About all

Antibiotics side effects tongue: Access to this page has been denied.


Amoxicillin (Oral Route) Side Effects

Side Effects

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Incidence not known

  1. Abdominal or stomach cramps or tenderness

  2. back, leg, or stomach pains

  3. black, tarry stools

  4. bleeding gums

  5. blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin

  6. bloating

  7. blood in the urine

  8. bloody nose

  9. chest pain

  10. chills

  11. clay-colored stools

  12. cough

  13. dark urine

  14. diarrhea

  15. diarrhea, watery and severe, which may also be bloody

  16. difficulty with breathing

  17. difficulty with swallowing

  18. dizziness

  19. fast heartbeat

  20. feeling of discomfort

  21. fever

  22. general body swelling

  23. headache

  24. heavier menstrual periods

  25. hives or welts

  26. increased thirst

  27. inflammation of the joints

  28. itching

  29. joint or muscle pain

  30. loss of appetite

  31. muscle aches

  32. nausea or vomiting

  33. nosebleeds

  34. pain

  35. pain in the lower back

  36. pain or burning while urinating

  37. painful or difficult urination

  38. pale skin

  39. pinpoint red spots on the skin

  40. puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue

  41. rash

  42. red, irritated eyes

  43. redness, soreness, or itching skin

  44. shortness of breath

  45. sore throat

  46. sores, ulcers, or white spots in the mouth or on the lips

  47. sores, welting, or blisters

  48. sudden decrease in the amount of urine

  49. swollen, lymph glands

  50. tenderness

  51. tightness in the chest

  52. unpleasant breath odor

  53. unusual bleeding or bruising

  54. unusual tiredness or weakness

  55. unusual weight loss

  56. vomiting of blood

  57. watery or bloody diarrhea

  58. wheezing

  59. yellow eyes or skin

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Less common

  1. Bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste

  2. change in taste
Incidence not known

  1. Agitation

  2. black, hairy tongue

  3. changes in behavior

  4. confusion

  5. convulsions

  6. discoloration of the tooth (brown, yellow, or gray staining)

  7. dizziness

  8. sleeplessness

  9. trouble with sleeping

  10. unable to sleep

  11. white patches in the mouth or throat or on the tongue

  12. white patches with diaper rash

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Portions of this document last updated: Feb. 01, 2021

Copyright © 2021 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.


Side Effects of Amoxil (Amoxicillin), Warnings, Uses


oval, white, imprinted with 93, 2263


oval, white, imprinted with 93 2264


oval, white, imprinted with 93, 2267


capsule, white, imprinted with 9 3, 2268


capsule, buff/caramel, imprinted with TEVA, 3107


capsule, buff, imprinted with TEVA, 3109



capsule, pink, imprinted with WW951


capsule, yellow, imprinted with AMOX 250, GG 848


capsule, yellow, imprinted with AMOX 500, GG 849


oval, white, imprinted with GG 962, 875


capsule, blue/pink, imprinted with A45


capsule, pink, imprinted with AMOXIL 875


oval, white/yellow specks, imprinted with 9 3, 2268


capsule, beige, imprinted with TEVA, 3109


capsule, orange/peach, imprinted with WC 730, WC 730


capsule, pink, imprinted with A, 67


capsule, blue/pink, imprinted with A44


capsule, blue/pink, imprinted with A45

Amoxicillin 250 mg Chew-RAN

round, pink, berry, imprinted with RX 515

Amoxicillin 250 mg Chew-TEV

oval, white, imprinted with 93, 2268

Amoxicillin 250 mg-RAN

capsule, yellow, imprinted with RX654, RX654

Amoxicillin 250 mg-STA

capsule, red/pink, imprinted with WC 730, WC 730

Amoxicillin 250 mg-TEV

capsule, brown/white, imprinted with 93 3107, 93 3107

Amoxicillin 500 mg-RAN

capsule, red/yellow, imprinted with RX655, RX655

Amoxicillin 500 mg-STA

capsule, orange/peach, imprinted with WC 731, WC 731

Amoxicillin 500 mg-TEV

capsule, brown, imprinted with TEVA 3109

Amoxicillin 875 mg Tab-RAN

oval, pink, imprinted with RX 763

Amoxil 125 mg Chew

oval, pink, imprinted with AMOXIL, 125

Amoxil 125 mg Chew

oval, pink, banana-cherry-peppermint, imprinted with AMOXIL, 125

Amoxil 250 mg Chew

oval, pink, banana-cherry-peppermint, imprinted with AMOXIL, 250

Amoxil 250 mg

capsule, blue/pink, imprinted with AMOXIL 250, AMOXIL 250

Amoxil 500 mg Cap

capsule, blue/pink, imprinted with AMOXIL 500, AMOXIL 500

Amoxil 500 mg tab

oblong, pink, imprinted with AMOXIL 500

Amoxil 875 mg

oblong, pink, imprinted with AMOXIL 875

Trimox 250 mg

capsule, maroon/pink, imprinted with BRISTOL 7278, BRISTOL 7278

Trimox 500 mg

capsule, peach/red, imprinted with BRISTOL 7279, BRISTOL 7279

Trimox Chew 250 mg

round, pink, imprinted with BMS 38

Side effects of antibiotics

Doctors prescribe antibiotics to treat bacterial infections. Most of the side effects associated with antibiotics are not life-threatening. In some cases, however, antibiotics can cause severe side effects, such as anaphylaxis.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), adverse reactions to antibiotics are responsible for 1 in 5 medication-related emergency room visits.

People should always talk with a doctor if antibiotics cause bothersome symptoms.

Call 911 and immediately stop taking antibiotics if side effects are severe or interfere with breathing.

People take antibiotics to clear bacterial infections. However, antibiotics may cause adverse side effects in some people.

Side effects may include:

1. Digestive problems

Issues with digestion are one of the most commonly reported side effects of taking antibiotics.

Symptoms of digestion problems include:

  • nausea
  • indigestion
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • bloating
  • feeling of fullness
  • loss of appetite
  • stomach cramping or pain

Most digestive problems go away once someone stops take an antibiotic.

Anyone experiencing severe or persistent symptoms should stop taking the antibiotics and talk with a doctor.

Severe symptoms include:

  • blood or mucus in stool
  • severe diarrhea
  • intense stomach cramping or pain
  • fever
  • uncontrollable vomiting

To decrease the risk of developing digestive issues, be sure to read the instructions that come with the medication.

2. Fungal infections

Antibiotics are designed to kill harmful bacteria. However, they sometimes kill the good bacteria that protect people from fungal infections.

As a result, many people taking antibiotics develop fungal infections in the:

People taking antibiotics or who have taken them and think they may have a fungal infection should talk with their doctor as soon as possible.

Antifungal medications treat fungal infections in most cases.

Symptoms of common fungal infections include:

  • vaginal itchiness, swelling, and soreness
  • pain and a burning sensation during intercourse and when peeing
  • abnormal vaginal discharge, usually white-to-grey and lumpy
  • fever and chills
  • a white, thick coating in the mouth and throat
  • pain while eating or swallowing
  • white patches on the throat, cheeks, roof of the mouth, or tongue
  • loss of taste
  • a cottony feeling in the mouth

3. Drug interactions

Some common medications interact with certain antibiotics. These include:

People should always tell a doctor or pharmacist about all medications they are taking to help avoid interactions. The pamphlet in the package should also list any drugs that might interact with that specific type of antibiotic.

4. Photosensitivity

Share on PinterestPeople should use sun protection when taking antibiotics that can cause photosensitive skin.

Many types of antibiotics make the skin more sensitive to the sun (photosensitive).

While taking antibiotics that may cause photosensitivity, people should:

  • avoid prolonged periods of light exposure
  • always use high-SPF, broad-spectrum sunscreens when in the sun
  • wear protective clothing when in the sun, such as hats, long-sleeved shirts, and long pants

Anyone who experiences extreme sensitivity to the sun while taking antibiotics should talk to a doctor.

5. Teeth and bone staining

Some estimates suggest that 3 to 6 percent of the people who take tetracycline develop stains on their teeth enamel. The staining is irreversible in adults because their teeth do not regrow or change.

Staining can also appear on some bones. However, bones are continuously remodeling themselves, so bone stains caused by antibiotics are typically reversible.

Talk to a doctor about switching medications if taking antibiotics causes tooth discoloration or staining.

Some of the more serious side effects associated with antibiotics include:

1. Anaphylaxis

In rare cases, antibiotics can cause an extremely severe allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Signs of anaphylaxis include:

  • a rapid heartbeat
  • hives or a red, itchy rash
  • feelings of uneasiness and agitation
  • tingling sensations and dizziness
  • general itchiness and hives over large portions of the body
  • swelling under the skin
  • swelling of the mouth, throat, and face
  • severe wheezing, coughing, and trouble breathing
  • low blood pressure
  • fainting
  • seizures

Anaphylaxis generally develops within 15 minutes of taking an antibiotic, but anaphylaxis can occur up to an hour or more after a dose.

Anaphylaxis can be fatal without immediate emergency care. If people suspect anaphylaxis, they should dial the emergency services or go to the emergency room right away.


Clostridium difficile-induced colitis

Clostridium difficile, or C. difficile, is a type of bacteria that can infect the large intestine and cause Clostridium difficile-induced colitis, an infection that causes intestinal inflammation and severe diarrhea.

C-difficile-induced colitis is challenging to treat because the bacterium is resistant to most antibiotics available.

Severe, chronic, or untreated cases of C-difficile-induced colitis can lead to death.

Anyone who has any concerns about developing an antimicrobial-resistant infection when taking antibiotics should talk to a doctor.

3. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Some bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics.

Some infections caused by an antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria do not respond to any available antibiotics.

Antibacterial-resistant infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening.

Ways to help reduce the risk of developing antibiotic-resistant infections include:

  • taking prescribed antibiotics exactly as directed
  • always completing all antibiotic doses prescribed even if symptoms have gone away
  • never taking antibiotics prescribed to someone else
  • never taking antibiotics that are out-of-date or old
  • talking with a doctor about alternatives to antibiotics
  • only using antibiotics when necessary for bacterial infections
  • making sure that older people or those with disabilities have someone who can help them take their medications correctly
  • not taking antibiotics for symptoms of the common cold or flu, such as a runny nose, cough, or wheezing
  • avoiding use of antibiotics frequently or for extended periods unless necessary
  • returning unused antibiotics to a pharmacy or putting them in the regular trash
  • never flushing unused or extra antibiotics down the toilet or a drain
  • never breaking up or crushing antibiotic pills or tablets
  • avoiding fruit and fruit juices, dairy, and alcohol for 3 hours after taking an antibiotic dose


Kidney failure

The kidneys are responsible for removing toxins, including medications, from the blood and body through urine. Antibiotics can overburden and damage the kidneys in people with kidney conditions.

As people age, their kidneys also naturally become less effective. Doctors will often prescribe older people or people with kidney conditions lower doses of antibiotics to begin with.

Anyone who has a severe reaction of any kind to antibiotics should immediately stop taking the medications and seek medical attention.

People who experience unpleasant side effects should also tell their doctor about symptoms.

People are often only sensitive or allergic to a specific type or family of antibiotics.

A doctor can usually prescribe a different type of antibiotic if someone is sensitive or allergic to one kind. If a person’s symptoms are mild, a doctor may decide they can continue taking the antibiotic if the benefits outweigh the side effects.

A doctor should assess more severe side effects of antibiotics as soon as symptoms appear.

Antibiotics – Side effects – NHS

The most common side effects of antibiotics affect the digestive system. These happen in around 1 in 10 people.

Side effects of antibiotics that affect the digestive system include: 

  • vomiting
  • nausea (feeling like you may vomit)
  • diarrhoea
  • bloating and indigestion
  • abdominal pain
  • loss of appetite

These side effects are usually mild and should pass once you finish your course of treatment.

If you get any additional side effects, contact your GP or the doctor in charge of your care for advice.

Antibiotic allergic reactions

Around 1 in 15 people have an allergic reaction to antibiotics, especially penicillin and cephalosporins. In most cases, the allergic reaction is mild to moderate and can take the form of:

  • a raised, itchy skin rash (urticaria, or hives)
  • coughing
  • wheezing
  • tightness of the throat, which can cause breathing difficulties

These mild to moderate allergic reactions can usually be successfully treated by taking antihistamines.

But if you’re concerned, or your symptoms don’t get better with treatment, call your GP for advice. If you cannot contact your GP, call NHS 111.

In rare cases, an antibiotic can cause a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Initial symptoms of anaphylaxis are often the same as a mild allergic reaction. They include:

  • feeling lightheaded or faint
  • breathing difficulties – such as fast, shallow breathing
  • wheezing
  • a fast heartbeat
  • clammy skin
  • confusion and anxiety
  • collapsing or losing consciousness

There may be other allergy symptoms, including an itchy, raised rash (hives), feeling or being sick, swelling (angioedema), or stomach pain.

Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency and can be life-threatening. Dial 999 immediately and ask for an ambulance if you think you or someone around you is experiencing anaphylaxis.

Tetracyclines and sensitivity to light 

Tetracyclines can make your skin sensitive to sunlight and artificial sources of light, such as sun lamps and sunbeds.

Avoid prolonged exposure to bright light while taking these medicines.


Severe aches and pains

In very rare cases, fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause disabling, long-lasting or permanent side effects affecting the joints, muscles and nervous system.

Stop taking fluoroquinolone treatment straight away and see your GP if you get a serious side effect including:

  • tendon, muscle or joint pain – usually in the knee, elbow or shoulder
  • tingling, numbness or pins and needles

Heart problems

Fluoroquinolone antibiotics can cause serious side effects in people who are at risk of heart valve problems.

Stop taking fluoroquinolone treatment straight away and see your GP if you get a serious side effect including:

  • swollen ankles, feet and legs (oedema)
  • new heart palpitations (heartbeats that suddenly become more noticeable)
  • sudden shortness of breath

Reporting side effects

The Yellow Card Scheme allows you to report suspected side effects from any type of medicine you are taking.

It’s run by a medicines safety watchdog called the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

Page last reviewed: 23 May 2019
Next review due: 23 May 2022

What is Burning Mouth Syndrome & How is it treated?

Burning mouth syndrome is an oral concern that causes burning pain in the mouth affecting the tongue, gums and the inside of the mouth. Usually the pain is chronic and has no apparent cause. Sometimes the pain is severe and unbearable. Burning mouth syndrome is also known as scalded mouth syndrome, burning lips syndrome and glossodynia. Some of the symptoms of this oral condition include increased thirst, a burning sensation in the tongue, sore mouth and acidic mouth taste. Although the real cause of this condition cannot be known, some other health concerns may trigger the problem, such as stomach disorders, hormonal imbalance and stress or anxiety.

Some strong medicines such as antibiotics may also contribute to a dry and painful mouth. You can try changing or discontinuing certain medicines to see if this has any effect on the burning condition of the mouth. Some other pain relieving drugs may also be prescribed by the doctor to help lessen the soreness and irritation. In some cases when the cause is known, the other problem is treated first to cure the burning mouth syndrome. Inactive thyroid may also be a cause of this problem and therefore sometimes the doctor suggests seeing a thyroid specialist to pinpoint the main cause of burning mouth syndrome.

This oral concern may be confused with dry mouth or xerostomia which has different symptoms and causes. Dry mouth usually occurs as a side effect of certain drugs such as antidepressants. Dry mouth is not as much painful or irritating as compared to burning mouth syndrome which triggers severe pain and discomfort. In women the major cause of a burning mouth may be depression, anxiety and other psychological conditions. So, there is a need to address these problems before prescribing anything for the oral condition. Some researchers have also suggested that certain dental procedures may set off burning or dry mouth such as tooth extractions.

Not drinking enough water or not rinsing the mouth properly may also cause dry mouth which develops into its more severe form as a result of neglected oral hygiene. Your doctor may prescribe certain tests to diagnose the condition properly before suggesting any treatment. Sometimes the cause of such a condition is hormonal imbalance which can be detected through appropriate blood tests. Certain types of antioxidants may help control the problem and in some cases cognitive therapy might be required. In addition to these, some vitamins and mouth washes rich in fluoride and antiseptics are also prescribed to patients of burning mouth syndrome to alleviate pain.

Burning mouth syndrome affects women more than men, probably because women are often the victims of psychological disorders and hormonal imbalance. It may also cause depression and sleeplessness due to the chronic pain and irritation that won’t go away. Antidepressants are given to such patients to help lessen the effects of this oral condition. Some home remedies are also helpful and effective, such as avoiding tobacco products and citrus and other acidic fruits. In addition to these, drinking a lot of water and other liquids may also help in curing this irritating and painful oral condition.

What a Coated Tongue is Telling You

Posted under: General
Posted on: July 19, 2015

If you have an oddly colored or coated tongue, it can be upsetting at first, but can also be cured without second thought. Discover what’s causing your tongue troubles and learn the right way to treat your tongue.

White Tongue

The Cause: The main sign of this condition is a white, coated tongue. It often occurs if you’re on antibiotics, taking steroids for asthma, undergoing chemotherapy, or dealing with diabetes or a compromised immune system. A white tongue may also be a sign of leukoplakia from excessive alcohol or tobacco use.

The Cure: Brush your tongue twice a day for two weeks. Why you should you brush your tongue? The reason is to ensure that a coated tongue is not an oral hygiene problem. If you continue to have a white tongue, it may be an overgrowth of candida, which is also called yeast or oral thrush. It is easy to treat with an anti-fungal medication.

Striped Tongue

The Cause: This may be a sign of a chronic condition called oral lichen planus, which is when the immune system attacks the cells in the mouth. Middle-aged women most commonly experience it.

The Cure: If it is not painful, you probably won’t need treatment. Yet have your doctor monitor your case because you may have a higher risk of developing oral cancer. If the condition is painful, you may be given medication.

Red Tongue

The Cause: A red tongue could be a sign of a sore throat, dry mouth, or vitamin deficiency. But if you have strep throat and a high fever, it may indicate scarlet fever.

The Cure: A sore throat can be soothed with throat lozenges and dry mouth can be treated with a product for saliva replacement or by drinking more water. A vitamin deficiency can be corrected with supplements and scarlet fever can be treated with antibiotics.

Bumpy Tongue

The Cause: The taste buds on the back of the tongue are naturally bumpier than the buds near the front, so expect small bumps in those areas. Eating hot, spicy foods can often irritate them and make them appear larger. Besides these bumps, you may notice others due to canker sores or herpes.

The Cure: Bumps due to canker sores or herpes will subside on their own, but you can expedite healing by soothing canker sores with an over-the-counter ointment, gargling with baking soda mixed in water, and avoiding acidic foods. Herpes requires a prescription antiviral medication.

Ridges On The Tongue

The Cause: These typically occur when your teeth press into your tongue while you sleep. Yet ridges may also indicate a fissured tongue, which is a long crack down the center of the tongue.

The Cure: Sleep-induced ridges go away on their own, but a fissured tongue is a lifelong genetic issue. If you have a fissured tongue, food may get trapped in the tongue’s indentions and lead to dental decay. This is why you should brush your tongue when brushing your teeth to remove any trapped food and debris that could cause dental issues.

Black Tongue

The Cause: Even though this condition looks scary, it’s harmless and typically occurs when cells on the tongue grow faster than they’re shed. It’s associated with improper oral hygiene, antibiotic use, a yeast infection, cancer therapy, and diabetes.

The Cure: This condition typically subsides on its own.

Geographic Tongue

The Cause: This condition gets its name from a mix of red and white spots on the tongue that resemble a geographic map. It’s simply a sign that your taste buds have worn down in different areas. Interestingly, some medical research indicates a correlation with the autoimmune condition called celiac disease.

The Cure: No treatment is required for this common condition.

To learn about our family dentistry practice in Philadelphia, call Gentle Dental of Pennsylvania today at or make an appointment.

Gentle Dental of Pennsylvania offers affordable family dentistry and gentle, compassionate dental care in Philadelphia. With 8 affiliated practices in the Philadelphia area, our offices are conveniently located with extended hours to meet your needs. At Gentle Dental of Pennsylvania, we provide most dental services, from basic preventative care and general dentistry to specialized procedures and complete dental reconstruction. We accept most dental insurance plans and offer affordable financial solutions for any budget. Patient satisfaction is our top priority and we strive to provide the exceptional, affordable dental care and personal touch that lead to lasting relationships. A smiling patient is our greatest reward and we look forward to keeping those smiles healthy, beautiful, and bright. Discover an affordable dentist who truly cares at Gentle Dental of Pennsylvania.

Antibiotics and Inhalers can Affect Your Teeth

We all know how excess consumption of sugary or acidic foods and beverages can harm our teeth. But did you know that antibiotics and inhalers can lead to cavities or tooth discoloration?

High doses of Antibiotics can cause Oral Thrush

Oral thrush is a condition caused by a yeast called candida.  High doses or prolonged use of antibiotics can cause this yeast to grow in the mouth.  The condition is recognized by the formation of white spots. These spots can join together causing larger spots. The mouth will feel sore from this infection.  Interestingly, antibiotics that kill other harmless bacteria in the mouth will not kill candida.

Furthermore, on occasion, antibiotics can cause a hypersensitive condition known as erythema multiform. These conditions will cause sores and blisters in the mouth and, possibly, a rash of red and pink rings on hands and legs. This should clear quickly, but if it lingers, must be treated with steroids.

Another problem is the overuse of antibiotic mouthwash which may add to the potential for oral thrush.

Seasonal use of Antibiotics and Asthma Inhalers

More antibiotics are prescribed during the cold and flu season. Some of those antibiotics are tetracycline or a derivative of tetracycline. Anyone of this family of antibiotics can cause brown striping on the enamel of your teeth.

Tetracycline should be avoided in pregnant women and children as it can affect the tooth enamel in infants and young children, weakening tooth enamel, inducing susceptibility to tooth decay.

The change of seasons may bring about the need for asthma suffers to use inhalers more frequently.  Inhalers for asthma include an ingredient that relaxes muscles around the airways making it easier to breathe.   This ingredient, beta-adrenergic agonists, has a slightly acidic content which can be harmful to the enamel of your teeth leaving the teeth susceptible to tooth decay.  Some inhalers are in a powdered form that contains lactose.  When this sugary content stays on the teeth it can also cause tooth decay.  This can be avoided if users rinse immediately with water around the teeth and gargle at the back of the throat.

Talk to your Dental Professional about your Medications

If you are prescribed prolong use of antibiotics or other medications for health problems, be sure to inform to your dentist or dental hygienist.  If you and your dental professional are informed early enough, your dentist will educate you in precautionary measures to prevent tooth decay or discoloration.

For more information on how inhalers and antibiotics can affect your dental health, visit https://www.rotemdentalcare.com/antibiotics today!

People who have had medications affect their teeth or cause dry mouth visit, Dr. Ron Rotem, in Toms River, NJ.  For nearly 20 years, Dr. Rotem has been treating patients who suffer the adverse effects of medications on their teeth.

Whether it is teeth whitening, tooth decay, or serious dry mouth, Ocean County dentist Dr. Ron Rotem, DDS has the experience and success rate in the treatment of medication-related oral health problems.

It is said that to be forewarned is to be forearmed!  Talk to Dr. Ron Rotem, DDS today if you suspect your medications are causing problems with your teeth or gums.



90,000 The effect of antimicrobial drugs on oral health

In recent years, issues have been widely discussed on the uncontrolled and incorrect use of antibacterial drugs, which can lead to undesirable changes in the composition of the oral microbiocenosis.

Antibacterial agents from the macrolide group (erythromycin, clarithromycin), penicillins (amoxicillin, amoxicillin / clavulanate), tetracyclines cause a number of pathological manifestations in the oral cavity. The main subjective manifestations of the negative effect of antibiotics include complaints of dry mouth (antibiotics of all groups), a change in taste sensations from bitter to metal taste (penicillins, in particular amoxicillin and clavulanic acid), changes in taste sensitivity (macrolides, in particular erythromycin).

In addition, with their long-term uncontrolled intake, gingival hyperplasia (erythromycin), pigmentation of the oral mucosa and necks of the teeth (tetracyclines), discoloration of the tongue – a false “hairy tongue” (penicillins – amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) can be observed.

Glucocorticoids are often used to treat both inflammatory and allergic manifestations. Along with the positive effects, these drugs can cause a number of complications, in particular, a violation of local immunity and exacerbation of chronic processes in the oral cavity. Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause perversion of taste sensitivity, the phenomenon of aphthous stomatitis.

Immunocorrectors, which are often used in the treatment of autoimmune skin diseases (psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis), as maintenance therapy to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs (kidneys, liver, heart), increase the risk of developing fungal infections of the oral mucosa and the occurrence of herpes simplex virus …

Considering that the oral cavity is an open biosystem that is inhabited by various microorganisms that exist in synergy with a macroorganism, and has a positive effect on the state of the oral tissue, one cannot ignore a number of antiseptic drugs for local use, which disrupt the balance of microflora due to their uncontrolled reception. The resulting dysbiosis leads to the progressive multiplication of saprophytic yeasts of the genus Candida and local lesions in the oral cavity.

Currently, oral hygiene products are no longer only hygienic. In addition to the cleansing action, they are used for the prevention of various diseases of the oral cavity, and in some cases for treatment. For these purposes, special additives with targeted action are introduced into their composition.

Chlorhexidine bigluconate as an antiseptic is widely used in medicine in general and in dentistry in particular. The action of chlorhexidine is based on the ability to be in long-term contact with negatively charged bacteria (the drug has a strongly pronounced positive charge), which leads to rupture of the cell membrane, which, under the influence of chlorhexidine, is not able to maintain the osmotic balance.Unfortunately, its long-term use leads to the death of not only the flora supporting inflammation, but also, first of all, the normal lactic acid flora, which contributes to the development of dysbiotic conditions and worsens the course of the underlying disease.

The second drug that is actively used in oral hygiene products is triclosan. It is a broad-spectrum drug with an inhibitory effect on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The introduction of tric lozan into hygiene products enhances their anti-carious and anti-inflammatory effect.However, like chlorhexidine, it does not have a selective effect on microorganisms. Some commercial mouthwashes contain ethyl alcohol as an antiseptic or preservative, the most common side effect of which is dry mouth.

Sweeteners (xylitol and sorbitol) as the main component of hygiene products and antimicrobial drugs, medicines in liquid form (cough syrups and chewable tablets), penetrating into the bacterial cell, disrupt the phosphorylation process, which leads to the destruction of cells of the oral mucosa.

Thus, the regular, and most importantly, uncontrolled use of drugs by patients cannot but affect the health of the oral cavity, which should be taken into account in order to establish a dental diagnosis and determine a treatment plan.

8 side effects of antibiotics that are rarely reported even by doctors

The most common side effects of antibiotics are nausea and diarrhea. Almost everyone knows about them – either from doctors or from their own experience.But American scientists have found that at least 20% of people who have taken antibiotics at least once in their lives have experienced other side effects from the drugs. We will talk about them in this article.

We are at Bright Side want to emphasize that different people can have different side effects from taking medications. You can always find a complete list of them in the instructions for the drug.

1. Sun sensitivity

Certain antibiotics (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfones) can affect how your skin reacts to UV radiation.Too much sunlight while taking medication can increase the chance of burns or severe flaking of the skin.

These same antibiotics can cause a rash, even if a person has been in the sun for only 15 minutes.

It is better not to be in the sun between 10:00 and 14:00, use sunscreen and hide your skin under your clothes.

2. Headache or dizziness

Headache and dizziness are two more common complaints from people taking antibiotics.But 90,031 they usually go away after completion of the course of treatment.

If the head hurts not much, then you can take pain reliever. If the pain is unbearable, then it is better to see a doctor. Most likely, he will change the antibiotic.

3. Fever

Fever can be a side effect of more than just antibiotics. If it manifested itself against their background, then, , you may have an allergic reaction to the medicine, which is accompanied by a fever of .If not, it’s a separate and frustrating side effect.

Fever can occur due to almost any antibiotic, but most often it accompanies the intake of beta-lactams, cephalexin, minocycline and sulfonamide.

If you get a fever while taking an antibiotic, it will most likely go away on its own pretty soon. But if the fever is strong and lasts too long, you need to try to bring it down and contact your doctor to change the antibiotic.

4.Fungal infection

Antibiotics change the bacterial environment of our bodies, so a person becomes vulnerable to fungi. They can occur in the mouth (stomatitis), on the skin or under the nails.

If your doctor has prescribed a long course of treatment for you, it is better to start taking anti-fungal drugs immediately along with antibiotics.

5. Heart problems

This is uncommon, but antibiotics can cause heart problems. They usually lead to arrhythmias or low blood pressure.

The most common side effects are erythromycin and some fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin.

Consult a doctor to change the antibiotic.

6. Tooth staining

Antibiotics of the tetracycline group can cause staining or discoloration of teeth in children under 8 years old . And if you take them during pregnancy, then there is a great chance that the born baby will have problems with the enamel of the teeth.

Not so long ago, scientists found that the more modern antibiotic doxycycline (from the tetracyclines group) does not bind so strongly to calcium that it does not cause staining of the teeth.Therefore, it can be taken without fear of such consequences. But, of course, only as prescribed by a doctor.

7. Allergy

One of the most dangerous reactions of the body to antibiotics is allergy. In this case, person may develop an itchy rash, eyelids, lips, tongue and even throat may swell, leading to anaphylaxis . Sometimes in such situations, a dose of adrenaline received in an ambulance can save the patient.

But an allergic reaction to any one antibiotic does not mean that their intake is completely contraindicated for you.

Be sure to inform your doctor about your existing allergies and take another group of antibiotics. Also, be careful when starting a new medication that you have never tried before. At the first symptoms of allergy, you should consult a doctor or ambulance.

8. Unwanted pregnancy

If you take the antibiotic rifamycin and oral contraceptives at the same time, the effectiveness of the latter is reduced. As a result, the chance of unwanted pregnancy increases.Other antibiotics reduce the effect of oral contraceptives to a lesser extent.

Use an additional barrier method of contraception while taking antibiotics and for another week after completing the course. For more information on the timing of additional protection, see the instructions for oral contraceptives.

If you have any of the side effects while taking antibiotics, do not self-medicate, do not ignore the unwell. Be sure to go to the doctor and consult.

Did you know about any of these side effects of medication?

90,000 Antibiotic intake provoked black hairy tongue syndrome

Doctors from Washington University Hospital described
an unusual clinical case – blackening of the patient’s tongue as a result of taking
antibiotic.After discontinuation of the drug, the woman’s tongue returned to normal. About rare though
and not a unique event, scientists reported in a note in The New England Journal of Medicine .

According to doctors, a 55-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with
broken legs after a road accident. She developed inflammation caused by
multiple microbial infection, and doctors prescribed her a course of antibiotics meropenem (a group of beta-lactams) and
minocycline (a group of tetracyclines). A week later, a woman
complained of nausea and a disgusting taste in her mouth, in addition, her tongue was blackened.Doctors diagnosed the patient with a condition known as black hairy
tongue “- the formation of elongated black-brown papillae on the surface of the tongue
colors. The woman was replaced with another drug for minocycline, and after four weeks her
the tongue returned to its normal state.

Patient’s tongue before and after discontinuation of minocycline

Yasir Hamad and David K.Warren / NEJM 2018

This language change is more common in people who
do not observe oral hygiene, and in heavy smokers. In some
In populations, it does not occur at all, and in some it is observed in 10 percent of the population. The exact reason for its development is not known – blackening of the tongue
may be due to the detachment of the epithelium of the tongue and the subsequent growth of microorganisms
or an accumulation of microparticles.The resulting detachment “hairs” can
reach 12-18 millimeters in length. This condition is not dangerous for health, but
may be associated with unpleasant symptoms such as burning sensation, nausea,
bad breath and others. According to statistics, a typical patient with “black hairy
tongue ”is an elderly male smoker who does not observe hygiene.
Usually doctors are interested in cases of development of “hairy
language ”associated with taking certain medications, as in the case described here.Most often, antibiotics are associated with blackening of the tongue – in particular,
penicillin, erythromycin, doxycycline, and neomycin. For minocycline it was also
several cases have been reported. The mechanism of this connection is unknown. Since “black
hairy tongue “is usually not included in the list of side effects from taking
antibiotics, doctors report each case separately. Besides antibiotics,
the syndrome has been reported with certain antipsychotics.

In addition to blackening of the tongue in a woman with a broken leg, among such curious cases described by doctors as a single example (“case study”), one can mention, for example, a rupture of the pharynx when trying to contain a sneeze, and a fatal allergic pneumonia, which developed in a man from – for addiction to playing the bagpipes.

Daria Spasskaya

90,000 Antibiotics without side effects. What is the correct way to take these medications?

Foods that you can’t eat!

To prevent antibiotics from causing harm to health, during the treatment you will have to give up some products, primarily alcohol. After all, alcohol, in fact, is a poison for our cells. Yes, in a small amount it is formed in our body, in the intestines when bacteria break down plant food.And a healthy person can cope with small doses of this substance. But against the background of the disease, when the body is affected not only by viruses and bacteria, but also by antibiotics, alcohol intake is a blow to the detoxification system. She simply cannot stand this, and then problems with the liver cannot be avoided.

Another drink that you will have to say goodbye to for a while is milk. Calcium contained in dairy products reacts with the components of antibacterial drugs, thereby deactivating them.As a result, the drugs simply won’t work. In addition, milk reduces the number of beneficial bacteria, and against the background of dysbiosis (imbalance between beneficial and opportunistic microflora), the ability to digest lactose – milk sugar – deteriorates. Therefore, when combined with milk, antibiotics can lead to intestinal fermentation and bloating.

Also, while taking medications, it is worth minimizing the amount of carbohydrate foods, especially simple carbohydrates, as much as possible. As we have already said, they can provoke the growth of opportunistic microflora.

Avoid spicy, fried, spicy foods – such food irritates the stomach lining, which is not in the best condition due to antibiotics. Fats should also be at a minimum – fatty foods overload the liver.

Nutrition while taking antibiotics should include foods that protect the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, and also support our friendly microflora. These are primarily vegetables, which are rich in fiber (it is dietary fiber that serves as food for beneficial microflora).It can be celery, zucchini, eggplant, greens. You can include a little fruit in the menu – too much of them is not recommended due to the rather high sugar content. But both vegetables and fruits need to be thermally processed (boiled, stewed, baked) – fermented fiber is absorbed faster and easier by bacteria.

Do not forget about strong meat broths – they help to protect and restore the intestinal mucosa. It is no coincidence that they are so often used in medical nutrition.

90,000 10 side effects of antibiotics that even doctors do not talk about

Some of them are strange, but there are also serious ones!

Antibiotics are today one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for treating bacterial infections, which, unlike viruses, do not usually go away on their own.

While research shows that they are often taken by patients who do not really need them, doctors believe that, when used correctly, drugs are an extremely important (and often life-saving) part of modern medicine.

But like all drugs, antibiotics can have side effects, Health recalls.

Most are not life threatening and patients can often see a doctor for help preventing or treating unpleasant complications such as diarrhea or secondary infections.

But some of the side effects can be serious, and some can be creepy! (Take, for example, the recent case of a woman who developed a condition called black hairy tongue after taking the drugs meropenem and minocycline. )

Here are some antibiotic side effects you should be aware of and watch out for if you are prescribed these drugs.

1. Digestive problems.

One of the most common complaints from patients taking antibiotics is gastrointestinal problems such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, says clinician Keith Dzintars.

“There is diarrhea associated with antibiotics and we advise patients to be careful,” she says.Drinking plenty of fluids and fiber can help patients cope until they finish their treatment.


If the diarrhea becomes severe, it may be a more serious condition associated with Clostridia.

“This happens when the antibiotic has killed the good bacteria in the intestines, and the bad bacteria, on the contrary, multiplied,” says Dzintars.

This condition can lead to dehydration and requires hospitalization, so call your doctor if you have loose stools several times a day.

Antibiotics can also cause an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine, which can contribute to bloating and cramping that continues even after you stop taking them. This type of infection usually requires probiotics to bring the intestinal bacterial balance back to normal.

2. Headaches.

Headaches are another common complaint of people taking antibiotics. “If you have a headache and have not had a lack of sleep or a lack of caffeine, this can certainly be the antibiotic you are taking,” says Dzintars.


“These headaches are usually temporary,” she adds. “And any analgesic can help with them.”

3. Sun sensitivity.

Some antibiotics are photosensitizers, meaning they affect how the skin reacts to UV radiation. Exposure to sunlight can increase the likelihood of burning, flaking, and subsequent damage to skin cells.

Some of the drugs, when exposed to sunlight, can cause a red, itchy rash in as little as 15 minutes outside.


This is why people taking tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfones should avoid prolonged periods of sun exposure, especially between 10:00 and 14:00, and be sure to use sunscreen and protective clothing when outside.

4. Reducing the action of other drugs.

Antibiotics treat a bacterial infection but may reduce or change the effect of other drugs.

Drugs that can interact with antibiotics include anticoagulants, antacids, antihistamines, anti-inflammatory drugs, psoriasis drugs, diuretics, antifungals, steroids, diabetes drugs, muscle relaxants, migraine drugs, and some antidepressants.


Hormonal contraceptives may also be less effective when used with the antibiotic Rifampin (anti-tuberculosis drug). But, fortunately, this drug is rarely prescribed. Be aware that if the antibiotic causes vomiting, there is a chance that the contraceptive pill may not be fully absorbed.

Antibiotics may also be incompatible with alcohol. In particular, metronidazole, tinidazole, and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole should not interact with alcohol because this combo can cause headaches, facial flushing, fast heartbeat, nausea, and vomiting.

5. Fungal infection.

Because antibiotics alter the microbiome, they make us vulnerable to yeast infections and other types of fungi, says Dzintars. Fungal infections can occur in the mouth (stomatitis), on the skin, or under the nails.


Antibiotics, especially when taken for a long time, can also upset the balance of bacteria in a woman’s vagina. This can change its pH and can also contribute to yeast infections.Taking anti-fungal medications while you are taking antibiotics can help prevent this side effect.

Antibiotics, especially tetracyclines, can cause tiny lesions on the surface of the tongue that will absorb bacteria, tobacco, food, and make the tongue appear “fringed” and dark. Fortunately, the condition usually goes away soon after the medication is stopped.

6. Anaphylaxis.

The most dangerous side effects of antibiotics are associated with allergic reactions.In fact, Dzintars says, allergic reactions to antibiotics are one of the most common reasons people end up in emergency rooms.

“People get covered with a rash or hives, their lips are swollen or they start to choke,” says Dzintars. With a severe anaphylactic reaction, a person’s throat swells, and he needs a dose of adrenaline to save his life.


These reactions are rare, but they definitely deserve attention, especially if you are prescribed a new medication that you have not used before.Allergy to one type of antibiotic does not exclude allergies to other types, says Dzintars.

7. Tooth staining.

Studies have shown that tetracyclines can cause permanent staining or discoloration of permanent teeth in children. As a result, since 1970, all drugs in this class have been issued with a warning sign that does not recommend their use in children under 8 years of age. (Taking these drugs during pregnancy has also been linked to stains on the teeth of the unborn child.)


But the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that doxycycline, a new antibiotic in the tetracycline class, “binds less readily to calcium and has not been shown to cause the same staining on teeth.”

This is important as doxycycline is the best treatment for tick-borne disease. Mistrust of this drug – and doctors’ fears about teeth – can prevent children from receiving life-saving treatment.

8. Tendinitis.

Medicines known as fluoroquinolones (including Cipro and Levaquin) have been popular choices for the treatment of common conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and urinary tract infections.But in recent years, doctors have realized that these drugs tend to cause more serious side effects than other classes of antibiotics.


For example, damage to the tendons that connect muscle to bone, including reports of pain (tendonitis), trauma (tendinopathies), or even tears. The FDA has added a warning about the risk of tendonitis as well as permanent nerve damage. In 2016, the association advised that fluoroquinolones should only be used as a last resort.

9. Double vision.

A study published in 2009 found that the use of fluoroquinolones was also associated with double vision, also known as diplopia. Researchers found 171 cases of this disorder among fluoroquinolone users between 1986 and 2009, with an average time of 9.6 days between onset of medication and onset of symptoms.


Since this type of antibiotic has also been associated with tendinitis, the authors suggested that pain and muscle spasm around the eyes may be to blame for this additional side effect.

10. Depression and anxiety.

Fluoroquinolones, along with penicillin and other drugs, have been associated with depression and anxiety. One study published in 2015 in the journal Clinical Psychiatry found that the more courses of antibiotics a person receives over a lifetime, the more likely they are to develop depression and anxiety.


Researchers speculate that antibiotics alter the composition of the body’s microbiome, which impairs nerve health, metabolism and immunity – all of which can affect a person’s mental health.

These are just some of the reasons why antibiotics should be taken only as needed and only as directed by a doctor, says Dzintars. (Apart from the growing threat of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which is fueled in part by overdosing.)

“Many people believe that antibiotics are safe and that they will become a magic pill if something is wrong,” says Dzintars.

“And yes, they are our best defense against bacteria, provided the right choice, the right dose and the right duration of treatment.And taking into account all risks. ”

Do you often take antibiotics? Have you seen any side effects?

Fia Mont

Antibiotics: pros and cons

Humanity invented antibiotics more than seven decades ago. And this is considered one of the most significant discoveries in world history. However, in recent years, antibacterial drugs have increasingly become the subject of debate. Some of their participants adhere to the point of view that antibiotics are necessary medicines that help to resist infectious diseases.Other experts are convinced that taking antibacterial drugs is dangerous, because these drugs themselves cause serious disturbances in the human body. So what are antibiotics – “friends” or “enemies”?


Associate Professor of the Department of Military Field Surgery of the Military Medical Faculty at the educational institution “Belarusian State Medical University”, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Lieutenant Colonel of Medical Service Dmitry Klyuiko:

– Translated into Russian, the word “antibiotic” (lat.anti “against” and Greek. bios “life”) means “against life”. In fact, antibacterial drugs were created to inhibit the multiplication and growth of microorganisms, which are disease-causing bacteria. Nowadays, antibacterial drugs defeat serious diseases, many of which were previously considered incurable, such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gastrointestinal infections, blood poisoning, postoperative complications and some others. Properly and timely prescribed antimicrobial agents help to cope with serious conditions, minimizing the risk of complications as much as possible.At the same time, antibiotics are ineffective for influenza and acute respiratory viral infections, since they fight bacteria, not viruses. They are prescribed exclusively for the treatment of a bacterial infection that has joined the viral disease.

Since any antibiotic is a toxic substance, the most important thing is to make sure that it brings maximum benefit and minimum harm. To do this, regardless of the type of prescribed antibacterial drugs, it is advisable to observe the following recommendations.

  • The first rule is that antibacterial drugs should be used strictly as intended and only for such diseases where they are really necessary.Even if this is a “cover” for possible complications, it should be adequate according to all principles of rationality – a certain dosage, frequency of admission, etc. Otherwise, nothing good, except harm to the body, should be expected.

Antibacterial drugs are prescribed as a preventive measure for patients with reduced immunity, high fever, “bad” cough and similar symptoms, as well as for those who are undergoing treatment in a hospital where there is a bacterial environment (nosocomal infection).If the patient is treated at home, uses rational anti-inflammatory therapy, which bears positive results, one should not “hide behind” antibiotics.

  • The second rule – even if the condition has improved immediately, the course of admission must be brought to its logical conclusion. For bacteria that are not completely suppressed will form resistance to the antibiotic, and further treatment will be ineffective. The minimum duration of treatment with an antibacterial drug is seven days.
  • The third rule is that the prescribed dosage must be adequate. Sometimes, in order to avoid side effects, the fight against the disease begins with a small dosage of antibacterial drugs. As a result, it turns out to be ineffective, and soon the bacteria stop responding to the drug and even the group to which it belongs.
  • The fourth rule is that antibiotics should be prescribed by status. That is, if a patient has a severe infection, he must take a potent antibacterial drug, and if it is weak, then a drug of the appropriate effect.And in no case is it the other way around. In general, antibiotics are prescribed empirically – the doctor assumes that the infection will be hit by the prescribed drug.
  • Fifth rule – antibiotics “don’t work” when there is a focus of infection in the body. Therefore, first it is eliminated, and only then anti-infectious drugs are prescribed.

The result of treatment will also be zero in the case when the patient’s body lacks protein, which is the carrier of the antibiotic components.The only way in this case is to replenish protein reserves.

  • Sixth rule – the same antibiotic can be produced in low and high dosages. This means that you should be careful and purchase it in doses strictly prescribed by your doctor.

Only if taken correctly and followed by all doctor’s prescriptions, antibiotic treatment is effective. In no case should you prescribe yourself antibacterial drugs on your own, so as not to harm even more.


Lieutenant Colonel of the Medical Service Dmitry Klyuiko:

—The use of antibiotics today is a kind of arms race. When a bacterium dictates its conditions, and medicine is forced to adapt to them and offer antibacterial drugs that meet these requirements. The consequences of the use of such drugs are global in nature, when one or another antibiotic ceases to affect the population.And with each generation, antimicrobial drugs become more toxic. In turn, bacteria “do not waste time” and adapt to a new enemy, showing even greater aggressiveness. The individual nature of the consequences of the use of antibiotics lies in the fact that they have a negative effect on the functioning of internal organs. That is why in our country, as in the entire civilized world, antibacterial drugs are mostly sold in pharmacies only with a doctor’s prescription.

To avoid diseases, you should strengthen the immune system by adopting a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition, exercise, hardening and much more. Antibiotics, in which case, should be the last line of treatment.

“Many medical specialists are increasingly talking about the danger of massive use of antibiotics, because due to the rapid development of viruses, there is a threat of the emergence of resistant flora, which does not lend itself to the resistance of new antibacterial drugs,” said Dmitry Klyuiko.- The first antibiotics (penicillin, biomycin) were of natural origin, they were obtained from molds. They had a narrow spectrum of action and did not harm the body, because its microflora was already adapted to the substances they contain.

New generation antibiotics are synthetic. Possessing the broadest spectrum of action, they kill almost all bacteria, including beneficial intestinal microflora. At the same time, the pathogenic microflora very quickly adapts to such drugs – practically in 2-3 months, new strains appear that are resistant to these antibacterial agents.The natural microflora, which is an integral part of our immunity, is restored much more slowly. As a result, immunity drops sharply, and many dangerous pathogens can easily enter the body – a person becomes ill with serious diseases.

Antibiotics are intended for aggressive intervention in the vital activity of microorganisms. The targeted accuracy of the effect of drugs on pathogenic bacteria has not yet been achieved, although scientists have been working on this for more than one year.Therefore, the use of antimicrobial agents is accompanied by side effects and can adversely affect the patient’s health and well-being. In this regard, before using the medicine, it is mandatory to study the instructions. In the presence of diseases indicated in the list of contraindications, you should consult your doctor for advice.

Do not take the drug on an empty stomach, so as not to aggravate irritation of the mucous membrane. Antibiotics should be taken with water.At the same time, the use of alcohol, absorbing and blood thinning drugs is excluded.

To maintain normal intestinal microflora, it is recommended to take probiotics, preparations with lactobacilli, immunomodulators and vitamin complexes.

In total, there are 17 groups of antibiotics, and each of them acts on a specific type of pathogen. There are also different ways of their introduction – intravenous, intramuscular and enteral. The dosage, the number of doses and the bioavailability of antibacterial drugs depend on them, respectively.Each of these methods has its own advantages. So, the drug that enters the body intravenously will work the fastest, then intramuscularly, and the slowest – enterally.

Take care of yourself and be healthy!

Author: Oksana Kurbeko, “Vayar”,
Photo from the archive of the military medical faculty at the Belarusian State Medical University
To the Glory of the Motherland, April 28, 2018


Levofloxacin (Systemic) | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Trade names: USA

Levaquin [DSC]

Trade names: Canada

ACT Levofloxacin; APO-Levofloxacin; Auro-Levofloxacin; MYLAN-Levofloxacin [DSC]; PMS-Levofloxacin; RIVA-Levofloxacin; SANDOZ Levofloxacin; TEVA-Levofloxacin [DSC]


  • This drug may cause severe side effects such as tendon inflammation or rupture; neurological disorders in the arms, hands, legs, or feet; disorders of the nervous system.They can occur separately or simultaneously. They can occur hours to weeks after you start taking this drug. Some of the listed effects may be irreversible and lead to disability or death.
  • The risk of irritation and tendon rupture is higher in people over the age of 60, in patients with heart, kidney, or lung transplants, or in people taking steroid medications. Tendon disorders can occur for several months after treatment.Call your doctor right away if you have pain, bruising, or swelling in the back of the ankle, shoulder, hand, or other joints. See your doctor immediately if you are unable to move or bear stress on the joint, or if you hear or feel a crunching or clicking sound.
  • Call your doctor right away if you experience signs of neurological damage. These may include an intolerance to heat or cold, a change in tactile sensitivity, a burning sensation, numbness, tingling sensation, pain or weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet.
  • Call a physician right away if you have signs of nervous system disturbance. These may include anxiety, nightmares, sleep disturbances, visual disturbances, dizziness, confusion, nervousness or agitation, feelings of anxiety, hallucinations (a person sees or hears something that is not in reality), the appearance or aggravation of behavioral or emotional disorders, such as depression or suicidal thoughts, seizures, or a very severe headache.
  • Do not take this medicine if you have severe myasthenia gravis. Very bad, sometimes deadly, breathing problems have happened in people with severe myasthenia gravis who have taken this drug.
  • For some health problems, this drug is prescribed only when other drugs are not possible or effective. Check with your doctor to ensure that the benefits of using this drug outweigh the risks.

What is this drug used for?

  • It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections.

What do I need to tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances. Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
  • If you have any of the following health problems: a prolonged QT interval on the ECG, low magnesium, or low potassium.
  • If you have ever had any of the following health problems: neurological or tendon disorders.
  • If you have had a tendon irritation or injury in the past while taking this or a similar medicine.
  • If you have an aortic aneurysm (swelling or bulging of the aorta, the main blood vessel leaving the heart) or are at risk of developing this condition. This includes the presence of other disorders of the blood vessels, high blood pressure, or certain diseases such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
  • If you are taking any medication that can cause some type of abnormal heart rhythm (prolonged QT interval). There are many medications that can cause these problems. If you are unsure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.
  • If you are breastfeeding. You may need to stop breastfeeding for some time after using the drug.

This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems. You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical condition and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any medication or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug. These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Avoid driving or other activities that require special attention until you see how this drug is affecting you.
  • This drug may interfere with some lab tests.Tell all healthcare providers and laboratory staff that you are taking this drug.
  • The use of drugs like this has been associated with an increase or decrease in blood sugar. In most cases, a decrease in blood sugar levels was observed in patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated with anti-hypoglycemic drugs such as insulin. The marked drop in blood sugar levels led to coma and, in some cases, death.Control your blood sugar as directed by your doctor.
  • Consult a doctor if you have signs of high or low blood sugar, such as fruity breath, dizziness, rapid breathing, tachycardia, confusion, drowsiness, feeling weak, flushing, headache, increased thirst or hunger , frequent urination, tremors, or sweating.
  • Perform blood tests as directed by your healthcare practitioner.Please consult your doctor.
  • Do not use for longer than the prescribed time. A secondary infection is possible.
  • You can burn quickly. Avoid direct sunlight, sun lamps and tanning beds. Use sun umbrellas, long clothing, and sunglasses.
  • Drink plenty of decaffeinated fluids, unless your doctor tells you to drink less fluids.
  • In rare cases, very bad and sometimes deadly effects have happened with this drug.These include diseases of the muscles, joints, kidneys, liver, blood, and other health problems. If you have any questions, please consult your doctor.
  • Call your doctor right away if you have signs of liver problems such as dark urine, tiredness, lack of appetite, nausea or abdominal pain, light colored stools, vomiting, or yellow skin or eyes.
  • Call your doctor right away if you have symptoms of kidney problems such as difficulty urinating, change in urine output, bloody, brown or foamy urine, shortness of breath or cough, puffiness or swelling of your face, feet, or hands. …
  • Some type of heart rhythm disorder (prolonged QT interval) may happen with this drug. See your doctor right away if you have tachycardia, irregular heartbeat, or fainting.
  • If you are over 60 years of age, take this medicine with caution. You may have more side effects.
  • If the patient is a child, use this medication with caution. Children may be at increased risk of developing certain joint and tendon disorders.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. The benefits and risks of taking this drug during pregnancy will need to be discussed.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.In rare cases, certain allergic reactions have resulted in death.
  • Pain or pressure in the chest.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Shiver.
  • Difficulty walking.
  • Vaginal itching or discharge.
  • White spots in the mouth.
  • Ringing in the ears.
  • Fever, chills, sore throat; the appearance of bruising and bleeding for unexplained reasons; a pronounced feeling of tiredness or weakness.
  • Muscle pain or weakness.
  • Absent-mindedness.
  • Violation or loss of memory.
  • Possible severe skin reaction (Stevens-Johnson syndrome / toxic epidermal necrolysis). This can lead to serious and permanent health problems and sometimes death. Get immediate medical attention if you experience symptoms such as redness, skin swelling with blistering or scaling (with or without a high fever), redness or irritation of the eyes, and ulceration in the mouth, throat, nose, or eyes.
  • Diarrhea is common with antibiotics. In rare cases, severe diarrhea caused by the bacteria Clostridium difficile (C. diff.) [CDAD] can occur. This sometimes leads to gut problems that end in death. CDAD can occur during or several months after taking antibiotics. If you have pain, abdominal cramps, or very loose, watery or bloody stools, see your doctor right away. Check with your doctor before treating diarrhea.
  • A rare but severe abnormality of the main blood vessel that leaves the heart (aorta) has occurred within 2 months of similar drugs, especially in the elderly. This can include damage or rupture of the aorta. This can lead to severe bleeding and even death. The reason for this effect is unknown. Call your doctor right away if you suddenly have severe, persistent pain in your abdomen, chest, or back.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects.However, many people have little or no side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Nausea.
  • Diarrhea or constipation.
  • Headache.

This list of potential side effects is not comprehensive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor. Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you. Follow all instructions strictly.


  • Take this drug with or without food.


  • Take liquid (solution) on an empty stomach. Take 1 hour before meals and 2 hours after meals.
  • Care should be taken to measure liquid doses. Use the dispenser that comes with the medicine. If a dispenser is not included in the package, ask your pharmacist for the dosage for this drug.

Solution or tablets:

  • Take this drug at about the same time of the day.
  • Continue using this drug as directed by your doctor or other healthcare professional, even if you feel well.
  • Do not take dairy products, antacids, didanosine, sucralfate, multivitamins, or other foods that contain calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, or zinc within 2 hours before taking this drug or 2 hours after taking this drug.


  • This drug is administered by intravenous infusion continuously over a period of time.

What to do if a dose of a drug is missed?

Solution or tablets:

  • Take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If there are less than 8 hours before your next dose, do not take the missed dose and go back to your usual schedule.
  • Do not take 2 doses at the same time or an additional dose.


  • Call your doctor for further instructions.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

Solution or tablets:

  • Store at room temperature in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.


  • If you need to store this drug at home, ask your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist for information about how to store it.

All forms of issue:

  • Store all medicines in a safe place. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, please consult your pharmacist.Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • Do not give your medicine to anyone or take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may come with other patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • A separate patient instruction sheet is attached to the product. Please read this information carefully. Reread it every time you replenish your supply. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • If you think an overdose has occurred, call a Poison Control Center immediately or seek medical attention. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Consumer Use and Limitation of Liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug. Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are suitable for a particular patient.