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Bacterial infection and yeast infection: The request could not be satisfied


Bacterial Vaginosis vs. Yeast Infection

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If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

You’re itchy, you’re uncomfortable, and you know something isn’t right down there. But before you go self-diagnosing, consider the following: bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections are two common vaginal conditions that tend to present with similar symptoms. However, each requires different treatments. Here’s how to tell the difference between the two and how to treat them. 

What are bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when something disrupts the vagina’s natural bacterial balance, also called vaginal flora. The microorganisms that live in the vagina are necessary for maintaining normal vaginal pH and the healthy status quo. They also take up space to ensure invaders can’t settle there. When the balance goes awry, you can have an overgrowth of “bad” kinds of bacteria called anaerobes. This overgrowth can sometimes lead to vaginal inflammation or vaginitis (Kairys, 2020).

A vaginal yeast infection, also known as vaginal candidiasis, is caused by a species of fungus (yeast is a form of fungus) called Candida; specifically, Candida albicans (C. albicans) is the most common culprit. This yeast is typically present inside the body, but it’s usually kept in check by your immune system and the presence of “good bacteria. If the environment of your vagina changes, it can become particularly hospitable to this yeast, sometimes resulting in infection (Jeanmonod, 2020).

BV and yeast infections have similar symptoms and can be tough to tell apart. Let’s talk about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for each of these vaginal conditions.

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge. It is estimated that approximately 30 percent of women in the U.S. between the ages of 14-49 may experience this condition (Kairys, 2020). The resulting inflammation usually isn’t dangerous, and at least half of people who develop BV don’t even experience noticeable symptoms (Hay, 2014). But when the symptoms do become apparent, they can be unpleasant. A few of the signature symptoms include (Kairys, 2020):

  • A “fishy” odor, before or after adding potassium hydroxide (KOH), also called the whiff test 
  • Thin, grayish white vaginal discharge
  • Vaginal itching
  • A burning sensation with urination
  • Pain during sex

For bacterial vaginosis to occur, something typically has to disrupt the vagina’s natural bacterial balance. When everything is at it should be, the “good” bacteria (lactobacilli) outnumber the “bad” bacteria (anaerobes). But if something comes along and disrupts the vaginal environment, BV can develop. Some of the risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis include (Sobel, 2020): 

  • Douching or excessive cleaning of the vagina
  • Hormonal changes that accompany events like menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause
  • Sex with male or female partners
  • Presence of sexually transmitted infections, like herpes and HIV
  • Cigarette smoking

The primary goal of treatment in people with BV is to relieve their symptoms; however, it can get better without treatment in up to one-third of people. If you suspect that you may have bacterial vaginosis, see your healthcare provider for a physical exam, including a pelvic exam, and to discuss treatment options (Sobel, 2021-a). 

BV treatment typically involves prescription medications like metronidazole (brand name Flagyl), clindamycin (brand name Cleocin), tinidazole (brand name Tindamax), and secnidazole (brand name Solosec). Some people turn to probiotics to help with their BV. In truth, there is not enough information to recommend for or against the use of probiotics for BV; more research is needed in this area. Approximately 30–50% of people will have a recurrence of their bacterial vaginosis after completing treatment (Sobel, 2021-a). You should avoid having sex, using tampons, sex toys, etc., during treatment. 

Like BV, vaginal yeast infections are common—almost three out of four women experience them at some point in their lives. The symptoms can appear similar to those of BV and include (Jeanmonod, 2020):

  • Itching, burning, and/or irritation of the vagina and vulva
  • Soreness 
  • Thick, white vaginal discharge that’s odor-free and resembles cottage cheese
  • A burning sensation with urination and/or sex
  • Redness and swelling of the vulva and vagina

It’s important to know that BV isn’t considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), although it is associated with sexual activity. Your sexual partner doesn’t necessarily need treatment if you have BV. Bacterial vaginosis also puts you at an increased risk of getting STIs, like herpes, HIV, etc. 

While yeast infections differ from bacterial vaginosis, some of the root causes overlap. Your vagina naturally contains different types of yeast. The good bacteria we discussed earlier—lactobacilli—typically keep it in check. When something disrupts that delicate balance of bacteria, it can create an overgrowth of one specific type of yeast called Candida. Some of the risk factors for this imbalance include (Jeanmonod, 2020):

  • Birth control pills or hormone therapies that affect estrogen levels
  • Antibiotic use
  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • Pregnancy
  • Immune system problems

Candida species can live in the vagina and not cause symptoms—this is the case 10-20% of the time. These people generally do not need treatment. Like BV, the main purpose of treating most yeast infections is symptom improvement (Sobel, 2021-b).  

In many cases, you can treat yeast infections with over-the-counter (OTC) vaginal creams or suppositories like clotrimazole (brand name Gyne-Lotrimin) or miconazole (brand name Monistat). Alternatively, your healthcare provider can prescribe a single dose of an oral antifungal medication, like fluconazole (brand name Diflucan) (Sobel, 2021-b).

If you have a severe infection or you’re experiencing recurrent infections (more than four per year), you may need to be on prescription medicines for longer than a single dose. It’s best to avoid vaginal intercourse during your treatment and steer clear of inserting anything into your vagina that could harbor bacteria, like tampons, menstrual cups, and sex toys (Sobel, 2021-b).

It can sometimes be challenging to tell if your vaginal infection is due to bacterial vaginosis or a yeast infection; your healthcare provider can help you differentiate between the two. Here is a summary of the main characteristics of these two vaginal conditions.

Tips for preventing BV and yeast infections

While the treatments may differ, the prevention strategies for avoiding BV and yeast infections overlap. The key objective is to maintain the natural bacterial balance of your vagina. Here are some ways to do that:

  • Always wipe from front to back in the bathroom.
  • Don’t douche. 
  • Wear cotton underwear that’s not too tight and wicks away moisture.
  • Avoid long, hot baths and too much time in hot tubs.
  • Don’t use scented feminine products.
  • If you go for a sweaty workout or swim, change out of wet clothes ASAP.
  • Keep your diabetes under control.

Without a pelvic exam, it can be tough to know if you have BV or something else. If you have vaginal discharge that comes with an odor or if you develop a fever, it’s time to make an appointment. 

Another reason to see your provider is if you have multiple sex partners or recently started having sex with someone new and now have vaginal symptoms. Sometimes the symptoms of BV can resemble those of sexually transmitted infections. And finally, if you thought you had a yeast infection but the OTC remedies just aren’t working, get medical advice.

While you can usually treat yeast infections with OTC medications, some instances merit an office visit. 

Suppose it’s your first yeast infection ever. In that case, you may want to consult with your healthcare provider to make sure you’re not experiencing another issue that requires different treatment, like a urinary tract infection (UTI) or an STI. You should also seek medical attention if you get a yeast infection while pregnant, since not all OTC meds are pregnancy-safe. And finally, if you get yeast infections a lot (four or more per year), you may need longer-term treatment.

  1. Hay, P. (2014). Bacterial vaginosis. Medicine, 42 (7) (2014), pp. 359-363. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2014.04.011. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1357303914001121
  2. Jeanmonod R, Jeanmonod D. (2020 Nov). Vaginal Candidiasis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459317/
  3. Kairys N, Garg M. (2020 Nov). Bacterial Vaginosis. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459216/
  4. Sobel, J.D. & Mitchell, C. (2020 Sept). Bacterial vaginosis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis. In Barbieri, R.L. & Eckler, K. (Eds.) Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/bacterial-vaginosis-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
  5. Sobel, J.D. (2021-a March). Bacterial vaginosis: Treatment. In Barbieri, R.L. & Eckler, K. (Eds.) Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/bacterial-vaginosis-treatment
  6. Sobel, J.D. (2021-b March). Candida vulvovaginitis: Treatment. In Barbieri, R.L., Kauffman, C.A., & Eckler, K. (Eds.) Retrieved from https://www.uptodate. com/contents/candida-vulvovaginitis-treatment

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Different Types of Vaginal Infections and What You Can Do About Them: Solace Women’s Care: Obstetrics & Gynecology

Are you experiencing vaginal itching, pain, or other discomfort? It could be a vaginal infection.

Medication, contraception, sexual activity, and more can make your vagina feel uncomfortable or cause changes in the smell and appearance of discharge, signaling a vaginal infection, sometimes called vaginitis. 

Most often, infections are triggered by bacteria, fungus, or irritants from soap or contraceptives. It’s tempting to self-diagnose if you experience vaginal discomfort, but vaginitis isn’t always treatable with over-the-counter remedies.

It’s better to trust your care to the experts. Farly Sejour, MD, and our team at Solace Women’s Care provide comprehensive gynecological care to women of all ages. From yeast infections to sexually transmitted infections, learn more about a few of the most common types of vaginal infections and symptoms here.  

Yeast infections

Yeast infections might be the most well-known vaginal infection. A yeast infection develops because of fungus overgrowth in your vagina. The most common symptom of a yeast infection is vaginal itchiness. It’s often accompanied by increased vaginal discharge that’s thick and white in color.

There is an abundance of over-the-counter medications for yeast infections. Many women assume they have a yeast infection if they have vaginal discomfort, but these over-the-counter treatments aren’t always effective. If you’ve tried over-the-counter remedies but you’re still experiencing symptoms, make an appointment with Dr. Sejour.

Bacterial vaginosis

Your vagina naturally has bacteria. If one type of bacteria begins to grow too much, it upsets the balance. and you might develop a bacterial infection called bacterial vaginosis. It can be triggered by having several sex partners or a new partner, but it also affects women who aren’t sexually active.

A bacterial infection may make vaginal discharge gray or yellow. Sometimes, women notice that the discharge has a fishy odor, particularly after having sex.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

Certain vaginal infections are transmitted through sexual intercourse. If you have unprotected sex with someone who has an STI, you can contract it. Trichomoniasis is one of the most common STIs affecting both women and men, and symptoms can mimic those of other vaginal infections.

It’s a parasite that may cause frothy, unpleasant-smelling vaginal discharge. Discharge may be greenish-yellow, gray, or white, but not everyone who has it displays symptoms.

Having one STI may put you at greater risk for contracting others, but only about 30% of people with trichomoniasis have symptoms. That’s why it’s important to get screened for STIs regularly, even if you don’t have noticeable symptoms. Talk to Dr. Sejour to learn more about STI testing that’s right for you.

Treatment for vaginal infections

It’s important to visit the doctor for an expert diagnosis if you experience vaginal discomfort, whether you’ve had a vaginal infection before or not. Seeking professional care for a vaginal infection is particularly important if your symptoms are accompanied by fever or pelvic pain. 

Common signs of vaginal infection include:

  • Itching
  • Changes in vaginal discharge
  • Pain with sex
  • Pain with urination
  • Increased need to urinate
  • Vaginal bleeding or spotting

Dr. Sejour can perform a comprehensive gynecological exam to diagnose your condition. If your vaginitis is caused by an irritant in soap or contraceptive methods, we recommend different options. Other infections may require medicated creams, tablets, or gel to relieve symptoms.

Don’t ignore vaginal itching, pain, or changes in discharge. If you think you might have a vaginal infection, schedule an appointment at Solace Women’s Care. Call our Conroe, Texas, office at 936-441-7100, or you can send a message to Dr. Sejour and team here on our website.

Vaginitis | Symptoms & Causes

What are the symptoms of the vaginitis?

Each type has a different cause and may present different symptoms, and more than one type of vaginitis may be present at one time (with or without symptoms).

Candida (yeast infection)

  • Yeast infections, as they are commonly called, are caused by one of the many species of fungus known as candida, which normally live in the vagina in small numbers.
  • Yeast infections can also be present in the mouth and digestive tract in both males and females.
  • A yeast infection in the mouth is also known as “thrush”.

What causes a vaginal yeast infection?

Since yeast is normally present and well-balanced in the vagina, infection occurs when something in the body upsets this normal balance, for example, an antibiotic to treat another infection. In this case, the antibiotic kills the bacteria that normally protects and balances the yeast in the vagina. In turn, the yeast overgrows, causing an infection.

Other factors that can cause this imbalance to occur include:

  • pregnancy, which changes hormone levels
  • diabetes, which allows too much sugar in the urine and vagina

What are the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection?

While each female may experience symptoms of a yeast infection differently, some of the most common include:

  • a thick, white cottage cheese-like vaginal discharge that is watery and usually odorless
  • itchiness and redness of the vulva and vagina

Who is at risk for vaginal yeast infections?

While any female can develop a yeast infection, there may be an increased risk for females who:

  • have had a recent course of antibiotics
  • are pregnant
  • have diabetes that is not well-controlled
  • are using an immunosuppressant medication
  • are using high-estrogen contraceptives
  • have a thyroid or endocrine disorder
  • are undergoing corticosteroid therapy, which slows the immune system

Bacterial vaginosis

  • Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common type of vaginitis in females of reproductive age.
  • Unlike a yeast infection, BV is caused by bacteria.
  • With a bacterial vaginosis infection, certain species of normal vaginal bacteria grow out of control and trigger inflammation.
  • The cause of bacterial vaginosis is unknown.

What are the symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

While each adolescent may experience symptoms differently, some of the most common include:

  • a milky, thin discharge at times, or a heavy, gray discharge
  • “fishy” odor of discharge

The symptoms of bacterial vaginosis may resemble other conditions. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.


  • Trichomoniasis, trichomonas, or “trich,” is a sexually transmitted infection.
  • It is caused when a one-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis passes between partners during sexual intercourse.
  • Since most males with trichomoniasis will not have any symptoms, the infection often goes undiscovered until the female develops symptoms.

What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?

While each adolescent may experience symptoms of trichomoniasis differently, some of the most common include:

  • a frothy, often musty-smelling greenish-yellow discharge
  • itching in and around the vagina and vulva
  • burning during urination
  • discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • pain during intercourse


  • Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, although it often goes undiagnosed.
  • It is most commonly diagnosed in young women between the ages of 18 and 35 who have multiple sexual partners.
  • If left untreated, chlamydia often leads to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which increases a female’s risk of infertility, pelvic adhesions, chronic pelvic pain and ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy implants outside the womb).
  • Chlamydia, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, exists in a number of different strains.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Unfortunately, many females have no symptoms, thus prolonging diagnosis and treatment and possibly spreading the disease. While each female may experience symptoms differently, the most common include:

  • increased vaginal discharge
  • light bleeding, especially after intercourse
  • pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis
  • burning during urination
  • pus in the urine
  • redness and swelling of the urethra and labia

How is chlamydia treated?

Generally, treatment for chlamydia involves taking antibiotics.

Viral vaginitis

Viruses are a common cause of vaginitis, most commonly spread through sexual contact. Two of the most common viruses are the herpes simplex virus (HSV, or simply “herpes”) and the human papillomavirus (HPV).

With HSV (herpes):

  • The primary symptom is pain in the genital area associated with lesions and sores. These sores are generally visible on the vulva or vagina, but occasionally are inside the vagina and can only be found during a pelvic examination.
  • Often stress or emotional situations can be a factor in triggering an outbreak of herpes.

With Human papillomavirus (HPV):

  • Painful warts may grow on the vagina, rectum, vulva or groin. However, visible warts are not always present, in which case the virus is generally detected by a Pap test.
  • There is now a vaccine that prevents the types of HPV most cases of cervical cancer and genital warts.
    • The vaccine, Gardasil®, is given in three shots over six-months. 
    • The vaccine is routinely recommended for 11 and 12 year old girls. It is also recommended for girls and women age 13 through 26 who have not yet been vaccinated or completed the vaccine series.

Noninfectious vaginitis

  • Noninfectious vaginitis usually refers to vaginal irritation without an infection being present.
  • Most often, this is caused by an allergic reaction to, or irritation from, vaginal sprays, douches or spermicidal products.
  • Noninfectious vaginitis may be also be caused by sensitivity to perfumed soaps, detergents or fabric softeners.

What are the symptoms of noninfectious vaginitis?

While each girl may experience symptoms differently, some of the most common include:

  • vaginal itching
  • vaginal burning
  • vaginal discharge
  • pelvic pain (particularly during intercourse)

What Is Bacterial Vaginosis? | What Is a Yeast Infection?

Runners, it’s time we normalize a common (but not often spoken about) inconvenience that we’re occasionally burdened with: an itchy crotch.

Running is an empowering sport. However, when you begin to feel irritated or itchy down there, that confidence can begin to dissipate, or, at the very least, you may just feel annoyed. It’s possible that you’re dealing with a yeast infection or maybe even bacterial vaginosis (BV)—and some people are more prone to these types of vaginal infections than others.

If you are someone who’s susceptible to either or both infections, running long distances could exacerbate your risk of developing an infection down under. The good news? They’re both completely treatable and may even be preventable.

There are several ways you can attempt to stave off these types of vaginal infections. But before we share some of these tips, Stacy De-Lin, M.D., a gynecologist and family planning specialist, explains what each infection is and lends insight into how you might get them. After all, knowledge is power, right?

No matter what you’re looking to improve in your running life, find it with Runner’s World+!

What is bacterial vaginosis?

“You have a blend of bacteria and yeast in your vagina that’s naturally occurring, and bacterial vaginosis occurs when there’s an overgrowth of a certain type of bacteria in your vagina,” De-Lin tells Runner’s World.

When that balance gets disrupted, you may start to notice some of these several common symptoms.

  • A thin gray discharge
  • Discomfort or irritation
  • A fish-like odor
  • Itching

    “We don’t know what causes it necessarily—some people are just more prone to it than others—but we do know there are things you can do that can make it more likely,” says De-Lin.

    Douching and using fragranced products, such as scented pads and vaginal wipes, can increase the risk of BV, for example. De-Lin adds that having sex used to be thought of as a potential cause for BV, however experts no longer think that’s the case.

    What is a yeast infection?

    Also known as candidiasis, De-Lin says that a yeast infection describes the imbalance of yeast and healthy bacteria in the vagina. So when someone has a vaginal yeast infection, it just means they have an overgrowth of yeast in that region.

    Here are the most common symptoms, De-Lin says.

    • Feeling itchy (De-Lin says a yeast infection is “often much more strongly associated with itching”)
    • A thick cottage cheese-like vaginal discharge
    • Having visible redness or irritation on the vulva

      Unlike BV, we have more information about what causes yeast infections. In fact, underlying conditions such as type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, or any health issue that compromises the immune system can all make the vagina more susceptible to yeast overgrowth.

      What’s more, De-Lin notes that taking a course of antibiotics can also increase the likelihood of infection as it kills off all bacteria—including the healthy kind.

      Why are long-distance runners more susceptible to BV or a yeast infection?

      Now that we’re in the thick of summer, the risks of dealing with either infection are even higher, and that’s simply because we’re sweating a lot more while running.

      “For runners, you’re sweating a lot into your underwear and all of the friction that happens with running can definitely lead to an increase in yeast, and it can cause that yeast to multiply,” says De-Lin. “It’s more common for runners to have that external yeast infection.”

      When this occurs on a penis, it’s often referred to as “jock itch,” whereas when this occurs on the vulva, it’s referred to as an “external yeast infection.”

      How can you lower your risk of both BV and yeast infections?

      Tip 1: Ditch the nylon undies.

      Your gynecologist or physician may have told you once before that cotton underwear is the best choice for avoiding yeast infections. However, De-Lin says that it may not be that limiting. In fact, it may come down to trial and error to see what works best for your body.

      “I kind of tell patients to figure it out for themselves. Cotton is much better than a nylon-type underwear, which will just trap moisture,” says De-Lin. “Cotton can absorb moisture, which can pull it away from the vulva, but then what’s sort of counter to that is if you wear the [cotton] underwear for a very long time, there can be moisture contained there.”

      There’s also underwear that’s marketed as “sweat wicking,” which works well for some, but for others, it can be irritating to their vulva. The key may be to single out which pairs of underwear are causing flare-ups—so don’t go out and buy all cotton or all sweat wicking underwear until you figure it out.

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      Tip 2: After you’re done running, get out of your sweaty underwear or shorts immediately.

      One of the worst things you can do after a long run is sit around in sweat-filled clothes.

      “Whenever you finish exercising, it’s a good idea to have a spare pair of underwear or to go without underwear afterwards so that you’re not having any of these wet surfaces adhering to your body for long periods of time,” says De-Lin. “Normalizing not wearing underwear, I think, is a good thing after a run—it’s fine not to wear underwear!”

      In fact, you should also ditch your sweaty sports bra after a run, too. As De-Lin notes, the area beneath your breasts can trap sweat in and the friction caused by an ill-fitting sports bra can increase the likelihood of getting a yeast infection on the skin. An external yeast infection under the breasts looks like a rash that appears red or reddish brown, is raised, and may even itch.

      People with larger breasts are especially susceptible, as their breasts are more likely to rub against the skin and upper torso than smaller ones. To help prevent this, De-Lin advises finding a supportive sports bra that lifts the breasts up toward the chest.

      Tip 3: Find shorts that fit well and reduce friction against the skin.

      Running without underwear? Use the same trial and error method De-Lin recommends you try with your underwear with your shorts as well, because, again, it largely comes down to the individual. Is it better to wear shorts with built-in mesh-like underwear or to “go commando” and just wear compression shorts? Instead of trying to bucket your shorts into categories, De-Lin encourages runners to be cognizant of which shorts are causing the most friction down there. (Hint: This is why doctors, including De-Lin, often advise against running in thongs!)

      “If you’re wearing Spanx that are kind of loosely-fitting but still tight, they can cause irritation on the vulva,” De-Lin. “Generally, Spanx or biker shorts keep skin from rubbing against itself and help to protect skin, but may not breathe well, so changing shortly after exercise would be the best for skin.”

      So if you’re going to wear compression shorts on your long-runs, you’ll want to seek out pairs that are form-fitting. But again, make sure to strip out of them right after you’re done exercising.

      Tip 4: Stay away from the “feminine wipes.”

      The vagina is both powerful and efficient—it cleans itself via discharge, so you don’t have to feel the need to use products that claim to maintain or restore pH balance.

      “There are a lot of products out there that say you can use these wipes to help you become more fresh if you can’t get into a shower, and those are often loaded with things that are very irritating to the skin that have fragrances that actually can lead to more yeast and more BV,” says De-Lin.

      If you cannot get into a shower straight after your run, don’t sweat it (quite literally). The main priority should be to get out of your wet clothes and then, when you do have the opportunity to shower, De-Lin says to wash the vulva only using water. If you are going to use soap, use unscented soap, but in small amounts and only externally.

      The Bottom line

      Remember, if you do get a yeast infection or BV, know that they happen sometimes and that’s okay—both are treatable through medication. While De-Lin assures that not treating a yeast infection isn’t life-threatening by any means, symptoms can worsen (i.e. more itching and irritation). Worst-case scenario, it could develop into severe vulvar candidiasis and experience skin breakdown which could then lead to painful skin ulceration.

      If you leave BV untreated, your risk for contracting an STD increases. In some cases, De-Lin adds, untreated BV can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease or, if pregnant, can increase the risk of premature birth.

      If you suspect that you have either infection, make an appointment to see your doctor.

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      6 contributors to bacterial vaginosis

      Speaking of Health

      Have you ever thought about how when your body is healthy, you don’t even notice your vagina? But when things are a little off, it’s hard to ignore. Bacterial vaginosis is a common bacterial infection of the vagina that rarely goes unnoticed. It sometimes can be confused with a yeast infection or sexually transmitted disease, such as trichomoniasis, but it is not an STD.

      With bacterial vaginosis, bacteria growth can cause uncomfortable symptoms, including a change in vaginal discharge or odor — often described as being white or gray in color and having a fish-like odor. Some women will experience inflammation and itching. However, itching is uncommon.

      Bacterial vaginosis causes

      Low levels of the bacteria that cause bacterial vaginosis are normally found in the vagina. It becomes a problem when too much of the bacteria grow.

      Several factors can make increase the number of bacteria, including:

      1. Sex. Semen impacts the pH level in the vagina, which can contribute to a higher rate of bacteria growth.
      2. Douching. Douching with vinegar or antiseptics causes inflammation and can increase the risk of infections. This also can eliminate some good bacteria.
      3. Diet change. Anything that affects the gastrointestinal tract or internal body system can affect the normal balance of bacteria. Also, a poor diet can affect the ability of the body to return to normal state.
      4. Nylon underwear/tight yoga pants. Wearing nylon underwear or tight yoga pants can block air movement in the vaginal area, which can cause increased bacteria growth.
      5. Heavily perfumed/antibacterial soaps. Using soap with a lot of scent or an antibacterial agent spurs bacteria growth.
      6. Sweating. When you work out, your clothes get wet, which encourages bacteria growth.
      Bacterial vaginosis treatment

      The first instinct often is to look online for home remedies because it seems too embarrassing to seek medical care. Home remedies include a borax suppository, yogurt, garlic supplements, hydrogen peroxide or diluted tea tree oils. These treatments aren’t well-studied, so we do not recommend trying to treat bacterial vaginosis at home with them. Seeing a primary care provider or gynecologist is the best and safest option for treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is not transferrable to male partners, but is to female partners, so both females should consider being treated.

      It is fairly common for bacterial vaginosis to recur. If this happens, a medical provider should be consulted for other treatment options specific to your case. Bacterial vaginosis can be uncomfortable and frustrating to deal with, which is why it’s important to seek medical care. Don’t deal with it longer than you have to.

      See your primary health care provider or OB-GYN if you suspect you have bacterial vaginosis.

      Carla Toft is a certified nurse-midwife OB-GYN in Eau Claire, Wisconsin.

      For the safety of our patients, staff and visitors, Mayo Clinic has strict masking policies in place. Anyone shown without a mask was either recorded prior to COVID-19 or recorded in a non-patient care area where social distancing and other safety protocols were followed.

      Vaginitis: Diagnosis and Treatment – American Family Physician

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      10. Anderson MR,
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      11. Schaaf VM,
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      Borchardt K.
      The limited value of symptoms and signs in the diagnosis of vaginal infections. Arch Intern Med.

      12. Bornstein J,
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      Lavi I,
      Bar-Am A,
      Abramovici H.
      The classic approach to diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: a critical analysis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol.

      13. Nwankwo TO,
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      Umeh UA.
      Syndromic diagnosis in evaluation of women with symptoms of vaginitis. Curr Infect Dis Rep.

      14. Hainer BL,
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      15. Farage MA,
      Miller KW,
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      16. van Schalkwyk J,
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      17. Blake DR,
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      1998;102(4 pt 1):939–944.

      18. Nelson DB,
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      19. Strauss RA,
      Eucker B,
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      Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis from self-obtained vaginal swabs. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol.

      20. Kashyap B,
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      21. Morgan DJ,
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      22. Tanksale VS,
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      23. Amsel R,
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      24. Simoes JA,
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      Dantas MC.
      Clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet.

      25. Schwebke JR,
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      McGregor JA,
      Sweet RL.
      Validity of the vaginal gram stain for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol.
      1996;88(4 pt 1):573–576.

      26. Menard JP,
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      Diagnostic accuracy of quantitative real-time PCR assay versus clinical and Gram stain identification of bacterial vaginosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis.

      27. Myziuk L,
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      BVBlue test for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol.

      28. Kampan NC,
      Suffian SS,
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      Zakaria SZ,
      Jamil MA.
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      29. Leclair CM,
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      30. Chatwani AJ,
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      Rapid testing for vaginal yeast detection: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      31. Marot-Leblond A,
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      Pilon F,
      Beucher B,
      Poulain D,
      Robert R.
      Efficient diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis by use of a new rapid immunochromatography test. J Clin Microbiol.

      32. Dan M,
      Leshem Y,
      Yeshaya A.
      Performance of a rapid yeast test in detecting Candida spp. in the vagina. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis.

      33. Lowe NK,
      Neal JL,
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      Accuracy of the clinical diagnosis of vaginitis compared with a DNA probe laboratory standard. Obstet Gynecol.

      34. Wiese W,
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      Estrada CA.
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      35. Nyirjesy P.
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      36. Sobel JD,
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      Yoo W.
      Prognosis and treatment of desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Obstet Gynecol.

      37. Schwebke JR,
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      38. Martin HL,
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      et al.
      Vaginal lactobacilli, microbial flora, and risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and sexually transmitted disease acquisition. J Infect Dis.

      39. Wiesenfeld HC,
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      Bacterial vaginosis is a strong predictor of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Clin Infect Dis.

      40. Ferris DG,
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      Treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a comparison of oral metronidazole, metronidazole vaginal gel, and clindamycin vaginal cream. J Fam Pract.

      41. Symbiomix Therapeutics. FDA approves Symbiomix Therapeutics’ Solosec (secnidazole) oral granules for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in adult women. September 18, 2017. https://symbiomix.com/fda-approves-symbiomix-therapeutics-solosec-secnidazole-oral-granules-treatment-bacterial-vaginosis-adult-women/. Accessed October 28, 2017.

      42. Bohbot JM,
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      43. Solosec (secnidazole) [prescribing information]. Newark, N.J.: Symbiomix Therapeutics LLC; September 2017. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2017/209363s000lbl.pdf. Accessed October 28, 2017.

      44. Koss CA,
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      Investigation of metronidazole use during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.

      45. Brocklehurst P,
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      Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.
      2013;(1): CD000262.

      46. Leitich H,
      Bodner-Adler B,
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      Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      47. Sobel JD,
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      Single oral dose fluconazole compared with conventional clotrimazole topical therapy of Candida vaginitis. Fluconazole Vaginitis Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol.
      1995;172(4 pt 1):1263–1268.

      48. Watson MC,
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      Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal agents for the treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush): a systematic review. BJOG.

      49. Nurbhai M,
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      Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush). Cochrane Database Syst Rev.

      50. Merkus JM.
      Treatment of vaginal candidiasis: orally or vaginally? J Am Acad Dermatol.
      1990;23(3 pt 2):568–572.

      51. Reef SE,
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      1995;20(suppl 1):S80–S90.

      52. Sobel JD.
      Factors involved in patient choice of oral or vaginal treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Patient Prefer Adherence.

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      et al.
      Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      54. Ferris DG,
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      55. Mølgaard-Nielsen D,
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      Association between use of oral fluconazole during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. JAMA.

      56. Howley MM,
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      Browne ML,
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      Cunniff CM,
      Druschel CM.
      Fluconazole use and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      57. Sobel JD,
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      et al.
      Treatment of complicated Candida vaginitis: comparison of single and sequential doses of fluconazole. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      58. Sobel JD,
      Wiesenfeld HC,
      Martens M,

      et al.
      Maintenance fluconazole therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. N Engl J Med.

      59. Richter SS,
      Galask RP,
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      Hollis RJ,
      Diekema DJ,
      Pfaller MA.
      Anti-fungal susceptibilities of Candida species causing vulvovaginitis and epidemiology of recurrent cases. J Clin Microbiol.

      60. Sood G,
      Nyirjesy P,
      Weitz MV,
      Chatwani A.
      Terconazole cream for non- Candida albicans fungal vaginitis: results of a retrospective analysis. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol.

      61. Sobel JD,
      Chaim W,
      Nagappan V,
      Leaman D.
      Treatment of vaginitis caused by Candida glabrata: use of topical boric acid and flucytosine. Am J Obstet Gynecol.

      62. Falagas ME,
      Betsi GI,
      Athanasiou S.
      Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. J Antimicrob Chemother.

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      McClelland RS,
      Reilly M,

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      The effect of treatment of vaginal infections on shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Infect Dis.

      64. Kissinger P,
      Mena L,
      Levison J,

      et al.
      A randomized treatment trial: single versus 7-day dose of metronidazole for the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-infected women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.

      65. Johnson GL.
      Tinidazole (Tindamax) for trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis. Am Fam Physician.

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      Pastorek JG II,
      Nugent RP,

      et al.
      Trichomonas vaginalis associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Sex Transm Dis.

      67. Lynch C.
      Vaginal estrogen therapy for the treatment of atrophic vaginitis. J Womens Health (Larchmt).

      68. Management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy: 2013 position statement of The North American Menopause Society. Menopause.
      2013; 20(9):888–902.

      69. Owen MK,
      Clenney TL.
      Management of vaginitis. Am Fam Physician.

      70. Egan ME,
      Lipsky MS.
      Diagnosis of vaginitis. Am Fam Physician.
      2000; 62(5):1095–1104.

      Vulvovaginal Infections | Cedars-Sinai

      Not what you’re looking for?

      Infections of the vagina and outer female genitals include conditions caused by bacteria, viruses, cancer, non-cancerous tumors and tissue growths, foreign bodies or fistulas (abnormal passages between organs or an organ and a body cavity that allow fluids to pass from one to the other). These infections include:

      • Bacterial vaginosis, which represents about 60% of all vaginal infections.
      • Yeast infections, which account for 30 to 35 percent of vaginal infections. Most are due to Candida albicans. Yeast appears in 15 to 20 percent of nonpregnant and 20 to 40 percent of pregnant women.
      • Trichomonas vaginitis (swelling, redness and tenderness of the vagina caused by trichomonas), which is a sexually transmitted disease. It is responsible for between five and 10% of vaginal infections.
      • Herpes simplex virus (HSV), which causes genital ulcers (sores). It is different from syphilis and chancroid.
      • Human papillomavirus genital warts, which are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease. About six percent of women between the ages of 20 and 34 have this infection.


      Vulvovaginal infections affect primarily the moist walls of the vagina and, to a lesser degree the vulva. Specific symptoms differ with the cause of the condition. For example:

      • Yeast infections cause itching and a white discharge that looks like cottage cheese.
      • Trichomonas vaginitis exhibits no symptoms at all for about half the women who have the organism. The other half may experience a heavy vaginal discharge (frothy, yellowish green and alkaline) with a fishy odor. Other symptoms include pain when emptying the bladder (urinating) and when having sex. The walls of the vagina may be swollen and, in serious cases, strawberry colored.
      • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has a five-to seven-day growing period before symptoms appear. This makes it easy to spread between sexual partners. When a woman first is infected, her symptoms may include feeling unwell, swollen lymph nodes in the groin and a fever that usually goes away in a week. Painful ulcers develop on the genitals and heal in about 21 days. The virus comes back from time to time. When it returns, a sense of numbness or tingling may be felt where the ulcer is developing. Recurrences tend to be milder and in one place. Ulcers heal in about 10 days. A person can infect others for about four days after the symptoms have gone away.
      • A watery discharge, especially if bloody, may indicate a malignancy. Other causes of bleeding include cervical polyps and vaginal atropy, shrinking or wasting of the vagina walls. These usually happen after menopause.
      • Bacterial vaginosis causes a fishy smelling discharge. Itching and irritation are also common.


      Causes and Risk Factors

      Vaginal infections have a variety of causes, and risk factors vary with the specific cause of the infection. For example:

      • Using an intrauterine device may put a woman at greater risk of getting bacterial vaginosis or a yeast infection.
      • Having multiple sex partners or having sex with a person who has certain bacteria, viruses or other organisms adds to the risk of vaginal problems, including bacterial vaginosis, herpes simplex, trichomonas vaginitis or genital warts.
      • Women who are pregnant, diabetic, have recently used an antibiotic, regularly use corticosteroids, have AIDS or who have weakened immune systems are at greater risk of getting a yeast infection.


      Bacterial vaginosis. Diagnosis is made during a pelvic examination. The doctor will check for signs of a discharge and a fishy smell. The doctor may measure the level of acidity in the vaginal area and take samples to examine under the microscope.

      Candidal vaginitis. Diagnosis is made through a pelvic exam and by measuring how acidic or alkaline the vagina is. The doctor will also check for yeast cells under the microscope.

      Trichomonas vaginitis. A pelvic exam will show inflamed areas in the cervix and vagina that have a strawberry appearance. Cells may also be taken so they can be examined under the microscope.


      The type of treatment given depends on the cause of the condition. In some cases, treatment completely cures the condition. In others, it relieves symptoms and shortens the period of time the person is affected. For example, herpes simplex cannot currently be cured, but timely anti-viral drugs can help reduce its effect. Other treatments for vulvovaginal infections may include:

      • Vaginal creams
      • Treatment of a woman’s sexual partner in certain types of conditions
      • Genital warts may be treated by applying an acid solution. Other treatments are freezing, burning or using laser therapy on the warts

      © 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.

      Not what you’re looking for?


      Mitsetoma usually appears as
      chronic foot disease, but can affect any part of the body. Infection,
      most likely due to the penetration of some species
      fungi or bacteria in the subcutaneous tissue due to trauma.

      Typically, the disease affects young people, especially men, aged 15-30 in developing countries. People with low socioeconomic status and manual workers such as farmers, laborers and pastoralists are most susceptible to this disease.

      Mycetoma has numerous adverse medical, health and socioeconomic consequences for patients, communities and health authorities. There are no exact data on the incidence and prevalence of this disease. However, early diagnosis and treatment are important to reduce morbidity and improve treatment outcomes.

      Mitsetoma was first recorded in the middle of the 19th century in the Indian city of Madurai, and therefore this disease was originally called “Madura foot”.


      The causative agents of mycetoma are common throughout the world, but endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the so-called “mycetoma belt”, which covers the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Mauritania, Mexico, Senegal, Thailand and Sudan Yemen.


      Transmission of infection occurs as a result of the penetration of the pathogen into the human body during minor wounds or penetrating injuries, usually pricks.There is a clear association between mycetoma and barefoot people and manual workers.

      Clinical features

      Mycetoma is characterized by a combination of painless subcutaneous tumor-like formations, numerous fistulas and discharge with granular formations. Mycetoma usually spreads to adjacent skin, deep structures, and bones, causing destruction, deformity, and loss of function that can be fatal. Mycetoma mainly affects the limbs, back and gluteal region, but any part of the body can be affected.Due to the slow progression of the disease, its painless nature, the fact that people do not realize that they are sick, and the lack of medical and healthcare facilities in endemic areas, many patients seek medical help in the late stages of the development of the disease, when the only only amputation can be a treatment option. A secondary bacterial infection often develops with lesions that, if left untreated, can cause severe pain, disability, and fatal sepsis (severe infections of the whole body).The infection is not spread from person to person.


      The diagnosis of mycetoma is established on the basis of the clinical picture and identification of infectious agents that can be detected by direct examination of granular formations secreted from fistulas. Samples with clinical material can be obtained from any open fistulous discharge by means of diagnostic fine needle aspiration puncture (DTAP) or surgical biopsy. Although microscopic examination of granular formations helps to identify pathogens, culture (sowing) is important for their further identification, but even in this case, errors in classification are possible.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most reliable methods of identification, but this study is expensive and does not have standardized procedures. Serologic diagnostic tests are not used. Imaging methods such as X-ray examination, ultrasound examination, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are used to assess the prevalence of the lesion and to plan the tactics of clinical management of the patient.


      The choice of treatment depends on the infectious agent.With the bacterial etiology of the disease, combined antibiotic therapy is used, and the treatment of mycetoma of the fungal type is based on the appointment of combined antifungal drugs and surgical intervention. Treatment is often unsatisfactory, has numerous side effects, is expensive and not readily available in endemic areas.

      Prevention and control

      Mycetoma is not a notifiable (legally notifiable) disease and a global surveillance system for this disease is still under development.A mycetoma control program is currently only available in Sudan. Preventing this infection is difficult, but people living in or traveling to endemic areas should be advised not to go barefoot.

      WHO and the global response

      To build national capacity for mycetoma control, the Government of Sudan and WHO organized the First International Mycetoma Training Workshop from 10 to 14 February 2019.in Khartoum. This workshop, which brought together about 50 health workers from many mycetoma-endemic countries, provided a unique opportunity to share experiences and standardize practices in diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, drawing on the expertise and experience of the Mycetoma Research Center in Khartoum.

      At the end of the seminar, the Sixth International Conference on Mycetoma was held (Khartoum, February 15-17, 2019). The conference adopted the Khartoum Call for Action on Mycetoma, which appeals to a wide range of stakeholders to take concrete policy and public health measures to reduce the burden of mycetoma.


      Developing a public health strategy for the prevention and control of mycetoma requires the collection of epidemiological data on the burden of the disease and investment in research and development so that cost-effective prevention can be achieved in resource-limited settings. diagnosis, early treatment and case management.

      Currently, the best approach to reducing the incidence and disability associated with mycetoma is proactively identifying cases and early diagnosis and treatment of mycetoma with the tools available today.However, important public health measures are needed to address the mycetoma problem. Some of them are:

      • Incorporation of mycetoma into national surveillance systems and establishment of a registry in countries where the disease is prevalent;
      • Integration of mycetoma detection into the approach to the management of neglected tropical diseases with primary skin lesions, which will improve the early diagnosis of this infection;
      • Improving access to diagnostics and medicines and improving clinical protocols for patient management;
      • Strengthening preventive measures (eg wearing shoes) to reduce the incidence of new cases;
      • Raise awareness of mycetoma in affected communities and build the capacity of healthcare staff.

      The Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative and other partners are currently investigating the safety and efficacy of phosravuconazole in the treatment of eumycetoma in Sudan. In addition to the expected increase in patient cure rates, if successful, the adoption of this treatment method will shorten treatment times, improve adherence to therapy, and save financial resources.

      KDL. Fungal infection. Analyzes and prices

      Allergology.ImmunoCAP. Individual allergens, IgE

      Allergic components ImmunoCAP

      Allergic components of trees

      Allergic components of animals and birds

      Allergic components of mold

      Allergic components of herbs

      Food allergy3. ImmunoCAP. Comprehensive IgE studies (result for each allergen)

      Allergology. ImmunoCAP. Panels of IgE allergens, screening (total result)

      Allergology.ImmunoCAP. Fadiatop

      Allergology. Immulite. Individual allergens

      Allergens of helminths, IgE

      Allergens of fungi (candida and mold), IgE

      Allergens of trees, IgE

      Allergens of animals and birds, IgE

      Allergens of house dust mites, Allergens of house dust mites, IgE and IgE

      Insect allergens, IgE

      Dust allergens, IgE

      Tissue allergens, IgE

      Grass allergens, IgE

      Bacterial allergens (Staphylococcus aureus), IgE

      Food allergens 9000 IgE 9000Immulite. Complexes of allergens, IgE (result for each allgen)

      Allergology. Immulite. Allergen panels, screening (total result)

      Tree allergens, IgE (panel)

      Animal and bird allergens, IgE (panel)

      Herbal allergens, IgE (panel)

      Inhalation allergens, IgE (panel)

      Food allergens , IgE (panel)

      Allergology. Immulite. Panels of IgG food allergens (the result is TOTAL)

      Allergology.ImmunoCAP. Individual allergens, IgE

      Allergens of trees, IgE

      Allergens of animals and birds, IgE

      Allergens of dust, IgE

      Allergens of herbs, IgE

      Food allergens, IgE

      Allergology. RIDA. Complexes of allergens, IgE

      Allergology. RIDA. Complexes of allergens, IgE (result for each allgen)

      Allergology. Local anesthetics, IgE

      Biochemical blood tests

      Diagnostics of anemias

      Lipid metabolism

      Protein exchange

      Pigment exchange

      Carbohydrate exchange

      Specific proteins


      Electrolytes 9000 urine

      Daily urine portion

      Vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids


      Hemostasis (coagulogram)

      Genetic research

      HLA typing

      Investigation of genetic polymorphisms3 by pyrosec method

      genetic analysis of male infertility

      Histological examinations

      Histological examinations of the UNIM laboratory

      Hormones of biological fluids

      Hormones of the pituitary gland and pituitary-adrenal system

      Blood hormones

      Hormones of the pituitary gland and pituitary-adrenal system

      Markers of osteoporosis

      Prenatal system of reproduction3


      Prenatal diagnosis

      Thyroid function

      Urine hormones

      PCR diagnostics


      Androflor, biocenosis research (male)

      Herpes virus type VI

      Varicella-Zoster virus

      Herpes zoster virus

      Herpes zoster virus

      Herpes simplex virus I, II type

      Epstein-Barr virus

      Herpes viruses

      The causative agent of tuberculosis

      HPV (human papillomavirus)

      Candida fungi

      Respiratory virus

      Respiratory virus

      Streptococci (incl.S.agalactie)


      Urogenital infections, STIs

      Urogenital infections, complex studies

      Urogenital infections, conditional pathogens

      Femoflor, biocenosis research (women)


      Feminocenosis 9000 PCR diagnostics, feces

      Intestinal infections

      PCR diagnostics, tick

      Tick-borne infections

      PCR diagnostics, blood.

      Varicella-Zoster virus (chickenpox)

      Herpes virus type VI

      Rubella virus

      Herpes simplex virus type I, II

      Epstein-Barr virus

      Herpes viruses

      HIV2 Herpes viruses

      HIV2 D

      Hepatitis G

      Hepatitis A

      Hepatitis B

      Hepatitis C







      Interferon status, baseline study

      Interferon status, drug sensitivity

      Assessment of humoral immunity

      Special immunological studies

      Abortion study

      Urinary stone study 9000 3

      Research of paraproteins.Screening and immunofixation

      Urine tests


      Saliva tests

      Saliva tests

      Comprehensive studies

      Drug monitoring

      Markers of autoimmune diseases

      Antiphospholipid diseases

      Antiphospholipid diseases 9000 of the lungs Aminoimmune diseases 9000

      Autoimmune lesions of the gastrointestinal tract and celiac disease

      Autoimmune lesions of the liver

      Autoimmune lesions of the kidneys and vasculitis

      Autoimmune endocrinopathies and infertility

      Diagnosis of arthritis


      Diagnosis of arthritis

      Elimatological diseases

      Blood culture for sterility

      Hemophilus bacillus culture

      Fungus culture (Candida)

      Fungus culture (pathogens of skin and nail mycoses) 9 0003

      Sowing for diphtheria

      Sowing for mycoplasma and ureaplasma

      Sowing for pyogenic streptococcus

      Sowing for staphylococcus

      Sowing of feces

      Sowing of urine

      Sowing of horses

      Sowing per microflora

      Sowing for microflora for microflora (urogenital tract of a woman)

      Crops for microflora (urogenital tract of a man)

      Crops for microflora of ENT organs)

      Accelerated crops with an extended antibioticogram

      Non-invasive diagnosis of liver diseases

      Non-invasive diagnostics of liver diseases

      Non-invasive prenatal DNA test (NIPT)

      Non-invasive prenatal test (fetal sex / rhesus)

      General clinical studies

      Nasal secretion study

      Prostate secretion study

      Fecal examination

      Studies of fecal matter

      Studies biological fluids

      Microscopy for the presence of pathogenic fungi and parasites

      Microscopy of the detachable urogenital tract


      Immunophenotyping for lymphoproliferative diseases

      Myelogram of myelogram of myelogram

      Molecular diagnostics of the brain 30003

      Food intolerance, IgG4

      Genome-wide studies and panels of hereditary diseases

      Prenatal screen ing

      Serological markers of infections



      HTLV virus

      Varicella-Zoster virus (chickenpox)

      Herpes simplex virus type VI

      Coxsackievirus virus 9000 Epidemic3

      Correspondence virus


      Epstein-Barr virus

      Herpes simplex viruses type I and II


      Hepatitis D

      Hepatitis A

      Hepatitis B

      Hepatitis E

      Hepatitis Fungus



      Tick-borne infections

      Pertussis and para-pertussis



      Parasitic infestations


      Respiratory infections




      Tetanus30002 Tetanus

      002 Cytomegalovirus

      Specialized laboratory research.

      Breathing test

      Microbiocenosis according to Osipov

      Heavy metals and trace elements

      Heavy metals and trace elements in hair

      Heavy metals and trace elements in the blood

      Heavy metals and trace elements in the blood

      Heavy metals in urine and trace elements3000 B3

      Establishment of relationship

      Chemical and toxicological studies

      Chromosomal microarray analysis

      Cytogenetic studies

      Cytological studies


      Treatment of fungus on the feet

      Effective treatment of any stage of development of a disease on the feet in the state …Modern diagnostic equipment, experienced and attentive doctors, as well as affordable prices for a wide range of medical services will allow you to solve the problem of mycosis of the feet and fungal infections, and you will forever forget about the unpleasant manifestations of these diseases.

      How can you get infected with a fungus?

      Fungal diseases of the feet (mycoses) are caused by parasitic fungi. To date, science knows many types of such microorganisms that cause disease in humans.Almost all mycoses are easily transmitted from person to person by everyday life and through contact with animals, therefore a large part of the adult population may have some form of fungal infection.

      You can become infected with a fungus both through direct contact with the carrier of the infection, and in any public places:

      • on the beach;
      • in a bath or sauna;
      • when using someone else’s shoes or other people’s personal hygiene items;
      • in manicure and pedicure offices, if the master neglects the rules for disinfecting the instrument.

      How to diagnose mycosis of the feet and other manifestations of fungal infection?

      Self-diagnosis of foot fungus is reduced to identifying the most common symptoms of infection, which include:

      • Burning sensation.
      • The presence of itchy blisters.
      • Skin peeling.
      • Coarsening and thickening of the skin, the formation of core calluses.
      • Painful cracks.
      • Changes in the color and thickness of the nail plates when the nail is infected.
      • Bad smell from feet.
      • In the process of attaching a bacterial infection to a fungal infection, ulcers with purulent contents may form.

      Due to the fact that mycoses of the feet are caused by different types of fungi, the symptoms can vary significantly. For an accurate diagnosis of the causative agent of the disease and the search for an optimal and effective method of treating nail fungus, a laboratory analysis is required.

      What methods of treatment of mycoses are used today?

      In the past, it was believed that fungal infections were incurable. But, with the advent of modern antimycotics – agents capable of influencing the vital processes of various fungi parasitizing on the human body, they can quite successfully treat fungus on the legs and prevent relapses. With early detection of the problem, getting rid of mycosis and forever forgetting about the fungal infection is more than real.

      Today, complex treatment prescribed by specialists may include:

      • Local therapy with modern drugs with a pronounced antifungal effect.As a rule, these are ointments and solutions specially designed to combat various types of mycoses, or preparations made according to an individual prescription.
      • Organization of proper foot skin care, which includes hygiene procedures, shoe care, medical pedicure.
      • Physiotherapy procedures: ultrasound therapy, massages.
      • Reception of antimycotics. General action drugs are needed when the infection has become chronic or the fungus has spread to other parts of the body (hands, scalp).

      Who is contraindicated for systemic drug treatment of fungal infections of the legs?

      • First of all, this is pregnancy and lactation, since general antifungal drugs easily penetrate the placental barrier and enter breast milk.
      • A contraindication is the presence of allergic reactions to the components of the preparations. But the widest range of antimycotics available today allows you to choose an effective and safe method of combating fungus for each patient.
      • Systemic antifungals are contraindicated in persons with severe liver disease.

      Remember that the treatment of fungus on the feet at the first manifestations of symptoms of mycosis is much faster and does not require taking medications, but it avoids a whole range of complications. Therefore, never forget about personal hygiene when going to public places, and at the first suspicion of a fungal infection, do not self-medicate, but contact experienced specialists at GAUZ MO “Khimki dermatovenerologic dispensary”Khimki to identify the cause of the problems and the appointment of effective therapy. Contact phone number for an appointment +7 (495) 573-96-56.

      90,000 STIs: types, symptoms, prevention

      STIs: types, symptoms, prevention

      STIs: symptoms, treatment, prevention STIs are sexually transmitted infections that are widespread throughout the world – according to WHO, every sixth inhabitant of the world suffers from any of these diseases.

      Getting an infection is pretty easy.If sexual intercourse is unprotected, then more than twenty-five types of pathogens can be transmitted at a time, and, most often, these are Trichomonas, myco- and ureaplasma, chlamydia, gonococcus, human papillomavirus and herpes. The incubation period for diseases ranges from two to three days to several weeks. To date, the list of STIs includes 31 pathogens: 10 types of viruses, 15 types of bacteria, 1 type of fungus, 3 types of protozoa and 2 types of ectoparasites.

      The most serious sexually transmitted disease is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).AIDS occurs when the body’s defense system is weakened by the immunodeficiency virus, and there is no way to save a person from this disease.

      Types of sexually transmitted infections:

      1. bacterial infections;

      2. viral infections;

      3. fungal infections;

      4. infections caused by protozoa;

      5. parasitic diseases.

      1. Bacterial infections.

      Bacterial STIs are by far the most common. According to the World Health Organization, about half a million people are infected annually by the three most common infections (syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia). Bacterial sexually transmitted infections include:

      • Syphilis. Syphilis is a severe, chronic sexually transmitted disease caused by the microorganism treponema pallidum (treponema pallidum). It affects not only the organs of the reproductive system, but also many internal organs, including the brain, causing serious consequences.
      • Gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It has a tropism for the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system (that is, it grows and reproduces best in this environment), therefore it mainly affects only them, but the mucous membranes of the rectum, oral cavity, and eyes may also be affected.
      • Chlamydia. Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. It is caused by the microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis, which can affect the entire genitourinary system of men and women.Other infections. This includes many other bacterial infections that are much less common. This is an inguinal granuloma, soft chancre, ureaplasma, etc.

      2. Viral infections.

      Sexually transmitted viral infections are a serious problem, since most of them today have no effective treatment. Modern medicine allows only to stop the symptoms, slow down the course of the disease, but it has not yet been possible to completely eradicate the virus.Sexually transmitted viral infections include:

      • HIV infection. The human immunodeficiency virus is an extremely dangerous pathogen that causes HIV infection. In the latter stages of infection, it leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
      • Genital herpes. Genital herpes is caused by a virus in the Herpesviridae family. It affects the genitals, but soon also infects nerve fibers and the brain.
      • Hepatitis B and C.Hepatitis B and C viruses can enter the body through unprotected sexual contact with a carrier of the infection. They affect the liver, with chronic course, serious consequences are possible.
      • Human papillomavirus. The virus causes overgrowth of the skin and mucous membranes in the form of genital warts, warts. Sometimes it can cause the development of cancerous tumors.
      • Cytomegalovirus. Cytomegaly virus also belongs to the Herpesviridae family. It is very dangerous for people with reduced immunity and for pregnant women.

      3.Fungal infections.

      Fungal infections most often develop in violation of local immunity. This may be due to inappropriate antibiotic use, pregnancy, stress, or a compromised immune system.

      • Candidiasis, also known as thrush. It is caused by conditionally pathogenic fungi, which are part of the normal microflora of the intestine and vagina. If one of the partners, for any reason, has an excessive multiplication of these fungi, then the disease can be transmitted during sexual intercourse.Protozoal infections. Some species of protozoa can also live in the reproductive system and can be passed on to a partner during unprotected sex.
      • Trichomoniasis due to Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common sexually transmitted disease. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, about 10% of the world’s population suffers from this pathology.

      4. Parasitic diseases.

      Parasitic diseases are caused by more complex, multicellular organisms, which, getting into the host’s organism, begin to live in it at its expense and sometimes bring significant harm.

      STI is transmitted:

      – during sexual intercourse, that is, during oral, vaginal and anal sex with an infected person;

      – when using shared syringes and needles when injecting any substances intravenously;

      – upon bodily contact with a person who has rashes and sores characteristic of STIs;

      – upon contact with the blood of an infected person;

      – when using non-sterile medical instruments;

      – occasionally when using hygiene items and household items of sick people.

      STI symptoms

      The main symptoms of sexually transmitted infections are:

      – redness;

      – pain during intercourse;

      – painful and frequent urination;

      – warts or sores in the genital area;

      – itching and burning in the genital area;

      – selection;

      – unusual bleeding.

      Consequences of STIs

      With advanced genital infections, men may develop prostatitis, epididymo-orchitis, vesiculitis, chronic urethritis, and, as a result, erectile dysfunction, infertility, blurred orgasm and premature ejaculation.

      In women, endometritis, colpitis, vaginal dysbiosis, cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix), inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs, obstruction of the fallopian tubes, as a result, miscarriage, infertility, and the threat of miscarriage are possible.

      STI prevention

      The following areas of work are the most important in organizing the prevention and control of STIs:

      Primary STI prevention is the implementation of evidence-based interventions aimed at changing behavior patterns and preventing STI transmission.

      This form of work is the most widespread and is mostly based on public prevention. At the same time, an important element of primary prevention is individual (personal) prevention.

      The primary prevention of STIs includes, first of all, medical education aimed at informing the population about STIs and their consequences and the formation of safe sexual behavior.

      Among other forms, it is necessary to note the production and distribution of printed materials among the population – memos, booklets, health bulletins, lectures, talks, holding “round tables”, quizzes, promotions, developing video clips, organizing special sites and chats on the Internet and local computer networks, etc.

      Primary prevention programs should include more than just health-care activities. On the contrary, health workers should act as a source of reliable scientific information about STIs and provide training to persons who can further act as disseminators (donors) of reliable information about STIs. Teachers of educational institutions, representatives of youth organizations and journalists should first of all act as trainees (recipients of information).

      Individual (personal) prophylaxis is the independent application by healthy persons of measures aimed at preventing STI infection. In most cases, this is achieved by using a barrier contraceptive (condom). Less commonly, means for emergency prevention are used – 0.05% chlorhexidine bigluconate solution, 0.01% miramistin solution or the combined contraceptive drug Pharmatex.

      Secondary prevention of STIs is the implementation of measures among people diagnosed with STIs in order to reduce the likelihood of transmission of infection to partners during the infectious period through sexual contact or through shared objects, as well as reduce the risk of re-infection.Secondary prevention is based on counseling these people, conducting explanatory conversations, giving lectures, publishing brochures, memos, booklets, health bulletins in order to actively inform patients and change their behavior to a safer one.

      If any of the above symptoms appear, you should consult a doctor !!!

      Prepared by paramedic valeologist I.G. Potashenkova

      Lungs of patients with COVID-19 are also affected by fungal infection

      Most often, pneumonia caused by mycosis occurs against the background of a decrease in immunity and the intake of drugs prescribed for severe COVID-19 – dexamethasone, tocilizumab and others.

      The fungus was found in patients who were in the ICU, according to the article published by scientists. Paradoxically, activation of antiviral immunity may contribute to the development of a form of inflammation that promotes fungal pathogenesis.

      The severe form of the disease leads to damage to the pulmonary epithelium, which can be a predisposing risk factor for pulmonary aspergillosis, a disease caused by fungi of the genus Aspergillus.

      In 60 out of 257 COVID-19 patients (23.3%), throat swab samples tested positive for Aspergillus , meaning they became coinfected, the article said, citing a study in Jiangsu province in China. …In other works, the number of patients on mechanical ventilation, infected with Aspergillus, in the region of 20%.

      The fungus increases the mortality rate of patients in the ICU by 16-25%, Nikolai Klimko, head of the Department of Clinical Mycology, Allergology and Immunology, NWSMU named after II Mechnikov, told Izvestia in the framework of the XXIII Kashkinsky Readings.

      Often, a fungal infection is in addition to a bacterial one: first, a person develops bacterial complications, which are treated with antibiotics, and then invasive mycoses join, Professor of the Department of Hospital Therapy at Sechenov University, President of the Alliance of Clinical Chemotherapists and Microbiologists of Russia Sergei Yakovlev told Izvestia.

      “This has already become a known problem for emergency hospitals,” the expert added.

      According to him, during the worldwide epidemic of swine flu, it was also proved that in severe patients with viral infection, the risk of secondary infection with invasive mycoses increases.

      The main danger of fungal pneumonia is that it is more difficult to detect than viral or bacterial, experts warn. International mycological organizations have prepared a manual for doctors in covid hospitals, which describes the basic principles of diagnosing a deadly fungus.These guidelines are accepted for publication in the medical journal The Lancet.

      causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment methods on the website “Alpha Health Center”

      Fungal infection that affects the mucous membrane of the genitourinary system. Symptoms are profuse leucorrhoea, itching and burning in the vulva, painful urination.

      Candidiasis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membranes caused by fungal microorganisms of the genus Candida. The characteristic signs of vaginal candidiasis are white, cheesy plaque on the mucous membrane, therefore the name thrush is often used.Exacerbation attacks occur several times in 70-75% of women of reproductive age and are one of the most frequent reasons for contacting a gynecologist.

      Causes and symptoms of vaginal candidiasis

      The causative agent of thrush is a microscopic yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida. In 80-90% of cases, it is a species of Candida albicans, although there are about 20 other species of this genus. Candida is a conditionally pathogenic fungus that normally lives in the human body. Infection with them occurs even in utero or during childbirth.Natural suppression of the activity of fungi is provided by lacto- and bifidobacteria in the microflora of the vagina. Signs of vaginal candidiasis can be encountered with a decrease in immunity and from external factors. Mushrooms begin to multiply actively and cause inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes. Nails, skin are affected, white plaque can be in the mouth or on the genitals (most common in women). The inflammatory reaction is explained by a change in the pH-level of the mucous membrane and the immune response to the entry into the blood of the waste products of microorganisms.

      Lead to aggravation:

      • pregnancy – the growth of fungi occurs in a third of women, due to increased acidity of the vagina and hormonal changes;
      • taking antibiotics and hormonal drugs with estrogens, chemotherapy;
      • stress;
      • infectious diseases, immunodeficiencies, diabetes mellitus;
      • mucosal injuries during gynecological manipulations, during childbirth;
      • infection with atypical fungi – Candida tropicalis or others;
      • unbalanced nutrition;
      • synthetic, tight underwear.

      Typical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis are:

      • copious white discharge;
      • 90,049 itching, discomfort in the genitals;

      • soreness of intercourse, urination;
      • reddened, edematous mucous membrane of the vulva.

      Manifestations can increase in heat, subside in chronic course (after 7-10 days of the acute phase). In this case, relapses can occur 3-4 times a year, provoking the appearance of other infections on the inflamed mucosa.

      How to treat vaginal candidiasis

      Diagnostics is carried out by a gynecologist. A preliminary diagnosis can be made according to the patient’s complaints and external signs that are noticeable during a gynecological examination. For accurate diagnosis use:

      • microscopic examination of secretions to assess the number of microorganisms and the degree of inflammation;
      • bacterial culture of secretions to identify the type of pathogen and its sensitivity to drugs.

      For the treatment of vaginal candidiasis apply:

      • antifungal, antimicrobial drugs;
      • antibiotics;
      • glucocorticosteroids for complex therapy;
      • local douching.

      The doctor will prescribe the scheme of how and how to treat vaginal candidiasis. An integrated approach is required to relieve inflammation, normalize microflora, cure concomitant diseases, causes of relapses.

      Treatment of vaginal candidiasis by alternative methods will not give a result. They are suitable for strengthening the immune system, relieving the symptoms of inflammation, but they do not affect the fungus itself in any way. With an exacerbation of thrush, attention is also paid to diet. Sweets, alcohol are excluded from the diet, the amount of fruits, vegetables, lactic acid products is increased.

      90,000 Fungal Sinusitis – Support for Aspergillosis Patients and Caregivers from the National Aspergillosis Center NHS, UK.

      Sinuses are cavities located inside the skull around the nose, under the bones of the cheeks and forehead. Two different types Aspergillus Sinusitis exists as in people with healthy immune systems:

      Allergic fungal sinusitis (or eosinophilic fungal rhinosinusitis).Total sinus obstruction due to inflamed mucous membrane. Image via Aspergillus.org

      Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

      Symptoms include nasal airway obstruction (difficulty breathing through the nose), allergy nasal congestion (blockage due to human allergy), purulent rhinorrhea (thick green snot), postnasal drainage (mucus dripping) back of the throat from the back of the nose) and headaches. Pain is not common but, if present, tends to indicate an additional bacterial sinus infection.Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is usually diagnosed with blood tests (to detect antibodies to the fungus), computed tomography, endoscopy, and sinus culture. Nasal polyposis is often present (NB, they are NOT cancerous, even though they are described as tumors). This condition is usually treated with steroids and surgery. Steroids usually last for some time, as reducing inflammation within the nasal passages and sinuses is important for natural drainage.Once drainage is optimized, inflammation usually goes away and steroids can eventually be phased out.


      Despite all these efforts, patients often relapse and some doctors have tried treatment with antifungal drugs to try to eradicate the fungus. The results are still confusing – this is a subject for further research.
      In exceptional cases, the bones of the sinus may be perforated, allowing fungus to invade adjacent areas such as the eye.

      Saprophytic sinusitis

      Sinusitis is defined as inflammation of the paranasal sinuses with or without infection. Inflammation can be caused by bacterial, allergy, viral, and fungal infections. Often, a fungal infection is detected when the condition fails to respond to antibiotics (antibiotics are designed to kill bacterial infections, but do not affect fungal infections). Aspergillus sinusitis It is believed to be caused by recurring bacterial infections causing edema that restricts normal sinus drainage.Therefore, antibiotic treatment often gives a partial response as bacteria die off and swelling decreases; this leads to many incomplete diagnoses. Symptoms include nasal congestion, facial discomfort, headache, and post-nasal drainage. Diagnosis is made with computed tomography, endoscopy (a tiny camera inserted into the sinuses), or quite often during surgery to improve drainage! Treatment is surgery to improve sinus drainage. First, the main contributor to the problem is the slightly different structure from the sinus, which makes drainage difficult.