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Baby urine smells strong: What causes a strong urine odor at 10 months?

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13 Causes of Smelly Urine And What To Do About Them

For most, peeing is such a mundane task that you do it without giving it too much thought (unless, you know, you’re wearing a romper—so complicated).

But what if, when you sit down and relieve yourself, you notice…smelly urine? Whether it’s extra pungent or, uh, fishy, having a weird smell emanating from down there can be freaky. But honestly, there are some perfectly logical (and totally harmless) causes of smelly urine odor.

Here’s what could be causing that stinky pee, and how to address each issue.

1. You’re dehydrated.

The number-one cause of smelly pee? Not drinking enough water. “When your body is dehydrated, the urine has a strong odor and appears dark in color,” says Sherry Ross, MD, an ob-gyn at Providence St. John’s Health Center in Santa Monica. It’s your body’s way of telling you to rehydrate, stat.

What to do about it: Don’t wait until your toilet water turns a shade of mustard yellow to start adding some extra h3O to your diet. Instead, keep a water bottle handy (at your desk, in your bag, wherever) so you can drink as often as you feel like, says Dr. Ross. If you’ve done a good job hydrating, your pee will be the color of pale straw or a more transparent yellow (think: fresh-made lemonade), according to the medical experts at UC San Diego Health.

But don’t pat yourself on the back if you look into the toilet and don’t see a bit of yellow—totally clear urine means you’ve over-hydrated (yes, that’s a thing). The optimal amount of water each day, btw: eight glasses.

2. You ate something with a strong smell.

Quick Q: Have you ever eaten asparagus and noticed that your urine smelled…off afterward? You’re not alone: 40 percent of people can actually smell a difference in their pee after eating asparagus, according to a 2016 study in the British Medical Journal (according to the study, it’s actually called asparagus anosmia, and it’s due to genetic variations in our senses of smell, not the pee itself).

But asparagus isn’t the only food that can change the scent of your urine. “Certain foods like Brussels sprouts, onions, some spices, garlic, curry, salmon, and alcohol can change the smell,” says Dr. Ross.

A high-salt diet can also make your urine more concentrated, giving it a stronger scent than what you may be used to. But if too much salt is the cause of your smelly urine, you might have bigger problems. Some research has linked high-salt diets with stomach ulcers and infections, and an excess of salt can also keep you dehydrated because sodium draws water out of your cells and into your blood (in an effort to dilute the salt in your blood).

What to do about it: General medical advice says it’s best to slash the salt. Your body will feel better, and your urine won’t smell so foul. As far as eating those other foods goes, expect some slightly stinky pee afterward and don’t worry too much (it’ll go away in a day or so when you’ve digested and passed the food).

3. You just drank some coffee.

Some people “may notice an interesting odor when they’ve consumed coffee,” says Adam Ramin, MD, a urologist and medical director of Urology Cancer Specialists in Los Angeles. That smelly urine odor is due to coffee metabolites (a.k.a. byproducts from coffee after it gets broken down in your body).

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What to do about it: Really, coffee-smelling pee is NBD, but the fact that coffee is a diuretic means you could have dehydrated (read: more concentrated) pee, and that could be an issue. Try drinking a glass of water before or after your morning (and afternoon, and maybe even night—hey, we don’t judge) cup of coffee, just to avoid dehydration.

4. You have a urinary tract infection.

The most common medically concerning reason for smelly pee is a urinary tract infection (UTI), according to Dr. Ross. UTIs tend to be more prevalent in people with vulvas, according to the Office on Women’s Health (OWH) because their urethras tend to be shorter, inviting more bacteria to enter the bladder. In fact, pee that has a strong ammonia smell, or foul, or slightly sweet-smelling urine is often the first indication that you have a UTI.

Basically, the strange urine odor is the bacteria’s fault (because bacteria is what causes UTIs in the first place). That bacteria is also what makes your urine appear cloudy or bloody and gives you that telltale burning while peeing sensation, according to OWH. If you suspect a UTI, talk to your doctor immediately so you can get started on an antibiotic.

What to do about it: Even after you finish those antibiotics, keep a vigilant eye (or..umm…nose) on how your pee smells. About four in 10 vagina-owners who get a UTI will get another one within the next six months, according to OWH. Since off-smelling pee can be the first sign of this particular medical condition, paying attention to your urine odor can get you into the gyno sooner rather than later.

5. You might have diabetes or prediabetes.

One of the first ways diabetes manifests is in the bathroom, causing you to have to urinate more frequently, says Muhammad Shamim Khan, MD, a urologist at Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital.

Because your body doesn’t process sugar the same way others’ do, you may also have “fruity” or sweet-smelling urine, thanks to the extra sugar being excreted by your kidneys. Most likely, sweet smelling urine will be a sign of type 2 diabetes—the type that happens when your body doesn’t use insulin well and therefore can’t regulate blood sugar, rather than type 1, which is much more rare and happens when someone’s body doesn’t make insulin at all. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnosed in adults, according to the CDC, because it develops over many years.

Certain populations have higher rates of diabetes and prediabetes, including Black, Latinx, Native American, and some Asian American communities, in part because of disparities in health care access, as well as access to exercise and nutrition resources, research has found.

So if you’re smelling fruity pee as an adult, it’s possible that type 2 diabetes is the culprit. That scent, coupled with needing to run to the toilet more than usual, means you may want to get your blood sugar levels checked, says Dr. Khan.

What to do about it: If you already have been diagnosed with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes (or even gestational diabetes, which can happen when you’re pregnant) and then start having sweet smelling urine, it’s a sign that you’re not handling your disease well, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine. And you’ll probably want to talk with your doc ASAP.

6. You use douche products.

Douching using scented feminine hygiene products is common in certain cultures, OWH reports. Many women practice the habit to improve cleanliness, vaginal odor, or to treat vaginal infections in some cases.

But unfortunately, douching can expose you to organic compounds that are dangerous for your health, according to a 2020 study published in the Journal of Women’s Health. It’s also more likely to cause infections than remedy them. Not only does douching not clean your vagina, but it can also mess up the microbiome (a.k.a. the environment of healthy bacteria) of your entire genital area, worsening bad smells rather than improving them, says Dr. Ross. And that includes the smell of your pee.

Plus, messing up that delicate environment could actually double your risk of ovarian cancer.

What to do about it: Skip the douche. If you’re practicing good hygiene (washing the outside bits of your vulva with fragrance-free soap and warm water only) and there’s nothing else going on with your vag, you totally don’t need to douche anyway. Many of the causes of smelly urine have something to do with bacteria, and douching messes up the bacteria that naturally live in and around your vagina. A healthy vagina has a mix of both good and harmful bacteria, according to OWH. When you douche, you risk washing out too many of the good bacteria and giving the bad bacteria an upper hand, which can easily lead to an infection.

If you’re worried about the odor of your vagina, see a doctor immediately to pinpoint the real cause instead of trying to mask it with douching.

7. You have kidney stones.

Kidney stones are hard masses that can form in your kidneys when certain chemicals in your urine start to crystallize. If that’s not clear enough, let us spell it out: Kidney stones are made of pee, according to the National Kidney Foundation.

So it’s not too shocking that kidney stones are one cause of smelly urine. While a kidney stone tries to make its way out of your body it causes a backup of urine (and possibly a urinary tract infection). That backup leads to foul smelling pee that may also look cloudy.

What to do about it: If your pee is smelly and is accompanied by cloudy urine and pain in your back or side, see a doctor to get that kidney stone out of there ASAP.

Unfortunately, there may not be too much you can do to prevent kidney stones in the first place, as infections and family history of kidney stones are one cause. But the National Kidney Foundation says that drinking too little water, exercising either too little or too much, and too much salt or sugar (especially fructose) could also contribute to kidney stones. If you’ve had one stone and don’t want another (cause why would you), adjusting those lifestyle factors might help.

8. You have a yeast infection.

Itchy yeast infections happen when a naturally occurring fungus that lives in your vagina gets a chance to grow wild. Every person has a different vaginal microbiome, but some ways yeast gets the hint that it’s party time are when you take antibiotics, you’re pregnant, you have uncontrolled diabetes, you have an impaired immune system, or you start taking either hormonal birth control or hormones prescribed for menopause, according to the Mayo Clinic.

Yeast infections come with a distinctive “yeasty” smell, thanks to the imbalance of vaginal bacteria, says Dr. Ross. While, yes, yeast infections are technically in your vagina, because your urethra is so close, your urine can pick up the scent as well.

What to do about it: OTC creams and suppositories (like Monistat) can get your microbiome back to normal, and if those aren’t getting rid of the itch or increased discharge, talk to your doc. They can prescribe an antibiotic that can help you get over the infection.

9. You actually have an undiagnosed genetic disorder.

This is probably the least likely scenario here, but certain genetic disorders are associated with a bad urine odor. If your pee smells “foul,” “sour,” or “fishy,” you might have a medical condition called trimethylaminuria, which gives you terrible body odor no matter how much you brush your teeth, shower, or bathe.

According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, trimethylaminuria is more common in women, and multiple studies suggest that it might be more prevalent among Black American women. Symptoms can worsen or become more noticeable around puberty, before or during your period, after taking oral contraceptives, or around menopause.

What to do about it: There’s no cure for the disorder, but by working with your doctor, there are lifestyle changes you can make to reduce the smell. For example, doctors may suggest avoiding foods that include trimethylamine and certain other compounds, such as milk, eggs, peas, beans, peanuts, and brassicas (which include foods like Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, and cauliflower). They may also suggest certain supplements as well as taking low doses of antibiotics to reduce the amount of bacteria in your gut.

10. You’re pregnant.

Here’s a fun fact: The hormone changes that make it possible to grow a baby—estrogen and progesterone—can make your pee smell a bit different…to you, at least.

“Urine can have a more pungent smell from the hormones produced during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester,” says Dr. Ross—but it’s not necessarily a huge change in your pee; rather, your ability to smell it (women tend to have a slightly increased sense of smell during pregnancy).

What to do about it: Unfortunately, there’s not much you can do to counteract the smell in this case. Maybe just plug your nose when you pee?

11. You’re ovulating.

The same hormones that gestate a baby (again, estrogen and progesterone) are also at work during your regular cycle, albeit on a smaller scale, says Dr. Ross. That means you may be more aware of the scent of your own pee when you’re ovulating—though there’s actually nothing off about your urine’s odor.

What to do about it: Again, the hormones aren’t necessarily changing the odor of your urine itself, they are amping up your ability to smell it. Not much you can do for this one but flush and get outta the bathroom quickly.

12. You might have an STI.

As if sexually transmitted infections weren’t enough fun (sarcasm, clearly), some of them can also cause foul-smelling urine, says Dr. Ross.

Chlamydia is the most common culprit, followed by trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted parasite. Both often show no or very mild symptoms at their onset (which is why it’s so important to regularly get tested for STIs)—wait too long and they could progress, making smelly pee the least of your problems.

When you do show symptoms, chlamydia can cause abnormal vaginal discharge and a burning sensation when you pee, while trichomoniasis can also cause a change in vaginal discharge and uncomfortable urination as well as itching, burning, redness, or soreness in your genital area, according to the CDC.

What to do about it: If you even suspect you have one of these diseases, Dr. Ross says to get screened immediately so you can get the meds you need to get rid of them.

13. You just started taking supplements.

Some supplements, vitamins, and medications can cause changes in your urine smell, says Dr. Ross. Artificial flavors are put in some pill coatings to make them more palatable, but they can also change the scent of your urine.

What to do about it: The most likely offenders? Pills high in vitamin B6, including some multivitamins, heart, and pregnancy medications. It’s not particularly worrisome, says Dr. Ross, but be sure to mention your urine odor to your doctor if you’re concerned about it, if it changes suddenly, or if you experience other negative side effects along with the smell.

Korin Miller
Korin Miller is a freelance writer specializing in general wellness, sexual health and relationships, and lifestyle trends, with work appearing in Men’s Health, Women’s Health, Self, Glamour, and more.

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Things That Can Affect the Smell of Your Pee

What You Eat or Drink

Asparagus might be the most common reason for stinky pee. The harmless odor is caused by a breakdown of asparagusic acid. Your genes affect whether you can smell these sulfur byproducts. If you can’t, that’s called asparagus anosmia. Your pee may also have a strong smell after you drink coffee, or eat fish, onions, or garlic.

Dehydration

Fluids help water down, or dilute, your pee. While there’s always waste in your urine, like ammonia, the smell is stronger if you’re dehydrated. That doesn’t mean you’re unhealthy. But a lack of fluids does raise your chances of getting kidney stones and urinary tract infections. That’s why it’s important to drink water when you’re thirsty. Fruits and vegetables can help hydrate you, too.

Urinary Tract Infections

You may go to the bathroom a lot if you have a UTI. While you’re in there, you might get a whiff of something that doesn’t smell good. That’s because bacteria can build up in your urine and make it stink. Talk to your doctor if it hurts to pee and you have a fever. You may need to take antibiotics to get better.

Kidney Stones

These make your pee smell for a few reasons. They can stop or slow urine flow, leading to a buildup of salt and ammonia. They can also make infections more likely. Some stones are made from cystine, a substance with sulfur in it. If cystine is in your urine, it may smell like rotten eggs. Tell your doctor if you have a fever, blood in your pee, or if you’re in a lot of pain. You may need to get the stones taken out at a hospital.

Uncontrolled Diabetes

Your pee or breath may smell fruity if you don’t treat high blood sugar. The sweet smell is from ketonuria, or a buildup of ketones. Those are chemicals your body makes when you burn fat, instead of glucose, for energy. Tell your doctor right away if you vomit, have trouble breathing, or feel confused. You could have a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. They’ll test your pee for ketones and help you manage your diabetes.

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

People born with this condition can’t break down certain amino acids. When these amino acids build up, their pee or earwax starts to smell sweet. If your baby has the disease, you may notice this syrupy odor a day or two after they’re born. They’ll need to follow a special diet. Your doctor can help you figure out ways to manage your child’s condition.

Sexually Transmitted Infections

Some STIs can lead to a smelly discharge in males and females. You may notice the smell as the fluid mixes with your pee. You may not have other symptoms. Or your genitals may itch, and it might burn when you pee. Bacterial infections like chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics. You’ll need another kind of medicine for viral infections.

Vitamin Overload

Your body gets rid of nutrients you don’t need through peeing. Extra vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) can give it a strong odor. Too much vitamin B1 (thiamine) can make your pee smell like fish. B vitamins can also make your pee look a bright greenish-yellow. Talk to a doctor about what vitamin doses are right for you.

Medication

Sulfa drugs can give your pee a bit of stench. That includes sulfonamide antibiotics. They’re commonly used to treat UTIs and other infections. Medicines for diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis also can affect the way your pee smells. If the stinky scent bothers you, tell your doctor about it. They might want to make sure nothing else is causing the odor.

Pregnancy

Morning sickness may leave you dehydrated. And prenatal vitamins might change the way your pee smells. Pregnancy also raises your chances of urinary tract infections and ketonuria. You could just be super sensitive to scents. That’s called hyperosmia. Experts think hormones may change your perception of smells. And that means that even if your pee is the same, it may seem like the odor is weird or more intense.

Organ Failure

Liver disease can make your pee and breath smell musty. The odor is caused by the buildup and release of toxins in your urine. If you have kidney failure, you may smell a lot of ammonia when you go to the bathroom.

Douching

Let your vagina clean itself. Washing inside of it could upset the balance of good and bad bacteria. That can lead to infections and discharge, which can smell bad when you pee. Health issues linked to douching include yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. There’s no need to erase your vagina’s natural odor. If you notice a new or strange scent, talk to your doctor. They can tell you if it’s normal.

Poop Gets in Your Bladder

A fistula is an extra opening that forms between two organs. If you get one between your bladder and bowels, poop or gas may come out when you pee. You might get this kind of fistula if you have cancer or an inflammatory condition, like Crohn’s disease or diverticulitis. If you’re female, it may happen after you give birth or have a certain kind of operation. Surgery can fix fistulas.

Tyrosinemia

Some babies are born with a condition called tyrosinemia type 1. It means they don’t have the right enzyme to break down the amino acid tyrosine. Too much of this compound can give body fluids, like urine, a rotten odor. It may smell like cabbage. Tyrosinemia is treated with medicine and a low-tyrosine diet.

Fish Odor Syndrome

Also called trimethylaminuria, this genetic condition can give your pee a fishy smell. It happens when your body can’t break down trimethylamine. You end up getting rid of the compound through your pee, sweat, breath, and other fluids. It doesn’t mean you’re unhealthy. But your doctor can help you manage the smell. They may give you antibiotics, special soap, or suggest eating certain foods.

Holding It for Too Long

Your urine might smell funky if it hangs out in your bladder for a while. That may also raise your chances of getting a UTI. This may happen more often in children who don’t pee when they feel the urge. That’s why it’s always a good idea to remind kids to take bathroom breaks.

Color, Odor, and Your Health

Let’s face it: Most of us don’t give much thought to our pee before we flush it out of sight. But the basic details of your urine — color, smell, and how often you go — can give you a hint about what’s going on inside your body.

Pee is your body’s liquid waste, mainly made of water, salt, electrolytes such as potassium and phosphorus, and chemicals called urea and uric acid. Your kidneys make it when they filter toxins and other bad stuff from your blood. A bunch of things in your body, like medications, foods, and illnesses, can affect how yours turns out.

What Color Is Your Pee?

If everything is normal and healthy, the color should be a pale yellow to gold. That hue comes from a pigment your body makes called urochrome.  

The shade, light or dark, also changes. If it has no color at all, that may be because you’ve been drinking a lot of water or taking a drug called a diuretic, which helps your body get rid of fluid. Very dark honey- or brown-colored urine could be a sign that you’re dehydrated and need to get more fluids. It may also be a warning sign of liver problems, so see your doctor if it doesn’t get better after a day or so.

Other unusual colors that may show up:

Pink or red: Some foods like carrots, blackberries, beets, and rhubarb can turn your pee a pinkish-red color. This can also be a side effect of medications like the antibiotic rifampin or a drug for urinary tract infections (UTIs) called phenazopyridine. 

Always check with your doctor if your pee is pink or red. You might have blood in your urine. It doesn’t always mean there’s a problem, but it can be a sign of kidney disease, a UTI, prostate problems, or a tumor.

Orange: When your pee is the color of a citrus-flavored soft drink, it’s probably because of meds like high-dose vitamin B2, the UTI drug phenazopyridine, or the antibiotic isoniazid. Depending on the color, it could also be a sign that you’re dehydrated or that there’s a problem with your liver or bile duct. You should ask your doctor about it.

Blue or green: These hues are probably due to dyes in your food or meds you’ve taken, like the anesthetic propofol or the allergy/asthma medicine promethazine. A few rare medical conditions can also turn pee green or blue, so let your doctor know if the color doesn’t go away after a short time.

Foamy: No matter what color it is, you should check in with your doctor if it consistently looks foamy and frothy. It may be a sign you have protein in your urine, which may mean you have issues with your kidneys.

How Does It Smell?

Pee doesn’t usually have a strong smell. But some foods — especially asparagus, which has a smelly sulfur compound — can change the odor. So can vitamin B-6 supplements. When you’re dehydrated and your pee gets very concentrated, it can smell strongly of ammonia.

If you catch a whiff of something really strong before you flush, it might also be a sign of a UTI, diabetes, a bladder infection, or metabolic diseases.

How Often Should You Go?

Everyone is different, but most people need to empty their bladders up to eight times a day. That can change depending on how much you eat and drink, especially caffeine and alcohol. It could be a side effect of medications, too. Pregnant women and older people usually have to go more often than others.

If you notice you suddenly have to pee more often than usual, though, it could be a sign of a health problem such as a UTI, kidney disease, diabetes, an enlarged prostate in men, vaginitis in women, or a problem with the wall of your bladder called interstitial cystitis.

If you often feel that you suddenly “gotta go” and sometimes can’t get to the bathroom in time, you may have overactive bladder. It’s a common condition for older men and women, though it’s not a normal part of aging. Your doctor can tell you how to treat it with lifestyle changes and medications.

When to Call Your Doctor

Pick up the phone any time you see a change in your pee that doesn’t seem linked to new medications or a recent meal — especially if the change lasts more than a day or so, or if it comes with a fever, back or side pain, vomiting, feeling very thirsty, or discharge. Your doctor can test your urine to see what’s going on.

UTI in Toddlers & Children: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Overview

What is a urinary tract infection (UTI) in toddlers?

A UTI is an infection in your child’s urinary tract which includes their kidneys, the ureters that connect them to the bladder and the urethra where urine exits their body. Bacteria (germs) get into their urinary tract through the skin around their rectum and genitals or through the bloodstream from any part of their body (which is much less common).

Because it may not be obvious when a child has an infection, especially if they’re too young to voice their symptoms, UTIs in children sometimes go unnoticed. Urinary tract infections need to be treated immediately to prevent the infection from spreading and damaging the kidneys.

What are the types of urinary tract infections in toddlers?

UTIs are classified into two categories:

  • Lower UTI: An infection in their bladder.
  • Upper UTI: An infection in their kidney (one kidney, or both).

What is the urinary tract?

The urinary tract gets rid of extra fluids and waste. The kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra are the organs that make up the tract. The kidneys filter blood and make the urine, the urine travels through the ureters to the bladder which stores the urine and then the urine passes through the urethra and out of the body.

How common are UTIs in Toddlers?

Urinary tract infections in children are common. Before age seven, one of 12 girls and one of 50 boys will have a UTI.

What’s the difference between a urinary tract infection and a bladder infection in toddlers?

An infection in the bladder stays in the bladder, while a UTI can infect the entire urinary system. Many of the symptoms are similar, but a child is more likely to look sicker when they have an infection above the bladder.

Who gets UTIs? Which children and toddlers are at risk?

UTIs are most common in immunosuppressed children (kids who have a weaker immune system) and children who have been on antibiotics for a long period of time for other issues. If your child recently went through an organ transplantation, they are also more vulnerable to a urinary tract infection. Children can also be born with abnormalities of their urinary tract that make them more likely to get an infection.

Adults are also vulnerable to urinary tract infections.

Are UTIs contagious?

No. Urinary tract infections can’t be transmitted to you or anyone else.

Can a UTI cause a fever in my kid?

Yes. A fever is a symptom of a UTI. Fevers are not necessary to diagnose a UTI and are more common with infections outside the bladder.

Can a UTI cause my child back pain?

Yes. A UTI can cause pain in your kid’s back or side. The pain is typically located below their ribs and is worsened when something hits your child’s back then when they are at rest.

Can a UTI cause diarrhea in toddlers?

Yes. Children with a UTI can sometimes get diarrhea.

If I give my child cranberry juice, will that help their UTI?

The rumor that cranberry juice can help resolve a UTI does have some scientific proof. However, the evidence shows that it primarily helps women with repeated UTIs, not children. Drinking fluids will help clear a UTI, so lots of water or other beverages can be very helpful.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes a urinary tract infection (UTI) in toddlers?

Normal urine is sterile (there are no bacteria or other infectious organisms) and contains fluids, salts and waste products. An infection occurs when microorganisms cling to the opening of the urethra (the hollow tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body) and begin to multiply. Most infections arise from Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract.

Different bacteria can cause a urinary tract infection. The seven most common bacteria include the following:

  • Escherichia coli (E. coli), found in about 85% of UTIs in children.
  • Klebsiella.
  • Proteus.
  • Enterobacter.
  • Citrobacter.
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
  • Enterococcus.

These organisms live in your child’s gut, reproductive system or on their skin.

What are the signs and symptoms of a UTI in toddlers? What are the UTI signs and symptoms in older kids?

The following are the most common signs and symptoms of a UTI. However, each child may experience these differently. Signs and symptoms in babies may include:

  • Fever.
  • Abdominal pain or fullness.
  • Strong, foul-smelling urine.
  • Poor growth. Failure to thrive.
  • Weight loss or failure to gain weight.
  • Irritability.
  • Vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Poor feeding.
  • Exhaustion.
  • Jaundice.

Signs and symptoms in older children may include:

  • A frequent, urgent need to urinate (having “to go”). Despite the urgency your child feels, often only a small amount of urine comes out.
  • Wetting during the day and/or at night (after being fully potty trained).
  • Painful or difficult urination (dysuria).
  • Discomfort above the pubic bone.
  • Foul-smelling urine.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Nausea and/or vomiting.
  • Fever, chills.
  • Pain in the back or side (below the ribs).
  • Fatigue.

What makes a UTI in toddlers worse?

It’s more difficult to diagnose because symptoms are less specific, and waiting too long to get treatment may lead to a kidney infection.

Is a UTI in a toddler a sign of bladder or kidney problems?

Not necessarily. Most children who get UTIs don’t have other urinary tract problems.

Diagnosis and Tests

How is a urinary tract infection diagnosed? How do healthcare providers test for a UTI in toddlers?

After interviewing you about your child’s history and performing a physical examination, the healthcare provider may order the following tests:

  • Urine tests like the leukocyte esterase and a urine culture to test for the presence of bacteria or white blood cells.
  • Blood tests looking for infection or kidney function.
  • Ultrasound or CT of the kidneys and bladder.
  • Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), which evaluates the bladder and urethra to detect vesicoureteral reflux (when urine backs up to the kidneys instead of flowing out through the urethra).

What questions might my toddler’s healthcare provider ask to diagnose a UTI?

  • What are your child’s symptoms?
  • How long has your child had these symptoms?
  • Does your child have a history of urological problems?
  • Is there a history of urological problems in the family?
  • What medications is your child taking?

Management and Treatment

What’s the treatment for UTIs in children?

Treating a urinary tract infection requires antibiotics that can either be delivered intravenously (through a needle into your child’s veins) or orally (they swallow the pills or liquid). Their healthcare provider may also prescribe medications for their fever and/or pain. Common antibiotics include:

  • Amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin®).
  • Cefixime (Suprax®).
  • Cefpodoxime.
  • Cefprozil (Cefzil®).
  • Cephalexin (Keflex®).
  • Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim®, Septra®).

Who will treat my child’s UTI? Should my kid see a specialist?

Your child’s primary care physician will likely be able to treat your child’s UTI. If there are any complications, you may be referred to an urologist or nephrologist (healthcare providers who specialize in the urinary tract).

How soon after treatment will my child feel better? How long does it take to recover from a urinary tract infection?

They may feel better in a day or two and the infection should be gone in about a week.

Prevention

Can I prevent a UTI in my child?

Do your best to keep your child’s urinary skin areas very clean, and teach them to do the same. This is particularly important for girls. Teach them to wipe front to back to avoid contaminating the urethra from the anus.

Outlook / Prognosis

What’s the outlook for children with urinary tract infections?

This is a temporary infection with little risk of complications. With treatment, your child’s UTI should only last about a week. However, they can get an infection again even if they have a normal urinary tract.

Are there any long-term complications of a UTI in toddlers?

About 3% of children who get a urinary tract infection may have kidney problems in the future, including scarring. Complications of renal scarring include:

  • Hypertension.
  • Chronic renal (kidney) failure.
  • Toxemia in pregnancy.

Living With

When may my child need to be hospitalized for a UTI?

Your child may need to be hospitalized for the following reasons:

  • If they’re a young infant or child.
  • If they have a high fever.
  • If they have back pain.
  • If they’re dehydrated (signs of dehydration are not urinating, having a dry mouth and having no tears when crying).
  • If he or she is unable to tolerate oral antibiotics.
  • When there is a concern that the infection has spread to their bloodstream.

When should I contact my child’s healthcare provider?

Urinary tract infections need to be taken care of right away. Call a healthcare provider if your child:

  • Shows a decrease in feeding or drinking.
  • Isn’t tolerating home medications.
  • Is vomiting.
  • Experiences an increase in fever or pain.
  • Becomes more irritable or inactive.
  • Has any signs or symptoms that worry you.

Quickly getting treatment for your child’s UTI decreases the risk of kidney problems and the risk that the infection could spread.

A note from Cleveland Clinic

Although a urinary tract infection isn’t a life-threatening condition, it may result in a hospital stay or lead to complications that can affect your child’s quality of life. Be sure to have them checked out by their healthcare provider as soon as they show symptoms. Always make sure that your child takes all of their prescribed medication. Even if they seem better, you should still have them take the medication until the treatment is complete.

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 11 and Younger | CS Mott Children’s Hospital

Does your child have problems with urination?

How old are you?

Less than 3 months

Less than 3 months

3 months to 3 years

3 months to 3 years

4 to 11 years

4 to 11 years

12 years or older

12 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Does your baby seem sick?

A sick baby probably will not be acting normally. For example, the baby may be much fussier than usual or not want to eat.

How sick do you think your baby is?

Extremely sick

Baby is very sick (limp and not responsive)

Sick

Baby is sick (sleepier than usual, not eating or drinking like usual)

Did your child’s symptoms begin after an injury?

An injury could be from a blow to the belly, groin, or lower back (the kidney area).

Yes

Symptoms began after an injury

No

Symptoms began after an injury

Did the injury happen within the past 2 weeks?

Yes

Injury within past 2 weeks

No

Injury within past 2 weeks

Is there any blood in your child’s urine?

Does your child seem to be in pain?

Is your child having trouble urinating?

Is your child able to urinate at all?

Has it been more than 12 hours since your child was last able to urinate?

Yes

More than 12 hours since last able to urinate

No

More than 12 hours since last able to urinate

Does your child have pain on one side of his or her back, just below the rib cage?

This is called flank pain. It sometimes is a symptom of a problem with the kidneys.

Does your child have pain when he or she urinates?

Has your child had pain while urinating that has lasted more than a day?

Yes

Pain when urinating has lasted more than 1 day

No

Pain when urinating has lasted more than 1 day

Does your child have a more frequent urge to urinate?

You may notice that even though your child feels like he or she needs to urinate, there isn’t much urine when he or she tries to urinate.

How bad is the urge to urinate?

Severe (very uncomfortable)

Urinary urgency is severe and very uncomfortable

Moderate to mild (somewhat uncomfortable)

Urinary urgency is noticeable but not severe

Has your child’s frequent urge to urinate lasted more than a day?

Yes

Urinary urgency for more than 1 day

No

Urinary urgency for more than 1 day

Is your child nauseated or vomiting?

Nauseated means you feel sick to your stomach, like you are going to vomit.

Does your child have only one kidney or a Foley catheter in place?

Yes

One kidney or a Foley catheter

No

One kidney or a Foley catheter

Do you think that the urinary problem may have been caused by abuse?

Yes

Urinary problem may have been caused by abuse

No

Urinary problem may have been caused by abuse

Does your child have diabetes?

Is your child’s diabetes getting out of control because your child is sick?

Yes

Diabetes is affected by illness

No

Diabetes is affected by illness

Is the plan helping get your child’s blood sugar under control?

Yes

Diabetes illness plan working

No

Diabetes illness plan not working

How fast is it getting out of control?

Quickly (over several hours)

Blood sugar quickly worsening

Slowly (over days)

Blood sugar slowly worsening

Do you think your baby has a fever?

Did you take a rectal temperature?

Taking a rectal temperature is the only way to be sure that a baby this age does not have a fever. If you don’t know the rectal temperature, it’s safest to assume the baby has a fever and needs to be seen by a doctor. Any problem that causes a fever at this age could be serious.

Yes

Rectal temperature taken

No

Rectal temperature taken

Is it 100.4°F (38°C) or higher?

Yes

Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)

No

Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)

Do you think your child has a fever?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.

High: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

High fever: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Moderate fever: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

Mild fever: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

How high do you think the fever is?

Moderate

Feels fever is moderate

Mild or low

Feels fever is mild

How long has your child had a fever?

Less than 2 days (48 hours)

Fever for less than 2 days

From 2 days to less than 1 week

Fever for more than 2 days and less than 1 week

1 week or longer

Fever for 1 week or more

Does your child have a health problem or take medicine that weakens his or her immune system?

Yes

Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

No

Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

Does your child have shaking chills or very heavy sweating?

Shaking chills are a severe, intense form of shivering. Heavy sweating means that sweat is pouring off the child or soaking through his or her clothes.

Yes

Shaking chills or heavy sweating

No

Shaking chills or heavy sweating

Has your child had a bladder or kidney infection with the same symptoms before?

Yes

Same symptoms as in a previous bladder or kidney infection

No

Same symptoms as in a previous bladder or kidney infection

Does your child have any new discharge from the vagina?

Is your child urinating more often than usual?

This sometimes can be an early sign of diabetes.

Has your child started wetting his or her pants or underwear?

This only applies to toilet-trained children.

Did the bladder control problem start within the past 2 weeks?

Yes

Incontinence began within past 2 weeks

No

Incontinence began within past 2 weeks

Do you think that a medicine may be causing the urinary problems?

Think about whether the problems started after you began using a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine.

Yes

Medicine may be causing urinary symptoms

No

Medicine may be causing urinary symptoms

Have the urinary problems lasted for more than a week?

Yes

Urinary problems for more than 1 week

No

Urinary problems for more than 1 week

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Pain in children under 3 years

It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.

Pain in children 3 years and older

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the child can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain. No one can tolerate severe pain for more than a few hours.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt the child’s normal activities and sleep, but the child can tolerate it for hours or days.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The child notices and may complain of the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt his or her sleep or activities.

If you’re not sure if a child’s fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • The child feels very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers the child has ever had.

With a moderate fever:

  • The child feels warm or hot.
  • You are sure the child has a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • The child may feel a little warm.
  • You think the child might have a fever, but you’re not sure.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and congenital heart disease.
  • Steroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Not having a spleen.

A severe urgency problem means that:

  • You are uncomfortable most of the time.
  • You get the urge to go again right after you have just urinated.
  • The problem interferes with your daily activities.
  • The urge keeps you from sleeping at night.

A moderate or mild urgency problem means that:

  • The urge to urinate comes more often than you are used to, but it is not constant.
  • It does not interfere much with your daily activities.
  • It usually does not keep you from sleeping.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth), ear, or rectal temperature

  • High: 104° F (40° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 100.4° F (38° C) to 103.9° F (39.9° C)
  • Mild: 100.3° F (37.9° C) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5° F (0.3° C) to 1° F (0.6° C) lower than an oral temperature.

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 103° F (39.5° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 99.4° F (37.4° C) to 102.9° F (39.4° C)
  • Mild: 99.3° F (37.3° C) and lower

Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.

Symptoms of diabetes may include:

  • Increased thirst and more frequent urination, especially at night.
  • An increase in how hungry you are.
  • Losing or gaining weight for no clear reason.
  • Unexplained fatigue.
  • Blurred vision.

A baby that is extremely sick:

  • May be limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • May not respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • May be hard to wake up.

A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):

  • May be sleepier than usual.
  • May not eat or drink as much as usual.

An illness plan for people with diabetes usually covers things like:

  • How often to test blood sugar and what the target range is.
  • Whether and how to adjust the dose and timing of insulin or other diabetes medicines.
  • What to do if you have trouble keeping food or fluids down.
  • When to call your doctor.

The plan is designed to help keep your diabetes in control even though you are sick. When you have diabetes, even a minor illness can cause problems.

It is easy for your diabetes to become out of control when you are sick. Because of an illness:

  • Your blood sugar may be too high or too low.
  • You may not be able take your diabetes medicine (if you are vomiting or having trouble keeping food or fluids down).
  • You may not know how to adjust the timing or dose of your diabetes medicine.
  • You may not be eating enough or drinking enough fluids.

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can cause urinary symptoms. A few examples include:

  • Antihistamines.
  • Decongestants.
  • Opioid pain medicines.
  • Tricyclic antidepressants.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Urinary Problems and Injuries, Age 12 and Older

Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children are fairly common, but not usually serious. They can be effectively treated with antibiotics.

A UTI may be classed as either:

  • an upper UTI – if it’s a kidney infection or an infection of the ureters, the tubes connecting the kidneys to the bladder
  • a lower UTI – if it’s a bladder infection (cystitis) or an infection of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body

When to seek medical advice

If you think your child is unwell and could have a UTI, contact your GP as soon as possible.

Although UTIs aren’t normally a serious type of infection, they should be diagnosed and treated quickly to reduce the risk of complications.

Symptoms of a UTI in children

It can be difficult to tell whether your child has a UTI, as the symptoms can be vague and young children can’t easily communicate how they feel.

General signs that may suggest your child is unwell include:

  • a high temperature (fever)
  • vomiting
  • tiredness and lack of energy (lethargy)
  • irritability
  • poor feeding
  • not gaining weight properly
  • in very young children, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)

More specific signs that your child may have a UTI include:

  • pain or a burning sensation when peeing
  • needing to pee frequently
  • deliberately holding in their pee
  • a change in their normal toilet habits, such as wetting themselves or wetting the bed
  • pain in their tummy (abdomen), side or lower back
  • unpleasant-smelling pee
  • blood in their pee
  • cloudy pee

Diagnosing UTIs in children

In most cases, your GP can diagnose a UTI by asking about your child’s symptoms, examining them, and arranging for a sample of their pee to be tested.

Treatment usually begins soon after a urine sample has been taken, and your child won’t need any further tests.

In a few circumstances, further tests may be needed in hospital to check for abnormalities. Your GP may refer you straight to hospital if your child is very young.

Read more about diagnosing UTIs in children

Causes of UTIs in children

Most UTIs in children are caused by bacteria from the digestive system entering the urethra.

There are many ways this can happen, including:

  • when a child wipes their bottom and soiled toilet paper comes into contact with their genitals – this is more of a problem for girls than boys because girls’ bottoms are much nearer the urethra
  • babies getting small particles of poo in their urethra when they soil their nappies – particularly if they squirm a lot when being changed

There’s often no obvious reason why some children develop UTIs and others don’t. 

However, some children may be more vulnerable to UTIs because of a problem with emptying their bladder, such as:

  • constipation – this can sometimes cause part of the large intestine to swell, which can put pressure on the bladder and prevent it emptying normally
  • dysfunctional elimination syndrome – a relatively common childhood condition where a child “holds on” to their pee, even though they have the urge to pee
  • vesicoureteral reflux – an uncommon condition where urine leaks back up from the bladder into the ureters and kidneys; this occurs as a result of a problem with the valves in the ureters where they enter the bladder

Treating UTIs in children

Most childhood UTIs clear up within 24 to 48 hours of treatment with antibiotics and won’t cause any long-term problems.

In many cases, treatment involves your child taking a course of antibiotic tablets at home.

As a precaution, babies under three months old and children with more severe symptoms are usually admitted to hospital for a few days to receive antibiotics directly into a vein (intravenous antibiotics).

Read more about treating UTIs in children

Preventing UTIs in children

It isn’t possible to prevent all childhood UTIs, but there are some things you can do to reduce the risk of your child getting one.

The following advice may help:

  • if possible, exclusively breastfeed your baby for the first six months after they’re born – this can help improve your baby’s immune system and reduce their risk of constipation
  • encourage girls to wipe their bottom from front to back – this helps to minimise the chances of bacteria entering the urethra
  • make sure your child is well hydrated and goes to the toilet regularly – not urinating regularly and “holding in” urine can make it easier for bacteria to infect the urinary tract
  • avoid nylon and other types of synthetic underwear – these can help promote the growth of bacteria; loose-fitting cotton underwear should be worn instead
  • avoid using scented soaps or bubble baths – these can increase your child’s risk of developing a UTI
  • take steps to reduce your child’s risk of constipation – make sure they drink enough to keep their urine pale and clear during the day, and speak to your GP about medications that can help if constipation is a persistent problem

Some people feel that drinking cranberry juice or taking cranberry supplements can help reduce their risk of UTIs.

However, recent high-quality research into these claims found little evidence to suggest cranberries have a significant impact on your chances of developing a UTI.

Recurrent UTIs in children

A small number of children have recurring UTIs. If your child’s had a UTI before, it’s important that both of you watch for the return of any associated symptoms.

Tell your GP about any symptoms as soon as possible so a diagnosis can be confirmed and treatment can begin.

If your child has a problem that increases their risk of UTIs, such as faulty valves that allow urine to flow the wrong way, they may be prescribed low-dose antibiotics as a long-term measure to prevent further infections.

Urinary Tract Infections in Children

Topic Overview

Is this topic for you?

This topic is about urinary tract infections in children. For information about these infections in teens and adults, see the topic Urinary Tract Infections in Teens and Adults.

What are urinary tract infections?

The urinary tract is the part of the body that makes urine and carries it out of the body. It includes the bladder and kidneys and the tubes that connect them. When germs (called bacteria) get into the urinary tract, they can cause an infection.

How serious are the infections in children?

Urinary infections in children usually go away quickly if they get medical care right away. But if your child keeps getting infections, your doctor may suggest tests to rule out more serious problems.

Urinary infections can lead to a serious infection throughout the body called sepsis. Problems from a urinary infection are more likely to happen in babies born too soon, in newborns, and in infants who have something blocking the flow of urine.

What causes the infections in children?

Germs that live in the large intestine and are in stool can get in the urethra. This is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. Then germs can get into the bladder and kidneys.

What are the symptoms?

Babies and young children may not have the most common symptoms, such as pain or burning when they urinate. Also, they can’t tell you what they feel. In a baby or a young child, look for:

  • A fever not caused by the flu or another known illness.
  • Urine that has a strange smell.
  • Vomiting.
  • The child not being hungry.
  • The child acting fussy.

Older children are more likely to have common symptoms, such as:

  • Pain or burning when they urinate.
  • Needing to urinate often.
  • Loss of bladder control.
  • Red, pink, cloudy, or foul-smelling urine.
  • Pain in the flank, which is felt just below the rib cage and above the waist on one or both sides of the back.
  • Lower belly pain.

How are the infections diagnosed?

The doctor will give your child a physical exam and ask about his or her symptoms. Your child also will have lab tests, such as a urinalysis and a urine culture, to check for germs in the urine. It takes 1 to 2 days to get the results of a urine culture, so many doctors will prescribe medicine to fight the infection without waiting for the results. This is because a child’s symptoms and the urinalysis may be enough to show an infection.

After your child gets better, the doctor may have him or her tested to find out if there is a problem with the urinary tract. For example, urine might flow backward from the bladder into the kidneys. Problems like this can make a child more likely to get an infection in the bladder or kidneys.

How are they treated?

Your child will take antibiotics for a urinary tract infection. Give this medicine to your child as your doctor says. Do not stop it just because your child feels better. He or she needs to take all the medicine to get better. The number of days a child will need to take the medicine depends on the illness, the child’s age, and the type of antibiotic.

Have your child drink extra fluids to flush out the germs. Remind your older child to go to the bathroom often and to empty the bladder each time.

Call the doctor if your child isn’t feeling better within 2 days after starting the medicine. Your doctor may give your child a different medicine. It is important to treat urinary infections quickly in children to prevent other serious health problems. Sometimes a baby younger than 3 months may need to get medicine through a vein (IV) and stay in the hospital for a while. A child who is too sick to take medicine by mouth or has trouble fighting infections also may need to stay in the hospital.

90,000 child’s urine smell – 25 recommendations on Babyblog.ru

On April 30th my eldest son (Pavlik was with his grandmother) and I went to a concert from Sunday school. I’m coming home. Pavlik is sluggish, sluggish, burning all over. 39.5!

No snot, no cough, nothing. I wanted to drink – vomited. The temperature was knocked down with a cefekon and a wet rag. Before going to bed again vomiting and a temperature under 40. They called an ambulance, gave an injection, looked at the neck, and it was bright and red. ARVI. Everyone thought about vomiting (including us) that it was due to fever or choked.The temperature was brought down all night. In the morning, vomiting again from scratch. The child is lethargic, lies, does not want anything, tends to sleep, refuses food, water … I immediately packed my things and called the ambulance. We were taken to the 2nd regional (formerly 7th children’s) in the 4th infectious diseases department. We passed all the tests, acetone in the urine. The hospital began to give enterol and acipol. He seemed to feel a little better, the temperature had lost its way and did not rise any more. There was only vomiting and a reddened throat. Prescribed ceftriaxone and chlorhexidine inhalation.The next day, loose stools joined in, very strongly and often. Pavlik again ANYTHING, lethargic, all the time makes him sleepy, a terrible smell from the mouth, flatly refuses food and water, even tried to give him water from a syringe, rehydron … But how much will I squeeze him out like that? 5 ml? It was necessary to collect more urine, but he did not write from 4 in the morning until 3 in the afternoon !!! Every time he screams when I try to get him drunk, he spits. Dehydration began. at 3 o’clock in the afternoon they put a catheter in the leg (they pricked all our hands – nothing happened – the wreaths are weak and thin), they connected 5 bottles of a dropper.And we dripped until 12 at night. The next day, another dropper, the same 5 bottles.

But our boy came to life after them. He began to eat quietly, and drink water, and jelly. No milk, no fatty, no fried and no broth. So they ate dairy-free cereals, chewed dryers, drank jelly …

We were discharged just today. It remains to heal the throat and a small dry cough, but this is all nonsense, we will cure at home. But we would not have cured a rotavirus with dehydration at home.

A word about the doctor.We were treated by Tatyana Alekseevna Karpacheva. Doctor with a capital letter !!! She saved my child! I really like doctors who say little, sometimes even rudely (sometimes we also need to bring mothers to our senses), but to the point! Low bow to her !!!

“maple syrup” disease / Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan

This is a rare hereditary disease in which the activity of the enzyme system is absent or sharply reduced, due to which the body cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, and therefore they accumulate in blood and urine.

The disease is characterized by a severe course, accompanied by developmental delay, depression of the central nervous system (CNS), muscle hypotonia, a specific odor of urine and earwax. The disease got its name precisely because of the characteristic smell of urine in patients, similar to the smell of maple syrup or burnt sugar. There are several forms of the disease of varying severity. Without timely treatment, the disease can end in death, but with early detection and immediate treatment, the prognosis is most often favorable.

The disease occurs in various populations. The incidence among newborns is 1: 185,000.

In Russia, the disease “maple syrup” is included in the list of rare (orphan) diseases formed by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation. It includes pathologies that occur in no more than 10 cases per 100,000 people. Since 1983, there has been an international support group for families with this condition – MSUD Support Group. In Russia since 2012. The All-Russian Society of Orphan Diseases (OOZ) is involved in helping families with rare diseases.Today, WHO brings together more than 400 patients from 47 regions of the Russian Federation with 63 rare diseases.

Prevalence and type of inheritance

The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, i.e. the mutant gene must be inherited from both parents. The disease can be detected at any age, however, most often, it manifests itself in the first year of life.

There are five clinical forms of the disease: classical, intermediate, intermittent, thiamine-dependent and caused by E3-protein deficiency.The most common form is the classical form. It is characterized by irritability, poor appetite, vomiting, and progressive encephalopathy that can lead to coma. Earwax, sweat and urine of the patient have a specific sweetish odor. Intermediate and intermittent forms are milder and can be expressed by anorexia, poor growth, irritability, or developmental delay. The thiamine-dependent form of the disease in its manifestations and course is similar to the intermittent or intermediate form, but is less common.The form associated with E3 protein deficiency can be very variable, symptoms can be found at any age. Protein E3 is involved in the reactions taking place in mitochondria, therefore this variant of the disease belongs to mitochondrial.

Diagnostics

The main symptoms of the disease in infants are a sharp deterioration in the general condition after feeding with breast milk or formula, lethargy or increased excitability, vomiting, refusal to eat.Cramps, loss of consciousness, coma, bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis), respiratory failure (apnea) are also possible. In children over one year old, there is a delay in psychomotor development, mental retardation, erythematous skin rashes, frequent infectious diseases, convulsive syndrome, and a specific smell of urine.

Diagnostics is carried out by a pediatrician with concomitant consultation with a geneticist. Doctors analyze the patient’s pedigree, evaluate the anamnesis data, study clinical manifestations, and prescribe the necessary tests.The main diagnostic methods are high performance liquid chromatography, amino acid analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. With their help, an increase in the concentration of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine in the blood and urine is detected. To confirm the diagnosis, a molecular genetic study is carried out in the field of genes BCKDHA, BCKDHB DBT, DLD. The most common mutations are in the BCKDHB gene (approximately 60% of all cases). A definitive laboratory diagnosis is critical in confirming maple syrup disease because its clinical presentation is nonspecific and may be similar to other diseases such as infections and other birth defects of metabolism.

When planning a child, parents can undergo molecular genetic testing in a clinical diagnostic laboratory at the Republican Medical Genetic Center if they suspect they have mutations in the genes of the BCKD complex. Early diagnosis of the disease significantly increases the patient’s chances of recovery.

Treatment

If you suspect a hereditary metabolic disorder, immediately after taking tests, the doctor prescribes a diet for the patient.It is based on a strict restriction of protein in natural foods in order to minimize the intake of leucine, isoleucine and valine in the body. For children in the first half of life, the restriction applies to breast milk, infant milk or soy formula. Children over six months old are prohibited from introducing high-protein foods (meat, fish, cottage cheese, eggs, dairy products, legumes, etc.) as complementary foods. It is imperative to compensate for the protein deficiency through the use of specialized mixtures based on amino acids without leucine, isoleucine and valine, corresponding to the age-related needs of the child in basic nutrients and energy.In the absence of a rapid positive response to intensive care, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is performed to more effectively remove toxic metabolites. In some cases, liver transplantation is an effective therapy for the classic form of maple syrup disease.

Adolescents and adults with maple syrup disease are at increased risk of developing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), depression, anxiety disorders, and can be successfully treated with standard psychostimulants and antidepressants.

With the timely start of treatment, doctors, as a rule, give a favorable prognosis. The patient’s diet must be followed throughout his life.

Press service of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Bashkortostan

(according to the RMHC)

Why are kidney diseases dangerous in children?

Any malaise of the baby, even the most insignificant, at first glance, instills primitive horror and panic in the parents, forcing them to torment themselves with the question: how can you help? What can we say about complex and rather serious diseases.

Unfortunately, the number of children with various kidney pathologies has increased significantly over the past few years. The unfavorable ecological situation and complications of infectious diseases also make themselves felt. Doctors say that almost every sixth child suffers from some kind of nephro-urological pathology. And such data cannot but frighten, because the kidneys are one of those organs that determine the “purity” of the body, being responsible for removing toxic substances and decay products from it, being, as it were, a natural filter.What do parents need to know to protect their kidneys and what do the experts recommend? A word to the pediatric nephrologist of the OKDC Alexei Kozhin

Observed from birth

– From the first days of life, hereditary and genetically determined diseases often appear. Among infectious factors, intrauterine infection dominates, penetrating into the body of the crumbs during childbirth. This happens if the mother was a carrier of chlamydial or mycoplasma infection.The baby automatically receives it “as a gift”, and vulnerable kidneys are hit.

The fact is that by the time of birth, their development has not yet been completed. The filtering surface of the kidneys of a newborn is 5 times less than that of an adult, but by six months in most children it reaches values ​​close to those in adults. As you grow older, the processes of excretion become more and more perfect. However, the adaptive abilities of a child’s body are worse than that of an adult, especially during the so-called critical periods of maturation.There are three of them: from newborn to 2-3 years old, from 4-5 to 7-8 years old and adolescent, in which there is a sharp change in metabolism under the influence of hormones.

The risk of developing kidney disease is high in those children whose parents suffer from pyelonephritis, metabolic diseases (urolithiasis, arthrosis, fermentopathy), endocrine disorders (obesity, thyroid disease). Unfortunately, about 50% of children who have undergone neonatal resuscitation have kidney pathologies.

In infants, the mother can suspect metabolic nephropathy herself – by too bright spots on the diapers – uric acid diathesis is manifested by unusually intense staining of urine.Urinalysis will help to navigate further examination and treatment.

In boys, an attentive mother will notice a weakening of the urine stream. The reason for this is the presence of congenital valves of the urethra or a violation of its nervous regulation. Thanks to the emergence of new effective drugs, the improvement of surgical techniques, the installation of stents – devices that prevent the improper flow of urine, such children lead an active lifestyle, following the recommendations of the attending doctor.

Lack of urination in a newborn more than 24-48 hours after birth, edema, increased blood pressure can also be alarming in terms of congenital kidney disease. With congenital anomalies of the renal vessels, timely surgical intervention is required.

Abdominal pain in young children, even without changes in urine, can often be associated with abnormalities of the urinary system. Dysuria – pain or pain when urinating, increased or decreased frequency of urination, urinary incontinence or incontinence indicate the possibility of a urinary tract infection.Congenital changes in the urinary system, accompanied by the return of urine from the bladder, often predispose to urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis.

Is the infection to blame for everything?

One of the most common diseases that a pediatrician detects during examination at a polyclinic is urinary tract infection. This diagnosis is made after passing urine tests (general urine analysis and urine culture for sterility).In this case, the doctor, as a rule, prescribes antibiotic therapy, it must normalize the urine tests. After this treatment, your child usually forgets about kidney disease for a long time. But this does not always happen, and here’s why.

The cause of the disease in girls is very often the inflammation in the vagina, which is manifested by vulvovaginitis. The child complains of soreness of the labia majora and small labia, of strange discharge. This discharge from the vagina enters the bladder and the child develops cystitis, complaints of pain in the lower abdomen, frequent or rare sometimes painful urination, then an ascending urinary infection enters the kidneys from the bladder.

If you do not carry out all the necessary laboratory tests, do not consult a pediatric gynecologist, do not perform an ultrasound of the kidneys, with a full bladder and measuring the thickness of the bladder wall, it will be difficult to establish the causes that led to this disease.

Mothers of girls are often asked what causes vulvovaginitis. The most common reason is the improper toilet of the external genital organs, when daily treatment with lacticide, or other similar soap, is not performed on the labia majora and labia minora before entering the vagina.

The second cause of vulvovaginitis can be infection from adults through bed linen, on which there are discharge of an adult woman or man, plastic furniture in water parks and swimming pools, where a sick adult sat; as well as when visiting toilets in schools and kindergartens through the toilet.

The diagnosis was made – how to treat it?

Almost all common kidney diseases are treated in combination: antibiotic therapy in injections or tablets is combined with the use of gynecological suppositories and washing the vagina.

For the treatment of cystitis, combination therapy is also needed: antibacterial drugs in combination with intravesical lavage with bladder antiseptics through a urethral catheter, as well as physiotherapy on the bladder area. With the wrong tactics of diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections, children receive several courses of antibiotic therapy per year with a short-term effect for years.

Therefore, when choosing an individual treatment regimen, it is so important to consult not only with a pediatric nephrologist and a pediatric gynecologist, but also with a urologist for cystoscopy – this is an instrumental examination of the bladder.

One of the problems in boys is physiological phimosis, which the child’s parents should detect by about 3 years of age. Many dads and mothers do not deal with this issue until high school, until the child himself takes care of this problem. When examining such boys, urine tests will be collected incorrectly and will be uninformative.

How much does your child drink?

One of the most important criteria in the diagnosis of bladder function is to determine the rhythms of urination, you must monitor how many times your child urinated per day and in what portions.To properly conduct this study, you must also take into account the daily water load, to know at what interval the child drank liquid. It is believed that on average he should drink at least a liter of liquid per day, and in the summer period from 1.5 to 2.0 liters of liquid per day. Under normal water load, the child’s urine will be light yellow in color, sometimes becoming clear, like water. With an unsatisfactory water load, the urine becomes bright yellow, sometimes cloudy and opaque.

If we begin to discuss what portions a child should urinate, then there are age criteria.In an infant, the volume of the bladder is about 90 ml, so he urinates in portions from 30-50 ml to 90 ml, at 2 years the volume of the bladder is 120 ml, at 3 years old – 130 ml, at 4 years old – 140 ml and at 5 years – 150 ml. It happens that your 5-year-old child urinates 200 and 300 ml in the morning, which corresponds to the portion of an almost adult. How does this happen?

It turns out that the bladder, like the stomach, can be stretched to incredible sizes if desired. There are children who are used to drinking water in a volume of 250-300 ml before going to bed.This water is in the bladder all night long, stretching it (by the way, sometimes, against the background of this habit, bedwetting occurs). There are a number of children who do not reach the toilet during the day without holding back urine. A congested bladder is also at the root of this problem. When the bladder habitually becomes distended, it cannot completely evacuate urine. In the future, viral – bacterial infections easily arise in it, leading to the appearance of cystitis and an ascending urinary tract infection.

Sometimes, against the background of overcrowding, a situation arises in which urine from the bladder returns back to the renal pelvis, deforming and stretching it. This process often leads to the need for surgical treatment. To prevent kidney disease, it is important to know how much fluids your child is drinking – whether the kidneys are flushed enough, and how much to serve when urinating.

What will the ultrasound tell us about?

Parents often come to the nephrologist for an explanation of the kidney ultrasound data.This method is very necessary for every doctor: it describes how the kidneys look, gives an idea of ​​the anatomy of the organ. However, on the basis of ultrasound, it is far from always possible to immediately make a final diagnosis. This method requires clarification by other more accurate X-ray urological studies. In this case, it is very important on which device the ultrasound was performed, and how experienced the specialist who issued the conclusion was.

Sometimes it is necessary to double-check the kidney ultrasound data and conduct a more in-depth specialized examination.The main thing is not to leave undeciphered diagnoses made by ultrasound behind your back, so as not to be late with the appointment of the necessary treatment in the future. First of all, it is worth paying attention to various deformations of the anatomy of the kidneys, impaired urodynamics, and impaired outflow of urine from the kidneys or bladder.

So we come to another fairly common disease – pyelonephritis. Often, asking parents about the presence of kidney disease in the family, you can hear – I had chronic pyelonephritis.And in what way did it manifest itself? – “My back, my stomach ached, the temperature rose and there were changes in the urine tests. This situation was repeated 1 or 2 times a year. ”

Why did pyelonephritis come back again and again? Chronic pyelonephritis is often referred to as secondary pyelonephritis because it is based on a combination of urinary tract infection and impaired urodynamics, or urine drainage from the kidneys or bladder. If you have been prescribed antibiotic therapy without finding out the causes of pyelonephritis, then you will not get a real remission of the disease.Pyelonephritis will come back. And in this situation, you need a competent nephrologist, and, possibly, a urologist who will conduct all the necessary examinations and establish the true cause of the violations.

You should always remember the main things

My experience as a practical doctor shows that in recent years, many different diseases have arisen against the background of toxic and chemical damage to organs, leading to severe kidney disease.It has been repeatedly noted that after eating a watermelon grown on nitrogenous fertilizers or strawberries from a greenhouse in May; the child had urine mixed with blood, or a severe allergic process began, which sometimes led to edematous syndrome.

Such kidney diseases were treated for a long time, in nephrology clinics, using hormone therapy. Therefore, do not forget that it is better to give your child vegetables and fruits that are appropriate for the season and grown in your own garden than a poor-quality product of unknown origin.

Against the background of a herpes-viral infection, nephritis and cystitis occur, which cannot be cured without the complete elimination of the main viral infection. Children with such a diagnosis need the advice of an immunologist and nephrologist with an ELISA diagnosis to determine the activity of a viral infection.

Treatment of kidney diseases is impossible without a modern diagnostic base. This is well known to the specialists of the Regional Consultative and Diagnostic Center, where the latest expert-class equipment is concentrated and European examination standards are introduced.

Not without reason, recently, the flow of small patients has grown in the OKDC. In this leading medical institution in the Southern Federal District, now not only pediatricians, but also children’s doctors of almost all narrow specialties are accepted.

There is a great variety of kidney diseases and they can be described for a very long time. I focused on some of the most common cases. It is important to remember the main thing: if your child has changes in urine and blood tests, or any problems with an ultrasound are found, do not delay your visit to an experienced nephrologist.Otherwise, it will take much longer to be treated, and the complications that arise can even lead to irreversible consequences.

Determine the disease by the smell of urine

You probably don’t think much about what your urine looks like and how it smells.

But if you nevertheless paid attention to sudden changes in the characteristics of bowel movements, it will not be superfluous to find out the reason.

Sometimes, this happens due to an illness that requires the attention of a doctor, so you should not postpone finding out the root cause of such changes.

Below we will consider a few of the symptoms that are most often the causes of odorous urine.

Urine of a healthy person should not have a strong odor. With some diseases, it acquires a pungent odor, which gives off ammonia. In some cases, the smell may even be sweetish.

Any of these symptoms are likely to indicate a disease that needs treatment.

Stones in the urinary tract

Stones can cause an “ammonia” odor in stool.Causes include kidney and bladder stones.

Bladder stones appear as a result of the formation of crystals in concentrated urine, and they usually appear in men.

The urine is then very dark and may contain traces of blood.

Cystitis

Inflammation of the bladder can also change the odor of urine.

Patients describe the smell as “fishy”. Symptoms of cystitis also include pain and tingling when urinating.

Dehydration

Urine contains waste products that should be removed from the body along with water.When you drink less water, waste and toxins become more concentrated and start to smell pungent in your urine.

This dark urine most often appears in the morning, when you have not received fluids for a long time.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

In patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, the body uses fats (instead of sugar or glucose) to keep it working.

For this reason, ketones or blood acids build up in the body, causing the urine to slightly change its usual smell.

Type 2 diabetes

If type 2 diabetes gets out of control, the urine takes on a sweetish aroma.

This is because glucose is passed from the body into the urine because the level is too high.

Other signs of diabetes include intense thirst, more frequent urge to urinate (especially at night), fatigue, weight loss, long-healing wounds, and blurred vision.

Liver disease

Liver problems can lead to urine that smells sour.

Since the tasks of the liver include the breakdown of urea, in case of malfunctions in this organ, an excess of ammonia accumulates.

Ammonia gets into the urine, which makes it extremely odorous.

Be healthy and closely monitor your body. Except for you, no one will do this.

Remove the smell of urine from the sofa, how to remove the smell from the sofa, the smell of a new sofa

As you know, the most effective remedy for disease is prevention.And what is the prevention of contamination of upholstered furniture, except for a more careful and careful handling of it?

But even a new sofa can smell. Maybe, but not for long. Smells from new furniture will quickly disappear if the furniture is made of quality materials.
A sharp, unpleasant smell can be emitted by a new sofa, in which the filling is of poor quality. If you notice an unpleasant smell of a new sofa, then it is better to return such a sofa to the store immediately.

As a rule, the strongest odor is from urine.Few sofa owners know how to remove odor from a sofa, so it is best to have your sofa cleaned by a professional. Contact the cleaning staff and they will put the old sofa in order.

Prices for this type of work in various cleaning organizations are very different, so it is better to negotiate the cost of services by phone when you call “cleaning” at home. If it seems to you that the prices are too high, then try cleaning the sofa and removing the smell of urine from the sofa yourself.

Most often, the owners of damaged sofas use special products that are designed for cleaning upholstered furniture.

The modern household chemicals industry today offers the layman a huge amount of means for cleaning upholstered furniture. The main disadvantage of these tools is their lack of omnipotence. There are often cases when soft household chemical cleaning products cannot remove strong dirt and odors.

Sometimes consumers complain about stains remaining on the upholstery of the sofa after using some cleaning products.In this case, we recommend that users carefully read the instructions for use of the selected cleaning agent and adhere to the recommended proportions.

How do I get rid of the urine smell on the couch?

  1. Household chemicals.

    Some users recommend using the Canadian eko-max remedy, which contains tea tree oil, or the American Odorgone Gold Animal remedy to remove urine odor. Spray generously on urine stains and you will not smell the next day.

  2. Aqueous solution of vinegar.

    If you are looking for a less harmful way to remove the urine smell from the couch, use a mild aqueous solution of table vinegar.

    Take an unnecessary diaper or old sheet and dip it into the solution, squeeze it and put it on the sofa, press it harder against the upholstery so that the vinegar solution can penetrate into the upper layers of the furniture. This must be done several times. Vinegar neutralizes unpleasant odors and removes dirt from the upholstery.

  3. Potassium permanganate solution.

    To remove the smell of cat urine from the sofa, a solution of potassium permanganate will help you. This substance is a strong oxidizing agent that also has a deodorizing effect.

    Wet the damaged area of ​​the sofa with the solution and let the furniture dry. If the smell does not completely disappear, the procedure should be repeated.

  4. Lemon juice.

    Lemon juice is also an excellent oxidizing agent that can remove the smell of cat urine from the couch.Squeeze the juice from half a lemon, soak a sponge in it, and wipe the area your pet has marked.

  5. Other products.

    You can remove the smell from a fresh stain with the help of such products as vodka, glycerin, mouthwash, concentrated soda solution, laundry soap containing uric acid crystals that breaks down crystals.

Pungent smell of urine in a child

The urine of a newborn baby is almost odorless and practically colorless.As the baby grows up, with the beginning of the introduction of complementary foods and further, the stool of the crumbs will gradually change, becoming more and more similar to adults both in appearance and in smell.

Nevertheless, even in an adult, urine normally has a subtle, specific “aroma” characteristic of it. Therefore, it is not surprising that when a sharp unpleasant odor of urine appears in a child, parents begin to worry and look for the reasons for such changes.

It should be recognized that this manifestation cannot be ignored in any way.On the other hand, you should not make hasty conclusions: sometimes urine smells unpleasant even in a completely healthy child.

Baby urine smells like ammonia

It is safe to say that if the urine smells strongly of ammonia, then there are health problems. But with the same symptom, these can be different diseases. First of all, it is necessary to exclude acetonemia and diabetes mellitus.

It will be most reliable to pass the appropriate blood and urine tests – general and sugar.Elevated levels of acetone in urine can be easily identified at home. To do this, the pharmacy sells very simple and convenient test strips: you should dip such a strip in urine and find out the test result by changing its color.

Acetone in the urine of a child appears when toxic substances are formed in the body. This can happen for a large number of reasons, including even physical overwork and emotional stress. Therefore, if your baby is very tired or worried, offer him sweets in order to avoid the formation of ketone bodies, that is, the appearance of acetone.A decoction of raisins, a solution of glucose, tea with honey is best suited for this purpose, it is convenient to have glucose tablets on hand, but if there is nothing like that, then the candy is fine. You must do the same (give the baby glucose) if the baby’s urine smells strongly of ammonia.

A sugar test must be done urgently if there are diabetics among the next of kin.

In this case, the child’s urine may smell like ammonia or apple cider vinegar, and other accompanying symptoms appear: intense thirst, dry skin and mucous membranes, weight loss, disturbances in the usual urination regime, etc.

A strong acetone odor in urine is evidence of an infection in the genitourinary tract. Most often, children have cystitis or pyelonephritis. A bad smell appears due to the development of bacteria and their waste products in the urine. It can be not only ammoniacal, but also resemble the pharmaceutical, chemical smell of drugs. And in this case, urine analysis is also necessary.

A strong smell of urine in a child: other causes

There are a number of serious diseases in which urine often acquires a strong, pungent, unpleasant odor.So, urine smells like rotten fish or cabbage with tyrosinemia or trimethylaminuria, mice or mold – with phenylketonuria, burnt sugar – with leucinosis, also called wedge syrup disease. These are all conditions associated with metabolic disorders. But in children, such ailments are rarely found, and usually they appear already from birth.

In most cases, a child’s pungent urine odor has other causes. One of the most common is a violation of the water balance in the body, that is, insufficient intake of fluid into it.Most often it occurs in summer, during a period of extreme heat, when the child sweats, loses a lot of fluid, but does not replenish its supply. The urine becomes more concentrated, darkens, smells unpleasant. After restoring the water balance (it is necessary to give the child more drink), the problem disappears by itself. By the way, even an infant who is exclusively breastfed may not have enough water in the diet: then he needs to be supplemented. It should be mentioned that for the same reason, urine has a pungent odor when a child is sick: with vomiting or diarrhea, runny nose with difficulty in nasal breathing, high temperature, taking antibiotics and some other medications.

The color and smell of urine largely depends on the diet. One of the reasons for the appearance of “amber” may even be hunger. There are also foods that can affect the composition of urine. It was noticed that it acquires a stronger smell when abusing fatty protein foods, seafood, sweet, spicy, fast food, as well as after eating asparagus beans, cabbage, garlic, horseradish. It is perfectly normal if the smell of urine changes in a nursing infant when complementary foods are introduced into their diet or when the infant formula is changed.The smell of baby feces is also influenced by the diet of a nursing mother.

It’s okay if the urine smells unpleasant only in the morning, after the night, and the smell comes from a full diaper. Perhaps, by the way, that the reason lies in poor-quality diapers or poorly washed linen. If a sharp unpleasant odor comes out of the pot immediately after fresh urination, then you need to look for the cause. Especially if this phenomenon is persistent (persists for more than three days) or repeats regularly, and did not happen only once.

If the urine of a child under one year old stinks, who, moreover, does not sleep well, has no appetite, sweats in the palms and feet, then most likely he lacks vitamin D due to rickets.

Very often urine in children and adolescents begins to stink during periods of hormonal changes. This is temporary and passing, but parents are obliged to accustom their children to careful hygiene and proper body care, leveling unpleasant human odors.

In general, in order not to speculate, it is best to pass urine and blood tests and make sure that the child’s health is normal.Show it to your doctor immediately if there is a sharp odor of urine in the child and a burning sensation in the genital tract, pain during urination, discharge, cloudy urine, fever, or other signs of malaise at the same time. If necessary, the doctor will give a referral for additional research (analysis for bacterial culture, acetone, sugar, etc.).

Especially for nashidetki.net- Elena Semenova

How to get rid of the smell of a bag: leather or leatherette

It is difficult to imagine the life of a modern woman without such an accessory as a bag.Every day, dozens of different little things can come in handy at any time. A handbag is not just a part of the daily look, but also a functional and practical thing. However, it is not only its presence that is important to us. The bag should look good and, of course, smell good.

Today this accessory is made from a variety of materials – genuine leather and leatherette, textiles, suede, synthetics, natural fabrics. There are models made of plastic and even wood. But the most demanding for care can still be called natural leather and its substitutes.Especially when it comes to smell. Everything may be fine with the appearance of the product, but here’s the bad luck – the unpleasant amber discourages all the desire to take the accessory in hand. It can be either an unpleasant smell from a completely new product, or from an already familiar thing.

Let’s look at ways to help get rid of the smell of the bag quickly and accurately.

How to remove odor from a new or not new leather bag

You just bought a new leather handbag or took out an old one after a period of disuse, and you are immediately annoyed with IT – an unpleasant smell inside.Even if the product is new, not everyone is delighted with the smell of natural leather. You always carry the bag with you, often open it to take or put the things you need. And, of course, you don’t want to frown every time during this procedure. How to get rid of leather bag smell?

If the bag is not new, odors may appear from its lying for a long time, improper storage, or from certain goods that have been inside for a long time. For example, medicines, raw or dried fish, cigarettes.You may also get an unpleasant moldy smell if the bag has been stored in a damp place or has not been properly dried after rain or snow. All this brings discomfort when wearing the accessory. Especially psychological – after all, the smell can be heard not only by you, but also by those around you.

Let’s figure out how to remove the smell of leather from a new bag or unpleasant odors from an already actively used accessory.

  • Drying and ventilation . One of the simplest and most accessible methods for anyone.After all, all that is needed is fresh air. It is enough to leave the bag turned inside out on the balcony all night long. But only so that direct sunlight does not fall on it, if you want to leave the product there during the day. In addition, to improve the effect, you can spray a pleasant aerosol in the air.
  • Aromatherapy for bag. Another fun way to deal with unpleasant odors is to use aromatic oils. This will replace the present scent with a pleasant one.Find aroma oils to your taste. Citrus fruits are most often used, they interrupt odors well. Or perhaps you are more attracted to juniper, cinnamon, or vanilla. Then take a natural fabric, and wrap a piece of cotton wool with oil in it. You can use dry lavender sprigs, citrus peels, cinnamon sticks instead of oil. Wrap your choice in fabric to make a scent. Put it in a bag and close tightly, wait a day. The sachet can then be left inside if you like the scent.If using the center of an orange or lemon, you can also wipe the outside of the product with it.
  • Coffee . This is a great option for connoisseurs of the aroma of this drink. But it will only fit if the interior is made of dark fabric. You need to put whole coffee beans in the pockets, and put the ground coffee inside the bag and leave it there for a while. Coffee is, among other things, a good sorbent.
  • Soda. One of the most popular folk ways to get rid of extraneous odors. Soda is also one of the best sorbents, but it does not give off its own odor. What should be done? First, make sure the bag is dry. Next, pour soda inside, and also make sure that moisture does not get in. And leave it that way overnight. In the morning, remove the baking soda, and then gently wipe the product with a damp cloth.
  • Potassium permanganate. A practical option, but not always available due to the fact that not every pharmacy can purchase this scarce product.But if you have a little of this remedy in your first aid kit, you can safely use it. You need a weak solution of light pink potassium permanganate. Dampen a cotton ball or sponge with this solution and gently wipe the bag. But this method is only suitable for dark-colored items.
  • Wash. Not everyone can use this method either. First you need to make sure your bag is washable. If so, turn it inside out and put it in a laundry bag to avoid damage to the garment.For the procedure itself, it is best to use a liquid powder or conditioner.

Which way to choose – see for yourself by the ingredients present at home and your own taste ideas. Someone prefers that the smell is generally neutral, and then soda is more suitable. And someone is better when the bag smells invitingly of coffee beans, invigorates citrus or even smells like your favorite fabric softener.

The main thing is to pay attention to the requirements for caring for the product – only dry cleaning is suitable or you can run the washing machine on the most delicate mode without fear.

We remove the smell from a bag made of leatherette

Leatherette bags, with their greater affordability than natural leather products, have a significant drawback. Many people know that the smell of such a product is quite specific. But you want the thing not only to look pretty, but also not to exude foreign unpleasant aromas. So how can you get rid of the smell from a leatherette bag?

Here, in general, the options are the same as in the case of leather goods:

  • If it stinks inside, first of all you need to turn the accessory inside out and carefully ventilate it .Sometimes this alone is enough to fix the problem.
  • Look for information on the wash , whether it is permissible or not.
  • Works great soda , natural coffee . But the second option is only suitable for dark bags.
  • Natural flavors from essential oils or “natural product” (citrus peel, sprigs of lavender or thyme, cinnamon sticks).
  • Special products .In stores where leatherette products are sold, you can simply purchase a special product that will help you cope with the specific aroma of a new thing.

Remember that the problem of unpleasant odor in the vast majority of cases can be solved quickly and inexpensively. So there is absolutely no need to give up a new or already favorite thing because of such a trifle.

How to get rid of the smell of a bag if it is “marked” by a cat

This is how you love your cat, you stroke it, you are moved by its paws … And then you notice an unpleasant smell from your favorite bag.Pets sometimes bring not only joy, but also unpleasant emotions. But this does not mean that now you just have to throw the accessory into the trash. You can try to fight for the cleanliness and pleasant smell of the product.

So, how to get rid of the unpleasant smell from the bag, if it is “marked” by a cat. First, figure out what cleaning options are available for your product. Is it possible to wet it, or is it only possible to dry clean. In some situations, it is impossible to restore the condition of the product at home, and then dry cleaning services come to the rescue.Sometimes you can easily cope with “folk remedies” or special professional ones, and sometimes it is better to entrust the product to dry cleaning specialists.

Cat urine is specific in that it is absorbed into the tissue and cannot be washed off with plain water or removed with surface fragrances that do not penetrate deeply into the material. Therefore, not every method will help here. Also note that it is better not to clean bags with numerous accessories and decorations on your own.

  • Potassium permanganate can help remove odor, but only if the stain is fresh.It won’t work with old “tags”. In a light pink solution, you need to moisten a sponge, squeeze it out a little, and then apply it to the problem area with gentle rubbing movements. Then ventilate the bag thoroughly.
  • Iodine . Dissolve 10 drops of iodine in 1 liter of water. Then soak a sponge in the resulting solution and wipe the bag well. An additional effect – iodine will further scare the cat away from your belongings.
  • Vodka can also be used as a deodorizer.Usually combined with the same iodine or vinegar. This solution removes uric acid well. But before starting the procedure, it is better to make sure on an inconspicuous part of the bag that this will not harm the product. Ingredients: 100 g of vodka, 1 tsp of vinegar and 5 drops of iodine. First, you need to apply the composition with a sponge to the stain with gentle movements to remove it. And then make a kind of compress from the solution for the whole night. And by morning there will be no trace of the unpleasant smell.
  • Vinegar or lemon juice. Another effective remedy. But, like the previous ones, containing iodine or potassium permanganate, they are not suitable for light products. Dilute vinegar or acid in water and wipe the marked area. This remedy not only solves the problem locally, but also has a deterrent effect on the future.
  • Professional products . It is no secret that today there are also special means for combating the odors of pets. Their composition has already taken into account the peculiarities of materials and the subtleties of removing a specific smell.For example, you can use tools like Trixie, OdorGone, Urine-off Multi-Pet. Depending on the method of use, they need to be applied or sprayed onto the problem area, the product should be immediately ventilated or, on the contrary, it should be closed with the product “alone”.

If home remedies have not worked, or you are unsure of their effectiveness, it is best to seek professional help right away.

Another effective remedy for odor prevention is regular activated carbon.Just put it in a few small pouches and fold it into your bag. You can repeat the procedure periodically.