makes acid reflux more likely.
  4. Avoid late-night eating. Eating a meal or snack within three hours of lying down to sleep can worsen reflux and heartburn symptoms. Leave enough time for the stomach to clear out.
  5. Don’t exercise immediately after meals. Give your stomach time to empty; wait a couple of hours after eating before exercising.
  6. Tilt your torso with a bed wedge. Raising your torso up a bit with a wedge-shaped cushion reduces the pressure on the LES and may ease nighttime heartburn. Wedges are available from medical supply companies. Don’t just prop your head and shoulders up with pillows, which can actually worsen reflux.
  7. Stay away from carbonated beverages. They cause belching, which promotes reflux of stomach acid.
  8. Find the foods that trigger your symptoms and avoid them. Some foods and drinks increase acid secretion, delay stomach emptying, or loosen the LES — conditions that set the stage for heartburn. Common offenders include fatty foods, spicy foods, tomatoes, garlic, milk, coffee, tea, cola, peppermint, and chocolate.
  9. Chew sugarless gum after a meal. Chewing gum promotes salivation, which neutralizes acid, soothes the esophagus, and washes acid back down to the stomach. Avoid peppermint flavors, which may trigger heartburn.
  10. Check your medications. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if any of the medications you take could worsen acid reflux or inflame the esophagus. For example, tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline loosen the LES and tetracyclines such as doxycycline can cause esophageal inflammation.
  11. Lose weight if you need to. Being overweight puts more pressure on the stomach (and the LES).

If changing your eating habits and other preventive steps don’t get heartburn under control, talk with your doctor. He or she can advise you on which medications to try and recommend additional follow up if necessary.

For more on relieving heartburn and treating a sensitive gut, buy The Sensitive Gut, a Special Health Report from Harvard Medical School.

Image: Image Source/Getty Images

As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content.
Please note the date of last review or update on all articles. No content on this site, regardless of date,
should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.

Indigestion – Diagnosis and treatment


Your doctor is likely to start with a health history and a thorough physical exam. Those evaluations may be sufficient if your indigestion is mild and you’re not experiencing certain symptoms, such as weight loss and repeated vomiting.

But if your indigestion began suddenly, and you are experiencing severe symptoms or are older than age 55, your doctor may recommend:

  • Laboratory tests, to check for anemia or other metabolic disorders.
  • Breath and stool tests, to check for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), the bacterium associated with peptic ulcers, which can cause indigestion.
  • Endoscopy, to check for abnormalities in your upper digestive tract, particularly in older people with more persistent symptoms. A tissue sample (biopsy) may be taken for analysis.
  • Imaging tests (X-ray or CT scan), to check for intestinal obstruction or another issue.

More Information

Show more related information


Lifestyle changes may help ease indigestion. Your doctor may recommend:

  • Avoiding foods that trigger indigestion
  • Eating five or six small meals a day instead of three large meals
  • Reducing or eliminating the use of alcohol and caffeine
  • Avoiding certain pain relievers, such as aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve)
  • Finding alternatives for medications that trigger indigestion
  • Controlling stress and anxiety

If your indigestion persists, medications may help. Over-the-counter antacids are generally the first choice. Other options include:

  • Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which can reduce stomach acid. PPIs may be recommended particularly if you experience heartburn along with indigestion.
  • H-2-receptor blockers, which can also reduce stomach acid.
  • Prokinetics, which may be helpful if your stomach empties slowly.
  • Antibiotics, which can help if H. pylori bacteria are causing your indigestion.
  • Antidepressants or anti-anxiety medications, which may ease the discomfort from indigestion by decreasing your sensation of pain.

More Information

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Clinical trials

Explore Mayo Clinic studies testing new treatments, interventions and tests as a means to prevent, detect, treat or manage this condition.

Lifestyle and home remedies

Mild indigestion can often be helped with lifestyle changes, including:

  • Eating smaller, more-frequent meals. Chew your food slowly and thoroughly.
  • Avoiding triggers. Fatty and spicy foods, processed foods, carbonated beverages, caffeine, alcohol, and smoking can trigger indigestion.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight. Excess pounds put pressure on your abdomen, pushing up your stomach and causing acid to back up into your esophagus.
  • Exercising regularly. Exercise helps you keep off extra weight and promotes better digestion.
  • Managing stress. Create a calm environment at mealtime. Practice relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, meditation or yoga. Spend time doing things you enjoy. Get plenty of sleep.
  • Changing your medications. With your doctor’s approval, stop or cut back on pain relievers or other medications that may irritate your stomach lining. If that’s not an option, be sure to take these medications with food.

Alternative medicine

Alternative and complementary treatments have been used for many years to ease indigestion, although their effectiveness varies among different individuals. These treatments include:

  • Herbal therapies, including plain peppermint, or a combination of peppermint and caraway oils and the Japanese herbal formula Rikkunshito.
  • STW 5 (Iberogast), a liquid supplement containing extracts of nine herbs, may work by reducing the production of gastric acid.
  • Acupuncture, which may work by blocking the pathways of nerves that carry sensations of pain to the brain.
  • Psychological treatment, including behavior modification, relaxation techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy are often very helpful.

Always check with your doctor before taking any supplements to be sure you’re taking a safe dose and that the supplement won’t adversely interact with any other medications you’re taking.

Preparing for your appointment

You’re likely to start by seeing your family doctor, or you may be referred to a doctor who specializes in digestive diseases (gastroenterologist). Here’s some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

  • Be aware of any pre-appointment restrictions, such as not eating solid food on the day before your appointment.
  • Write down your symptoms, including when they started and how they may have changed or worsened over time.
  • Take a list of all your medications, vitamins or supplements.
  • Write down your key medical information, including other diagnosed conditions.
  • Write down key personal information, including any recent changes or stressors in your life, as well as a detailed description of your typical daily diet.
  • Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

  • What’s the most likely cause of my symptoms?
  • Do you think my condition is temporary or chronic?
  • What kinds of tests do I need?
  • What treatments can help?
  • Are there any dietary restrictions that I need to follow?
  • Could any of my medications be causing my symptoms?

In addition to the questions that you’ve prepared to ask your doctor, don’t hesitate to ask questions during your appointment.

What to expect from your doctor

Be ready to answer questions your doctor may ask:

  • When did you first begin experiencing symptoms, and how severe are they?
  • Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional?
  • What, if anything, seems to improve or worsen your symptoms?
  • What medications and pain relievers do you take?
  • What do you eat and drink, including alcohol, in a typical day?
  • How have you been feeling emotionally?
  • Do you use tobacco? If so, do you smoke, chew or both?
  • Are your symptoms better or worse on an empty stomach?
  • Have you vomited blood or black material?
  • Have you had any changes in your bowel habits, including stools turning black?
  • Have you lost weight?
  • Have you had nausea or vomiting or both?

Indigestion care at Mayo Clinic

July 15, 2021

Show references

  1. Feldman M, et al. , eds. Dyspepsia. In: Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management. 11th ed. Elsevier; 2021. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 21, 2021.
  2. Goldman L, et al., eds. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: Irritable bowel syndrome, dyspepsia, esophageal chest pain, and heartburn. In: Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Elsevier; 2020. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed April 21, 2021.
  3. Indigestion (dyspepsia). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/digestive-diseases/indigestion-dyspepsia. Accessed April 20, 2021.
  4. Dyspepsia. Merck Manual Professional Version. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/symptoms-of-gastrointestinal-disorders/dyspepsia. Accessed April 20, 2021.
  5. Wilkinson JM, et al. Gas, bloating, and belching: Approach to evaluation and management. American Family Physician. 2019; https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0301/p301.html. Accessed May 3, 2021.
  6. Zhang J, et al. Efficacy comparison of different acupuncture treatments for functional dyspepsia: A systematic review with network meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020; doi:10.1155/2020/3872919.
  7. Kim YS, et al. Herbal therapies in functional gastrointestinal disorders: A narrative review and clinical application. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2020; doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00601.
  8. Morrow ES. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. April 16, 2021.
  9. Wilkinson JM (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. April 26, 2021.


Associated Procedures

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90,000 How To Avoid Bowel Upset On Long Trips | HEALTH: Children’s Health | HEALTH

According to Novosibirsk physician-therapist Victoria SEMKINA , travelers’ diarrhea is understood as three or more cases of unformed stools per day when changing their place of permanent residence, while traveling and staying in places of rest.

From infection to stress

There are several reasons for the development of travelers’ diarrhea.First of all, during a trip, the likelihood of eating foods contaminated with various pathogens increases, since the storage conditions for food taken on a trip are often not respected, and personal hygiene rules are also violated. The risk of eating contaminated food in recreation areas and when purchasing food from individuals increases: for example, in many resorts, trade on the beaches is widespread, and food stalls are located in areas adjacent to the beaches.

In infectious diarrhea, loose stools are associated with impaired water-salt metabolism between the intestinal mucosa and the intestinal lumen.During an infectious process, the cells of the mucous membrane secrete a large amount of electrolytes (primarily sodium) into the intestinal lumen, which draw water with them. At the same time, inflammatory changes develop in the mucous membrane, which leads to a violation of the reverse absorption of electrolytes from the intestine into the blood.

Diarrhea of ​​an infectious nature, as a rule, is accompanied by an increase in body temperature, a violation of general well-being. Also, travelers’ diarrhea often develops as a result of food stress, that is, it is a reaction of the digestive system to unfamiliar food and water.For many people, the journey itself is stressful. Therefore, during a trip, so-called nervous diarrhea can develop: it occurs in response to stress and is a manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome. Loose stools are observed with a relatively small volume of feces, bloating and abdominal pain, flatulence may be disturbing. With nervous diarrhea, attacks usually occur immediately after eating. It is characteristic that at night they do not bother a person, appearing only after waking up.The general state of health with nervous diarrhea does not suffer, there is no temperature and intoxication.

No antibiotics

Treatment of travelers’ diarrhea does not always require antibiotics. They are necessary only in case of a severe course of the disease, and a doctor should prescribe them. The custom of taking chloramphenicol with you on the road and taking it at the first signs of a disorder is not only unjustified, but also dangerous – in many countries this antibiotic is generally prohibited for use due to side effects.

In most cases, sorbents will help to cope with the disease, which help to eliminate toxins from the body and restore intestinal function, and enzymes – they improve the digestion of food. If the intestinal disorder is associated with nerves, it is important to take sedatives, herbal remedies. To prevent diarrhea, travelers must follow simple rules: use only bottled water, do not take perishable food on the road, do not buy food and drinks from individuals, and observe personal hygiene.In places of rest, you should not abuse exotic food: in order not to plunge the body into food stress, give preference to the usual cuisine.

See also:

90,000 How to avoid upset stomach on race day

How to avoid upset stomach on race day

19:00, 23 April 2014

2014-04-23T19: 00: 00 + 04: 00
2014-04-23T19: 00: 00 + 04: 00

References from Trainer Ben Greenfield, Multiple IRONMAN Finisher, Professional Trainer and Nutritionist.

If you are even a little interested in the principles of sports nutrition, you have probably heard that bloating, indigestion, and gas are the result of excess calorie intake during sports. Indeed, the love of eating gels, bars and energy drinks during exercise can, on the contrary, worsen your performance, and lead to stomach pains of varying severity, but the problem is not only in overeating.

There are three main reasons athletes have digestive problems during training and racing, here are some tips to look out for to regain your health.

1. Lack of digestive enzymes
When you eat something like an energy gel or take a sip of a sports drink, your pancreas and secretions from your small intestine begin to break down protein, carbohydrates, and fats, turning them into useful nutrients. From there, these substances enter the bloodstream.

However, sometimes things can go wrong, and here’s why. First, the amount of food consumed exceeds your body’s ability to process it, which is very common among active people who eat high-calorie foods. Second, your pancreas and small intestine cannot genetically process one of the enzymes (such as lactose). Finally, your digestive system may have suffered from poor nutrition before (college studies say nothing?) And simply cannot produce enzymes normally. When this happens, gas, bloating, diarrhea, steatorrhea (aka fatty stools) and possible unplanned weight loss are possible.

Solution: Take digestive enzymes.I swallow two Caprazymes capsules before two main meals a day (including pre-race meals) and everything is good.

2. Poor intestinal microflora
Good bacteria, probiotics, live in our intestines. They are located along the digestive tract and are responsible for fighting off intruders such as toxins, as well as stimulating the entire digestive system. Prebiotics are saccharides that help probiotics survive. Lack of both probiotics and prebiotics impairs the intestinal microflora, jeopardizes the entire immune system of the body and interferes with proper absorption of food.

Solution: 1) Eat more foods with these beneficial bacteria: kefir, kombucha, yogurt, pickled foods; 2) eat probiotics; 3) Eat more vegetables and fiber, or take “green supplements” that contain it (green supplements are available at many specialty sports and health food stores).

Note: In rare cases, if you consume a lot of carbohydrates with a lot of enzymes, the intestinal microflora can also cause you problems, I was convinced of this from my own experience when I ate broccoli and tons of kombucha in combination with a carbohydrate diet.

3. Insufficient acidity of the stomach
Stomach acid plays an important role in the breakdown of protein and the absorption of minerals and vitamins. Lack of stomach acid can lead to the absorption of incompletely split food, and this, in turn, threatens allergies and poisoning.

Solution: Consume probiotics and food enzymes, and follow these tips:

  • Add some prunes or chia seeds (Spanish sage) to your diet.
  • Eat sprouts, legumes, seeds, and nuts that improve digestion.
  • Consume one or two tablespoons of cold-pressed coconut oil daily, which has excellent antimicrobial properties.
  • Eat more often, but less.
  • Do not lie down immediately after eating, you need to stay upright for at least 45 minutes for better absorption.


What you can eat with diarrhea in a child and an adult | Diet for diarrhea

Number of views: 1 146 519

Date of last update: 26.08.2021

Average reading time: 4 minutes


What can you eat with diarrhea?
What to drink with diarrhea?
What should I avoid if I have diarrhea?
What is diarrhea and how to treat it

It is very important to adjust the diet and diet in case of intestinal upset in such a way as to help the body cope with the problem as efficiently as possible. If you do not know what to eat with diarrhea, use our recommendations.

Up to Contents

What can you eat with diarrhea?

  • Food for diarrhea should include foods high in pectin: applesauce, bananas, yogurt. Pectin, a water-soluble fiber, can help treat intestinal upset.
  • Pay attention to foods rich in potassium – fruit juices, jacket potatoes, bananas. In case of intestinal upset, the body is actively losing potassium and its restoration is necessary.
  • Don’t forget to add salt to your meals.Meals should include salty soups, broths, crackers, etc. to help retain water in the body and avoid dehydration.
  • Get enough protein. If you have an upset bowel, you can eat lightly fried beef, turkey, chicken, or hard-boiled eggs to avoid fatigue and fatigue.
  • Eat vegetables and fruits after hot cooking. Certain raw vegetables and fruits can make diarrhea worse. When dieting, try a simple soup with asparagus, carrots, beets, zucchini, mushrooms or celery, mashed potatoes, or jacket potatoes.

Up to Contents

What to drink for diarrhea?

Drink at least a glass of liquid after each episode of diarrhea to keep yourself hydrated. For intestinal upset, drink water, weak tea, apple juice, and low-fat broth. A liquid diet for diarrhea does not put heavy work on the digestive tract and helps prevent irritation.

Up to Contents

What should you avoid if you have diarrhea?

  • Avoid drinks and foods that contain caffeine and are very hot or cold.It will irritate the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Avoid fatty, fried and heavy foods while dieting. Eating this way will only make your bowel upset worse.
  • Avoid foods that cause gas build-up in the intestines – chewing gum, carbonated drinks. They irritate the digestive tract.
  • Limit milk and dairy products. They can be difficult to digest.
  • Avoid nuts, raw fruits and vegetables, bran and whole grain bread in your diet. They irritate the digestive tract.

Avoid smoking or drinking alcohol.

A complete list of what to eat for diarrhea is contained in the diet “Table number 4”.

Back to top

What is diarrhea and how to treat it

Diarrhea (diarrhea) refers to frequent loose stools accompanied by excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes. A bowel disorder occurs when the contents of the gastrointestinal tract move too quickly, preventing fluid and nutrients from being absorbed.

For a quick cessation of diarrhea (within 1 hour), IMODIUM ® Express resorption tablets are recommended, which will help to normalize the bowel function, restoring the natural rhythm of its work. The tablets dissolve right on the tongue in 2-3 seconds, do not require drinking water and have a pleasant mint taste.

The information in this article is for reference only and does not replace professional medical advice. Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.

Read also articles about products provocateurs of diarrhea.

* Among the products based on Loperamide. Sales in money terms for February 2018 – January 2019, according to IQVIA data.

How to avoid digestive upset due to stress?

When you are nervous or stressed, do you experience abdominal pain or other gastrointestinal problems? It turns out that this happens to many people. There is a connection between the brain and the enteric nervous system, which is located in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract.For this reason, when you feel anxious or intensely anxious, your stomach may feel uncomfortable, including heartburn or indigestion. This problem was especially pronounced during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Why does the human stomach react to stress?
Stress and anxiety are triggers of gastrointestinal problems. In this condition, a person may experience nausea, heartburn, bloating, or diarrhea.
The enteric nervous system is the part of the nervous system that resides in the gastrointestinal tract.There is a close connection between her and the brain. During times of stress, the brain sends signals that can make the digestive system behave differently. In addition, in moments of intense experience, we tend to seek comfort in food. Therefore, another of the main causes of problems in the work of the gastrointestinal tract is the food we eat.
How to calm the intestines during a stressful period?
Mediterranean Diet
People who are experiencing strong emotions are advised to follow a Mediterranean diet.It is based on the consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts and whole grains. The diet also includes poultry, eggs and dairy products.
Diet Schedule
To avoid gastrointestinal problems, you should adhere to a correct meal plan. Overeating should not be allowed.
Getting enough sleep is very important in the recovery of the body during times of stress. Adequate sleep will help you avoid negative consequences.
Physical activity
Many people feel discouraged due to strong feelings, they are drawn into apathy. But as much as you want to sit on the couch and do nothing, you need to force yourself to move. Arrange home workouts, and you can more easily cope with stress, including those triggered by the coronavirus epidemic, and avoid digestive problems.
Stress cannot be experienced alone. To cope with your condition, keep in touch with your family, chat with friends. In the 21st century, it will not be difficult, sitting in quarantine, to maintain communication with loved ones using phone calls or audio communication.
# national projectdemography89

Various stomach disorders: What’s with my stomach? | Helpful

Stomach disorders are common in both adults and children. Almost everyone, in one way or another, has experienced some kind of stomach problem: diarrhea, flatulence, swelling, pain or constipation. Stomach upset due to poor nutrition can be solved by finding the right menu for yourself.

There are many reasons for indigestion

Various factors can cause stomach problems: poorly digested food, lactose intolerance, celiac disease, food hypersensitivity, food allergy, intestinal infection caused by viruses or “stomach flu”. If no single cause of stomach upset is found, it is a functional stomach upset, the cause of which is unknown. If the abdominal pain is intense or prolonged, and its cause is not found, it is better to see a doctor to find out the reason.

Lactose intolerance

If it turns out that stomach upset is caused by lactose intolerance, then there is a solution for this problem. Valio products are lactose free from Valio Eila milk drink, Valio Gefilus lactose-free yoghurts 2×125 g, 380 g, 1 kg and Valio Gefilus lactose-free yoghurt drinks 4×100 g.Also, all mature Valio cheeses are lactose free (i.e. all cheeses except cottage cheese, processed cheese and smoked cheese).

Celiac disease

Celiac disease can sometimes cause stomach problems. It is a disease that requires a very thoughtful diet to avoid the gluten in grains. Pure oats are generally suitable for celiac sufferers. The same treatment is appropriate for gluten sensitivity, which is still little known but has been studied a lot.

Celiac disease is a disease that, before detection or if left untreated, can damage the surface of the intestine, which prevents the intestine from producing the lactose-degrading enzymes lactase. Especially in the early stages of disease detection, it is good for a celiac sufferer to follow a lactose-free diet until the intestinal surface recovers and production of the enzyme lactase resumes.

Food allergies

Sometimes stomach upset is caused by food allergies, which are much more common in children than in adults.Avoiding an allergic food completely is rarely necessary. In fact, exposure is even desirable, as constant exposure often improves tolerance to the allergen.

Stomach flu

Sometimes an upset stomach is caused by a virus that causes severe diarrhea or vomiting. Viruses are easily transmitted by hand and food. Symptoms usually resolve on their own within a few days. The most important thing in the treatment of diarrhea and vomiting is to ensure adequate intake of fluids and salts.

Functional stomach disorders

A fairly common cause of stomach problems is the so-called functional indigestion, which manifests itself in the form of edema, abdominal pain, flatulence, diarrhea and constipation. Their cause is unknown, but symptoms can be alleviated by avoiding symptomatic foods and beverages, maintaining a consistent eating regimen, paying attention to stress levels, and getting enough movement.

90,000 tips and simple actions to protect against the risk of poisoning

Food poisoning is one of the most common diseases to which absolutely everyone is susceptible. Most often it happens when food is improperly prepared or low-quality products sold by unscrupulous sellers are consumed. Pathogenic bacteria that enter the body cause intestinal upset and other health problems. The consequences may not be the most difficult, but in any case unpleasant.Residents of Mariupol and Donetsk region can learn about how to restore health after poisoning by signing up for a consultation at the clinic “AS MEDICAL”.

How to distinguish food poisoning from influenza?

The problem of diagnosing indigestion is caused by the fact that its symptoms are similar to those of seasonal colds. Despite the fact that in the first case, bacteria infect the gastrointestinal tract, and in the second – the respiratory tract, both diseases can manifest themselves in the same way.Common symptoms for them are:

  • head and muscle pain,
  • weakness,
  • increase in body temperature,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • diarrhea.

The basis for the diagnosis of food poisoning is the collection of anamnesis. In this case, the patient usually knows after taking which products he felt unwell.

List of foods that cause gastrointestinal upset

Nutritionists and gastroenterologists around the world have long identified foods that can be potentially hazardous to health.This should include:

  • raw water;
  • 90,071 raw flour;

    90,071 raw fish and sushi;

  • undercooked or smoked seafood;
  • 90,071 raw meat;

  • meat delicacies;
  • 90,071 raw eggs;

    90,071 meals based on raw eggs;

    90,071 pre-cut fruits and vegetables;

  • unpasteurized milk and juices;
  • 90,071 dairy products and certain types of soft cheese;

    90,071 germinated seeds;

  • fast food.

How to avoid food poisoning?

Although food poisoning is common, it can be prevented. To do this, you need to follow simple recommendations – eat rationally, wash food thoroughly, store them in the refrigerator and cook in accordance with the established requirements. For more information on the prevention of intestinal disorders, you can contact the health clinic “AS MEDICAL”. Registration for a consultation with residents of Mariupol and Donetsk region is conducted around the clock.

Food handling rules

You need to think about food safety even when choosing products on store shelves. Their composition, shelf life and storage rules should be carefully examined. In addition, you need to carefully look at how they are stored in the store itself, whether the temperature regime is observed in refrigerators and freezers. When buying meat or fish products, they should be placed in separate bags or bags.

Vegetables and fruits should be stored unwashed. It is not necessary to put them in the refrigerator, a cool dry place is enough. They need to be washed before direct use, even if they are grown in their own garden or cottage. Store vegetables and fruits must be carefully processed. To do this, they must be washed under a stream of cool running water. They cannot be immersed in hot water. Remember that cleanliness is not just a guarantee of health, but also the enemy of poisoning.

Storage rules

Food poisoning can be avoided if the storage rules are observed.Store lentils, canned food, pasta, and cereals in a cool, dry place, such as a kitchen cupboard or pantry. Meat products, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and dairy products should be refrigerated at a specific temperature. You can monitor the temperature in the refrigerator with a thermometer. If these are freshly cooked dishes, then they can be stored at room temperature for two hours, and then placed in the refrigerator. If the temperature rises to 30 degrees, then one hour will be enough for the dish to deteriorate.

All store products should be stored for the period indicated on the package. After its expiration, you need to get rid of the products, even if at the same time it looks quite appetizing. If you use cereals, canned food or other products after the expiration date, it can also cause intestinal upset.

It is necessary to store bulk or pasta in special containers. For the same purpose, you can use hermetically sealed cans and bags. This will help protect them from insects that carry the pathogenic microflora that causes poisoning.

You should defrost food from the refrigerator immediately before cooking under cold running water or in a microwave oven. Do not leave them in the sink until the ice has melted.

Cooking rules

Food preparation must also be carried out in accordance with certain rules. Observing the set temperature, you can destroy pathogenic microflora and prevent the development of food poisoning.This is especially true for frying, boiling and baking meats, fish, poultry, seafood and egg dishes.

To find out the optimal temperature regime, you should adhere to the cooking technology of a particular dish and take into account the peculiarities of the gas stove. Scientists have determined the temperature to be observed when preparing the most popular foods:

  • +63 degrees – for fish, pork, beef, lamb and veal;
  • +71 degrees – for casseroles, egg dishes, chopped veal, lamb, pork and beef;
  • +74 degrees – for poultry;
  • +100 degrees – for salmon, shrimp, crabs and lobsters.

American scientists have found that if you cook seafood under such conditions, you can reduce the number of Salmonella by several times. So with careful preparation and adherence to the temperature regime, you can completely get rid of microbes.

Keeping the kitchen clean

We were taught at school that we must wash our hands before eating. This rule applies in all circumstances. Fresh fruits and vegetables also need to be washed before cooking. Sometimes a stream of water in the tap is enough, and sometimes a more thorough cleaning will not hurt. But do not be zealous and wash, for example, greens or lettuce leaves twice.

The key to health is not only cleanliness of hands, fruits, vegetables and other food, but also the condition of the refrigerator. It should be washed regularly because a huge number of pathogenic microbes can accumulate here. It is enough to wash the refrigerator with ordinary soap solutions. You can keep it fresh with regular baking soda.

In addition to the refrigerator, the kitchen surface, sink and gas stove need careful processing. They need to be washed with a solution prepared on the basis of water and 1 tbsp. chlorine. You can use special detergents to wash cutting boards and utensils.

Food safety

If at home we can control the process of cleaning, washing or storing food, then in catering places things are different.To avoid food poisoning in public cafes and restaurants, follow these simple tips:

  1. Pay attention to the sanitary condition of the establishment, its counter, kitchen and utility rooms.
  2. Be careful when consuming food from the buffet – check their temperature, smell and consistency.
  3. Avoid appetizers with dressings based on mayonnaise, hollandaise, or other sauces.
  4. Don’t be afraid to complain about undercooked meat, fish, or other suspicious foods.
  5. Before visiting a particular institution, do not be lazy to find out more about its reputation. Cases of food poisoning may have already been reported here.

Food safety during travel

When traveling, it is especially difficult to monitor food and health in general, because in hotels and resorts there is no way to control the cooking process. To prevent upset stomach and intestines during rest, you need to follow simple rules:

  • to make the necessary vaccinations;
  • in advance to study information about the hotel and nearby restaurants;
  • 90,071 avoid buying fast food from street stalls;

  • consume bottled drinks;
  • Avoid eating exotic fruits and unfamiliar foods with a lot of spices and herbs.

Many overseas hotels organize meals for their guests in the form of buffets. To maintain your health, here you need to act according to the same principle that was described above.

These simple tips can help you avoid food poisoning, gastrointestinal upset and stay healthy. You can get more recommendations and advice on proper nutrition from a gastroenterologist at the AS MEDICAL health clinic. For residents of Mariupol and other cities of the country, an appointment with specialists is conducted around the clock.

90,000 How to avoid digestive upset in the summer

In the summer, we strive to stock up on vitamins for the whole year, forgetting that sometimes raw vegetables and fruits do more harm than good. gastroenterologist Irina NOVIKOVA tells about how women with digestive disorders should eat in summer.

Eat coconuts, chew bananas!

If there are no health problems, vegetables and fruits will certainly benefit. Among vegetables and fruits, there are many that loosen the stool – for example,

  • cucumbers,
  • beets,
  • plums.

Soft stools, as a rule, do not turn into diarrhea and normalize literally on the second day. If, on the background of taking raw food, diarrhea begins, which does not see the end, then you need to be on your guard.

Of course, digestive upset can be caused by an acute intestinal infection caused by the ingress of microbes into the stomach.But often raw vegetables and fruits provoke exacerbation of various chronic diseases.

In this case, hoping that “fruit” or “vegetable” diarrhea will go away on its own means wasting time and starting the disease.

Do raw vegetables and fruits cause colitis?

The most common cause of stool disorder after eating raw fruits and vegetables is chronic inflammation of the colon, colitis. This unpleasant disease occurs in many young women.

Raw vegetables and fruits are almost entirely composed of coarse fiber, and the inflamed intestinal mucosa is not ready for such stress. In this situation, even one cucumber from the garden is fraught with serious trouble the next morning.

Still, there is a way out. Since the intestine itself refuses to process coarse fiber, it is necessary to help it with this. Grind all plant foods with a mixer until a homogeneous mass is obtained and eat mashed potatoes in small portions.

When choosing berries and fruits, remember that not all of them have a laxative effect. Some, on the contrary, sharply reduce bowel contractions – these are:

  • blueberry
  • bird cherry
  • pears
  • quince.

And vitamins and other useful substances in them are not less than in other vegetable delicacies.

If these precautions do not stop the diarrhea, then you will have to switch from raw fruits and vegetables to cooked ones.Just do not forget that during cooking, nutrients pass into the water. Therefore, do not pour it out – the vegetable broth is useful for making soups, cereals or vegetable stews. And from fruits and berries, delicious compotes and fruit drinks are obtained. But it is better to steam the vegetables, as they retain more vitamins.

Excessive bowel activity can be weakened by eating viscous food:

  • jelly,
  • mousses,
  • jelly.

In addition, they are appetizing to look at and very tasty. I advise you to refresh the unsightly and unloved porridge with scalded grated berries.

Slimy vegetable soups are the best for the first one

It would be nice to master the preparation of such dishes as soufflé and casserole of vegetables and fruits. Well, if you really want something sweet, then the intestines will not mind a small amount:

  • jam
  • jam
  • jam
  • marshmallow
  • homemade fruit marshmallow
  • 90,071 baked apples and pears.

Can’t eat raw fruit after diarrhea?

Once your diarrhea is over, you don’t need to bother with any culinary delights anymore. But the transition to raw fruits should be gradually and carefully, starting with freshly squeezed juices. And in no case eat vegetables whole, only finely chopped and little by little – 100-150 grams per day. You cannot make salads from several vegetables and fruits – enter them into the menu one by one, observing the reaction of a diseased intestine.

In order to restore the disturbed digestion, it will be necessary for a while to switch to diet food. No spicy food. Only porridge, and even those on the water, and exclude millet and pearl barley. Soups should be cooked in low-fat broths.

Grind boiled meat and fish, give up milk, replacing it with fermented milk products. Forget about fresh baked goods and brown bread.

Replace white bread with croutons. By the way, with chronic colitis, it is harmful to eat bread with bran and wholemeal flour.Boil the eggs, soft-boiled, or make an omelet with them. Limit salt and sugar.

If you cannot normalize stool with the help of one diet, then you will have to take antibiotics. Only they will destroy the pathogenic microbes that have multiplied in the intestines. White clay, starch and bismuth preparations will help reduce peristalsis and bloating.

A calming effect on the mucous membrane is provided by decoctions and infusions from:

  • St. John’s wort
  • chamomile
  • eucalyptus leaves
  • 90,071 alder cones.

Microclysters can also be used with these herbs.

Warm heating pads and warming compresses with alcohol, Vaseline oil and even just warm water help to calm the excessively raging intestines. Warm pine baths are also helpful.

Colitis is always accompanied by dysbiosis, in which putrefactive bacteria colonize the intestine. That is why women with colitis do not tolerate sweet fruits and berries:

  • grapes
  • apricots
  • bananas
  • melon
  • Dates
  • pumpkin
  • 90,071 beets.

The fruit sugar contained in them is easily absorbed by microbes, which begin to grow like yeast and multiply vigorously, finally suppressing the normal intestinal flora.

Excess acid forces the stomach to push food faster, so the stools in ulcers are frequent and runny

Coarse vegetable fiber takes a long time to digest by itself, and then it begins to rot and ferment, causing diarrhea, bloating, and pain. Therefore, with dysbiosis, it is better to completely abandon sweet fruits.

Other opponents

When eating raw vegetables and fruits, diarrhea develops not only due to exacerbation of colitis, but also for many other reasons. After all, the colon is only the last link in a long digestive chain.

And in case of diseases of the overlying organs, coarse vegetable fiber enters the intestine practically unchanged. Naturally, even a healthy intestine cannot cope with such a load.

In case of gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, as well as gastritis with increased secretion, the acidity of gastric juice is constantly high.Excess acid causes the stomach to push food faster, which is why ulcers have frequent and runny stools. And currants, gooseberries, cranberries, cherries, apples further increase the acidity and can lead to indomitable diarrhea. But this is not the worst thing – aggressive acid literally eats away at the walls of the stomach, thereby causing an exacerbation of the disease.

However, women suffering from ulcers should not sit on porridge and breadcrumbs all season. Sweet fruits and vegetables – strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, sugary apples, bananas, and carrots – will not only taste good, but also reduce acidity and improve stool.But to avoid diarrhea and worsening ulcers, all raw foods should be eaten only under the “cover” of anti-ulcer drugs that reduce acidity.

Some women, on the other hand, suffer from a lack of stomach acid. This happens with gastritis with low acidity and atrophic gastritis. A poor stomach, no matter how hard it tries, cannot digest raw vegetables and fruits. As a result, coarse food enters the intestines undigested. You will ease the hard work of the stomach and intestines if you only eat pureed vegetables and fruits. In severe cases, gastric juice or hydrochloric acid, which can be purchased at the pharmacy, should be taken before meals.

For women with ulcerative colitis, raw vegetables and fruits are generally contraindicated. Coarse fiber increases gas production and intestinal contractions, which can lead to diarrhea and even rupture of the intestine. But boiled mashed fruits and vegetables are quite safe.

The so-called irritable bowel syndrome is most often seen in unbalanced women.Fortunately, there are no severe digestive disorders with this disease. Here are just the intestines “straining” that there is strength. Therefore, raw vegetables and fruits often cause downright indomitable diarrhea. This problem can be dealt with without medication. Mashed fruits that slow down peristalsis will help, for example:

  • blueberry
  • quince
  • infusions of St. John’s wort and chamomile
  • as well as soothing herbs – motherwort and valerian.

In the intestine, food is digested by the enzymes of the intestinal juice.But there are people who do not produce individual enzymes. Most often, there are not enough substances that break down sugar. In these cases, sweet fruits and berries inevitably cause exacerbation of chronic colitis. This problem is not easy to solve, it is necessary to carefully examine in order to identify the missing enzyme. And if there is no substitute for him among the medicines, then it is better to give up many vegetables and fruits forever.

In chronic pancreatitis juice, raw vegetables and fruits are generally contraindicated.After all, it is they who make the pancreas work to the fullest, which is manifested by endless diarrhea. Vegetables can be eaten only boiled, “under the cover” of special medicines-enzymes – mezim forte, festala and creona.

Allergies to vegetables or fruits are also often associated with indigestion. But at the same time, there are certainly other signs of allergy – hives and shortness of breath. In order to avoid allergic manifestations in the future, it is necessary to be examined and find the true culprit of the disease.Statistics show that most often strawberries and citrus fruits are poorly tolerated by patients. You may have to give up only them, and other gifts of summer and autumn will not be contraindicated for you.

Disclaimer : This content, including tips, provides general information only. This is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical report. Always consult a specialist or your healthcare professional for more information.

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DIET FOR ULCERATIVE COLITIS | What can you eat for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis?