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Man body anatomy organs: Male Reproductive Anatomy Location, Parts, and Function


The Human Body: Anatomy, Facts & Functions

The human body is everything that makes up, well, you. The basic parts of the human body are the head, neck, torso, arms and legs.

[Image Gallery: The BioDigital Human]

Body systems

Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living.

The job of the circulatory system is to move blood, nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood, blood vessels,arteries and veins.

The digestive system consists of a series of connected organs that together, allow the body to break down and absorb food, and remove waste. It includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. The liver and pancreas also play a role in the digestive system because they produce digestive juices.

The endocrine system consists of eight major glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These hormones, in turn, travel to different tissues and regulate various bodily functions, such as metabolism, growth and sexual function.

The immune system is the body’s defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that may be harmful. It includes lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B-cells and T-cells), the thymus and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

The lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymph ducts and lymph vessels, and also plays a role in the body’s defenses. Its main job is to make is to make and move lymph, a clear fluid that contains white blood cells, which help the body fight infection. The lymphatic system also removes excess lymph fluid from bodily tissues, and returns it to the blood.

The nervous system controls both voluntary action (like conscious movement) and involuntary actions (like breathing), and sends signals to different parts of the body. The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that connect every other part of the body to the central nervous system.

The body’s muscular system consists of about 650 muscles that aid in movement, blood flow and other bodily functions. There are three types of muscle: skeletal muscle which is connected to bone and helps with voluntary movement, smooth muscle which is found inside organs and helps to move substances through organs, and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart and helps pump blood.

The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes the penis and the testes, which produce sperm. The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, the uterus and the ovaries, which produce eggs. During conception, a sperm cell fuses with an egg cell, which creates a fertilized egg that implants and grows in the uterus. [Related: Awkward Anatomy: 10 Odd Facts About the Female Body]

Our bodies are supported by the skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones that are connected by tendons, ligaments and cartilage. The skeleton not only helps us move, but it’s also involved in the production of blood cells and the storage of calcium. The teeth are also part of the skeletal system, but they aren’t considered bones.

The respiratory system allows us to take in vital oxygen and expel carbon dioxide in a process we call breathing. It consists mainly of the trachea, the diaphragm and the lungs.

The urinary system helps eliminate a waste product called urea from the body, which is produced when certain foods are broken down. The whole system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles and the urethra. Urine produced by the kidneys travels down the ureters to the bladder, and exits the body through the urethra.

The skin, or integumentary system, is the body’s largest organ. It protects us from the outside world, and is our first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. Our skin also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate waste through perspiration. In addition to skin, the integumentary system includes hair and nails.

Vital organs

Humans have five vital organs that are essential for survival. These are the brain, heart, kidneys, liver and lungs.

The human brain is the body’s control center, receiving and sending signals to other organs through the nervous system and through secreted hormones. It is responsible for our thoughts, feelings, memory storage and general perception of the world.

The human heart is a responsible for pumping blood throughout our body.

The job of the kidneys is to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The kidneys take urea out of the blood and combine it with water and other substances to make urine.

The liver has many functions, including detoxifying of harmful chemicals, breakdown of drugs, filtering of blood, secretion of bile and production of blood-clotting proteins.

The lungs are responsible for removing oxygen from the air we breathe and transferring it to our blood where it can be sent to our cells. The lungs also remove carbon dioxide, which we exhale.

Fun facts

  • The human body contains nearly 100 trillion cells.
  • There are at least 10 times as many bacteria in the human body as cells.
  • The average adult takes over 20,000 breaths a day.
  • Each day, the kidneys process about 200 quarts (50 gallons) of blood to filter out about 2 quarts of waste and water
  • Adults excrete about a quarter and a half (1.42 liters) of urine each day.
  • The human brain contains about 100 billion nerve cells
  • Water makes up more than 50 percent of the average adult’s body weight

You use your eyes to see, your ears to hear and your muscles to do the heavy lifting. Well, sort of. In fact, most body parts are far more complicated than that, while some seem to have no business being inside there at all.

Ready for Med School? Test Your Body Smarts

Editor’s Note: If you’d like more information on this topic, we recommend the following book (available on amazon. com):

Related pages

Systems of the human body

  • Circulatory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Digestive System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
  • Immune System: Diseases, Disorders & Function
  • Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
  • Muscular System: Facts, Functions & Diseases
  • Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Reproductive System: Facts, Functions and Diseases
  • Respiratory System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Skin: Facts, Diseases & Conditions
  • Urinary System: Facts, Functions & Diseases

Parts of the human body

  • Bladder: Facts, Function & Disease
  • Human Brain: Facts, Anatomy & Mapping Project
  • Colon (Large Intestine): Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Ears: Facts, Function & Disease
  • Esophagus: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • How the Human Eye Works
  • Gallbladder: Function, Problems & Healthy Diet
  • Human Heart: Anatomy, Function & Facts
  • Kidneys: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Liver: Function, Failure & Disease
  • Lungs: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Nose: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • Pancreas: Function, Location & Diseases
  • Small Intestine: Function, Length & Problems
  • Spleen: Function, Location & Problems
  • Stomach: Facts, Function & Diseases
  • The Tongue: Facts, Function & Diseases


4: Human Organs and Organ Systems

“Achy Breaky Heart”

You have probably heard this Billy Ray Cyrus song. Heartache, heartbreak…it all has to do with love. Did you ever wonder why the heart is associated with love? The heart was once thought to be the center of all thought processes, as well as the site of all emotions. This notion may have stemmed from very early anatomical dissections that found many nerves can be traced to the region of the heart. The fact that the heart may start racing when one is excited or otherwise emotionally aroused may have contributed to this idea as well. In fact, the heart is not the organ that controls thoughts or emotions. The organ that controls those functions is the brain. In this concept, you’ll be introduced to the heart, brain, and other major organs of the human body.

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Twemoji

Human Organs

An organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Organs exist in most multicellular organisms, including not only humans and other animals but also plants. In single-celled organisms such as bacteria, the functional equivalent of an organ is an organelle.

Tissues in Organs

Although organs consist of multiple tissue types, many organs are composed of the main tissue that is associated with the organ’s major function and other tissues that play supporting roles. The main tissue may be unique to that specific organ. For example, the main tissue of the heart is the cardiac muscle, which performs the heart’s major function of pumping blood and is found only in the heart. The heart also includes nervous and connective tissues that are required for it to perform its major function. For example, nervous tissues control the beating of the heart, and connective tissues make up heart valves that keep blood flowing in just one direction through the heart.

Vital Organs

The human body contains five organs that are considered vital for survival. They are the heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs. The locations of these five organs and several other internal organs are shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). If any of the five vital organs stops functioning, the death of the organism is imminent without medical intervention.

  1. The heart is located in the center of the chest, and its function is to keep blood flowing through the body. Blood carries substances to cells that they need and also carries away wastes from cells.
  2. The brain is located in the head and functions as the body’s control center. It is the seat of all thoughts, memories, perceptions, and feelings.
  3. The two kidneys are located in the back of the abdomen on either side of the body. Their function is to filter blood and form urine, which is excreted from the body.
  4. The liver is located on the right side of the abdomen. It has many functions, including filtering blood, secreting bile that is needed for digestion, and producing proteins necessary for blood clotting.
  5. The two lungs are located on either side of the upper chest. Their main function is exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the blood.

Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): Use this shadow diagram of human anatomy to locate the five organs described above: heart, brain, kidneys, liver, and lungs. Do you know the functions of any of the other organs in the diagram?

Human Organ Systems

Functionally related organs often cooperate to form whole organ systems. Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\) and Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\) show 11 human organ systems, including separate diagrams for the male and female reproductive systems. Some of the organs and functions of the organ systems are identified in the figure. Each system is also described in more detail in the text that follows. Most of these human organ systems are also the subject of separate chapters in this book.

Integumentary System

Organs of the integumentary system include the skin, hair, and nails. The skin is the largest organ in the body. It encloses and protects the body and is the site of many sensory receptors. The skin is the body’s first defense against pathogens, and it also helps regulate body temperature and eliminate wastes in sweat.

Skeletal System

The skeletal system consists of bones, joints, teeth. The bones of the skeletal system are connected by tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Functions of the skeletal system include supporting the body and giving it shape. Along with the muscular system, the skeletal system enables the body to move. The bones of the skeletal system also protect internal organs, store calcium, and produce red and white blood cells.

Muscular System

The muscular system consists of three different types of muscles, including skeletal muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons and allow for voluntary movements of the body. Smooth muscle tissues control the involuntary movements of internal organs, such as the organs of the digestive system, allowing food to move through the system. Smooth muscles in blood vessels allow vasoconstriction and vasodilation and thereby help regulate body temperature. Cardiac muscle tissues control the involuntary beating of the heart, allowing it to pump blood through the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system.

Nervous System

The nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system, and nerves that run throughout the rest of the body, which make up the peripheral nervous system. The nervous system controls both voluntary and involuntary responses of the human organism and also detects and processes sensory information.

Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\): Organ systems: Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, and Cardiovascular

Endocrine System

The endocrine system is made up of glands that secrete hormones into the blood, which carries the hormones throughout the body. Endocrine hormones are chemical messengers that control many body functions, including metabolism, growth, and sexual development. The master gland of the endocrine system is the pituitary gland, which produces hormones that control other endocrine glands. Some of the other endocrine glands include the pancreas, thyroid gland, and adrenal glands.

Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system (also called the circulatory system) includes the heart, blood, and three types of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. The heart pumps blood, which travels through the blood vessels. The main function of the cardiovascular system is transport. Oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive system are transported to cells throughout the body. Carbon dioxide and other waste materials are picked up from the cells and transported to organs such as the lungs and kidneys for elimination from the body. The cardiovascular system also equalizes body temperature and transports endocrine hormones to cells in the body where they are needed.

Urinary System

The urinary system includes the pair of kidneys, which filter excess water and a waste product called urea from the blood and form urine. Two tubes called ureters carry the urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, which stores the urine until it is excreted from the body through another tube named the urethra. The kidneys also produce an enzyme called renin and a variety of hormones. These substances help regulate blood pressure, the production of red blood cells, and the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Respiratory System

Organs and other structures of the respiratory system include the nasal passages, lungs, and a long tube called the trachea, which carries air between the nasal passages and lungs. The main function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body. Gases are exchanged between the lungs and blood across the walls of capillaries lining tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs.

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is sometimes considered to be part of the immune system. It consists of a network of lymph vessels and ducts that collect excess fluid (called lymph) from extracellular spaces in tissues and transport the fluid to the bloodstream. The lymphatic system also includes many small collections of tissue, called lymph nodes, and an organ called the spleen, both of which remove pathogens and cellular debris from the lymph or blood. In addition, the thymus gland in the lymphatic system produces some types of white blood cells (lymphocytes) that fight infections.

Digestive System

The digestive system consists of several main organs — including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines — that form a long tube called the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Food moves through this tract where it is digested, its nutrients absorbed, and its waste products excreted. The digestive system also includes accessory organs (such as the pancreas and liver) that produce enzymes and other substances needed for digestion but through which food does not actually pass.

Male and Female Reproductive Systems

The reproductive system is the only body system that differs substantially between individuals. There is a range of Biological sex, but most books divide them into male and female. We will discuss the Biology of sex in detail in the reproductive and development chapters.

Figure \(\PageIndex{4}\): Organ Systems: Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, male and female reproductive

Feature: Human Biology in the News

Organ transplantation has been performed by surgeons for more than six decades, and you’ve no doubt heard of people receiving heart, lung, and kidney transplants. However, you may have never heard of a penis transplant. The first U.S. penis transplant was performed in May of 2016 at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. The 15-hour procedure involved a team of more than 50 physicians, surgeons, and nurses. The patient was a 64-year-old man who had lost his penis to cancer in 2012. The surgical milestone involved grafting microscopic blood vessels and nerves of the donor organ to those of the recipient. As with most transplant patients, this patient will have to take immunosuppressing drugs for the rest of his life so his immune system will not reject the organ. The transplant team said that their success with this transplant “holds promise for patients with devastating genitourinary injuries and disease.” They also hope their experiences will be helpful for gender reassignment surgery.

Basic Anatomy: Terminology, organ systems, major vessels

Adrian Rad BSc (Hons)

Nicola McLaren MSc
Key facts about the basic anatomy and terminology

Anatomical terminology

A list of terms that concern with the anatomy of the human body. It gathers the terms that pertain to the anatomical regions and specific structures, planes, directions and body movements.

Anatomical planes

Imaginary planes that intersect the body, creating slices of inner body structures at different levels.
Major planes: median (mid-sagittal), sagittal, frontal (coronal), transverse (axial).

Directional terms

Anatomical terms used to describe the position and relation between various structures (e.g. anterior, posterior, ventral, dorsal, proximal, distal, median, medial, lateral)


Changing the position of a body part around a certain axis and in one of the anatomical planes (e. g. flexion, extension, abduction, adduction)

Anatomical regions

Areas of the human body defined by the landmarks provided by evident structures that are easily palpable or visible.
Major regions: head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, upper extremity, lower extremity

Human body systems

A group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions in the body.
Systems: circulatory, respiratory, digestive, nervous, excretory, endocrine, reproductive, lymphatic , skeletal, and muscular systems

Anatomical terminology

The most basic anatomy concept, and equally the most important, is orientation. All structures and the relationships between them are referenced to the standard anatomical position. In this orientation, the person is considered to be standing upright, with the arms hanging by the side, palms facing forward, and thumbs pointing away from the body. The feet are slightly parallel, and toes oriented to the front. To compare the location of body parts relative to each other, anatomy uses some universal directional terms: anterior, posterior, ventral, dorsal, distal, proximal, medial, lateral, median, superior, inferior, external, internal, frontal, occipital, rostral, caudal, superficial, deep, central, peripheral, ipsilateral, contralateral, cranial, and cephalic.

Learn the basic human terminology with the following study unit. 

Apart from the directional terms and relationships, you also need to know from which direction you’re looking. This is provided by the three body planes and axes: coronal (frontal), sagittal, and transverse (axial).

Directional terms and body planes

In terms of movements, the human body is capable of many of them. Depending on the type of joint in question (the synovial joint being the most flexible), there is: flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, protrusion, retrusion, elevation, depression, lateral (external) rotation, medial (internal) rotation, pronation, supination, circumduction, deviation, opposition, reposition, inversion, and eversion.

Anatomical regions

The entire human body is divided into regions, an approach called regional anatomy. Each main area (head, neck, thorax, abdomen, upper, and lower extremities) are divided into several smaller regions that aid compartmentalization. 

Anatomical regions of the human body
Head regions Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, auricular, orbital, infraorbital, buccal, parotid, zygomatic, nasal, oral, and mental regions
Neck regions Submandibular, submental, carotid, muscular, lesser supraclavicular, occipital, omoclavicular, suboccipital triangles/regions
Posterior trunk regions Deltoid, suprascapular, interscapular, scapular, infrascapular, vertebral, lumbrar, sacral, gluteal, and anal regions
Anterior trunk regions (thorax and abdomen) Presternal, pectoral, inframammary, hypochondriac, epigastric, lumbar, inguinal, umbilical, and pubic regions
Upper limb regions Infraclavicular, clavipectoral, axillary, deltoid, scapular, anterior arm, posterior arm, anterior forearm, posterior forearm, anterior cubital, posterior cubital, anterior carpal, posterior carpal, palm of hand, dorsum of hand
Lower limb regions Femoral, anterior thigh, posterior thigh, anterior knee, posterior knee, anterior leg region, posterior leg region, calcaneal, retromalleolar, dorsum of foot, and sole of foot regions

There are many regions in total, so here are some resources to help you learn more about each of them.

In addition to the regional approach, there is the surface anatomy approach. Here, the evident and palpable surface features of the body are described. There are common ones to both males and females, but also gender specific surface markers.

Male body surface anatomy (anterior and posterior views)
Female body surface anatomy (anterior and posterior views)

If you want to bring your knowledge one step further than the level of a human body diagram, check out the following study units:

Underneath the surface of the body, there is another ‘anatomical region’. This consists of the cavities of the human body which house many vital organs, neurovasculature, and anatomical structures. There are five major body cavities: cranial, thoracic, abdominal, pelvic, and vertebral cavities. Many of them are subdivided into smaller ones. In particular the thoracic cavity, it consists of the pleural, pericardial, and mediastinal cavities.

Cavities of the human body (anterior view)

If you want to find out more, here are some additional resources from Kenhub.

Human body systems

There are approximately 79 human anatomy organs, although there is no standard or universally accepted number. What would the result be if every one of these organs worked independently? Chaos! Therefore, they function in groups called systems. An organ system consists of many organs working together to accomplish similar tasks and reach a common goal. There are eleven systems in the human body: circulatory (blood supply), respiratory (breathing), digestive (digestion and absorption), nervous (sensation and movement), excretory (waste elimination), endocrine (hormonal control), reproductive, lymphatic (defence), skeletal (support), and muscular (movement) systems. The last two are usually combined together into the musculoskeletal system.


Musculoskeletal system

Let’s take a look at one system in particular, the musculoskeletal one, which is made up of three parts: bones, joints, and muscles. The skeletal part, which functions mainly for support, consists of bones arranged into two skeletons:

  • Axial skeleton: skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bone, ribs, vertebral column, sternum, sacrum, coccyx

  • Appendicular skeleton: shoulder girdle, upper limb, pelvic girdle, lower limb

Situated at the junction between two or more bones are structures called joints. There are many in the entire human body, but the most important ones are the cranial sutures, temporomandibular, shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints.

Muscles are the contractile apparatus attached to the bones that move them around the joints. They act as antagonist pairs. The main muscle type involved in the musculoskeletal system is the skeletal muscle. There are hundreds of muscles, grouped together into five anatomical regions:

  • Head muscles: Muscles of facial expression, muscles of mastication (temporal, masseter, pterygoids)
  • Neck muscles: Suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, scalenes, platysma
  • Trunk muscles: Pectoral, intercostal, anterior abdominal, lateral abdominal, and posterior trunk muscles

  • Upper extremity muscles: Shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand muscles

  • Lower extremity muscles: Gluteal, hip, thigh, leg, and foot muscles

Major arteries, veins and nerves of the body

The neurovasculature of the body is also divided according to the regions. There are thousands upon thousands of arteries, veins, and nerves carrying blood and impulses to and from various anatomical structures. We’ll only mention the most important ones in this page.

The arterial supply of the head and neck is provided by the carotid arteries – common, internal, and external. The internal carotid artery supplies the brain, eyes, and forehead. The external carotid has eight branches which supply the external structures of the head and face, as well as the neck. Venous blood from the face is drained by the facial, supraorbital, frontal, angular, retromandibular, maxillary, and posterior auricular veins. These drain into the jugular veins. The neck is drained by the jugular, vertebral, and subclavian veins that end up in the brachiocephalic veins. Innervation of the head and neck is via the twelve cranial nerves and the cervical plexus.

Moving further, we reach the trunk. The most significant arteries of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis are the aorta, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and common iliac arteries with all their branches. They supply all the muscles, organs, and tissues of these regions. The major veins of the thorax are the superior vena cava, brachiocephalic, azygos, hemiazygos, intercostal, and internal thoracic veins. Those of the abdomen and pelvis are the inferior vena cava, epigastric, iliac (internal, external, common), spinal, hepatic, renal, and gonadal veins.

Nervous supply to the trunk consists of branches of the cervical, brachial, lumbar and sacral plexuses. Other nerves such as the phrenic, vagus (CN X), intercostal, subcostal, iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, gluteal, and pudendal nerves supply various structures of the anterior and posterior trunk. Autonomic innervation is provided by the sympathetic chains, splanchnic nerves, and various organ plexuses.

The hard part of the neurovasculature is now over because we have finished with the intricate regions. The extremities are more structured, systematic, and easier to digest. All the arteries of the upper extremity arise from the aortic arch. They include the subclavian, scapular, axillary, brachial, radial, and ulnar arteries. There are other ones supplying the joints, such as the elbow and wrist.

Venous drainage follows the arterial supply pretty closely, but not identically. The deep veins of the arm include the subclavian, axillary, and brachial veins while the superficial veins are the cephalic and basilic veins. Advancing further down, we meet the radial and ulnar veins of the forearm; as well as the dorsal venous network and the two palmar arches (one deep, one superficial) in the hand. Regarding innervation, all nerves of the upper extremity originate from the brachial plexus. They are called musculocutaneous, axillary, median, ulnar, and radial nerves. They supply all the muscles and regions of the upper extremity.

Last but not least, we have reached the lower extremity. The most important arteries originate from the iliac arteries and include the gluteal, obturator, femoral, circumflex femoral, popliteal, genicular, tibial, fibular, tarsal, and dorsalis pedis arteries. The main veins draining the lower limb are both superficial and deep. The deep system is composed of the iliac, femoral, popliteal, fibular, and tibial veins, together with the deep plantar and dorsal venous arches of the foot. The superficial ones are the small/short and great/long saphenous veins with the superficial dorsal and plantar venous networks of the foot.

All the nerves of the lower limb originate from the lumbosacral plexus. The main ones include the femoral cutaneous, femoral, obturator, sciatic, and gluteal nerves. Further down along the extremity we have genicular, tibial, fibular, saphenous, medial, plantar, and digital nerves.

Learn more about the human body systems, arteries, veins and nerves by taking our customized quiz!

Diagram and all you need to know

In the human body, there are five vital organs that people need to stay alive. These are also a number of other organs that work together with these vital organs to ensure that the body is functioning well.

Keep reading to learn more about the organs of the body, the various organ systems, and some guidelines on how to maintain optimum health.

The interactive body map below shows the organs of the body and which systems they play a role in. Click on the map to learn more.

The vital organs are those that a person needs to survive. A problem with any of these organs can quickly become life threatening.

It is not possible to live without these organs. That said, in the case of the paired kidneys and lungs, a person can live without one of the pair.

The sections below will look at the five vital organs in more detail.


The brain is the body’s control center. It forms the core of the central nervous system by creating, sending, and processing nerve impulses, thoughts, emotions, physical sensations, and more.

The skull encloses the brain, protecting it from injury.

Neurologists are doctors who study the nervous system. Over time, they have identified numerous parts of the brain, including systems within the brain that function similarly to independent organs.

The brain is made up of three main subparts: the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brainstem. Within these areas, there are several key components of the brain that, together with the spinal cord, comprise the central nervous system.

The major areas of the central nervous system include:

  • The medulla: This is the lowest part of the brainstem. It helps control heart and lung function.
  • The pons: Located above the medulla in the brainstem, this area helps control eye and facial movement.
  • The spinal cord: Extended from the base of the brain and down the center of the back, the spinal cord helps with many automatic functions, such as reflexes. It also sends messages to and from the brain.
  • The parietal lobe: Situated in the middle of the brain, the parietal lobe supports the identification of objects and spatial reasoning. It also plays a role in interpreting pain and touch signals.
  • The frontal lobe: The frontal lobe, which is located in the front of the head, is the largest section of the brain. It plays a role in many conscious functions, including personality and movement. It also helps the brain interpret smells.
  • The occipital lobes: Positioned near the back of the brain, the occipital lobe primarily interprets vision signals.
  • The temporal lobes: Located on either side of the brain, the temporal lobes play a role in numerous functions, including speech, scent recognition, and short-term memory.

The brain’s two halves are called the right and left hemispheres. The corpus callosum connects these two hemispheres.


The heart is the most important organ of the circulatory system, which helps deliver blood to the body. It works with the lungs to add oxygen to blood and pump this freshly oxygenated blood through the blood vessels and around the body.

The heart also has an electrical system within. Electrical impulses within the heart help ensure that it beats with a consistent rhythm and proper rate.

The heart rate increases when the body needs more blood, such as during intense exercise. It decreases during times of rest.

The heart has four chambers. The two upper chambers are called atria, and the two lower chambers are called ventricles.

Blood flows into the right atrium from the veins of the heart and body (except the lungs), then it flows into the right ventricle. From there, it flows into the pulmonary artery, which has branches that reach the lungs. The lungs then oxygenate the blood.

This oxygenated blood travels from the lungs, through pulmonary veins that lead back and join together, to the left atrium, and then through the left ventricle. From there, the heart pumps the blood through an artery that branches to distribute blood to itself and other body parts (except the lungs).

The heart has four valves that ensure that blood flows in the right direction. The heart valves are:

  • the tricuspid valve
  • the pulmonary valve
  • the mitral valve
  • the aortic valve

Learn more about the heart here.


The lungs work with the heart to oxygenate blood. They do this by filtering the air a person breathes, then removing excess carbon dioxide in exchange for oxygen.

Several parts of the lungs help the body take in air, filter it, and then oxygenate the blood. These are:

  • The left and right bronchi: The trachea splits into these tubes, which extend into the lungs and have branches. These smaller bronchi split into even smaller tubes called bronchioles.
  • The alveoli: The alveoli are tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles. They work like balloons, expanding when a person inhales and contracting when they exhale.
  • The blood vessels: There are numerous blood vessels in the lungs for carrying blood to and from the heart.

With extensive medical care, a person can live without one lung, but they cannot survive with no lungs.

The diaphragm, which is a thick band of muscle directly under the lungs, helps the lungs expand and contract when a person breathes.

Learn more about the lungs here.


The liver is the most important organ of the metabolic system. It helps convert nutrients into usable substances, detoxifies certain substances, and filters blood coming from the digestive tract through a vein before it joins venous blood flow from other parts of the body. Oxygenated blood reaches the liver via an artery.

The majority of liver mass is in the upper right side of the abdomen, just under the rib cage.

The liver plays many roles in digestion and filtering the blood, including:

  • producing bile
  • helping the body filter out toxic substances, including alcohol, drugs, and harmful metabolites
  • regulating blood levels of various important chemicals, including amino acids
  • making cholesterol
  • removing some bacteria from the blood
  • making some immune factors
  • clearing bilirubin from the blood
  • regulating the process of blood clotting, so that a person does not bleed too much and does not develop dangerous blood clots

The liver partners with the gallbladder to deliver bile to the small intestine. The liver pours bile into the gallbladder, which then stores and later releases the bile when the body needs it to help with digestion.

A person can live without portions of their liver, but the liver itself is vital for life.

Learn more about the liver here.


The kidneys are a pair of bean shaped organs, and each is about the size of a fist. They are located on either side of the back, protected inside of the lower part of the rib cage. They help filter blood and remove waste from the body.

Blood flows from the renal artery into the kidneys. Each kidney contains about a million tiny units for filtration known as nephrons. They help filter waste to the urine and then return the filtered blood to the body through the renal vein.

The kidneys also produce urine when they remove waste from the blood. Urine flows out of the kidneys through the ureters, then down to the urinary bladder.

A person can live with just one kidney. When a person is experiencing severe kidney failure, dialysis can filter the blood until they get a kidney transplant or their kidney recovers some function. Some people need to undergo hemodialysis long term.

Learn more about the kidneys here.

Non-vital organs are those that a person can survive without. However, this does not mean that conditions affecting these organs are never life threatening or dangerous. Many infections and cancers in non-vital organs are life threatening, especially without prompt treatment.

Injuries to non-vital organs may also affect vital organs, such as when a gallstone undermines liver function.

The sections below will outline the body’s non-vital organs in more detail.


Small and pear shaped, the gallbladder sits in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, just under the liver. It contains cholesterol, bile salts, bile, and bilirubin.

In a healthy person, the liver releases bile into the gallbladder, which the gallbladder stores and then releases to travel down the common bile duct into the small intestine to aid digestion.

However, some people develop gallstones that block the gallbladder or biliary tree, causing intense pain and interfering with digestion. Also, this can sometimes interfere with liver or pancreas function.

Learn about some potential gallbladder issues here.


Located in the upper left portion of the abdomen, the pancreas has two important roles: It functions as both an exocrine gland and an endocrine gland.

As an exocrine gland, the pancreas produces enzymes a person needs to help digest their food and convert it into energy. Those enzymes include amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin.

In its role as an endocrine gland, the pancreas also produces and releases insulin, which helps the body remove glucose from the blood and convert it into energy.

Problems with insulin can lead to a dangerously high level of blood glucose and the onset of diabetes.

The pancreas also produces and releases glucagon, which raises blood glucose levels.

The main pancreatic duct connects to the common bile duct, which flows from the liver and gallbladder. Therefore, problems within the biliary tree, liver, or gallbladder may also affect the pancreas.

Learn more about the pancreas here.


The stomach is a J shaped organ near the top of the abdomen.

Food begins its journey to the stomach soon after a person swallows. The food moves down from the throat and into the esophagus. The stomach is located at the end of the esophagus.

The muscles of the stomach help it break down and digest food. Within its lumen lining, certain regions of the stomach also produce enzymes that help digest food. The enzyme pepsin, for example, breaks down proteins so that they can become amino acids.

The stomach also helps store chyme until it moves to the intestines. Chyme refers to food that has mixed with stomach secretions.

Anatomists usually divide the stomach into five subparts. These are:

  • The cardia: Located just beneath the esophagus, this portion of the stomach includes the cardiac sphincter. The sphincter prevents food from flowing back up the esophagus or into the mouth.
  • The fundus: This is situated to the left of the cardia and underneath the diaphragm.
  • The body: Food begins breaking down in the body, which is also the largest part of the stomach.
  • The antrum: This is the lower part of the stomach. It contains partially digested food before it flows to the small intestine.
  • The pylorus: This portion of the stomach connects to the small intestine. It includes a muscle called the pyloric sphincter, which controls when and how much stomach content flows into the small intestine.


The intestines are a group of tubes that help filter out waste, absorb water and certain electrolytes, and digest food.

Partially digested food first travels through the small intestine, which comprises three parts: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Most digestion and absorption of food happens here.

Food then becomes feces as it travels within and through the large intestine. This begins with the cecum, extends to the rest of colon, and ends with the rectum. The rectum is the last stop for feces before expulsion occurs from the anus.

Doctors usually list dozens of organs, though the definition of an organ varies from expert to expert. Most organs play a role in organ systems, which work together to perform specific functions.

The sections below will outline the body’s organ systems in more detail.

Nervous system

The brain and spinal cord form the central nervous system, which works to process and send nerve signals, interpret information, and produce conscious thought.

The portion of nervous system that communicates with the central nervous system is called the peripheral nervous system. Overall, the peripheral and central nervous systems also include an extensive network of neurons. Located throughout the body, these fibrous bundles send information about sensation, temperature, and pain.

The nervous system helps the body regulate every function, including every other organ system.

For instance, the stomach releases the hormone ghrelin, which signals to the brain that it is time to eat. This causes feelings of hunger and encourages a person to eat, which leads to the beginning of the process of digestion.

The nervous system integrates with virtually every other part of the body. For example, nerve fibers in the hand tell the brain when there is an injury in that area.

Meanwhile, nerves in the skin relay information about external temperature. This may cause the brain to initiate involuntary responses that control body temperature, such as sweating or shivering.

Also, other nerves interact with muscle, which helps coordinate movement.

Learn more about the central nervous system here.

Reproductive system

The reproductive system includes the organs that enable a person to reproduce and experience sexual pleasure. In females, the reproductive system also supports the growth of a fetus.

The reproductive system works closely with other organs and organ systems. For example, the hypothalamus and pituitary gland help regulate the production and release of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone.

The male reproductive system organs include:

  • the testes
  • the epididymis
  • the vas deferens
  • the ejaculatory ducts
  • the prostate gland
  • the seminal vesicles
  • the penis
  • the bulbourethral glands

The female reproductive system organs include:

  • the mammary glands in the breasts
  • the ovaries
  • the fallopian tubes
  • the uterus
  • the vagina
  • the vulva
  • the clitoris
  • a system of various glands, such as the Bartholin glands, which help lubricate the vagina
  • the cervix


The skin is the body’s largest organ. It is part of the integumentary system, which includes skin, hair, nails, and fat.

The integumentary system helps regulate body temperature, protect the body from dangerous pathogens, make vitamin D from sunlight, and provide sensory input.

The skin comprises three layers:

  • The epidermis: This is the outer layer of skin. It contains three types of cells. Squamous cells are the outer layer of skin, which the body constantly sheds. Basal cells are the next layer, located under the squamous cells. Melanocytes produce melanin, which is skin pigment. The more melanin the melanocytes produce, the darker a person’s skin is.
  • The dermis: This is the middle layer of skin, located under the epidermis. It contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, nerves, sebaceous glands, and fibroblasts. A flexible protein called collagen holds the dermis together.
  • The subcutaneous fat layer: This is the deepest layer of the skin. It helps keep the body warm and reduces the risk of injury by absorbing heavy blows.

Muscular system

The muscular system includes a vast network of muscles. There are three types of muscles:

  • Skeletal muscles: These are voluntary muscles, which means that a person can decide when to move them. The biceps and triceps are examples of skeletal muscles.
  • Cardiac muscles: These are involuntary muscles that help the heart pump blood.
  • Smooth muscles: These are also involuntary muscles. Smooth muscles line the bladder, intestines, and stomach.

Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a network of glands throughout the body. These glands release important chemicals called hormones, which help regulate the function of virtually every organ and organ system in the body.

For example, progesterone helps regulate the menstrual cycle and plays an important role in sustaining a pregnancy.

The endocrine system includes several major glands, including:

  • the pancreas
  • the thyroid
  • the adrenal glands
  • the pituitary
  • the parathyroid
  • the thyroid
  • the hypothalamus
  • the pineal gland
  • the ovaries
  • the testes

Immune system

The immune system helps the body prevent infections and fights them off when they do occur.

Many organs play a role in the immune system. For example, the skin prevents dangerous pathogens from entering the body, and the salivary glands release saliva that can help break down some dangerous sources of infection in food.

The lymphatic system plays a key role in the immune system by releasing lymphocytes that fight disease. There are many lymph nodes throughout the body. Some people notice that their lymph nodes enlarge when they get sick.

Digestive system

The digestive system is the group of organs that digest food, as well as the various structures within that release substances to aid digestion and absorption.

It includes:

  • the mouth
  • the esophagus
  • the salivary glands
  • the gallbladder
  • the liver
  • the pancreas
  • the stomach
  • the small and large intestines
  • the appendix
  • the rectum
  • the anus

Circulatory system

The circulatory system includes the many blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body. It includes veins, arteries, capillaries, venules, and arterioles.

The lymphatic system is also part of the circulatory system. It helps maintain the body’s balance of fluid by collecting excess fluid and other particles from the blood. Lymph nodes are present within this system.

Each organ in the body is its own complex system, made up of numerous smaller parts. Many organs also depend on several other body parts. For example, to properly breathe, the lungs must work with the nose, mouth, throat, windpipe, and sinuses.

This complexity of each organ and organ system means that some doctors choose to specialize in a single organ or organ system. For example, cardiologists treat heart issues, while pulmonologists study the lungs.

Anyone who thinks that they have a problem with one of their organs or organ systems should see a specialist or ask a healthcare provider for a referral.

Torso and Internal Organs of the Visible Human

Based on the male Visible Human, we created a virtual body model of the human torso and internal organs of unprecedented detail and realism. These images created with the VOXEL-MAN 3D visualization system give an impression on the quality and functionality of the model.

In this view of the Inner Organs model, the muscles of the human torso were unveiled by removing the outer layers of the body.

The Inner Organs model consists of 650 three-dimensional anatomical objects. The larger objects (liver, kidneys, etc.) are represented as voxel objects and visualized by 3D rendering. The smaller ones like blood vessels and nerves are modeled as surface objects.

The torso anatomy model may be dissected in any direction with any number of cuts. The pictures of this series were computed with an illumination by four light sources and shadow casting.

Different viewing modes such as anatomy and X-ray imaging may be arbitrarily combined and viewed from any direction. The X-ray image may be interrogated at any point as to which objects contribute to it.

A complete X-ray view of the Inner Organs model. Any organ may be highlighted for the assessment of its manifestation in an X-ray image. Here the small intestine is highlighted in violet, the large intestine in yellow.

View of the Inner Organs model with most of the digestive system removed.

View of the Inner Organs model together with one of the famous anatomy drawings by Leonardo da Vinci (around 1500). It illustrates the development of anatomical knowledge representations from drawings to virtual body models.

View of the Inner Organs model with a transverse cut unveiling the major blood vessels and nerves of the lower abdomen. At any place, the cross-sectional anatomy and its radiological manifestation in Computer Tomography (CT) may be explored.


The presented virtual body model provides the basis for the interactive anatomical and radiological atlas VOXEL-MAN 3D Navigator: Inner Organs.

The underlying 3D model of the Segmented Inner Organs is available for research purposes.


  1. Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Andreas Pommert, Martin Riemer, Rainer Schubert, Thomas Schiemann, Ulf Tiede, Udo Schumacher: A realistic model of human structure from the Visible Human data. Methods of Information in Medicine 40, 2 (2001), 83-89.
  2. Andreas Pommert, Karl Heinz Höhne, Bernhard Pflesser, Ernst Richter, Martin Riemer, Thomas Schiemann, Rainer Schubert, Udo Schumacher, Ulf Tiede: Creating a high-resolution spatial/symbolic model of the inner organs based on the Visible Human. Medical Image Analysis 5, 3 (2001), 221-228.

Back to the Visible Human

Addressing the male standard in human anatomy texts

By Erinn Aspinall

Female skeleton model at the Bio-Medical Library.

We just purchased our first female skeleton model at the Bio-Medical Library. This purchase might seem a long time coming — that in 2018 our anatomy collections should already have broad representation.

But the story of our first female skeleton is a complex one that can be traced back as early as the 1500s and continues today in contemporary anatomy texts and teaching tools.

The ‘male standard’

A long history of research has shown that medical education texts typically default to the male standard — with males represented in case studies and anatomical drawings, and depictions of females mostly limited to examples of reproductive anatomy.

“It was surprisingly hard to find a female skeleton model,” said Collections Coordinator Nicole Theis-Mahon.  She explained that the source she used for purchasing a female skeleton model offered a pelvis, a pelvis with female genital organs or pelvic floor muscles, or a childbirth demonstration model.

“Not only were the female models disembodied, but the few full skeletons were also more expensive than their male counterparts,” added Theis-Mahon. This means that information available to libraries, educators, and students can be limited. It means that the learning that takes place through anatomical comparisons is lost.

Trend dates back to the 1500s

Illustration of female reproductive system from De Humani Corporis Fabrica by Andreus Vesalius (1543).

The male standard in anatomy is not new. Evidence of this approach can be traced back to the times of Andreus Vesalius — who is known as the founder of modern human anatomy.

In his landmark work De humani corporis fabrica (1543), Vesalius offered an imagined version of the female reproductive system that highlighted its homologies with the male reproductive organ, rather than displaying what is today understood as an entirely different set of organs.

Cultural origins

“In addition to theoretical rationales, the limited depiction of the female form in early anatomical texts was also cultural,” says Emily Beck, Assistant Curator of the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine.

“Dissections for research and learning happened much less frequently in the early modern period than they do today,” said Beck. “The cadavers used in early dissection were condemned criminals. Women were infrequently represented this population, so they were dissected less often.”

Male and female lymph node dissection from Surgical Anatomy by Joseph Maclise (1851).

Moving forward to 1851, we are able to share the one example from our Wangensteen Historical Library that depicts a side by side anatomical comparison of a male and female that is not tied to reproductive anatomy.

This example comes from Joseph Maclise’s Surgical anatomy (1851) and illustrates the lymphatic system. Although there is a direct comparison made between the male and female anatomy, it is noteworthy that the male subject’s arm obscures the female subject’s face, anonymizing her.

The ‘hidden curriculum’ in contemporary anatomy texts

A 2017 study by Parker et al. on the visual analysis of gender bias in contemporary anatomy texts reflects on previous research studies from 1986 to 1998, and completes a present-day analysis of anatomy texts that are currently used in health professional curricula.

The researchers found that the representation of the human form in anatomy textbooks remains predominantly male, except within the sections about reproductive anatomy. Moreover, the researchers found that in comparison to studies conducted over two decades ago, the representation of females in anatomy textbooks has only improved by four percentage points.

They found that underrepresentation within anatomy texts was also evident across a broader representation of sex (male, female, intersex), ethnicity, age, body type, and health status — with the white, young, healthy, muscular male set as the standard model.

Morgan et al. (2014) refer to the male standard in anatomy textbooks as a “hidden curriculum” as it “implies outcomes that are learned, but are not intended.” And “includes beliefs, values, and norms taken from the classroom experience and applied beyond the classroom.”

Impact of the male standard

Research shows that gender bias continues in the practice of medicine — as gender stereotypes have impacted diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients. So, it’s important that the students who will become our future health providers get a broader understanding of human anatomy than what currently exists in textbooks. 

Sex-based differences in anatomy can affect patient outcomes and are critically important for future practitioners to learn. It is also vital for future health providers not to equate biological sex characteristics with gender identity.

“The majority of people with female bodies will have a female gender identity, however their gender identity does not always match their anatomical bodies or secondary sex characteristics,” said Eli Coleman, Director of the U of M Program in Human Sexuality. “There is a diversity of gender identities and gender role expressions that are determined by other complex factors.”

Addressing gender stereotypes

Our University Libraries provides information and tools that support students and educators. But what happens when the information we would like to share simply does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible?  

For a start, we can buy a female skeleton model for our students.  

We can also supplement textbooks with other student learning experiences.  

The University’s Program in Human Anatomy ensures that students are able to learn equally about male and female anatomy.  

“Our anatomy students have the opportunity to learn from donors through our Anatomy Bequest Program,” said Tony Weinhaus, Ph.D., Program Co-Director.  

“Males and females have equal representation in the program,” adds Weinhaus.  “It is through this experience that anatomy students can develop a representative and holistic understanding of the human form that mirrors what they will experience when they become practitioners.”  

And we can use the limitations of available information as an opportunity to start a conversation.

“When I work with the gross anatomy students in the Medical School, I share historical images from Veslius and Maclise to help students begin to learn that active recognition of gender bias should be part of their daily routine as healthcare practitioners,” said Beck.

“Developing this mindset reinforces the practice of critical evaluation that can help reduce the impact of the gender bias that is so prevalent across medicine.”

Anatomy of the whole human body (male cadaver)

Images from the National Library of Medicine’s Visible Human Project®


This module presents the anatomy of the whole human body based on cross-sectional photographs of a male cadaver. 1300 anatomical structures have been labeled on 463 photographs of axial cross-sections. This atlas is based on the Visible Human Project ran by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) under the direction of Michael J. Ackerman.


Photographs of the male cadaver

The male cadaver is from Joseph Paul Jernigan, a 38-year-old Texas murderer who was executed by lethal injection on August 5, 1993.
The male cadaver was encased and frozen in a mixture of gelatin and water in order to stabilize the specimen for cutting. The specimen was then “cut” in the axial plane at 1 millimeter intervals. Each of the resulting 1,871 “slices” was photographed in both analogue and digital, yielding 15 gigabytes of data.

Anatomy of the whole human body (male cadaver) : Brain


To provide a web-based application, we reduced the number of slices (463) and the images resolution (640X368 pixels). We also removed the frozen water around the body.
Furthermore, we chose to redirect the slices by rotation and horizontal symmetry, in order to give an axis similar to a CT-scan (and not the standard anatomical axis, which reverses the right and left sides). Original pictures show the body in procubitus with a cranial view. The images presented in this module are therefore “false” because we now have to imagine the patient on decubitus, with a caudal view, which does not match the original cut of the body.


Position and abnormalities of this male human body 

Freezing caused the man’s brain to become slightly swollen, and his inner ear ossicles were lost during preparation of the slices.


Visible Human Project: Head , Face


Small blood vessels were collapsed by the freezing process.
Tendons are difficult to cut cleanly, and they occasionally smear across the slice surfaces.
The male has only one testicle, is missing his appendix, and has tissue deterioration at the lethal injection site. Also visible are tissue damage to the dorsum of each forearm from the formalin injection and damage to the right sartorius and femoral vessels from opening the right femoral vein for drainage. The male was also not “cut” while in anatomical position, so the cuts through his arms are oblique.


Visible Human Project (male cadaver): Neck


Visible Human Project: Thorax, Lungs, Heart


Visible Human Project; Abdomen, Liver, Spleen, Pancreas, Alimentary system


Abdominopelvic cavity : Urinary system (Urinary bladder, Ureter), Male genital system


Anatomy of the whole human body: display anatomical labels

The “anatomical” menu displays 20 types of labels which correspond to the 16 chapters of Terminologia Anatomica (we divided the cardiovascular system into heart, arteries and veins, and the nervous system into central nervous system, peripheral and autonomic):

  • General Anatomy
  • Bones; Skeletal system
  • Joints; Articular system
  • Muscles; Muscular system
  • Alimentary system
  • Respiratory system
  • Thoracic cavity; Thorax
  • Urinary system
  • Male genital system
  • Abdominopelvic cavity
  • Endocrine glands
  • Heart
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Lymphoid system
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sense organs
  • Integumentary system


Cross-sectional anatomy-thigh: Muscles, Nerves


The Visible Human Project is a fantastic tool that allows you to view almost all anatomical structures of the body. For didactic purposes and practice, we labeled one tenth of the possible structures to not overload the module. We deliberately set main names of bones, and summarily labeled the brain, almost all muscles of the body are listed.
The anatomical labels of the Visible Human Project are available in Latin (Terminologia Anatomica), French, English, Spanish, German, Portuguese, Russian, Chinese, Italian, Korean and Japanese.
The feature “Quick access” takes the user to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, thighs, legs or feet in one click.

Atlas of human anatomy : Visible Human Project (Leg)



90,000 Lesson 14. the human body. sense organs – The world around us – Grade 3

The world around us, grade 3

Lesson 14. The human body. Sense organs.

List of questions considered in the lesson:

  1. External and internal structure of the human body.
  2. Human body organ systems.
  3. Human senses.
  4. Hygiene.

Glossary on the topic:

Anatomy – the science of the structure of organisms.

Physiology – is the science of the vital activity of an organism, its cells, organs, and functional systems.

Hygiene – a branch of medicine that studies the conditions for maintaining health, as well as a system of actions, measures aimed at maintaining cleanliness and health.

Organism is a living whole possessing a set of properties that distinguish it from inanimate matter.

Organ is a part of the body that has a specific structure and special purpose.

System – a certain order in the arrangement and connection of actions.


Organism; organ; system; feeling; human; brain; health; hygiene.

Basic and additional literature on the topic of the lesson :

Compulsory literature:

  1. The world around. Workbook. Grade 3: textbook. manual for general education. organizations. At 2 pm / A. A. Pleshakov. – M .: Education, 2017.- S. 71-74.

Further reading:

  1. The world around us. Tests (to the textbook of A.A. Pleshakov) Grade 3: textbook. manual for general education. organizations / A.A. Pleshakov, N.N. Gara, Z.D. Nazarova. – M .: Education, 2017.

Open electronic resources:

Theoretical material for independent study

The human body is a system of organs interconnected and forming a single whole.

The structure of the human body is studied by the science of human anatomy, and the work of its organs is studied by human physiology.

The human body has an external and internal structure. The external structure of a person includes: head, neck, torso, arms – upper limbs, legs – lower limbs.

The human body inside consists of organs: lungs, heart, liver, stomach, intestines, brain, spinal cord, nerves.

Each organ has a certain structure and does its job.All organs of a healthy person act in a coordinated manner in the body. Organs performing common work form organ systems.

You see beautiful nature, people, objects around you. You move, write, read, remember, imagine something, solve tasks. It seems that all this happens as if by itself. But this is not the case. All your actions are controlled by the brain – the most important organ of the body. The brain is the main command post of the body. It is in the head.

The nervous system controls the activity of the whole organism. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. From the brain and spinal cord to all organs, there are nerves that look like white cords and threads. Through them, various signals are sent to the brain.

Take a deep breath in and out. You feel your ribcage rise – the lungs are working. They look like two sponges. When we breathe in, they expand, and when we breathe out, they contract.The respiratory system includes: the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.

And now let’s listen to our heart. To do this, put your hand on the left side of your chest. The heart is about the size of a fist. It is a continuous motor that drives blood into the vessels and makes the blood run throughout the body. The heart and blood vessels form the circulatory system.

Human blood is systematically enriched through nutrition. Our body needs specially processed food for it to be absorbed into the bloodstream.This work is carried out by the organs of our “internal kitchen”. First, as we know, food enters the mouth, where it is partially chewed. Then, through the pharynx and esophagus, food enters the stomach. It is located in the upper abdomen (under the ribs) on the left side. Only half of the food is processed in the stomach. Then, food enters the intestines. It is almost 8 meters long and is located in a winding shape, like a labyrinth.

On the right side of the stomach, in the upper abdomen, is the liver.It produces bile, which helps digest food. The liver also cleans the blood of toxins. And so, the digestive system includes: the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, intestines.

In addition to internal organs, a person also has sense organs. There are five of them. With their help, a person receives information about the world around him.

The eyes are the organ of vision. They are protected for centuries. The eyes can move in different directions due to the fact that they have muscles. There is a pupil in the center of our eye – this is a black circle that receives light.Behind it are the lens, retina and nerves. With the help of sight, a person can distinguish the colors of objects, their shape, size, distance, movement, etc. Thanks to vision, we can see the beauty of nature, read books, watch TV. You need to protect your eyesight! Do not tire your eyes, let them rest often!

Ears are the organ of hearing. With the help of hearing, people can hear each other,

sounds of nature, music. Hearing is the body’s ability to perceive sound waves.Sounds make the eardrum vibrate. This causes the ossicles to vibrate. Nerves transmit a signal to the brain, and processing takes place there. From above, we can only see the outer part of the ear – the auricle and the eardrum. And inside the head there is also a middle ear and an inner ear. Hearing must be protected! Strong noise, harsh sounds, loud music spoil hearing, badly affect the entire body. You should regularly wash your ears with soap and clean with a tightly rolled cotton swab. Do not pick your ears with sharp objects, as you can damage the eardrum and remain deaf.

The nose is the organ of smell. Smell is a person’s ability to smell. There are nerve endings on the back of the nose that respond to odors when air is inhaled, and communicate this to the brain. The sense of smell increases information about the world around us. Some smells are pleasant to us, others warn against danger (smell of gas, smoke). When a person has a runny nose, he has difficulty distinguishing between smells and tastes of food. People who smoke have a deteriorating sense of smell. To maintain a good sense of smell, you need to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Tongue is the organ of taste. The human tongue is covered with many tiny nipples. They contain the endings of the nerves that can sense what has got into your mouth, sour or sweet, salty or bitter, tasty or tasteless. The tip of the tongue is most sensitive to sweet and salty foods. The edges of the tongue feel sour best, and its base is bitter. Food that is too hot burns the tongue, and we hardly taste the food. The organ of taste must be protected!

Skin is the organ of touch.The skin is very sensitive because, under its surface, there are nerve endings that transmit information to the brain. Therefore, with our skin we can feel a lot: pain, cold, warmth, softness, hardness, smoothness, roughness, and more. The most sensitive in humans are the pads of the fingers, since a large number of nerves are concentrated in them. The skin is very firm and elastic. It covers the entire human body and protects it. Try not to injure the skin, avoid burns and frostbite. Practice good hygiene.

Hygiene is the science of maintaining and promoting health. For harmonious development, a person still needs to control the correspondence of his body weight to height. To do this, you need:

1. Measure your height.

2. Weigh in on the scales.

3. Divide the number of kg of weight by the number of dm of height.

If the result is from 3 to 4, then you weigh as much as you need. If less than 3 – weigh a little. If more than 4 is also not good, you have begun to accumulate excess, unnecessary weight.In such cases, you need to run more, play sports, work physically.

To be happy, you must first of all be healthy. In maintaining your health, you will be helped by: personal hygiene, daily routine, hardening.

Analysis of a typical training task

        1. Underline the names of organs that relate to the human sensory organs:

eyes; a heart; liver; ears; nose; brain; leather; stomach; language; intestines.

Correct answer: eyes; ears; nose; leather; language.

Analysis of a typical test task

        1. Guess the riddles.

Day and night it knocks,

Always orders blood to run.

It will be bad if suddenly

This knocking stops.


We have a miracle organ.

It brings gas to the cells.

He must be respected,

You can’t breathe without him.


Hanging a small bag –

Now full, now empty.

Trailers are running into it,

Food and liquids are being transported.

Work is in full swing all day,

We are not too lazy to help him.

Prepares food, feeds us,

And what is not needed – he kicks out.


He remembers everything,

Look, listen, speak,

It helps to see,

Manages the work of our entire organism.


If a person is poisoned

And stale food,

Poisons in the body –

I will always neutralize it.


90,000 Two useful online resources on anatomy – Didactor

Anyone interested in studying anatomy, I think two well-designed projects that effectively use such important tools as 3D graphics and interactivity will be useful.

One of them is Healthline Body Maps , which is an interactive visual search tool. This project is created on the site Healthline , which specializes in health care. The virtual anatomical atlas allows users to explore the human body in 3-D.

With the help of accessible navigation, users can see several layers of human anatomy, the work of vital systems and organs of the body down to their smallest parts, and understand in detail how the human body works.

Using detailed 3-D models of body parts, including muscles, veins, bones and other organs, Healthline Body Maps offers a new way to visualize and manage your health.

For example, you can trace how a coronary artery delivers blood to the heart and how plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries lead to heart disease.

The program allows you to find the exact location of a stretched muscle or broken bones, and find information on how to avoid injury.You can look at a cross-section of the human brain and find out which areas control certain emotions and body functions.

Google labs developed a detailed 3D human body model Google Body . Recently, the project is called Zygote body . The link to it is the same. You can browse the model layer by layer, zoom in and quickly switch to details of interest.

To identify a part of the body, find a specific muscle, bone or organ, just press the mouse button.

Zygote Body allows you to view the model in layers, zoom and quickly switch to the details of interest. To identify a part of the body, to find a specific muscle, bone or organ, just press the mouse button.

A 3-dimensional human model can be viewed online – rotate, zoom, examine the structure of muscles, skeleton, internal systems and organs.

This is a complete interactive anatomical atlas. It is enough to enter in the field Search the name of an organ in English to find the desired part of the body.

I would like to warn you that Zygote Body only works in the browser GoogleChrome .

I think both resources can be useful not only for teachers and schoolchildren, but also for teachers and students of medical educational institutions.

90,000 Revolution in anatomy. All new organs are found in the human body



    Revolution in anatomy. All new organs are found in the human body

    Revolution in anatomy.More and more organs are found in the human body

    Recently, scientists have discovered a new organ in animals and humans – with its help we perceive pain. This is not the first discovery in human anatomy in recent years … RIA Novosti, 20.08.2019

    2019-08-20T08: 00

    2019-08-20T08: 00

    2019-08-20T08: 00

    discoveries – RIA Science





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    MOSCOW, 20 Aug – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Yenikeeva Recently, scientists have discovered a new organ in animals and humans – with its help we perceive pain. This is not the first discovery in human anatomy in recent years. The most powerful microscopes help to see structures in the body that, due to their very small size, no one suspected. Sudden Find Last year, doctors from the Mount Sinai Medical Complex (USA) examined a patient with suspected cancer.During endoscopy, when the internal organs are looked at through the mouth with an endoscope, experts noticed an unusual structure in the tissues of the bile ducts. It was a system of cavities in connective tissue that formed a kind of network. Samples were taken for study. It was then that it turned out that during the standard histological examination, the new microorgan is not visible, and the special solutions used during the procedure are to blame. The analysis showed that the system of cavities is part of the connective tissue of the submucosa that connects the mucous and muscular membranes.These cavities are lined from the inside with cells similar to fibroblasts – connective tissue cells. The cavities themselves, surrounded by bundles of collagen, are filled with fluid and open into the lymph nodes. Scientists later found similar structures in other tissues – in the submucosal layers of the entire gastrointestinal tract, bladder and soft tissues around the bronchi and arteries. In other words, where the body is under constant compression. That is why the researchers suggested that the main function of the discovered cavities is purely mechanical.They can also play a role in the formation of edema and abnormal proliferation of connective tissue (fibrosis). Defense System Half a year later, scientists from the Garvan Institute for Medical Research (Australia) reported about a previously unknown microorgan. Studying samples of lymph nodes taken from animals and humans, specialists have identified thin, flat structures in them, which turned out to be part of the immune system. These structures consisted mainly of immune cells – B-lymphocytes, capable of converting into a type of T-cells that memorize the immune response to infection.The organ was named “subcapsular proliferative focus”. It is formed in the upper part of the lymph nodes when pathogenic bacteria re-enter the body. Memory cells in it actively divide and turn into short-lived plasma, producing antibodies, which, in turn, neutralize pathogens. The main function of the organ is to form a very rapid immune response, otherwise the person may die. It is known that bacteria are capable of doubling every 20-30 minutes. That is why, by the way, vaccination is important.It trains the immune system so that when it meets the pathogen again, the reaction is instant. Special organ for pain For a long time it was believed that the skin has special nerve endings that respond to external stimuli and send a signal of pain directly to the brain. Recently it was established that animals (and, quite possibly, humans) have a special organ responsible for the perception of pain. It is located under the outer layer of the skin – the epidermis – and consists of closely intertwined neurons and accessory glial (Schwann) cells.The latter usually play the role of electrical tape, wrapping themselves around the processes of the neuron. But in this case, a complexly organized chain of Schwann cell processes is adjacent to the so-called nociceptive, that is, naked, neurons. These groups of nerve and glial cells are separated from the rest of the tissue by fibers of the intercellular substance and react to mechanical influences – cuts, pressure, burning. That is, they function as a sensory organ. Scientists at the Karolinska Institute (Sweden) have demonstrated the work of the neuroglial organ – this is what they called the new structure – in mice.A gene was inserted into rodent cells that provided the reaction of Schwann cells to light waves of a certain length. When the light hit the paws, the animals pulled them back and behaved as if they felt pain – they licked the limbs and shook them. When Schwann cells were blocked, mice became less sensitive – they did not react to sharp, cold and hot objects. Self-cleaning of the brain In the past few years, it has been possible to answer another important question: how the brain is cleared of metabolic by-products.It turned out that the dura mater contains lymphatic vessels that are part of the lymphatic system of the entire body. Small molecules of pollutants, such as the beta-amyloids associated with Alzheimer’s disease, enter and flush out of the brain with the lymph. Five volunteers, ages 28 to 53, saw the system work. People were injected with gadobutrol, a substance whose molecules are small enough to seep from the blood vessels into the lymph.At the same time, they could not overcome the blood-brain barrier and get to other parts of the brain. As a result, MRI scans showed an extensive network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph – a colorless fluid containing immune cells and metabolic products – from the brain to the cervical lymph nodes. There, but already through the blood vessels, white blood cells (leukocytes) enter. With their help, the lymph nodes start up the immune cells in a re-circulation. In this way, the body’s defense system knows if an organ is in danger.







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    discoveries – RIA Science, Moscow, Australia, USA

    MOSCOW, 20 Aug – RIA Novosti, Alfiya Enikeeva. Recently, scientists have discovered a new organ in animals and humans – with its help we perceive pain. This is not the first discovery in human anatomy in recent years. The most powerful microscopes help to discern structures in the body that, due to their very small size, no one suspected.

    Sudden find

    Last year, doctors from the Mount Sinai Medical Complex (USA) examined a patient with suspected cancer. During endoscopy, when the internal organs are looked at through the mouth with an endoscope, experts noticed an unusual structure in the tissues of the bile ducts.It was a system of cavities in the connective tissue, forming a kind of network.

    Took samples for study. It was then that it turned out that during a standard histological examination, a new microorgan is not visible, and the special solutions used during the procedure are to blame.

    The analysis showed that the system of cavities is a part of the connective tissue of the submucosal layer that connects the mucous and muscular membranes. These cavities are lined from the inside with cells similar to fibroblasts – connective tissue cells.The cavities themselves, surrounded by collagen bundles, are filled with fluid and open into the lymph nodes.

    Scientists later found similar structures in other tissues – in the submucosal layers of the entire gastrointestinal tract, bladder and soft tissues around the bronchi and arteries. In other words, where the body is under constant compression. That is why the researchers suggested that the main function of the discovered cavities is purely mechanical. They can also play a role in the formation of edema and abnormal proliferation of connective tissue (fibrosis).

    Protection system

    Half a year later, scientists from the Garvan Institute for Medical Research (Australia) reported about a previously unknown microorgan. Studying samples of lymph nodes taken from animals and humans, specialists have identified thin, flat structures in them, which turned out to be part of the immune system. These structures consisted mainly of immune cells – B-lymphocytes, capable of converting into a type of T-cells that memorize the immune response to infection.

    The organ was named “subcapsular proliferative focus”.It is formed in the upper part of the lymph nodes when pathogenic bacteria re-enter the body. Memory cells in it actively divide and turn into short-lived plasma cells that produce antibodies, which, in turn, neutralize pathogens.

    The main function of the organ is to form a very fast immune response, otherwise the person may die. It is known that bacteria are capable of doubling every 20-30 minutes. That is why, by the way, vaccination is important. She trains the immune system so that when a second encounter with the pathogen occurs, the reaction is instant.

    25 August 2018, 16:49 Science A new “microorgan” has been found in humans

    Special organ for pain

    For a long time it was believed that the skin has special nerve endings that respond to external stimuli and send a signal of pain directly to the brain. Recently it was established that animals (and, quite possibly, humans) have a special organ responsible for the perception of pain.

    It is located under the outer layer of the skin – the epidermis – and consists of closely intertwined neurons and auxiliary glial (Schwann) cells.The latter usually play the role of electrical tape, wrapping themselves around the processes of the neuron. But in this case, a complexly organized chain of Schwann cell processes is adjacent to the so-called nociceptive, that is, naked, neurons. These groups of nerve and glial cells are separated from the rest of the tissue by fibers of the intercellular substance and react to mechanical influences – cuts, pressure, burning. That is, they function as a sensory organ.

    1 August 2018, 11:13A gene was inserted into rodent cells that provided the reaction of Schwann cells to light waves of a certain length. When the light hit the paws, the animals pulled them back and behaved as if they felt pain – they licked the limbs and shook them. When the Schwann cells were blocked, the mice became less sensitive – they did not react to sharp, cold and hot objects.

    Self-cleaning of the brain

    In the past few years, it has been possible to answer another important question: how the brain is cleared of metabolic by-products.It turned out that the dura mater contains lymphatic vessels that are part of the lymphatic system of the entire body. Small molecules of pollutants – for example, beta-amyloids, associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease – enter them and, along with lymph, are excreted from the brain.

    Thanks to five volunteers aged 28 to 53, the whole world saw how this system works. People were injected with gadobutrol, a substance whose molecules are small enough to seep from the blood vessels into the lymph.At the same time, they could not overcome the blood-brain barrier and get to other parts of the brain. As a result, an extensive network of lymphatic vessels was seen on the MRI scans.

    Through them, lymph – a colorless liquid containing immune cells and metabolic products – is transported from the brain to the cervical lymph nodes. There, but already through the blood vessels, white blood cells (leukocytes) enter. With their help, the lymph nodes start up the immune cells in a re-circulation. In this way, the body’s defense system knows if an organ is in danger.

    July 3, 2017, 12:38 PM Scientists from Russia have discovered the side effects of a new type of cancer immunotherapy 90,000 The structure of the human body is a lesson. The world around us, grade 3.

    Our body, that is, a person, consists of separate parts, that is, organs. Each organ has its own structure and performs a certain job. For example, with the help of our eyes we see, and with the help of our lungs we breathe.

    Organs connected with each other and performing common work form system of organs .

    The stomach, intestines, liver are involved in the digestion of food and form the digestive system .

    The heart and blood vessels provide the movement of blood in the body and make up the circulatory system .

    Lungs, bronchi and other organs belong to the respiratory system . They provide the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.

    Human organs are connected with each other and work in concert.And the nervous system controls all organs . It consists of brain , spinal cord and nerves .

    Nerves are like wires. Through them, signals from other organs and the external environment come to the brain, and return signals go from the brain.

    The brain and spinal cord are the “commanders” of our body. They give commands to all parts of the body. Therefore, our body works like a clock, and all organs in it work harmoniously.

    The nervous system also carries out the connection of the organism with the external environment, and we are able to feel all changes in the surrounding world and react to them.

    The human body is studied by special sciences.

    Human Anatomy – the science of the structure of external and internal organs.

    Human physiology – the science of the work of organs and organ systems.

    Hygiene is the science of maintaining health.

    arrangement in pictures. Anatomy of body parts

    Has it ever seemed strange to you that you have lived for more than ten years, but you know absolutely nothing about your own body? Or that you were on an exam in human anatomy, but you were completely unprepared for it. In both cases, you need to make up for lost knowledge, and get to know the human organs better. Their location is best viewed in pictures – clarity is very important. Therefore, we have collected pictures for you, in which the location of human organs can be easily traced and signed with inscriptions.

    If you like games with human internal organs, be sure to try the Flash game Amateur Surgeon on our website.

    To enlarge any picture, click on it, and it will open in full size. This will help you read the fine print. So let’s start at the top and go down.

    Human organs: arrangement in pictures.


    The human brain is the most complex and least studied human organ. He manages all other bodies, coordinates their work.In fact, our consciousness is the brain. Despite the lack of knowledge, we still know the location of its main departments. This picture details the anatomy of the human brain.


    The larynx allows us to make sounds, speech, singing. The structure of this cunning organ is shown in the picture.

    Main organs, organs of the chest and abdomen

    This picture shows the location of 31 organs of the human body from the thyroid cartilage to the rectum. If you urgently need to see the location of any body in order to win an argument with a friend or get an exam, this picture will help.

    The picture shows the location of the larynx, thyroid gland, trachea, pulmonary veins and arteries, bronchi, heart and pulmonary lobes. Not so much, but very clear.

    A schematic arrangement of human internal organs from the trochea to the bladder is shown in this picture. Due to its small size, it loads quickly, saving you time to spy on the exam. But we hope that if you are studying to be a doctor, then you do not need the help of our materials.

    A picture with the location of the internal organs of a person, which also shows the system of blood vessels and veins. The organs are beautifully depicted from an artistic point of view, some of them are signed. We hope that among the signed ones there are those that you need.

    A picture that describes in detail the location of the organs of the human digestive system and the small pelvis. If you have a stomach ache, this picture will help you locate the source while the activated charcoal is active, or while you ease your digestive system into the comforts.

    Location of the pelvic organs

    If you need to know the location of the superior adrenal artery, bladder, psoas major muscle or any other abdominal organ, then this picture will help you. It describes in detail the location of all organs of a given cavity.

    Human genitourinary system: the location of organs in pictures

    Everything you wanted to know about the genitourinary system of a man or a woman is shown in this picture. Seminal vesicles, ovum, labia of all stripes and, of course, the urinary system in all its glory.Enjoy!

    Male reproductive system

    This picture shows a little more detail on the location of the male reproductive organs. Everything is written in the picture itself, comments are unnecessary.

    Female reproductive system

    We have saved the female reproductive system for dessert. The picture is taken from Zhurnalko.net. It tells in detail about the female genital organs.

    Know yourself. Harmony is achieved through self-knowledge.

    © Lifeo.ru

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    Human Anatomy – structure, parts, organs, systems and functions – Nature of the World

    If we consider the human body at the microscopic level, then the cell is the smallest functional unit of life. The average adult’s body is made up of approximately 30-40 trillion cells, and it is estimated that 242 billion new cells are produced every day.When a group of cells with similar functions come together, they form tissue.

    Tissues form organs, organ systems and, ultimately, the human body.

    Cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ system → Organism

    Let’s take a closer look at the anatomy of the human body.


    Diagram of the structure of the human skeleton / Wikimedia Commons

    The human body is capable of many movements from walking, bending and crawling to running, jumping and climbing.The skeleton is the skeleton that allows us to do all of these things. At birth, a person has up to 300 bones. However, with age, bones begin to grow together. In adulthood, the total number of bones is reduced to 206.

    The skeleton also protects certain vital organs such as the heart, lungs and liver. The bones are attached to each other by dense connective tissue called ligaments.

    The junction of bones is where two bones meet.They provide a wide range of motion such as rotation, abduction, adduction, extension, retraction, etc. Based on flexibility and mobility, bone joints are classified as movable (joints), sedentary, and immobile.


    Human muscle illustration

    Muscles are specialized tissues that help bones to move. They are attached to the skeleton with tendons. The movement of the limbs occurs due to the contraction and relaxation of the corresponding muscles present in this area.Joints contribute to bone flexibility, but bone cannot be flexed or stretched until muscle is engaged. In other words, the muscles attached to the bone pull it in the direction of movement.

    Most of the movements involve muscles working in pairs. For example, when we flex our arm, the muscles in that area contract, become shorter and stiffer, and pull the bones in the direction of travel. To relax (stretch), the muscles in the opposite direction must pull the bones towards them.

    Main parts of the human body

    • The main parts of the human body are the head, neck and four limbs (two arms and two legs) connected to the torso.
    • The skeleton, which consists of bones and cartilage, gives shape and structure to the body.
    • Internal parts of the human body, such as the lungs, heart and brain, are contained in the skeletal system and are located in various internal cavities of the body.
    • The spinal cord connects the brain to the rest of the body.

    Human body structure

    The human body has cavities in which various organ systems are located.

    • The skull is the space inside the skull that protects the brain and other parts of the central nervous system.
    • The lungs are protected in the pleural cavity.
    • The abdominal cavity contains the intestines, liver and spleen.

    People evolved separately from other animals, but since we have a common distant ancestor, the structure of our body is similar to other organisms, only with muscles and bones in different proportions.

    For example, we might assume that giraffes have more neck vertebrae than humans. No, although giraffes are incredibly tall, they also have seven cervical vertebrae.

    One of the most notable features of humans is the ability to use their hands, especially for dexterous tasks such as writing, opening a water bottle, driving, etc. This is a result of humans having ancestors who started walking on hind limbs, not all four.

    Most of our anatomical knowledge was obtained by dissecting deceased people, and for a long time this was the only way to obtain information about the structure of the human body.Today, technological innovation allows us to study human anatomy at the microscopic level.

    Even to this day, scientists are rediscovering new organs that were previously overlooked or were mistakenly identified as other tissues. In 2018, scientists discovered a new organ throughout the body called the interstitium, which sits just under the skin.

    Human organs and their functions

    Illustration of organs and systems of human organs. Image: https: //www.yaklass.ru

    The list of organs in the human body varies, as the standard definition of the term “organ” is still a matter of debate. However, to date, an estimated 79 organs have been identified. We also have organs that have “lost” their function throughout our evolution. Such organs are called vestigial.

    Several organs work together to form organ systems that specialize in performing a particular function or complex of functions.

    Of the 79 organs, 5 are critical to survival, and any damage to these organs can be fatal. These include the brain, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys.

    Cardiovascular system

    Human Circulation Diagram / Wikimedia Commons

    The cardiovascular system includes the heart and all blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins. There are two types of blood circulation, namely:

    • Systemic circulation
    • Pulmonary circulation

    In addition to these two, there is a third type of blood circulation called coronary (circulation of blood through the blood vessels of the myocardium).Since blood is a connective tissue in the body, it helps transport essential nutrients, oxygen, hormones and minerals to and from cells and byproducts of metabolism.

    Anatomically, the human heart is similar to the hearts of other vertebrates and, therefore, is a homologous organ.

    Digestive system

    Diagram of the human gastrointestinal tract / Wikimedia Commons

    The digestive system breaks down food and assimilates nutrients, which the body then uses to grow and repair cells.

    The main components of the digestive system include:

    • Mouth
    • Teeth
    • Tongue
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
    • Gastrointestinal tract
    • Small and large intestine
    • Rectum

    The digestion process begins with chewing (chewing food). The saliva then mixes with the food to form a bolus, a small, rounded mass that can be swallowed easily.Once swallowed, food travels up the esophagus and into the stomach. The stomach secretes acids and powerful enzymes that break down food and give it a pasty consistency.

    It then travels to the small intestine, where it is further broken down with the help of bile secreted by the liver and the powerful digestive enzymes of the pancreas. This is the stage of digestion in which nutrients from food are absorbed.

    The remaining substances are then transferred to the large intestine, where they are converted from liquid to solid as water is removed.The waste eventually ends up in the rectum for elimination from the body.

    Reproductive system

    Diagram of the female reproductive system / Wikimedia Commons
    1 – fallopian tube; 2 – fimbria of the fallopian tube; 3 – bladder; 4 – pubic bone; 5 – G-point and U-point; 6 – urethra; 7 – clitoris; 8 – bulb of the vestibule of the vagina; 9 – labia minora; 10 – large labia; 11 – ovary; 12 – sigmoid colon; 13 – uterus; 14 – posterior vaginal fornix; 15 – cervix; 16 – rectum; 17 – vagina; 18 – anus; 19 – Bartholin’s glands

    Diagram of the male reproductive system / Wikimedia Commons
    1 – bladder; 2 – pubic bone; 3 – penis; 4 – cavernous body; 5 – the head of the penis; 6 – foreskin; 7 – external opening of the urethra; 8 – colon; 9 – rectum; 10 – seminal vesicle; 11 – ejaculatory duct; 12 – prostate gland; 13 – bulbourethral glands; 14 – anus; 15 – vas deferens; 16 – epididymis; 17 – testicle; 18 – scrotum

    The human reproductive system is also known as the reproductive system contains internal and external organs that facilitate the reproduction process.Hormones, fluids, and pheromones are all connective components necessary for the functioning of the reproductive organs.

    The human reproductive system consists of male and female reproductive organs and structures. The growth and activity of these organs is regulated by hormones. The reproductive system is closely connected with other organ systems, especially with the endocrine and urinary systems.

    The genitals are considered either primary or secondary. The main reproductive organs are the gonads (testes and ovaries), which are responsible for the production of sex cells (sperm and eggs) and hormonal production.Other reproductive organs are secondary reproductive structures. Secondary organs help in the growth and maturation of gametes, as well as the development of offspring.

    Respiratory system

    Diagram of the structure of the human respiratory system. Image: Wikimedia Commons

    The respiratory process includes the consumption of oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide from the body. Humans, like other vertebrates, have lungs. The breathing process begins with the cycle of inhalation and exhalation. Inhalation leads to the flow of oxygen into the body, and exhalation leads to the removal of carbon dioxide from it.Anatomically, the respiratory system consists of the following organs:

    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Lungs
    • Diaphragm

    During diffusion, carbon dioxide and oxygen molecules passively exchange between blood cells and the environment. This exchange is carried out through the alveoli (microscopic air sacs) in the lungs.

    Nervous System

    Diagram of the human nervous system. Image: The Emirr / Wikimedia Commons

    Voluntary and involuntary actions are supported and controlled by the human nervous system.It helps guide signals to different parts of our body. The nervous system is divided into two main parts:

    • Central nervous system (CNS)
    • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

    The central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral nervous system consists of nerves that are present outside the brain and spinal cord. All parts of the human body are connected through the nerves.


    Every person, his tissues, body parts and organ systems are composed of cells – the fundamental unit of life.Anatomy is the science that studies the structure and main body parts of living organisms. Physiology, on the other hand, studies the internal mechanisms and processes that are necessary to sustain life.

    The human structure can be described as bipedal, with hair covering the body, the presence of mammary glands and a set of extremely well-developed sense organs. As far as the anatomy of the human body is concerned, we have a specialized circulatory system that ensures efficient transport of oxygen and nutrients in the body.

    Having a well-developed digestive system helps to extract the nutrients the body needs. A well-developed respiratory system supports efficient gas exchange, and the nervous system serves to coordinate and interact within the body, as well as with the external environment, thereby ensuring survival.

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    Clinical anatomy in modern morphology and medicine

    Kagan Ilya Iosifovich

    Terminology and classification of clinical anatomy

    Since the time of N.I. Pirogov, a group of terms has been formed that denote the application of anatomy to clinical medicine, primarily to surgery (Kagan, 2003). N.I. himself Pirogov used the terms “surgical anatomy”, “topographic anatomy”, “applied anatomy” in the titles of his works (Pirogov, 1837; 1843; 1856). These terms were not considered synonymous, but the boundaries of their definitions were rather blurred. This is especially characteristic of surgical anatomy, by which some authors understood the features of the structure and topography of the organ in relation to the needs of surgery, others – the anatomy and topography of organs in the conditions of surgical pathology, and still others – both together (Kenneth, 2010).

    From the middle of the twentieth century. the term “clinical anatomy” has become more and more frequently used, which has become widespread in recent decades. It is found in the titles of journals (for example, “Clinical Anatomy”), associations (such as the American Association of Clinical Anatomists), manuals, and monographs (Bol shakov, 2000; Trofimova, 2005; Ognev, 1960). An academic discipline has appeared in a number of countries

    Anatomy classification

    Scientific anatomical disciplines

    • System (normal, descriptive) anatomy
    • Topographic (regional, regional) anatomy
    • Comparative Anatomy
    • Pathological Anatomy

    Anatomy directions

    By study levels

    • Macroscopic
    • Macromicroscopic
    • Microscopic (private histology)

    By methodological approaches

    • Experimental
    • Age
    • Typical
    • Evolutionary
    • Functional
    • Dynamic

    For practical applications

    • Environmental
    • Plastic
    • Clinical (applied)
    • Veterinary

    Classification of clinical (applied) anatomy

    By clinical discipline

    • Surgical
    • Microsurgical
    • Neurosurgical
    • Dental

    Clinical Anatomy Sections for :

    • Cardiology
    • pulmonology
    • Neurology
    • gastroenterology
    • Nephrology and Urology
    • endocrinology
    • obstetrics and gynecology
    • Ophthalmology otorhinolaryngology

    By diagnostic methods

    • Endoscopic
    • Beam (instrument-graphic)
    • X-ray (radiological)
    • Computed tomography
    • Magnetic resonance imaging
    • Ultrasonic

    “Clinical Anatomy” and corresponding textbooks, manuals, atlases (Kagan, 2009; Kovanov, 1965; Luzha, 1973; Mikhailov, 1987; Maksimenkov, 1955; Hansen, 2005).

    The development of surgery, methods of intravital imaging has led to the emergence of new terms: microsurgical, neurosurgical, endoscopic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomography, ultrasound anatomy. An objective necessity arose to bring them into a system, to determine their correlation with the traditional, currently used terms. Such a systematization of terms is presented in the following classifications (Zolotareva, 1968).

    The following definitions of terms and relationships between them seem to be appropriate.

    Topographic anatomy (regional, regional, Topographical, Regional Anatomy) is a morphological scientific and educational discipline: a part of anatomy that studies the relative position of organs and anatomical formations in areas of the human body. It is on a par with the terms “systemic anatomy” (“normal anatomy”, “human anatomy”, Gross Anatomy), “comparative anatomy”.

    Clinical Anatomy (applied, Clinical Anatomy) is a set of applied areas of modern anatomy that study the structure and topography of organs and regions in health and disease in the interests of various branches of clinical medicine.

    Separate areas that are part of clinical anatomy are:

    • 1st group – surgical anatomy, microsurgical anatomy, neurosurgical anatomy, which study and describe the structural and topography features of organs and regions in normal and pathological conditions in relation to the needs of surgery, traumatology, microsurgery, neurosurgery, minimally invasive surgery, primarily to substantiate operational interventions;
    • Group 2 – endoscopic anatomy, X-ray (radiological) anatomy, computed tomography anatomy, magnetic resonance tomographic anatomy, ultrasound anatomy, reflecting the structure and topography of organs and areas in images obtained by appropriate intravital research methods, and components the anatomical basis of these methods.

    Clinical anatomy also includes sections containing a set of information on the anatomy and topography of organs and regions in the interests of a number of other branches of clinical medicine: dentistry, cardiology, obstetrics and gynecology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, etc. In this regard, a number of monographs and guidelines in their titles contains the terms clinical, surgical, neurosurgical, microsurgical, computed tomography, magnetic resonance tomographic anatomy, etc.(Bruskin, 1933; Kagan, 2010; Kagan, 2004; Kagan, 1999; Kagan, 2008; Kirpatovsky, 2003; Kovanov, 1963; Konovalov, 1990; Maksimenkov, 1972; Ellis, 2010).

    The content of the discipline “Clinical anatomy” implies the possibility of teaching it in its entirety or in separate sections to different groups of specialists, the need to conduct directed scientific research to substantiate new surgical interventions, to create the anatomical foundations of the developing branches of clinical medicine.

    The directions, or sections, of clinical anatomy that formed in the second half or at the end of the twentieth century should be considered in more detail.

    Microsurgical Anatomy

    Generally accepted concepts of topographic and surgical anatomy can serve as the initial basis for the definition of microsurgical anatomy. The Great Medical Encyclopedia defines topographic anatomy as a branch of anatomy that studies the relative position of tissues, organs, and body parts (Filimonov, 2010).In the Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medical Terms, topographic anatomy is described as the anatomy that studies the structure, shape, and relationship of organs by region of the body (Weir, 1997). Close, but not identical definitions.

    Surgical anatomy in the “Encyclopedic Dictionary of Medical Terms” is defined as a branch of anatomy that studies the structure of the human body in relation to the issues of surgery, mainly with the aim of justifying operative approaches and techniques (Weir, 1997).

    Considering the term “microsurgical anatomy” in the system of the above terms, one could define it as follows. Microsurgical anatomy is a direction of clinical anatomy that studies the structure and topography of small anatomical structures of organs and regions of the body in health and disease in relation to the needs of microsurgery.

    The main feature of microsurgical anatomy is the study of anatomical structures in the macromicrosurgical field of vision, i.e.That is, in the magnification range of a stereoscopic microscope, surgical loupes and an operating microscope. Specifically, this is a magnification range of 3x to 45x. It is he who can be defined as macromicrosurgical. In this case, the optical boundaries between macroscopic, macromicroscopic and microscopic anatomy are quite clear.

    Microscopic anatomy, or private histology, begins at low magnifications of a biological microscope, typically 56x.This is the anatomy of the tissue structures of organs.

    Macroscopic anatomy is a traditional anatomy studied with the naked eye.

    Macromicroscopic anatomy is the anatomy of structures that can be studied with confidence in the above optical range. It fills well the anatomical niche between macroscopic and microscopic anatomy, forms the continuity of anatomical information at different levels. Here it is necessary to emphasize the enormous contribution made to the development of macromicroscopic anatomy by the creator of the method of macromicroscopic preparation V.P. Vorobyov and the Kharkov anatomical school, academicians D.A. Waiting for new ones, V.V. Kupriyanov, M.R. Sapin and the teams led by them, many domestic and foreign anatomists.

    Microsurgical anatomy did not arise from scratch. It developed on the basis of data from two large sections of anatomy: macromicroscopic and topographic anatomy.

    In microsurgical anatomy, the aforementioned origins have combined two principles: the use of macromicroscopic fields of vision corresponding to the magnification range of a surgical loupe and an operating microscope, and the topographic principle of studying the structure and location of anatomical structures.

    The content of microsurgical anatomy is the macromicroscopic structure of an organ, the morphometric characteristics of its structures, extraorgan macromicroscopic topography, intraorgan histotopography, macromicroscopic angio- and neuroarchitectonics.

    Methods for studying microsurgical anatomy. The methodological basis for the study of microsurgical anatomy is a complex of techniques, in which the leading place is occupied by the macromicroscopic preparation and the histotopographic method.

    Macromicroscopic preparation in the classical version is a stereomorphological preparation method developed by Academician V.P. Vorobyov and became widespread in the performance of anatomical studies. This preparation was carried out under a binocular magnifying glass, miniature instruments, under a “falling drop”, with a selected direction of the light source. To facilitate the isolation of small anatomical formations, the prepared area or organ was preliminarily exposed to the action of weak acid solutions.

    The use of this technique made it possible for anatomists to obtain extensive materials on the macromicroscopic structure of organs, their blood supply, innervation, the structure of peripheral nerve plexuses, etc.

    Currently, macromicroscopic preparation is performed using more advanced optical techniques – stereoscopic microscopes MBS-2, MBS-9, and MBS-10. These microscopes have a much larger field of view, a wide range of magnifications from 3.6 h to 98.0 h, various options for illumination of an object, convenient opportunities for both preparation and study of finished preparations (anatomical and histotopographic) in incident and transmitted light.

    As applied to microsurgical anatomy, macromicroscopic preparation allows obtaining, first of all, data on the fine topographic relationships of the objects under study with the preservation of small blood vessels, ducts, and nerves. It is very important that preparation can be carried out through a stereoscopic microscope or a binocular loupe in the same magnification range in which microsurgical interventions are performed on these objects or in this area.The use of preliminary injection of blood and lymphatic vessels with stained masses expands the possibilities of macromicroscopic preparation.

    The second method – histotopographic – we assign an important role in conducting research on microsurgical anatomy.

    Sometimes the histotopographic method is identified only with separate, large in area, stained histological sections, called histotopograms.

    By a histotopogram, we mean a stained histological section of a complex of anatomical structures of a region, an individual organ or a large part of it, which makes it possible to study the structure and topographic relationships of various morphological structures at 3.6-48 times magnifications of a stereoscopic microscope.

    But a separate histotopogram and a histotopographic method are not identical concepts.

    The histotopographic method should be understood as a method for studying the macromicroscopic structure, extra- and intraorgan macromicroscopic topography of organs and regions on serial spatially oriented histotopograms.

    Consequently, one can speak of the histotopographic method if, first, a series of histotopograms of different, but precisely fixed levels is used; second, their planes are precisely oriented in space; thirdly, they are studied as a complex, which makes it possible to reconstruct topographic relationships in length and space.

    For the preparation of histotopographic sections, general histological staining methods are most often used: hematoxylin and eosin and according to Van Gieson, but depending on the object and tasks of the study, special staining methods can also be used.An analogy between the histotopographic method in microsurgical anatomy and the method of sawing frozen corpses proposed by N.I. Pirogov, in topographic anatomy, who contributed so much to the study of macroscopic topography of organs and regions of the human body.

    In addition to the macromicroscopic preparation and the histotopographic method, a number of other techniques are used in studies of microsurgical anatomy to study the structure and topography of large and small anatomical structures in the macromicroscopic range of optical magnification.These include microinjection methods for detecting intraorganic blood vessels, methods of clarification of anatomical sections of organs and various planar structures, staining of intraorgan nerves and plexuses (for example, with Schiff’s reagent), microradiography.

    An obligatory component of the methodological support of macromicroscopic examination is the morphometry of the anatomical structures of the organ with subsequent variational-statistical processing.

    Clinical Applications of Microsurgical Anatomy.Depending on the type and characteristics of the organ, as well as the developed microsurgical operations, the ratio between the constituent parts of microsurgical anatomy can be different. Its individual constituent parts are of particular importance for substantiating microsurgical interventions.

    Thus, for the anatomical substantiation and development of microsurgical interventions on hollow and tubular organs (esophagus, stomach, intestines, trachea and bronchi, bile ducts, ureters, fallopian tubes), extraorgan macromicroscopic topography, anatomical structure of the organ wall, data on the thickness of the wall and its constituent layers.It is these components of microsurgical anatomy that are of key importance for substantiating microsurgical methods for stitching these organs together and creating interorgan anastomoses.

    When substantiating microsurgical methods of a vascular suture for restoring the integrity of a blood vessel and forming intervascular anastomoses, data on the macromicroscopic structure, thickness, and biomechanical properties of the vascular wall as applied to blood vessels of various types and calibers are of primary importance.For some blood vessels (for example, the coronary arteries of the heart), the immediate macromicroscopic environment is of great importance, i.e. extraorgan macromicroscopic topography.

    For parenchymal, glandular organs (liver, pancreas, thyroid gland, etc.), the development of microsurgical operating techniques is directly related to data on the intraorgan macromicroscopic anatomical structure: the anatomy of the organ lobules, the severity of the connective tissue framework, intraorgan topography of the ducts, blood vessels, and blood vessels.

    Sections and objects of endoscopic anatomy

    Body cavities

    • Pleural
    • Mediastinum
    • Abdominal
    • Retroperitoneal space

    Pelvic cavity

    • Hollow and tubular organs
    • Trachea and bronchi
    • Heart and great vessels

    Esophagus and gastroesophageal junction

    • Stomach and gastroduodenal junction
    • Gallbladder and extrahepatic ducts
    • Small and large intestine
    • Ureters, bladder, urethra

    Large joints

    • Parenchymal organs
    • Thyroid
    • Lungs
    • Liver
    • Pancreas
    • Kidney
    • Adrenal glands
    • Prostate

    The microsurgical anatomy of such topographic and anatomical structures as the orbit, the spinal canal, and the intervertebral foramen has its own peculiarities.

    Endoscopic Anatomy

    Endoscopic anatomy can be defined as a scientific and practical direction of clinical anatomy, which studies and describes the features of the anatomical structure and topography of cavities and organs in the interests of endoscopy and endoscopic surgery using endoscopic, anatomical and topographic anatomical research methods.

    Radiation anatomy

    In the twentieth century. In medicine, a group of methods appeared that radically changed clinical diagnostics (the so-called imaging methods, in our country – methods of intravital imaging).At the beginning of the century, radiography and its various variants (angiography, cholangiography, irrigography, etc.) entered the wide medical practice, in the middle of the century and the second half of it – ultrasound scanning, CT, MRI.

    It soon became clear that these diagnostic methods, especially CT and MRI, are, first of all, very “anatomical”; require a good knowledge of topographic anatomy based on Pirogov cuts of the human body. Hence, a surge of interest in topographic anatomy, publication of manuals and atlases with anatomical substantiation of intravital imaging techniques.

    Secondly (and this is the main thing for our article), at the end of the twentieth century. It turned out that the methods for life imaging, developed and used as diagnostic ones, are excellent methods of anatomical, primarily topographic and anatomical, research.

    Articles on the clinical anatomy of organs and regions, based on the use of various methods of intravital imaging, began to be published in foreign and domestic literature.Similarly formed in the first half of the twentieth century. X-ray analysis of tomography has highlighted sections, or directions, of clinical anatomy, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, which have received the generalized name “radiation anatomy”.

    In the first 10th anniversary of the XXI century. in Russia, Russian and translated manuals and atlases on radiation anatomy were published (Luzha, 1973; Mikhailov, 1987; Maksimenkov, 1955).

    Vital imaging techniques used as research techniques, and not as diagnostic ones, have their own characteristics, conditions of use, possibilities and limitations.

    First of all, it is possible to formulate 3 main goals of using the methods of intravital imaging in clinical and anatomical research:

    1. Creation and improvement of the anatomical basis of intravital visualization methods.

    2. Development of topographic and clinical anatomy based on intravital research.

    3. Development of operative surgery.

    Achievement of these goals is possible by performing the following tasks:

    1) study of the anatomical variability of organs and regions;

    2) study of changes in the topography of organs in pathology;

    3) study of changes in the topography of organs after surgery;

    4) anatomical substantiation of new operative approaches and techniques;

    5) computer modeling of organs and areas.

    The considered methods of intravital imaging, first of all, various variants of CT and MRI, when used in clinical anatomical studies, have a number of positive qualities and advantages, which include:

    1. Correspondence of computer and magnetic resonance tomograms to Pirogov cuts of frozen corpses.

    2. Possibility of using large research samples.

    3. Obtaining significant anatomical data for mathematical analysis.

    4. Possibility of the same type of research in conditions of norm and pathology.

    5. Possibility of widespread use of computer technologies.

    The given block of goals, objectives and possibilities of the methods of in vivo visualization requires a number of explanations.

    Development of topographic and clinical anatomy is the most important goal of using the methods of intravital imaging.

    This goal has 2 main aspects.

    The first is the creation of the clinical anatomy of a living person.

    One of the results of many studies performed turned out to be data on other indices of anatomy and topography of a number of organs of a living person in comparison with the data obtained in the study of cadaveric material.

    The second is a broader study of individual, age and sex differences, in other words, the development and deepening of the most important component of modern anatomy – the doctrine of human anatomical variability.

    Such studies can reveal a much greater variety of individual anatomical features and allow the formation of full ranges of anatomical differences with the isolation of extreme and intermediate forms. Such a wide study is possible primarily because it can be carried out on a large number of observations (according to V.N. Shevkunenko – more than 100) (April, 1997), determined by the objectives of a particular study, as well as the possibilities of obtaining research material.

    When characterizing quantitatively the material in life research, one should pay attention to the peculiarity of its receipt.

    Absolutely healthy people practically do not perform studies using methods of intravital imaging. They are prescribed for the diagnosis of pathological conditions or their exclusion. Therefore, to study the issues of clinical anatomy under normal conditions, it is necessary to select observations without signs of pathological changes. We designate such research samples as a conditional norm.

    The most important feature of most intravital studies is the ability to obtain a large array of anatomical data, which makes it possible to give morphometric characteristics of organs and regions, and to reveal mathematically substantiated anatomical and functional regularities.

    An important applied purpose of research using the methods of intravital imaging is the study of changes in the topography of organs during various volumetric processes. These works are related to interesting and practically important studies on the study of changes in the anatomy and topography of internal organs after various surgical interventions in the form of resections and ectomies, reconstructive and plastic surgeries.

    The use of intravital imaging methods is fully justified in the development and anatomical substantiation of new surgical interventions, especially surgical approaches. In particular, CT allows you to individualize the projection of an organ on the skin, to determine the depth of the structure location depending on the constitutional features.

    Among the goals of intravital clinical and anatomical studies, we pointed to the creation of the anatomical foundations of diagnostic methods for intravital imaging.From the foregoing, it becomes clear that the anatomical basis should be understood not only and not so much the anatomical identification of organs and structures (which, of course, is necessary), but also the variant clinical anatomy of sections and volumetric images in their individual diversity with the definition of extreme forms and range of anatomical differences, especially since such data are almost not presented in modern manuals and atlases on radiation anatomy and diagnostics.

    The methodological aspect of using the methods of intravital imaging for topographic anatomical studies has its own essential features.These include:

    1. Necessary skeletotopic binding of tomograms.

    2. Determination of basic levels of axial, frontal and sagittal tomograms.

    3. Mandatory morphometry of structures on tomograms and ultrasound images.

    4. Comparison of intravital imaging methods with traditional methods of topographic and anatomical studies.

    Commenting on the above methodological features, it is required to give the following explanations.

    The need for skeletotopic referencing is especially evident for axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In a CT or MRI study, the tomograph produces a series of tomograms with sequential numbering and a different number of slices depending on the step (5, 7, 10 mm). These tomograms of the trunk should be correlated with the levels of the spine. Such a translation can be done due to the fact that modern tomographs provide a scheme for superimposing the levels of slices on the spine.In addition, a diagram of the relationship between tomographic sections and the levels of the spine was developed at our department.

    The second important methodological point of using tomograms is the determination of baseline levels, i.e. selection from the whole series of tomograms of those that will be subjected to morphometry and topographic-anatomical analysis in all observations. This is what makes it possible to create a variant intravital topographic anatomy of the studied anatomical structures.

    Thus, the use of intravital imaging methods is the most important and real way to develop intravital clinical anatomy, which is so necessary for modern medicine.

    The objects of study and the content of endoscopic anatomy should be determined based on specific endoscopic diagnostic methods and types of endosurgical surgical interventions. The main list of objects of study of endoscopic anatomy is presented in the following table.

    The above list of cavities and organs is determined primarily by modern types and methods of endoscopic diagnostics and endoscopic surgical interventions.

    Thus, the study of body cavities is an important section of endoscopic anatomy, since it forms the basis of thoracoscopy, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy, retroperitoneoscopy, large and actively developing sections of endoscopic surgery: thoracoscopic, laparoscopic surgery, endosurgical interventions on the organs of the retroperitoneal

    In this regard, the main content of the endoscopic anatomy of the cavities is the anatomical structure and topography of intracavitary formations (ligaments, mesenteries, bursae, sinuses, canals, cellular spaces in the endoscopic image), the external structure and syntopy of organs imprisoned in the cavities, the topography of the main and organ blood vessels, nerves and non-tear plexuses, groups of lymph nodes.

    The most important and largest section of endoscopic anatomy is hollow and tubular organs, since it is for them that there are various methods of diagnostic endoscopy, including bronchoscopy, esophagoscopy, gastroduodenoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, arthroscopy, etc., and endoscopic surgery of hollow and tubular organs is a voluminous and continuously developing section of modern operative surgery.

    In terms of diagnostic and surgical endoscopy, the key interest is the anatomy of the cavities and lumens of organs, the relief and appearance of the mucous membranes, the openings of the ducts that open into the lumen of the organ, valve and sphincter structures, the structure of the walls of organs, and features of the blood supply.Of particular interest in the gastrointestinal tract are the transition zones: esophageal-gastric junction, gastroduodenal junction, large duodenal papilla, ileocecal junction.

    In connection with the development of catheter heart surgery, endoscopic coronary surgery, arthroscopic surgery and diagnostics, endoscopic anatomy of the heart and large joints is gaining practical importance.

    The need to study the endoscopic anatomy of the parenchymal organs listed in the table is associated with endosurgical interventions performed on most of them and endoscopic diagnostics of their condition.The content of their endoscopic anatomy is endovisual features of their surface, features of the relief, topography of organs, including their projection, skeletotopy, and syntopy.

    In general terms, scientific and practical research in endoscopic anatomy, in our opinion, should comply with five guiding principles:

    1) modern research on endoscopic anatomy should contain vital data on individual, age and sex differences of the studied organ or anatomical formation, their analysis, generalization and systematization;

    2) the main methodological basis of endoscopic anatomy is the method of endoscopy corresponding to the organ or the assigned tasks.If necessary, it should be combined with other methods of intravital imaging (X-ray – RG, computed tomography – CT, magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, ultrasound – ultrasound), as well as with anatomical, topographic-anatomical, histotopographic methods;

    3) when describing and analyzing endoscopic data, the specific features of the endoscopic examination technique should be taken into account: the insertion sites of endoscopes, viewing angles, posture of the subject, resolution capabilities of the endoscope, etc.