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Bad case of gingivitis: Gingivitis: Causes, symptoms, and treatment


Gingivitis: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

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Gingivitis means inflammation of the gums, or gingiva. It commonly occurs because a film of plaque, or bacteria, accumulates on the teeth.

Gingivitis is a non-destructive type of periodontal disease, but untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontitis. This is more serious and can eventually lead to loss of teeth.

Signs of gingivitis include red and puffy gums, that bleed easily when the person brushes their teeth.

Gingivitis often resolves with good oral hygiene, such as longer and more frequent brushing, and flossing. In addition, an antiseptic mouthwash may help.

In mild cases of gingivitis, patients may not even know they have it, because symptoms are mild. However, the condition should be taken seriously and addressed immediately.

There are two main categories of gingival diseases:

Dental plaque-induced gingival disease: This can be caused by plaque, systemic factors, medications, or malnutrition.

Non-plaque induced gingival lesions: This can be caused by a specific bacterium, virus, or fungus. It might also be caused by genetic factors, systemic conditions (including allergic reactions and certain illnesses), wounds, or reactions to foreign bodies, such as dentures. Sometimes, there is no specific cause.

The most common cause of gingivitis is the accumulation of bacterial plaque between and around the teeth. The plaque triggers an immune response, which, in turn, can eventually lead to the destruction of gingival, or gum, tissue. It may also, eventually, lead to further complications, including the loss of teeth.

Dental plaque is a biofilm that accumulates naturally on the teeth. It is usually formed by colonizing bacteria that are trying to stick to the smooth surface of a tooth.

These bacteria might help protect the mouth from the colonization of harmful microorganisms, but dental plaque can also cause tooth decay, and periodontal problems such as gingivitis and chronic periodontitis, a gum infection.

When plaque is not removed adequately, it can harden into calculus, or tartar, at the base of the teeth, near the gums. This has a yellow color. Calculus can only be removed professionally.

Plaque and tartar eventually irritate the gums, causing gum inflammation around the base of the teeth. This means that the gums might easily bleed.

Other causes and risk factors

Changes in hormones: This may occur during puberty, menopause, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy. The gingiva might become more sensitive, raising the risk of inflammation.

Some diseases: Cancer, diabetes, and HIV are linked to a higher risk of gingivitis.

Drugs: Oral health may be affected by some medications, especially if saliva flow is reduced. Dilantin, an anticonvulsant, and some anti-angina medications can cause abnormal growth of gum tissue.

Smoking: Regular smokers more commonly develop gingivitis, compared with non-smokers.

Age: The risk of gingivitis increases with age.

Poor diet: A vitamin-C deficiency, for example, is linked to gum disease.

Family history: Those whose parent or parents have had gingivitis have a higher risk of developing it too. This is thought to be due to the type of bacteria we acquire during our early life.

In mild cases of gingivitis, there may be no discomfort or noticeable symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of gingivitis might include:

  • bright red or purple gums
  • tender gums that may be painful to the touch
  • bleeding from the gums when brushing or flossing
  • halitosis, or bad breath
  • inflammation, or swollen gums
  • receding gums
  • soft gums

A dentist or oral hygienist will check for symptoms, such as plaque and tartar in the oral cavity.

Checking for signs of periodontitis may also be recommended. This may be done by X-ray or periodontal probing, using an instrument that measures pocket depths around a tooth.

If diagnosis happens early, and if treatment is prompt and proper, gingivitis can be successfully reversed.

Treatment involves care by a dental professional, and follow-up procedures carried out by the patient at home.

Professional dental care

Plaque and tartar are removed. This is known as scaling. This can be uncomfortable, especially if tartar build-up is extensive, or the gums are very sensitive.

The dental professional will explain the importance of oral hygiene and how to brush and floss effectively.

Follow-up appointments may be recommended, with more frequent cleanings if necessary.

Fixing any damaged teeth also contributes to oral hygiene.

Some dental problems, such as crooked teeth, badly fitted crowns or bridges, may make it harder to properly remove plaque and tartar. They may also irritate the gums.

Care at home

People are advised to:

  • brush teeth at least twice a day.
  • use an electric toothbrush
  • floss teeth at least once a day
  • regularly rinse mouth with an antiseptic mouthwash

A dentist can recommend a suitable brush and mouthwash.

Treating gingivitis and following the dental health professional’s instructions can normally prevent complications.

However, without treatment, gum disease can spread and affect tissue, teeth, and bones.

Complications include:

  • abscess or infection in the gingiva or jaw bone
  • periodontitis, a more serious condition that can lead to loss of bone and teeth
  • recurrent gingivitis.
  • trench mouth, where bacterial infection leads to ulceration of the gums

Several studies have linked gum diseases, such as periodontitis, to cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack or stroke. Other reports have found an association with lung disease risk.

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Gum Disease (Gingivitis & Periodontitis): Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Periodontitis, also generally called gum disease or periodontal disease, begins with bacterial growth in your mouth and may end — if not properly treated — with tooth loss due to destruction of the tissue that surrounds your teeth.

What’s the Difference Between Gingivitis and Periodontitis?

Gingivitis (gum inflammation) usually precedes periodontitis (gum disease). However, it is important to know that not all gingivitis progresses to periodontitis.

In the early stage of gingivitis, bacteria in plaque build up, causing the gums to become inflamed and to easily bleed during tooth brushing. Although the gums may be irritated, the teeth are still firmly planted in their sockets. No irreversible bone or other tissue damage has occurred at this stage.

When gingivitis is left untreated, it can advance to periodontitis. In a person with periodontitis, the inner layer of the gum and bone pull away from the teeth and form pockets. These small spaces between teeth and gums collect debris and can become infected. The body’s immune system fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line.

Toxins or poisons — produced by the bacteria in plaque as well as the body’s “good” enzymes involved in fighting infections — start to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. When this happens, teeth are no longer anchored in place, they become loose, and tooth loss occurs. Gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults.

What Causes Gum Disease?

Plaque is the primary cause of gum disease. However, other factors can contribute to periodontal disease. These include:

  • Hormonal changes, such as those occurring during pregnancy, puberty, menopause, and monthly menstruation, make gums more sensitive, which makes it easier for gingivitis to develop.
  • Illnesses may affect the condition of your gums. This includes diseases such as cancer or HIV that interfere with the immune system. Because diabetes affects the body’s ability to use blood sugar, patients with this disease are at higher risk of developing infections, including periodontal disease and cavities.
  • Medications can affect oral health, because some lessen the flow of saliva, which has a protective effect on teeth and gums. Some drugs, such as the anticonvulsant medication Dilantin and the anti-angina drug Procardia and Adalat, can cause abnormal growth of gum tissue.
  • Bad habits such as smoking make it harder for gum tissue to repair itself.
  • Poor oral hygiene habits such as not brushing and flossing on a daily basis, make it easier for gingivitis to develop.
  • Family history of dental disease can be a contributing factor for the development of gingivitis.

What Are the Symptoms of Gum Disease?

Gum disease may progress painlessly, producing few obvious signs, even in the late stages of the disease. Although the symptoms of periodontal disease often are subtle, the condition is not entirely without warning signs. Certain symptoms may point to some form of the disease. The symptoms of gum disease include:

  • Gums that bleed during and after tooth brushing
  • Red, swollen, or tender gums
  • Persistent bad breath or bad taste in the mouth
  • Receding gums
  • Formation of deep pockets between teeth and gums
  • Loose or shifting teeth
  • Changes in the way teeth fit together upon biting down, or in the fit of partial dentures.

Even if you don’t notice any symptoms, you may still have some degree of gum disease. In some people, gum disease may affect only certain teeth, such as the molars. Only a dentist or a periodontist can recognize and determine the progression of gum disease.

How Does My Dentist Diagnose Gum Disease?

During a dental exam, your dentist typically checks for these things:

  • Gum bleeding, swelling, firmness, and pocket depth (the space between the gum and tooth; the larger and deeper the pocket, the more severe the disease)
  • Teeth movement and sensitivity and proper teeth alignment
  • Your jawbone, to help detect the breakdown of bone surrounding your teeth

How Is Gum Disease Treated?

The goals of gum disease treatment are to promote reattachment of healthy gums to teeth; reduce swelling, the depth of pockets, and the risk of infection; and to stop disease progression. Treatment options depend on the stage of disease, how you may have responded to earlier treatments, and your overall health. Options range from nonsurgical therapies that control bacterial growth to surgery to restore supportive tissues. A full description of the various treatment options is provided in Gum Disease Treatments.

How Can Gum Disease Be Prevented?

Gingivitis can be reversed and the progression of gum disease can be stopped in nearly all cases when proper plaque control is practiced. Proper plaque control consists of professional cleanings at least twice a year and daily brushing and flossing. Brushing eliminates plaque from the surfaces of the teeth that can be reached; flossing removes food particles and plaque from in between the teeth and under the gum line. Antibacterial mouth rinses can reduce bacteria that cause plaque and gum disease, according to the American Dental Association.


Other health and lifestyle changes that will decrease the risk, severity, and speed of gum disease development include:

  • Stop smoking. Tobacco use is a significant risk factor for development of periodontitis. Smokers are seven times more likely to get gum disease than nonsmokers, and smoking can lower the chances of success of some treatments.
  • Reduce stress. Stress may make it difficult for your body’s immune system to fight off infection.
  • Maintain a well-balanced diet. Proper nutrition helps your immune system fight infection. Eating foods with antioxidant properties — for example, those containing vitamin E ( vegetable oils, nuts, green leafy vegetables) and vitamin C (citrus fruits, broccoli, potatoes) — can help your body repair damaged tissue.
  • Avoid clenching and grinding your teeth. These actions may put excess force on the supporting tissues of the teeth and could increase the rate at which these tissues are destroyed.

Despite following good oral hygiene practices and making other healthy lifestyle choices, the American Academy of Periodontology says that up to 30% of Americans may be genetically susceptible to gum disease. And those who are genetically predisposed may be up to six times more likely to develop some form of gum disease. If anyone in your family has gum disease, it may mean that you are at greater risk, as well. If you are more susceptible to gum disease, your dentist or periodontist may recommend more frequent check-ups, cleanings, and treatments to better manage the condition.

Is Gum Disease Linked to Other Health Problems?

According to the CDC, researchers have uncovered potential links between gum disease and other serious health conditions. In people with healthy immune systems, the bacteria in the mouth that makes its way into the bloodstream is usually harmless. But under certain circumstances, these microorganisms are associated with health problems such as stroke and heart disease. Diabetes is not only a risk factor for gum disease, but gum disease may make diabetes worse.



What is Gingivitis? Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments

Gingivitis is a form of gum disease that happens when plaque, a naturally-occurring sticky film containing bacteria, builds up on teeth and causes the inflammation of the surrounding gum tissue. Plaque produces toxins that irritate the gums. This can cause the gums to become inflamed, making them red or puffy, or causing them to bleed. This harmful plaque bacteria can even lead to issues beyond gingivitis like weakened tooth enamel. Even with regular brushing, it’s important to make sure you’re taking care of your gum line, because a healthy mouth starts there.

Gingivitis occurs in 3 out of 4 of Americans during their lifetime, but with proper dental care early on, it’s easily reversed. If left untreated, gingivitis can develop into a more severe form of gum disease, known as periodontitis, which is a major cause of tooth loss in adults.

Gingivitis is caused by the buildup of plaque–– a naturally-occurring sticky film containing bacteria – on the teeth and gums. The bacteria found in plaque produce toxins that can irritate the gums and cause them to become red, inflamed, puffy, and may even lead to bleeding. (Gingivitis is actually the number one cause of bleeding gums in adults).

Other factors might increase your risk of gingivitis. If some of the factors below apply to you, pay extra attention to your teeth and gum line and talk to your dentist and hygienist about what you can do to keep your mouth healthy.

  • Smoking/tobacco use is one of the greatest risk factors associated with gum disease and can lower the chances for successful treatment. Research shows that smokers are seven times more likely to suffer from gum disease than people who don’t smoke.
  • Poor oral hygiene, such as not brushing or flossing regularly is one of several easily avoided causes of gingivitis.
  • Not fully removing plaque. You may be missing the plaque found around the gum line, even if the plaque on your teeth has been removed. Be sure to floss regularly and look for a toothpaste like Crest Gum Detoxify or Crest Gum and Enamel Repair that can reach plaque around the gum line.
  • Stress is another one of many causes of gingivitis. Constant stress can weaken your immune system and negatively impact your ability to fight infection, including gum disease.
  • Hormonal changes including puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and monthly menstruation cause increased sensitivity and inflammation in your gums. Take extra care of your teeth and gums during these physiological changes to prevent gum disease.
  • Poor nutrition deprives the body of important nutrients and makes it more difficult for the body to fight infection, including gum disease.
  • Medications for many conditions can affect oral health. Tell your dentist or hygienist if you take any prescription or over-the-counter medications.
  • Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and HIV, impair the body’s ability to fight infection, including gum disease. Tell your dentist and hygienist if you have any medical conditions.

Since eliminating plaque is critical in preventing gingivitis, remember to use an anti-gingivitis toothpaste and mouthwash like this collection from Crest that is specially formulated for your gums. and focus on a great oral health routine that includes brushing for 2 minutes twice a day, and flossing at least once a day.

Because gingivitis doesn’t often cause pain, many people don’t know they have it. In fact, as many as 75% of all Americans will experience some degree of gingivitis during their lifetime. That’s why it’s important not only to know what to look for, but also to see your dentist and hygienist regularly for cleanings and checkups.

Here are some gingivitis symptoms to watch out for:

  • Red, puffy gums.
  • Bleeding gums, especially when you brush or floss.
  • Sore gums that won’t go away.
  • Tooth pain or sensitivity. When gums pull away from teeth, teeth are more exposed and sensitive to hot and cold foods or beverages.
  • Bad breath that won’t go away. Plaque contains millions of bacteria that produce foul-smelling waste products.
  • Loose teeth or changes in the way your teeth fit when you bite down. This could be an advanced gum disease, called periodontitis.

If you have gingivitis or think you might have gingivitis, we understand that you might have some anxiety around what to do about it. But don’t worry; with the help of your dentist, hygienist and Crest, gingivitis is treatable and preventable. We’ve outlined key areas to look for to get the best anti-gingivitis toothpaste and the best anti-gingivitis mouthwash.

Treating and preventing gingivitis is all about eliminating as much plaque from your teeth and gums as possible. The best way to treat it is to catch it early. Make a dental appointment as soon as possible. Your hygienist will remove plaque or tartar (plaque that has hardened) from your teeth with special tools. Tartar can only be removed by a dental professional, so using oral care items rated for plaque removal helps reduce the amount of tartar needing removal during your dental visit.

Steps to Help Prevent and Treat Gingivitis:

  • Use an anti-gingivitis toothpaste: Your toothpaste should be able to remove plaque from both your teeth and around your gum line. Use a toothpaste like Crest Gum Detoxify Deep Clean, which neutralizes plaque bacteria around the gum line and is clinically proven to give you healthier gums.
  • Use an anti-gingivitis mouthwash. Crest Gum Care Mouthwash, is a minty, alcohol-free mouthwash that neutralizes harmful plaque bacteria buildup and reduces bleeding gums.
  • Brush your teeth and gums for at least 2 minutes, at least 2 times a day.
  • Floss at least once a day: Oral-B Glide® PRO-HEALTH® Clinical Protection Floss slides easily between teeth and below the gum line to remove gingivitis-causing plaque.
  • Replace your toothbrush every 3 months: Worn-out bristles remove less plaque.
  • If you have sore gums after flossing or brushing, or notice bleeding, don’t stop brushing or flossing. Use a toothbrush with soft bristles so you don’t hurt your gums. Think about upgrading to an Oral-B® Black 7000 electric toothbrush which removes 100% more plaque than a regular toothbrush. If you notice bleeding regularly, see your dentist.
  • Check your gums in the mirror often for changes in color or texture. If their appearance changes, see your dentist and hygienist. See gum disease pictures.
  • You may want to consider the breakthrough daily 2-step system, Crest Gum Detoxify + Whitening, which provides effective gingivitis protection, in addition to noticeable whitening benefits*.
  • Cut back on foods that are high in sugar. Sugar promotes the growth of gingivitis-causing plaque.

*At 3 weeks of treatment.

Q: Is gingivitis reversible?
A: Fortunately, gingivitis can usually be reversed with the help of your dentist, hygienist, Crest anti-gingivitis oral care products, and improvements in your personal oral hygiene.

Comprehensive Dentistry Centerton, AR – 6 Signs that Your Gingivitis is Getting Worse

6 Signs that Your Gingivitis is Getting Worse

Gingivitis is a common disease that is completely reversible during its early stages. Unfortunately, if you fail to take the right steps, the condition could worsen and lead to periodontitis, which is not reversible. There are several signs that may indicate that your gingivitis has gotten worse and you are headed toward periodontitis, and if you experience them, it is important to visit us right away to discuss your options. 

Red, Swollen Gums that Bleed Easily

One of the earliest signs of gingivitis is gums that appear red and puffy, as well as gums that bleed easily when brushing and flossing. Good oral hygiene can help to correct this issue, but if your gums continue to experience these symptoms – or they seem more severe – your gingivitis may be progressing. 

Loose or Shifting Teeth

When gingivitis is untreated or is not treated properly, it can advance into periodontitis. This disease can lead to the inner portion of the gum and bone pulling away from the teeth to form pockets. Then, since so many of the supporting structures of the teeth are no longer in their proper positions, the teeth could feel loose or shift in the mouth. Your once straight smile could suddenly appear crooked, and gaps, crowding, and bite issues may result. The teeth may become so loose that they fall out altogether or require extraction because there is no longer enough supportive structures to keep them in place. 

Chronic Bad Breath

Most cases of chronic bad breath are caused by anaerobic bacteria that live in the mouth and congregate in the gum pockets. Gum disease allows these pockets to form and provide a place to harbor the odor-causing bacteria. A thorough gum cleaning in our office will help to clean out these pockets of bacteria, allowing them to heal. The result should be healthier gums as well as less prevalent bad breath. 

Gum Recession

Receding gums are a condition that is characterized by gums that pull back from the surface of the teeth. This can ultimately expose the root surfaces. It is a serious consequence of poor oral health and worsening gingivitis, and it can ultimately lead to tooth loss. While there are many treatment options available depending on how severe the loss of tissue might be, the best thing to do is to treat your gingivitis before it even occurs. 

Pus between the Teeth

A gum abscess may result from worsening gingivitis and can display as pus between the teeth. Gum disease is an inflammatory condition that develops with plaque accumulation, and when plaque isn’t removed, an infection could result in abscess formation. Besides pus, symptoms could include severe pain, especially when chewing, loose teeth, and sensitivity to hot and cold. 

Developing Health Conditions

Did you know that there is a significant connection between gum disease and certain health conditions? If you have been living with gingivitis but now have medical issues like diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, or respiratory disease, your gum disease could be getting worse. This occurs when the bacteria associated with gum disease travels into the blood stream and affects other parts of the body. Alternatively, treating your gum disease could improve your overall health and the prevalence of these issues. 

If you’re concerned that your gingivitis might be getting worse and developing into periodontitis, don’t delay in getting an appointment set up with us. We can help reverse the problem before it leads to long-term damage, but we need to see you in our office to discuss treatment options. 

Gum Disease Treatment, Symptoms, Types, Home Remedies & Stages

Asikainan, S., et al. “Can one acquire periodontal bacteria and periodontitis from a family member?” The Journal of the American Dental Association 128.9 (1997): 1263-1271.

Atkinson, Jane C., Anne O’Connell, and Doron Aframian. “Oral Manifestations of Primary Immunological Diseases.”
The Journal of the American Dental Association 131.3 (2000): 345-356.

Charles, Christine H., et al. “Comparative efficacy of an antiseptic mouthrinse and an antiplaque/antigingivitis dentifrice: A six-month clinical trial.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 132.5 (2001): p670-675.

Demmer, Ryan T. and Moise Desvarieux. “Periodontal infections and cardiovascular disease: the heart of the matter.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 137 Suppl (2006): 14S-20S.

“Gum Disease.” Mouth Healthy. American Dental Association.

Lazarchik, David A., and B. Van Haywood. “Use of Tray-Applied 10 Percent Carbamide Peroxide Gels for Improving Oral Health in Patients With Special-Care Needs.”
The Journal of the American Dental Association 141.6 (2010): 639-646.

Meraw, S. J. and C. M. Reeve. “A case report: Treating localized refractory idiopathic gingivitis with Superoxol.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 129.4 (1998): 470-472.

Neville, Brad W., et al. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 2nd ed. Saunders, 2002.

“Periodontal Disease Bacteria Linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.” Perio.org. January 2019. <https://www.perio.org/consumer/alzheimers-and-periodontal-disease>.

Snider, J. “Green tea may promote periodontal health.” The Journal of the American Dental Association 140.7 (2009) 838.

Stephen, James M. “Gingivitis.” Medscape.com. Dec. 31, 2014. <http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/763801-overview>.

Periodontal (Gum) Disease | National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

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Periodontal (gum) disease is an infection of the tissues that hold your teeth in place. It’s typically caused by poor brushing and flossing habits that allow plaque—a sticky film of bacteria—to build up on the teeth and harden. In advanced stages, periodontal disease can lead to sore, bleeding gums; painful chewing problems; and even tooth loss.

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Our mouths are full of bacteria. These bacteria, along with mucus and other particles, constantly form a sticky, colorless “plaque” on teeth. Brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. Plaque that is not removed can harden and form “tartar” that brushing doesn’t clean. Only a professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove tartar.

There are a number of risk factors for gum disease, but smoking is the most significant. Smoking also can make treatment for gum disease less successful. Other risk factors include diabetes; hormonal changes in girls and women; diabetes; medications that lessen the flow of saliva; certain illnesses, such as AIDS, and their medications; and genetic susceptibility.

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Symptoms of gum disease include:

  • Bad breath that won’t go away
  • Red or swollen gums
  • Tender or bleeding gums
  • Painful chewing
  • Loose teeth
  • Sensitive teeth
  • Receding gums or longer appearing teeth

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At a dental visit, a dentist or dental hygienist will:

  • Examine your gums and note any signs of inflammation.
  • Use a tiny ruler called a “probe” to check for and measure any pockets around the teeth. In a healthy mouth, the depth of these pockets is usually between 1 and 3 millimeters. This test for pocket depth is usually painless.
  • Ask about your medical history to identify conditions or risk factors (such as smoking or diabetes) that may contribute to gum disease.

The dental professional may also:

  • Take an x-ray to see whether there is any bone loss.
  • Refer you to a periodontist. Periodontists are experts in the diagnosis and treatment of gum disease and may provide you with treatment options that are not offered by your dentist.

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The main goal of treatment is to control the infection. The number and types of treatment will vary, depending on the extent of the gum disease. Any type of treatment requires that the patient keep up good daily care at home. The dentist may also suggest changing certain behaviors, such as quitting smoking, as a way to improve your treatment results.

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Helpful Tips

You can keep your gums and teeth healthy by:

  • Brushing your teeth twice a day with a fluoride toothpaste.
  • Flossing regularly to remove plaque from between teeth. Or, you can use a device such as a special brush, wooden or plastic pick, or a “water flosser” recommended by a dental professional.
  • Visiting the dentist routinely for a check-up and professional cleaning.
  • Quitting smoking.

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Additional Resources

  • Periodontal Disease​
    Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention about the causes of periodontal disease, its warning signs, risk factors, and prevention and treatment.
  • MedlinePlus: Gum Disease
    The NIH National Library of Medicine’s collection of links to government, professional, and non-profit/voluntary organizations with information on periodontal disease and gingivitis.
  • How to Quit Smoking Information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on quitting smoking.

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Gingivitis & Periodontitis: Symptoms & Treatment of Gum Disease

There are two types of diseases that can affect the gums: gingivitis and periodontitis. Together, gingivitis and periodontitis are referred to as gum disease or periodontal disease.

The National Institute of Health defines periodontal (gum) disease as “inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth, including the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets (alveolar bone).”

Both types of gum diseases are fairly common among adults in the United States and both can be stopped or their symptoms lessened with effective care.


Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease, but without proper treatment it can lead to the more serious periodontitis, according to the Mayo Clinic. It is characterized by red and irritated gums. 

Gingivitis is quite common, with many people having it to different strengths. Dr. Margaret Culotta-Norton, a dentist in Washington, D.C., and former president of the D.C. Dental Society, reported that about 50 percent of the population experiences gingivitis on four or more teeth. “Those at increased risk include anyone with poor dental hygiene, minorities, those who are less educated, smokers, uncontrolled diabetics, older adults, pregnant women, those with decreased immunity, those with poor nutrition, substance abusers and those who do not seek the services of a dental professional often.”

According to the Mayo Clinic, gingivitis is primarily caused by poor oral hygiene, which allows plaque to build up on teeth. Plaque is an invisible, sticky substance that develops on the teeth when sugars and starches in food interact with normal mouth bacteria. It develops quickly, which is why it is important to brush and floss every day to remove it. 

The National Institutes of Health warned that if it is not removed, plaque can turn into tartar, a hard deposit at the base of the tooth. Both plaque and tartar inflame gums and produce bacteria and toxins that cause gums to get infected with gingivitis.

In addition to poor oral hygiene, according to the NIH, gingivitis can be caused by:

  • uncontrolled diabetes
  • some systemic diseases and infections, such as thyroid disorders, nutrient deficiencies or HIV infection
  • certain medications, including phenytoin (used to control seizures), bismuth (used to treat upset stomach and diarrhea, as in Pepto-Bismol)
  • some birth control pills
  • misaligned teeth
  • rough-edged fillings
  • ill-fitting or unclean mouth appliances

Furthermore, there is a hormonal component to gingivitis, as changes in hormones can cause greater gum sensitivity. For this reason, pregnant women sometimes get gingivitis and the disease often develops during puberty or young adulthood.


Healthy gums are characterized by pale pink color and firmness. Because gingivitis is usually not painful, many people do not realize that it is present or that they have a problem.

According to the Mayo Clinic and the NIH, symptoms include:

  • Bleeding gums, even with gentle brushing
  • Tender gums, especially when touched
  • Bright red, dusky red or purple-red gums
  • Swollen gums
  • Mouth sores
  • Shiny gums
  • Bad breath


The best way to prevent gingivitis is to practice good oral hygiene. The NIH recommends brushing teeth twice a day and flossing at least once a day. Teeth should be professionally cleaned by a dentist every six months. The NIH also noted that if symptoms are especially bad, dentists may recommend brushing and flossing after every meal and before bed. They may also recommend plaque-removal devices, such as special toothbrushes, toothpicks and water irrigation tools. Prescribed anti-plaque and anti-tartar toothpastes and rinses can also help.

The same teeth as above, after the tartar has been removed during dental treatment. (Image credit: botazsolti Shutterstock)


While gingivitis usually gets better after a professional cleaning, if proper oral hygiene is continued at home, Culotta-Norton cautioned, “The condition will come back quickly if the patient is not diligent with their home care and does not seek professional cleanings at least twice per year.”

During a cleaning, the dentist or dental hygienist will remove all plaque and tartar in a process called “scaling,” according to the Mayo Clinic. 

“If the gingivitis is severe and there is deep calculus present the patient may need up to four deep cleanings (scaling and root planing) to get the gingival tissue back to health,” Culotta-Norton told Live Science. The dentist will also discuss fixing misaligned teeth or poorly fitting fillings, crowns or bridges. 

Over-the-counter or prescription mouthwashes may also help, Culotta-Norton said, but she emphasized that, while toothpastes and mouthwashes “help to keep the amount of plaque to an acceptable leve l… there are no chemicals or medications that can alone prevent gingivitis.”


If gingivitis is not treated, it may lead to periodontitis — a much more serious disease, warned the NIH. Periodontitis can lead to the destruction of gums, mouth bones, tissue, and teeth. It is the number one cause of tooth loss in adults, according to the NIH.

If plaque spreads too much below the gum line, toxins can cause the tissues and bone that support the teeth to break down. The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research explained that, in periodontitis, gums pull away from the teeth, forming spaces called pockets, which become infected. If not treated, teeth may become loose and have to be removed. Periodontitis can also increase the risk of heart attack or stroke, according to the Mayo Clinic.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, there are several types of periodontitis, including:

Chronic periodontitis, the most common form, is characterized by pocket formation and gum recession. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults. 

Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by rapid loss of gums and bone destruction.

Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases is associated with heart disease, diabetes and respiratory diseases. It usually sets in at a young age.

Necrotizing periodontal disease is characterized by necrosis (death) of gum tissue, periodontal ligaments and alveolar bones, which cause lesions. It is most common in people with systemic conditions like HIV, malnutrition and immunosuppression.


As with gingivitis, it is important to remember that healthy gums are pale pink and firm. Note other changes, including these listed by the Mayo Clinic:

  • Swollen gums
  • Bright red, purplish, or dusky red gums
  • Tender gums
  • Receding gums, which make teeth look longer than normal
  • New spaces developing between teeth
  • Loose teeth
  • A change in the way teeth fit together when biting
  • Pus around teeth and gums
  • Bad breath
  • Bad taste in mouth


As with gingivitis, the primary way to prevent periodontitis is through good oral hygiene, according to the NIH. Brushing teeth twice a day and flossing at least once a day is recommended, with increased regularity if the dentist suggests it. Teeth should be professionally cleaned every six months. If a person has dry mouth, takes blood pressure medicine or smokes, the Mayo Clinic recommends getting teeth professionally cleaned more often.


According to the Mayo Clinic, there are both non-surgical and surgical treatments for periodontitis, depending on its severity. 

Nonsurgical treatments include:

  • Scaling: The removal of tartar and bacteria from teeth and beneath gums. This is usually done in a standard professional teeth cleaning. 
  • Root planing: Smoothing the root surfaces to discourage further buildup of tartar and bacterial toxins.
  • Antibiotics: May include topical antibiotics like mouth rinses and gels, or oral antibiotics. 

Surgical treatments include:

  • Flap surgery (pocket reduction surgery): Lifting back gum tissue, exposing the roots for more effective scaling and root planing. The underlying bone may be recontoured so that it will be easier to clean the area around the gums.
  • Soft tissue grafts: This reinforces soft tissue lost to gum recession. A small amount of tissue from the roof of the mouth is relocated to the gum line in order to reduce further gum loss, cover exposed roots and improve appearance.
  • Bone grafting: This is done when the bone around the tooth root has been destroyed and helps prevent tooth loss by holding the tooth in place. It also promotes bone regrowth.
  • Guided tissue regeneration: This promotes regrowth of bone through the use of a biocompatible fabric being placed between the bone and tooth. The material prevents unwanted tissue from growing so that the bone can grow back.
  • Enamel matrix derivative application: This procedure, another form of guided tissue regeneration, involves the application of gel to a diseased tooth root. The gel contains the same proteins that naturally exist in developing tooth enamel. Its application stimulates healthy bone and tissue growth.

Additional resources

NIH: Gum Disease

Mayo Clinic: Dental Care Basics

90,000 causes and treatment in adults

Symptoms and causes of gingivitis

At the initial stage, the symptoms of gingivitis can be determined independently with the help of a thorough visual examination of the gums and mouth. Signs of the disease are:

  • high sensitivity of the gums, painful sensations when taking hot and / or cold food;
  • deformation of the gum contour, the appearance of gum pockets and the release of fluid from under them;
  • redness of the gum tissue and bad breath.

The causes of gingivitis in adults and children can be roughly divided into two main blocks: related to oral hygiene or not. The most popular reason is insufficient care of the oral cavity, as a result of which plaque and tartar accumulate. This leads to the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and infections, which negatively affect the condition of the gum tissue and contribute to the appearance of swelling, redness and other symptoms of the disease.

Gingivitis can also be caused by factors that are not associated with improper care.Firstly, these are technically incorrect braces or prostheses and the consumption of only soft food. Secondly, weakened immunity due to taking medications and chronic diseases. Third, pregnancy or breastfeeding.

The symptoms of gingivitis appear in all cases in approximately the same way and do not depend on the factors that contributed to the onset of the inflammatory process, but understanding the root cause of the disease is necessary for the initial self-diagnosis.

Forms of gingivitis

It is important to know that there are several forms of gingivitis that have different visual symptoms and cause. The process of treating gingivitis in adults also depends on the form of the disease. Disease types:

Hypertrophic. This type is most common in children, adolescence and adolescence. It can be caused by both an improper bite and insufficient care of the teeth and gums.It is characterized by an increase in the interdental papillae and gum tissue in general. It is divided into edematous and fibrous forms.

Catarrhal. The type that occurs in the largest percentage of patients. It is characterized by swelling and bleeding of the gums, painful sensations when pressing on them and chewing food, the appearance of an unpleasant odor from the oral cavity. Most often, the root cause in this case is a large accumulation of tartar and plaque. With timely treatment with this form of gingivitis in dentistry, the disease is treated quickly, in 1-2 weeks.

Necrotic ulcer. An advanced form of the disease, in which swelling and redness are complemented by sores and areas of necrosis on the tissue. Gingivitis in adults in this form is accompanied by painful sensations, discomfort when eating, increased bad breath. Treatment requires an integrated approach under the guidance of a dentist.

Atrophic. The most severe type of disease, which is characterized by a minimum of foci of inflammation, but at the same time a rapidly proceeding process of periodontal dying off.This leads to exposure of the necks of the teeth, painful sensations when eating and drinking, general weakness of the body. In such a situation, it is important to find out the cause of tissue atrophy and promptly begin treatment for gingivitis, which will stop this process.

How to cure gingivitis

The method of treating gingivitis in adults depends on the form of the course, the degree of neglect, the characteristics of the particular case. It can be therapeutic, medicinal, surgical and combined.In almost all situations, the treatment of gingivitis in dentistry begins with the diagnosis and professional cleaning of the oral cavity, as a result of which plaque, subgingival and supragingival deposits, harmful microbes and bacteria are eliminated. Further, the dentist individually draws up a plan with the treatment process, which includes taking medications and physiotherapy. If medical and therapeutic measures do not help, in advanced stages, surgical intervention may be required, which will help prevent tissue atrophy and, as a result, tooth loss.

The duration of treatment depends on the severity, type of inflammation and can take 1-2 weeks or several months. The exact recommendations and approximate treatment time will be announced to you by the dentist after a personal examination and carrying out the necessary diagnostic procedures.

Popular question: “How to treat gingivitis at home and can it be done?” Theoretically, treatment at home at the initial stage is possible, but it is always risky, since the patient cannot independently determine the type and stage of the disease.Wrong actions can lead to aggravation of the disease and complications, so contact qualified doctors who can tell you how to cure gingivitis. Comfort Dentistry in St. Petersburg works for you every day. Communicate, we will help you!

Gingivitis – Gingivitis – qaz.wiki

Inflammation of the gums

Gingivitis is a non-destructive disease that causes inflammation of the gums. The most common form of gingivitis, and in general the most common form of periodontal disease, results from bacterial biofilm (also called plaque) that attaches to the surface of the teeth, called plaque gingivitis .Most forms of gingivitis are caused by plaque buildup.

Although in some cases gingivitis never progresses to periodontitis, periodontitis is always preceded by gingivitis.

Gingivitis is reversible with proper oral hygiene; however, without treatment, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, in which the inflammation of the gums leads to tissue destruction and bone resorption around the teeth. Ultimately, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss.

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms of gingivitis are somewhat nonspecific and appear in the gum tissue as classic signs of inflammation:

  • Swollen gums
  • Bright red or purple gums
  • Gums tender or painful to the touch
  • Bleeding gums or bleeding after brushing and / or flossing
  • Bad breath (bad breath)

In addition, the pitting that is usually present in the gum tissue in some people often disappears and the gums can appear shiny when the gum tissue swells and stretches over the inflamed underlying connective tissue.Accumulation can also give off an unpleasant odor. When the gums are swollen, the epithelial lining of the gingival gap becomes ulcerated and the gums bleed more easily even with gentle brushing, especially when using dental floss.


Alzheimer’s disease and dementia

A new 2018 study found strong evidence that gingivitis bacteria may be linked to Alzheimer’s disease. Scientists agree that more research is needed to prove causation.“Research has also shown that the bacteria P. gingivalis , , which causes many forms of gum disease, can migrate from the mouth to the brain in mice. And when injected into the brain, P. gingivalis can reproduce all the characteristic features. Alzheimer’s disease “.


Since plaque gingivitis is by far the most common form of gum disease, the following sections will focus on this condition.

Plaque gingivitis is caused by bacterial plaque, which triggers the host’s response. This, in turn, can lead to destruction of gum tissue, which can progress to destruction of the periodontal attachment apparatus. Plaque accumulates in small spaces between teeth, in the gingival grooves, and in areas known as Plaque Traps : Locations that serve to accumulate and retain plaque.Examples include bulky and overhanging restorative fields, hooks of removable partial dentures, and calculus (tartar) that forms on teeth. Although these clumps can be tiny, the bacteria in them produce chemicals like degradation enzymes and toxins like lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin) or lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which promote an inflammatory response in gum tissue. This inflammation can cause gum enlargement and subsequent formation.Early plaque in a healthy state consists of a relatively simple bacterial community dominated by gram-positive cocci and bacilli. As plaque matures and gingivitis develops, the communities become more complex with a higher proportion of gram-negative rods, fusiform fibers, filaments, spirillae, and spirochetes. More recent experimental studies of gingivitis using culture have provided more information on the specific types of bacteria present in plaque.Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subspecies polymorphum , Lachnospiraceae [G-2] HOT100 species, Lautropia HOTA94 species and Prevotella oulorum (variety Prevotella as bacteria ), while Rothia dentocariosa has been associated with periodontal health. Further research is needed on these taxa, which may lead to new therapeutic approaches for the prevention of periodontal disease.

Risk factors

Risk factors associated with gingivitis include the following:

  • age
  • osteoporosis
  • Low dental care
  • poor oral hygiene
  • overly aggressive oral hygiene, e.g. brushing with stiff bristles
  • Breathing through the mouth during sleep
  • drugs and conditions that dry in the mouth
  • smoking cigarettes
  • genetic factors
  • stress
  • mental health problems such as depression
  • preexisting conditions such as diabetes


Gingivitis is a category of periodontal disease in which there is no bone loss but inflammation and bleeding is present.

Each tooth is divided into four gingival units (mesial, distal, buccal and lingual) and is rated 0 to 3 based on the gingival index. The four scores are then averaged to give each tooth a single score.

The diagnosis of gingivitis periodontal disease is made by the dentist. The diagnosis is based on clinical assessment data obtained during a comprehensive periodontal examination. Either a registered dental hygienist or a dentist can perform a comprehensive periodontal examination, but the interpretation of the data and diagnosis is performed by the dentist.A comprehensive periodontal examination consists of a visual examination, a series of radiographs, probing of the gums, determining the extent of current or past periodontal damage, and a comprehensive review of the medical history and dentistry.

Current research indicates that levels of the following enzymes in saliva samples are associated with periodontal destruction: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and acid phosphatase (ACP)…. Hence, these enzyme biomarkers can be used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis.

A dental hygienist or dentist will check for symptoms of gingivitis and may also check the amount of plaque in the mouth. A dental hygienist or dentist will also look for signs of periodontitis using x-rays or periodontal probing, among other methods.

If gingivitis does not respond to treatment, referral to a periodontist (specialist in gums and bones around teeth and dental implants) may be required for further treatment.


1999 Classification

As defined by the 1999 World Clinical Periodontics Workshop, there are two main categories of gum disease, each with many subgroups:

  1. Diseases of the gums caused by dental plaque.
    1. Gingivitis associated with plaque only
    2. Diseases of the gums, altered by systemic factors
    3. Diseases of the gums modified by drugs
    4. Gum disease caused by malnutrition
  2. Lesions of gums without plaque formation
    1. Diseases of the gums of specific bacterial origin
    2. Viral gum disease
    3. Diseases of the gums of fungal origin
    4. Diseases of the gums of genetic origin
    5. Gingival manifestations of systemic conditions
    6. Traumatic lesions
    7. Foreign body reactions
    8. Not otherwise specified
  3. 90 175

    Classification 2017

    Periodontal health, gum disease / condition is categorized into the following categories as defined by the 2017 World Workshop:

    1. Periodontal and gum health
      1. Clinical condition of the gums with intact periodontium
      2. Clinical health of gums with reduced periodontium
        1. Patient with stable periodontitis
        2. Patient without periodontitis
    2. Gingivitis – Caused by dental biofilm
      1. Associated only with dental biofilm
      2. Mediated by systemic or local risk factors
      3. Gum enlargement under the influence of drugs
    3. Gum disease – caused by non-dental biofilm
      1. Genetic / Developmental Disorders
      2. Specific infections
      3. Inflammatory and immune conditions
      4. Reactive processes
      5. Neoplasms
      6. Endocrine diseases, nutritional disorders and metabolic disorders
      7. Traumatic lesions
      8. Gum pigmentation


    Gingivitis can be prevented with regular oral hygiene, which includes daily brushing and flossing.Hydrogen peroxide, saline, alcohol, or chlorhexidine mouth wash can also be used. A 2004 clinical study highlighted the beneficial effects of hydrogen peroxide on gingivitis. Using oscillating brushes can reduce the risk of gingivitis compared to manual brushing.

    Strict plaque control programs along with periodontal scaling and curettage have also been found to be beneficial, although according to the American Dental Association, periodontal scaling and root planing are considered a treatment for periodontal disease rather than a preventive treatment for periodontal disease.In a 1997 review of efficacy data, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found clear evidence that toothpaste containing triclosan is effective in preventing gingivitis. In 2017, the FDA banned triclosan from many consumer products but allowed it to remain in toothpaste because of its effectiveness against gingivitis. In 2019, Colgate, under pressure from health advocates, removed triclosan from the latest toothpaste on the market to contain it, Colgate Total.


    Anesthetic and antiseptic gum paint with applicators for the treatment of gingivitis.

    The focus of treatment is on plaque removal. Therapy is aimed at reducing the number of bacteria in the mouth and can take the form of regular periodic visits to the dentist along with proper oral hygiene at home. Thus, some of the methods used to prevent gingivitis can also be used to treat overt gingivitis, such as peeling, root straightening, scraping, mouthwash containing chlorhexidine or hydrogen peroxide, and flossing.Interdental brushes also help remove any pathogens.

    Electric toothbrushes are more effective than manual toothbrushes in reducing morbidity.

    The active ingredients that “reduce plaque and demonstrate effective reduction of gum inflammation over a period of time” are triclosan, chlorhexidine digluconate and a combination of thymol, menthol, eucalyptol and methyl salicylate. These ingredients are found in toothpaste and mouthwash.Hydrogen peroxide has long been considered a suitable over-the-counter treatment for gingivitis. There is evidence of a beneficial effect in the short-term treatment of gingivitis. Research shows that a fluorinated hydrogen peroxide-based mouthwash can remove stains from teeth and reduce gingivitis.

    Limited evidence suggests that essential oil mouthwashes may also be beneficial as they contain ingredients with anti-inflammatory properties such as thymol, menthol, and eucalyptol.

    The bacteria that cause gingivitis can be controlled by daily use of an oral irrigator with a mouthwash containing an antibiotic. Either amoxicillin, cephalexin, or minocycline in 500 grams of non-alcoholic fluoride mouthwash is an effective blend.

    In general, intensive oral hygiene has been shown to improve gum health in people with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Periodontal destruction is also slowed down by careful oral care.Intensive oral care (oral hygiene training plus supragingival removal) without any periodontal therapy improves gum health and can prevent the progression of gingivitis in well-controlled diabetes.

    See also


    External Links

    90,000 What is periodontitis, description, symptoms, nuances, treatment.

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    Gum disease (or periodontal disease is very widespread among the population of the entire globe.According to the World Health Organization, about 95% of adults and 80% of children show signs of gum disease. It is no exaggeration to say that this problem is truly global in scope. The prevalence of periodontal disease in our country is most eloquently indicated by the fact that the disease covers 98 – 100% of people aged 35 – 44 years. The particular danger of periodontal disease lies in the fact that often the onset and the first stages of the disease can be asymptomatic, i.e. imperceptible to humans.Dentists often say that periodontal disease is the silent killer of teeth. So you may not even be aware of the disease you have or a very high risk of developing it. That is why we devoted one of the largest articles of our journal to periodontology. And the most pressing questions on this topic, dear readers, will be answered intelligibly by our leading specialist, doctor – periodontist A.V. Puzhak.

    The periodontium is a complex of tissues surrounding the tooth.These include not only the gums, but also the bony socket, in which the root of the tooth is located, and the ligaments of the tooth, which hold the tooth in the socket, being woven into the root of the tooth and into the bone. All these tissues represent a single system that performs several important functions at once: fixing the teeth, perceiving and regulating the chewing load, controlling the work of the chewing muscles, protecting against the penetration of pathogenic bacteria and a number of damaging factors into the bone tissue.

    You need to consult a periodontist if you have the following symptoms:

    • bleeding gums when brushing teeth
    • bad breath
    • teeth covered with dark plaque
    • gums swell
    • exposed necks of teeth
    • teeth mobility appeared

    Periodontal disease is the most important cause of tooth loss in adults (about 70%) and affects three quarters of the population.Gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal disease are the most common periodontal diseases.

    In case of superficial inflammation of the gums (if only the soft tissues of the gums are involved in the process), we are dealing with gingivitis. Inflammation can occur in the area of ​​1 to 2 teeth (localized gingivitis) or all teeth (generalized gingivitis).

    Inflammation of the gums usually begins with damage, for example, when eating, brushing teeth, with improperly applied filling or crown, chemical burns. In this case, pathogens enter the injured gum and increase the inflammatory response.The presence of soft plaque, tartar, poor oral hygiene are prerequisites, and very often an independent cause of the onset and maintenance of the disease.

    Gingivitis is often observed in people with an irregular bite, with crowded teeth and their wrong position. The short frenulum of the upper and lower lips is also a risk factor for periodontal disease.

    An important role is played by smoking (there is a spasm of the blood vessels, the nutrition of the gums worsens), a decrease in the body’s defenses (immunodeficiency), a lack of vitamin C and other risk factors.

    In the acute stage of the process, pain, burning, swelling of the gingival margin, bleeding when brushing teeth are usually noted. If the cause of the disease is not eliminated, then acute gingivitis becomes a chronic form, which by itself, without treatment, does not go away. In this case, the gum turns blue, periodically bleeds when brushing teeth and eating. Bad breath appears.

    Severe forms of gingivitis, such as ulcerative gingivitis, are observed in severe general diseases of the body.For example, with diabetes mellitus or a serious immunodeficiency disease. In this case, the temperature rises, painful sores covered with a film appear on the gum of a dirty gray color, and overall health worsens.

    With gingivitis, the teeth remain stable, since the process does not penetrate deep into the periodontium, the so-called periodontal pocket does not form, and the bone tissue of the tooth socket does not dissolve.
    Can there be consequences if gingivitis is left untreated?

    If gum treatment is not carried out in time, gingivitis will turn into periodontitis.This is a much more serious and dangerous disease than gingivitis. Often it becomes irreversible, as with periodontitis, the deep tissues of the periodontium are affected and destroyed – the ligaments of the tooth and the bone tissue of the jaw.

    The causes of periodontitis are the same as for gingivitis. Periodontitis is often associated with chronic gingivitis. If the traumatic factor persists, microorganisms continue to proliferate in the damaged gum. Their toxins and enzymes destroy the gums deeper and deeper.

    As a result, the connection of the gums to the tooth (the bottom of the gingival sulcus) is disrupted – a very important protective formation that protects the ligaments of the tooth and bone from infection. A periodontal pocket appears, and now bacteria, plaque, etc. rush into the depths of the periodontium – this is where periodontitis begins. Further, there is a gradual destruction of the tooth ligaments, the bone tissue is melted.

    Periodontitis can be acute and chronic. Usually, acute periodontitis occurs when the gum is deeply injured (for example, a long artificial crown, a toothpick).In this case, the periodontal connection can be immediately disrupted – gingivitis and periodontitis occur simultaneously.

    Generalized periodontitis is characteristic of serious general diseases of the body – diabetes mellitus, other endocrine diseases, radiation sickness, severe diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. It is almost impossible to cure such periodontitis without general treatment of the underlying disease.

    In a chronic process, painful sensations and edema are not as pronounced as in acute periodontitis, there is an increase in the amount of tartar and soft plaque, bad breath increases, the gums begin to settle, exposing the neck of the tooth, there is a sensitivity of the teeth to cold, hot, sour and salty.Mobility of the tooth appears, at first imperceptible, but steadily increasing.

    Periodontal pockets suppuration is common. Pus is released from under the gums when pressing on the gingival margin with a finger. Sometimes, in the absence of outflow of pus, periodontal microabscesses occur – in this case, the patient already requires a surgical operation.

    Periodontitis can be one of the causes of several common diseases. A microorganism that causes stomach ulcers is often found in dental plaque.Other bacteria that live in plaque can lead to the formation of microthrombi (blood clots). Penetrating into the blood (with bleeding gums), they increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction.
    The penetration of microorganisms into the blood can lead to the occurrence of septic endocarditis. There is information about the relationship of chronic diseases of the teeth and periodontal disease with kidney damage. Remember that the focus of chronic infection in the oral cavity is the gateway for pathogenic bacteria to enter the body.

    Periodontal disease is a dystrophic lesion of all periodontal tissues, this process never proceeds in an acute form and is not associated with the effects of bacteria. There is a slow, uniform resorption of the bone tissue of the cells of the teeth and the subsidence of the gums with exposure of the roots of the teeth. Periodontal disease is always a generalized process, that is, all teeth on both jaws are affected. Bone tissue atrophy proceeds, as a rule, painlessly, continuously and, if untreated, leads to the complete disappearance of the ligamentous apparatus, the walls of the sockets of the teeth and their loss.Inflammation is rarely associated with periodontal disease.

    The exact cause of the disease is still unknown. It is believed that the onset of the disease is associated with impaired blood circulation in the periodontal tissues, endocrine disorders. Diabetes, cirrhosis of the liver, gastric ulcer, neurogenic diseases, cardiovascular pathology (atherosclerosis), hypovitaminosis and a decrease in the general resistance of the body contribute to the development of periodontal disease.

    Local factors, for example, the effect of microorganisms on the periodontium, can only aggravate the course of the disease, therefore, with periodontal disease, the primary process is the resorption of the bone tissue and the ligamentous apparatus of the tooth, and the superficial changes in the gums are already secondary.

    Periodontal disease is slow. Clinically, it manifests itself with significant changes in the periodontium. This is the settling of the gums, exposure and increased sensitivity of the necks of the teeth, itching in the gums. The teeth remain stable for a long time.

    A characteristic sign of periodontal disease is the presence of so-called wedge-shaped teeth defects – damage to the enamel of the teeth near the gums in the form of sufficiently deep oval cavities. Currently, this phenomenon is explained by a violation of the nutrition of the tooth, the inferiority of enamel and dentin, combined with very strong pressure on the toothbrush during frequent brushing.Periodontal disease is characterized by the absence of periodontal pockets.

    Bacterial plaque is a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on the teeth. If not removed, plaque hardens and forms a coarse, porous build-up called stone. The bacteria in tartar produce toxins (poisons) that irritate the gums, causing them to become red, tender, swollen and bleeding. With the progression of the disease, toxins can lead to the destruction of the periodontium, the formation of pockets that are filled with plaque.The bone supporting the teeth is constantly being destroyed. Continuous plaque removal through brushing, flossing, and professional care can minimize the risk of gum disease. However, if left untreated, the affected teeth can become mobile and eventually fall out.

    The treatment of gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal disease is a rather difficult, but quite feasible task. Self-medication is far from the best way to combat periodontitis and periodontal disease, as a rule, it is not possible to completely and quickly cure the disease at home.

    The history of the disease (anamnesis) is carefully ascertained. When did it start for the first time, what was done to treat it, whether parents and close relatives have this disease, etc. Careful collection of data allows you to identify risk factors, sometimes even predict the course of the disease. This is followed by a careful examination of the oral cavity: the frenulum of the lips and tongue, the dental arches as a whole and, if necessary, each tooth separately, as well as fillings, crowns and orthodontic appliances, are assessed.

    One of the main methods of examination is probing the periodontal pocket of each tooth at six points.The presence of tartar and soft plaque, bleeding, suppuration, tooth mobility, etc. is assessed. This laborious analysis is painlessly performed in 15 – 20 minutes using a special electronic probe of the Florida Probe (USA) automated computerized clinical diagnostic system. The patient’s personal data is stored in the computer memory, which allows predicting the course of the process and choosing a treatment, as well as assessing the dynamics of the disease and the effectiveness of the treatment.

    An orthopantomogram is a necessary element in the diagnosis of periodontal diseases.This image shows teeth, jaw bones, and partitions between the teeth. Digital orthopantomographs (such as in our clinic) allow you to get excellent images with minimal radiation exposure to the patient, evaluate them on a computer screen using auxiliary computer programs.

    After collecting all the necessary information, the periodontist will discuss the condition of your gums with you and suggest the most optimal treatment. Most importantly, it should be comprehensive – that is, treatment should cover all identified causes and concomitant factors that support the disease.Only in this case it is possible to completely cure or permanently stabilize the periodontal disease.

    Treatment will be much more effective if the patient strictly follows all the prescriptions and strictly follows the chosen treatment plan.

    Typically, a comprehensive treatment plan consists of general and local treatment and includes all or part of the methods listed below.

    • Elimination of factors injuring the periodontium (gum)
    • Anti-inflammatory drug therapy
    • Physiotherapy
    • Periodontal surgery
    • Orthodontic treatment (if necessary)
    • Rational prosthetics and splinting
    • Therapy of concomitant diseases that worsen the condition of the gums
    • General strengthening measures that improve immunity, regeneration, metabolism
    • Rational nutrition

    Treatment begins with the elimination of traumatic factors – poor-quality fillings and crowns with an overhanging edge or very deeply entering the gum, bridges, injuring teeth, etc. are removed.d.

    The so-called selective grinding of teeth is carried out in order to eliminate excessive traumatic stress when chewing from overloaded teeth. At the same time, small areas of the teeth are slightly eroded, which do not allow the upper and lower dental rows to close correctly, thereby causing their overload.

    This is an absolutely harmless procedure, since the ground areas of the teeth are polished and coated with fluoride preparations. In this case, caries does not occur.

    Professional oral hygiene
    The next stage of treatment (performed in 100% of cases) is professional teeth cleaning: it allows you to remove even tartar located deep under the gum (this is the strongest traumatic factor).In addition to tartar and soft dental plaque, dense dark plaque (from smoking, drinking tea, coffee, and other dyes) is simultaneously removed – this allows you to restore a beautiful appearance to your teeth. After removing tartar and plaque, the doctor will definitely polish the cleaned surface of the root and crown of the tooth.

    Several methods of removing dental plaque are now common. Cleaning teeth with a stream of air mixed with cleaning powder and water (the most famous representative is the Air Flow system) perfectly cleans teeth from soft plaque, dark plaque from tobacco or coffee, even in hard-to-reach places.Ultrasonic scalers are capable of removing tartar of almost any size.

    Removal of dental calculus is one of the most important and effective stages in the treatment of periodontal diseases.

    Anti-inflammatory therapy
    Drug therapy of the gums allows you to relieve inflammation – to cope with pain, swelling, and reduce bleeding of the gums. Usually, periodontal pockets are washed with antiseptic solutions (chlorhexidine, iodinol, etc.), various medicinal substances are used (enzymes, antimicrobial, hormonal, anti-inflammatory drugs). Often, the gum is covered with a special dressing after the administration of drugs.

    Self-absorbable films “Diplen-Denta” impregnated with various drugs (antibacterial, improving blood circulation, etc.) are very convenient. Such films are glued by the patient on his own to the affected areas of the gums (for example, before bedtime) and, gradually dissolving, release the medicine directly into the gums.In the morning, you just have to remove the remnants of the film from the oral cavity.

    There are many methods of physiotherapy treatment of periodontal disease. In our clinic, the most widespread is laser therapy. Therapeutic laser radiation has a very wide therapeutic effect – relieves pain, improves blood circulation, metabolism, and stimulates the immune defense.

    Gum massage can be performed by a doctor or by yourself.At home, with the index finger, the area of ​​the interdental papilla of the gums is massaged with up and down movements (6 – 10 movements per papilla). The massage ends with hygienic rinsing. Massage should not be used in case of exacerbation of the disease, the presence of erosions or ulcers on the gums.

    Surgical treatment
    Periodontal surgery is a radical and one of the most effective methods of treating moderate to severe periodontitis.With the help of small operations, it is possible to eliminate periodontal pockets, remove overgrown infected soft tissues, eliminate suppuration of the gums (microabscesses), make bone grafting or bone substitutes, raise the sagging gum and close a small root exposure.

    Every year there are new developments in the field of surgical treatment, modern materials and treatment methods. One of the promising innovations is surgical treatment using cellular technologies, which can stimulate bone tissue regeneration.This technology is widely used in our clinic. Surgical treatment is always carried out after the removal of dental plaque and therapeutic treatment, when all acute symptoms of gum inflammation subside. All interventions are performed under local anesthesia and rarely take long. Usually, all postoperative phenomena subside after 2 – 3 days, and the stitches are removed, or they dissolve in a week.

    The effect of such operations often lasts for a long time. Much will depend on maintaining oral hygiene, compliance with prevention rules and overall health.

    Rational prosthetics and splinting
    Prosthetics of missing teeth and their constant splinting (i.e. joining teeth together using a prosthesis or special light-curing threads) are the final stage in the treatment of periodontal diseases. It allows you to fully restore the chewing function, eliminate aesthetic imperfections (in the absence of teeth visible when smiling), unite all teeth together, as nature intended.

    In this case, the load is distributed evenly throughout the entire dentition, which allows the abutment teeth to function much longer.Even the absence of one tooth causes a number of changes in the jaw bone tissue. If, after successful therapeutic and surgical treatment of the gums, rational prosthetics and splinting are not carried out, then the disease can worsen again in the very near future.

    Prosthetics are carried out with both removable and fixed prostheses, depending on the condition and number of teeth.

    After the end of treatment, we advise you to strictly follow all the doctor’s recommendations. Be sure to visit your doctor at least 1 – 2 times a year for follow-up examinations and professional oral hygiene.

    Improved equipment, the use of local anesthetics and modern techniques now make it possible to comfortably carry out periodontal treatment. Effective drugs make it easier for the postoperative period.

    The cost of periodontal treatment will depend on the type and volume of the planned work. When considering investing in your own health, keep in mind that treating gum disease is cheaper and better for your health than restoring a tooth lost due to untreated periodontal disease.

    A new direction – aesthetic operative periodontics

    Recently, aesthetic operative periodontology has appeared and is actively used in surgical periodontology. She deals with the correction of changes in the position of the gingival margin relative to the neck of the tooth, gum growth. Aesthetic operative periodontology includes a large number of new surgical techniques, depending on the clinical situation and the desired aesthetic effect.

    1. Prevention of periodontal disease consists of several simple points:
    2. Brush your teeth 2 times (morning and evening) after meals. Use the toothpaste your doctor recommends to protect your gums. Use an electric toothbrush – it perfectly cleans teeth and massages the gums.
    3. Do professional oral hygiene at least 2 times a year, at the same time you can undergo an examination by a periodontist. Do not use any medicines for the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease (gels, ointments, tablets, etc.)without consulting your dentist.
    4. Do not eat only soft and delicate foods – the teeth should receive a normal, natural load.
    5. Your diet should be well balanced, contain the required amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins. If you are deficient in vitamins, take a multivitamin supplement.
    6. Lead a healthy lifestyle.

    Your dentist and periodontist work together as part of a team to provide the best possible treatment.They combine their experience to develop an optimal treatment plan and inform each other about your health condition.

    After the end of active periodontal treatment, the periodontist will refer you to your dentist, but may supervise you periodically to ensure the necessary periodontal care.
    However, you are the most important member of the team. Your interest, participation and responsibility are the basis for the success of your treatment.

    Make an appointment

    Information updated 20.01.21

    90,000 Gingivitis: The Infectious Enemy of Your Gums – Journal Publications

    When we have a toothache, we feel it right away, and when our gums get sick, we wake up much later, sometimes too late. This is because, unlike most others, gum disease often progresses without pain. And without even knowing it, more than half of the population over 18 already has gum disease, at least at an early stage of development.

    In people over 35, the situation is even worse, since three quarters of people of this age are affected by periodontal diseases to varying degrees. The most common of these diseases is gingivitis . Most of those who are now reading these lines are sick with it, although most often they do not notice it. For the time being.

    Periodontics – one of the most important branches of dentistry – deals with the treatment and prevention of diseases not of the tooth itself, but of the tissues that surround it – the periodontium.Along with the more famous periodontitis and rather rare periodontal disease, today more and more doctors diagnose “gingivitis”. What kind of disease is it, how to recognize it, how dangerous it is, why does it arise, and, finally, can one be cured of it?

    Gingivitis is an infectious disease that causes destruction of the gums surrounding the teeth. Cases of gingivitis account for 90-95% of the total number of inflammatory periodontal diseases.

    If you notice redness and swelling of the gums, which bleed a little while eating and while brushing your teeth, in contact with a toothbrush, and there is usually no pain, then you definitely have gingivitis.In this case, the gums can lag behind the place of contact with the tooth (the so-called ligament). Acute gingivitis can cause severe pain.

    In addition, it is characterized by the presence of multiple superficial ulcers on the oral mucosa. Gingivitis is common in adolescents and pregnant women. In these categories of patients, the disease is usually more severe due to hormonal changes in the body.

    Not uncommonly gingivitis can be a sign of systemic disease (eg, herpes, allergies, vitamin deficiency, leukopenia, debilitating disease, diabetes mellitus).

    The disease is more dangerous than it seems. The bacteria that cause chronic inflammation of the gums enter the general bloodstream with any bleeding gums. Modern research shows that most bacteria living in plaque have a general negative effect on the body and can lead, for example, to the formation of blood clots.

    When blood clots enter the general circulation, there is a risk of myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases.The link between gum disease and pregnancy complications has been proven. To date, there is also no doubt about the connection between periodontal diseases and stomach diseases. And recently, Japanese researchers have proven the effect of the state of the oral cavity on the lungs and the entire respiratory system. The insidiousness of gingivitis is that it can be almost invisible, but at the same time have a destructive effect.

    Even if the teeth look healthy, this does not mean that gum disease is absent. Only your dentist and hygienist can determine the absence of periodontal disease with a simple examination.

    The main cause of gum disease is bacterial plaque, which is a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on the teeth. If not removed, plaque hardens and forms a coarse, porous build-up called tartar.

    If the disease progresses, toxins can lead to the destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth. Further between the tooth and the gum, a small space is formed – the periodontal pocket, which is filled with plaque.Thus, the bone supporting the teeth is constantly being destroyed.

    If left untreated, periodontitis can develop, when perfectly healthy teeth can become mobile and eventually fall out. Periodontitis and gingivitis are two interrelated forms of the disease. first, an inflammatory process occurs in the tissues of the gums (gingivitis), then the nearest periodontal structures are involved in it – this is the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone (periodontitis).

    Dentists say with complete confidence that gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums, which in almost all cases occurs as a result of insufficient oral care. From irregular and poor-quality cleaning of teeth, the use of bad toothbrushes and cheap low-quality toothpastes, it is not the teeth that primarily suffer, but the gums.

    It is worth noting that long-term use of certain drugs, for example, oral contraceptives, can increase inflammation in the gums.In addition, heavy metals such as lead, for example, can also trigger gingivitis. Most of those who are not a specialist in dentistry do not even suspect that during pregnancy, menstruation, during puberty, with the use of contraception, the incidence of gingivitis increases significantly.

    The causes of gingivitis diseases can, among other things, be various injuries (for example, mechanical, chemical, in addition, injuries from overhanging edges of fillings or improperly made crowns).And of course, severe general diseases of the body are also an important reason for the development of gingivitis, one of the most dangerous periodontal diseases.

    The rules for the treatment of gingivitis include the removal of plaque, tartar. This is followed by the most thorough and stricter observance of the rules of oral hygiene, the elimination of other factors contributing to the development of the disease. Oral hygiene plays a leading role in both the prevention and treatment of gingivitis.

    After breakfast and dinner, brush your teeth thoroughly for about two minutes.To do this, use a prophylactic brush with artificial bristles of medium (for prevention) or soft (for treatment) bristle stiffness and do not forget to change it at least once every three months … Also, do not forget about the correct choice of toothpaste. It should be a special therapeutic and prophylactic one. Use floss – they clean the interdental spaces where the brush cannot reach.

    If the doctor has already told you that you have an increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, it is worthwhile to carry out preventive cleaning of teeth from plaque with the help of a dentist once a month.In this case, you will definitely be advised to use drugs that contribute to the local protection of the oral mucosa.

    Sometimes more significant medical intervention is required: in addition to thorough removal of calculus (mechanically or using ultrasound), it is necessary to replace and grind overhanging or poorly fitted fillings.

    In some (fortunately rare) cases, you even have to resort to surgery. In this case, the doctor removes dental deposits using special hooks and curettes (scraping spoon with closed curettage), or, if an operation is required, by cutting the gum (open curettage).Uncomplicated gingivitis usually ends in 7-10 days, while chronic gingivitis requires a fairly long and intensive treatment.

    For chronic gingivitis , the mouth is treated with anti-inflammatory and antiseptic drugs. With gingivitis caused by infectious and inflammatory processes, it is necessary to eliminate the causative agent of the infection. Therefore, the doctor may prescribe antibacterial agents or an antifungal medication.

    In general, as we have already noted, the occurrence of gingivitis often indicates a decrease in the body’s own defenses under the influence of unfavorable factors.Therefore, treatment should be aimed not only at eliminating the inflammatory process, but also at increasing immunity. Then the use of immunocorrectors is most justified. Drugs in this group activate the defenses of the oral mucosa, helping the body to fight the scourge itself.

    If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontitis and tooth loss. Contrary to popular belief about the dangers of tooth decay, this couple is an even more common cause of tooth decay than the well-known tooth decay.

    Treatment of gingivitis in children in Zelenograd

    What is gingivitis?

    Gingivitis is an acute or chronic superficial inflammation of the margins of the gums and interdental papillae. It occurs in both adults and children or adolescents. There can be several reasons for the disease, one of the most popular is irregular oral hygiene, and it is this that is typical for children.

    It is important to eliminate gingivitis at the initial stage of the course, since if untreated, the disease develops into a more severe form – periodontitis, which can lead to tooth loss.

    Symptoms of the disease

    If you notice these signs in a child, we advise you to contact your dentist:

    • Redness of the gums
    • Bad breath
    • Changing the contour of the gums, the appearance of gum pockets
    • Increased sensitivity of the gums, painful sensations

    Reasons for the appearance of

    • Presence of supragingival and subgingival calculus on teeth
    • Poor oral hygiene
    • Incorrectly placed braces
    • Lack of vitamins and reduced immunity
    • Injury to gums

    Forms of gingivitis

    The most common form occurs in more than 95% of patients.The disease is characterized by reddening of the gums, swelling, discomfort when eating, bad breath.

    A child does not always inform his parents about his dental problems, fearing a visit to the dentist. Be attentive to your child’s reactions. Bad breath in a child is also an alarming symptom.

    The causes are insufficient oral hygiene and tartar. Children may not brush thoroughly enough, skipping brushing can lead to gum disease.

    It is characterized by an increase in periodontal tissue in volume. The disease can be caused by an incorrect bite, prolonged use of hormonal drugs. If a child is undergoing hormonal treatment, be sure to report this symptom to a specialist! The dentist should also be aware of hormone intake.

    With hypertrophic gingivitis, in addition to drug treatment, physiotherapy procedures are prescribed.It is important to explain to the child the meaning of all activities, otherwise there is a great risk that he will carry out them only under the supervision of his parents. In rare cases, when treatment does not work, surgery is necessary.

    It is characterized by a minimum of inflammation and, at the same time, by a rapidly proceeding process of bone tissue atrophy. Due to the exposure of the necks of the tooth, the disease is accompanied by increased sensitivity of the teeth to cold or hot food.

    Treatment of gingivitis in children consists in identifying the cause of gum atrophy and procedures aimed at stopping the process of gum tissue decline.

    Ulcerative necrotic
    The disease is characterized by the appearance of ulcers and areas of necrosis on the gums, painful sensations and bad breath.

    In most cases, it is caused by an advanced stage of catarrhal gingivitis. In addition to the main stages of treatment, the patient is prescribed a diet and medications to eliminate ulcers and necrotic tissue damage.

    Treatment of gingivitis

    The algorithm for the treatment of gingivitis in children depends on the form of the disease, the degree of complexity of the case and the individual characteristics of the situation. The acute form can be cured in 1.5-2 weeks, the chronic one will take more time.

    Treatment of dental caries in a child is often required to eliminate foci of infection. Professional dental hygiene is also required to remove plaque and tartar. The treatment of gum disease is a holistic approach consisting of medication and home care.

    In the complex and under the supervision of a pediatrician, the treatment gives a quick and lasting result, which is noticeable within a week.

    Doctor’s advice – can gingivitis be cured at home?

    Treatment requires an integrated approach, so it is not worth trying to eliminate the disease only at home, so as not to waste time and not aggravate the situation. Remember, this can lead to serious consequences, including the loss of teeth.

    For a quick and effective elimination of the disease, contact your dentist, he will prescribe a comprehensive treatment for your case.The plan will include home care to help speed up your recovery. Only in this combination can the child’s illness be overcome.

    With gingivitis, only complex treatment helps!

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    Gingivitis: symptoms and treatment, photo

    Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue. This is the initial and most common form of gum disease in general.If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, which is a destructive form of periodontal disease.

    Gingivitis is associated with the long-term effects of plaque build-up on teeth. Dental plaque is a sticky substance made up of bacteria, desquamated epithelium and food debris, which always accumulates in areas of the teeth that are difficult for natural cleaning. This is also the main cause of tooth decay.

    Periodontitis is an inflammation and is based on an infection of the pockets between the tooth and the gum, which destroys the tissues that support the teeth – the gums, ligaments and teeth (in the alveolar bone).

    If plaque is not removed in a timely manner, it turns into a hard deposit that forms at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tartar irritate and cause gum disease. Actively multiplying bacteria and toxins, which are “waste” of their vital activity, are the reason for the rapid progression of gum disease.

    The following are factors that increase the risk of developing the disease:

    • Poor oral hygiene
    • Pregnancy – hormonal changes affect the sensitivity of the gums
    • Diabetes
    • Rough and uneven teeth
    • The use of certain drugs (phenytoin, bismuth)
    • Use of contraceptive drugs

    Many people have at different times in their lives may experience some of the symptoms of gingivitis – they often develop during puberty or in adulthood due to hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause).Different forms of gingivitis can persist or recur frequently, depending on the health of your teeth and gums.

    Forms of gingivitis

    • Catarrhal
    • Necrotic ulcer
    • Hypertrophic


    • Externally – red and swollen gums
    • Bleeding. Bleeding from the gums, even while brushing your teeth, is a sign of inflammation and a major marker of periodontal disease.
    • Bad breath.Food debris and bacteria can cause bad taste in the mouth and persistent bad breath.
    • Recession of gingival tissue and tooth loss. As the disease progresses, the gum tissue shrinks and the supporting structure of the bone weakens.
    • Abscesses. In the depressions of the periodontal pockets between the gum and the bone, dental deposits or food particles can be blocked, which causes acute purulent inflammation, the product of which is pus.

    Acute catarrhal gingivitis

    Acute catarrhal gingivitis is characterized by gum flushing and swelling, bleeding, pain, burning sensation, chronic cyanosis, edema, loosening of the gums.Microbial plaque and dental plaque are responsible for the development of the disease. False pathological pockets, gingival calculus are formed.

    Characterized by the following

    Gingival margin appears dirty gray, easily detachable from necrotic film. Sharp pain, inability to eat. Fetid odor from the mouth, salivation. Regional lymph nodes are enlarged and painful. Body temperature up to 38-39. Lethargy, headache. Ulcers can spread to the lining of the mouth.

    Often the presence of nausea in the first trimester does not allow for proper oral care. Under the influence of mild stimuli, slight bleeding occurs on contact. Perhaps the addition of infection and the formation of purulent discharge.

    Treatment includes:

    • Removal of calculus
    • Removal of dental plaque from the tooth surface
    • Interdental polishing
    • Correction of the proper condition of seals

    Treatment of symptoms of acute gingivitis

    General rules for the treatment of gingivitis include removing plaque, tartar, oral hygiene, and other contributing factors.Persons prone to inflammatory diseases are advised to clean periodontal plaque from the dentist (up to 2-4 times a year), use medications that help local protection of the oral mucosa.

    Antibacterial drugs and antiseptics are used locally (Metrogyl Dent gel 2 times a day, rinsing with 0.05% chlorhexidine, etc.).

    Chronic catarrhal gingivitis

    Chronic catarrhal gingivitis is called exudative inflammation of the gums.It develops in some groups of patients as a response to the pathogenic effects of microorganisms on the gums of dental plaque. It should be noted that chronic catarrhal gingivitis, as a rule, develops due to insufficient oral hygiene and without prompt adequate treatment it becomes chronic generalized periodontitis.

    Symptoms and methods of diagnosis of chronic catarrhal gingivitis

    Clinical diagnosis is usually straightforward. As a rule, patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis complain of slight itching in the gums and bleeding.Chronic catarrhal gingivitis begins gradually, with little or no symptoms for a long time.

    In life, the state of health of patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis is stable – no serious disorders occur. Examination of the oral cavity reveals mineralized deposits on the teeth, chronic inflammation of the gums (swelling, bleeding, redness). Teeth with chronic catarrhal gingivitis are immobile and do not move. X-ray examination of changes in the bone tissue between the teeth of the septa and other parts of the jaw bones has not been identified.

    Treatment of chronic catarrhal gingivitis begins with the use of an oral antiseptic solution. For oral administration, the following group of drugs is used – hydrogen peroxide – 1%, chlorhexidine – 0.06%, furacilin – 0.02%. Antiseptics for chronic catarrhal gingivitis are used in the form of oral baths, rinses, applications on the gums.

    Then comes the next phase of treatment – the removal of tooth deposits. To do this, use special tools that thoroughly remove tartar and plaque.Then the tooth surface is polished with special brushes with an abrasive paste. After professional cleaning of teeth, antiseptic treatment of the mouth is performed again.

    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis or necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

    This is a subclassification of necrotizing periodontitis, an infection of the gum tissue. This manifests itself as an acute infection in the gum without the involvement of other periodontal tissues. If the infection has progressed deeper into the periodontal tissue, then it is called necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis

    Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

    Necrotizing periodontal disease is caused by a bacterial infection that includes anaerobes such as intermediates and Fusobacterium, as well as spirochetes such as Borrelia and Treponema

    Hypertrophic gingivitis

    This is gingival hypertrophy – an increase in gum size, a common feature of gum disease.Gingival enlargement can be caused by a variety of factors, including inflammatory conditions and the side effects of certain medications. Treatment is based on a cause. A related term is epulis, meaning a localized swelling on the gums.

    The causes of occurrence are most often endocrine disorders, toxicosis in pregnant women, hormonal changes or disorders. An impaired bite or local trauma can also have a negative impact.Treatment for hypotrophic gingivitis depends on whether it is edematous or fibrous.

    Edematous form of gingivitis

    Gingival papillae are enlarged due to their edema (loose). Pregnant women and teenagers are most likely to experience this form of gingivitis due to hormonal changes. Anti-inflammatory therapy and removal of dental plaque is recommended. If the effect is not enough, then scaling therapy is used. (injection into the edematous papillae of a scorching solution).

    Fibrous form of gingivitis

    Characterized by the proliferation of fibrous tissue, the gingival papillae are dense.Treatment is carried out with the elimination of traumatic factors and the removal of dental plaque.

    The main method of treatment is the surgical excision of the gum tissue – after that it is necessary to prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Treatment of gingivitis

    According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal disease management should focus on achieving oral health in the least invasive and most cost effective manner. Your dentist or periodontist will usually start with a non-surgical approach and then re-evaluate the condition in subsequent visits.If infection or deep pockets of the periodontium remain, surgical treatment may be recommended.

    Disease treatment approaches can be broadly classified as follows:

    • Deep cleaning of calculus and bacteria of the gum line and tooth root.
      • Removal of dental deposits. Today ultrasonic cleaning is used. After the procedure, the dentist polishes the teeth with a special paste and brush, and also applies an antiseptic gel to the gum.One visit to the dentist is often enough.
      • Anti-inflammatory therapy for gingivitis. Removal of deposits is sufficient in most cases, but anti-inflammatory therapy is required to bring teeth and gums to their fullest potential. In this case, you can use the methods of treatment at home:
        • Antiseptic rinses
        • Application of medical gels
        • Application of toothpastes for inflammation

    In addition to treatment at the dentist’s office, regular dental visits and cleanings (usually every 3 months) are essential to maintaining good oral hygiene at home as a practice.

    Treatment of gingivitis at home

    The ability to perform gingivitis at home is extremely limited. It is possible to prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs, but the removal of deposits is impossible (only at the dentist). Remember, at home you can only relieve symptoms, for example, bleeding gums, but this is only for a limited time – soon the disease will relapse with renewed vigor. Use gels, ointments, toothpastes only if there is no way to urgently go to the dentist.The advertisements do not talk about the reasons for bleeding gums or the need for dental calculus treatment at the dentist. The reasons are quite clear.

    Treatment of gingivitis with alternative methods

    Use folk remedies only as anti-inflammatory therapy – they are not a cure! Believe me, we are telling the truth – it is easier to cure the disease at the initial stage (saving your time and money) than to delay until the last.

    Use decoctions of chamomile, St. John’s wort or eucalyptus.Take vitamins A, C, E as a vitamin and tonic.


    90,000 Gingivitis in dogs: symptoms and treatment

    Small and decorative dogs are especially affected by gingivitis. The animal’s oral cavity is often exposed to mechanical influences from the outside, because dogs sometimes carry stones and sticks in their mouths, and also gnaw objects in the apartment. At the same time, soft tissues are damaged in the dog’s oral cavity, plaque can form and even teeth break.External factors help pathogenic bacteria to enter the gum cavity, which causes bleeding and inflammation in the dog’s mouth.

    Poor oral hygiene, hormonal changes, tooth decay and dental trauma are also among the most common causes of gingivitis in dogs.

    Signs of illness

    Gingivitis is acute and chronic. It is necessary to regularly examine the pet’s oral cavity in order to detect the precursors of this disease.These are usually:

    • swelling on the face;

    • unpleasant odor from the mouth;

    • increased salivation;

    • discoloration of teeth.

    Severe cases of this disease in a dog may be characterized by the presence of suppuration and ulcers on the gums. In the chronic course of this disease, the gums sometimes bleed in dogs.


    Gingivitis in dogs is a treatment for the gums. First of all, it is necessary to eliminate all factors that irritate and injure the soft tissues of the animal. Then you need to remove tartar deposits in a veterinary clinic and grind a number of teeth. The procedure is carried out under sedation: this intervention by a veterinarian works similar to anesthesia, however, it is somewhat more gentle.

    Unviable teeth must also be removed, since they are carriers of pathogenic microflora of the oral cavity.After these teeth are removed, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, antibiotics, or bacteria. For example, “Cobactan” or “Amoxicillin”. The dose that is needed is determined by the specialist based on the severity of the disease and the weight of the animal.

    Before carrying out all the manipulations, the animal’s mouth should be treated with hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, furacilin or other means. As a rule, after eliminating irritants, removing plaque and tartar, gingivitis in dogs completely disappears.If, after manipulation by the veterinarian, the gums are still bleeding, you can use an ointment or heparin solution. And also to eliminate bleeding veterinarians advise to use decoctions of oak bark, calendula, drugs “Romazulan”, “Metrogyl”.

    Supportive procedures to promote the animal’s recovery:

    How to treat gingivitis in addition to these methods? It is necessary to strengthen the general condition of the dog’s body, for this you can give the pet vitamins PP, C and B. For prevention, it is recommended to carry out daily oral hygiene.

    Nutrition during treatment

    During the period when the dog is being treated for gingivitis, it is necessary to transfer it to a softer food. This also includes the elimination of bones from the diet. It is better to refrain from coarse food: it can further injure the damaged soft tissues of the animal’s oral cavity.

    Each feeding of the dog must be completed by disinfecting the gums with 0.05% chlorhexidine solution.

    After the animal is cured, it is necessary to regularly carry out the prevention of this disease – to examine the dog daily.If inflammation of the oral cavity or any abnormalities is found, you should immediately contact the veterinary clinic.