About all

Belladonna uses: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Содержание

Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

Bergmans M, Merkus J, Corbey R, and et al. Effect of Bellergal Retard on climacteric complaints: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Maturitas 1987;9:227-234.

Bettermann, H., Cysarz, D., Portsteffen, A., and Kummell, H. C. Bimodal dose-dependent effect on autonomic, cardiac control after oral administration of Atropa belladonna. Auton.Neurosci. 7-20-2001;90(1-2):132-137. View abstract.

Ceha LJ, Presperin C, Young E, and et al. Anticholinergic toxicity from nightshade berry poisoning responsive to physostigmine. The Journal of Emergency Medicine 1997;15(1):65-69. View abstract.

Cummins BM, Obetz SW, Wilson MR, and et al. Belladonna poisoning as a facet of psychodelia. Jama 1968;204(11):153.

Davidov, M. I. [Factors predisposing to acute urine retention in patients with prostatic adenoma]. Urologiia. 2007;(2):25-31. View abstract.

Dobrescu DI. Propranolol in the treatment of disturbances of the autonomic nervous system. Curr.Ther.Res Clin Exp 1971;13(1):69-73. View abstract.

Eichner ER, Gunsolus JM, and Powers JF. “Belladonna” poisoning confused with botulism. Jama 8-28-1967;201(9):695-696. View abstract.

Goldsmith SR, Frank I, and Ungerleider JT. Poisoning from ingestion of a stramonium-belladonna mixture: flower power gone sour. J.A.M.A 4-8-1968;204(2):169-170. View abstract.

Golwalla A. Multiple extrasystoles: an unusual manifestation of belladonna poisoning. Dis Chest 1965;48:83-84.

Hamilton M and Sclare AB. Belladonna poisoning. Br Med J 1947;611-612.

Heindl, S., Binder, C., Desel, H., Matthies, U., Lojewski, I., Bandelow, B., Kahl, G. F., and Chemnitius, J. M. [Etiology of initially unexplained confusion of excitability in deadly nightshade poisoning with suicidal intent. Symptoms, differential diagnosis, toxicology and physostigmine therapy of anticholinergic syndrome]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 11-10-2000;125(45):1361-1365. View abstract.

Kahn A., Rebuffat E, Sottiaux M, and et al. Prevention of airway obstructions during sleep in infants with breath- holding spells by means of oral belladonna: a prospective double-blind crossover evaluation. Sleep 1991;14(5):432-438. View abstract.

King, J. C. Anisotropine methylbromide for relief of gastrointestinal spasm: double- blind crossover comparison study with belladonna alkaloids and phenobarbital. Curr.Ther Res Clin.Exp 1966;8(11):535-541. View abstract.

Lance, J. W., Curran, D. A., and Anthony, M. Investigations into the mechanism and treatment of chronic headache. Med.J.Aust. 11-27-1965;2(22):909-914. View abstract.

Lichstein, J. and Mayer, J. D. Drug therapy in the unstable bowel (irritable colon). A 15-month double-blind clinical study in 75 cases of response to a prolonged-acting belladonna alkaloid-phenobarbital mixture or placebo. J.Chron.Dis. 1959;9(4):394-404.

Myers, J. H., Moro-Sutherland, D., and Shook, J. E. Anticholinergic poisoning in colicky infants treated with hyoscyamine sulfate. Am J Emerg.Med 1997;15(5):532-535. View abstract.

Pan, S. Y. and Han, Y. F. Comparison of the inhibitory efficacy of four belladonna drugs on gastrointestinal movement and cognitive function in food-deprived mice. Pharmacology 2004;72(3):177-183. View abstract.

Rhodes, J. B., Abrams, J. H., and Manning, R. T. Controlled clinical trial of sedative-anticholinergic drugs in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1978;18(7):340-345. View abstract.

Ritchie, J. A. and Truelove, S. C. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with lorazepam, hyoscine butylbromide, and ispaghula husk. Br Med J 2-10-1979;1(6160):376-378. View abstract.

Robinson, K., Huntington, K. M., and Wallace, M. G. Treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Br.J.Obstet.Gynaecol. 1977;84(10):784-788. View abstract.

Schneider, F., Lutun, P., Kintz, P., Astruc, D., Flesch, F., and Tempe, J. D. Plasma and urine concentrations of atropine after the ingestion of cooked deadly nightshade berries. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1996;34(1):113-117. View abstract.

Shader RI and Greenblatt DJ. Uses and toxicity of belladonna alkaloids and synthetic anticholinergics. Seminars in Psychiatry 1971;3(4):449-476. View abstract.

Sims SR. Poisoning due to belladonna plasters. Br Med J 1954;1531.

Southgate, H. J., Egerton, M., and Dauncey, E. A. Lessons to be learned: a case study approach. Unseasonal severe poisoning of two adults by deadly nightside (Atropa belladonna). Journal of the Royal Society of Health 2000;120(2):127-130. View abstract.

Steele CH. The use of Bellergal in the prophylactic treatment of some types of headaches. Ann Allergy 1954;42-46.

Stieg, R. L. Double-blind study of belladonna-ergotamine-phenobarbital for interval treatment of recurrent throbbing headache. Headache 1977;17(3):120-124. View abstract.

Trabattoni G, Visintini D, Terzano GM, and et al. Accidental poisoning with deadly nightshade berries: a case report. Human Toxicol. 1984;3(6):513-516. View abstract.

Tsiskarishvili, N. V. and Tsiskarishvili, TsI. [Colorimetric determination of eccrine sudoriferous glands functional condition in case of hyperhidrosis and their correction by belladonna]. Georgian.Med News 2006;(140):47-50. View abstract.

Walach, H., Koster, H., Hennig, T., and Haag, G. The effects of homeopathic belladonna 30CH in healthy volunteers — a randomized, double-blind experiment. J.Psychosom.Res. 2001;50(3):155-160. View abstract.

Williams HC and du Vivier A. Belladonna plaster–not as bella as it seems. Contact Dermatitis 1990;23(2):119-120. View abstract.

Abbasi J. Amid Reports of Infant Deaths, FTC Cracks Down on Homeopathy While FDA Investigates. JAMA. 2017;317(8):793-795. View abstract.

Alster TS, West TB. Effect of topical vitamin C on postoperative carbon dioxide laser resurfacing erythema. Dermatol Surg 1998;24:331-4. View abstract.

Balzarini, A., Felisi, E., Martini, A., and De Conno, F. Efficacy of homeopathic treatment of skin reactions during radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Br Homeopath J 2000;89(1):8-12. View abstract.

Berdai MA, Labib S, Chetouani K, Harandou M. Atropa belladonna intoxication: a case report. Pan Afr Med J 2012;11:72. View abstract.

Certain Homeopathic Teething Products: FDA Warning- Confirmed Elevated Levels of Belladonna. FDA Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products, January 27, 2017. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm538687.htm. [Accessed March 22, 2016]

Corazziari, E., Bontempo, I., and Anzini, F. Effects of cisapride on distal esophageal motility in humans. Dig Dis Sci 1989;34(10):1600-1605. View abstract.

Friese KH, Kruse S, Ludtke R, and et al. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children–comparisons with conventional therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;35(7):296-301. View abstract.

Hyland’s Teething Tablets: Recall – Risk of Harm to Children. FDA News Release, October 23, 2010. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm230764.htm (Accessed 26 October 2010).

Jaspersen-Schib R, Theus L, Guirguis-Oeschger M, et al. [Serious plant poisonings in Switzerland 1966-1994. Case analysis from the Swiss Toxicology Information Center]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1996;126:1085-98. View abstract.

Lee MR. Solanaceae IV: Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2007;37(1):77-84. View abstract.

Whitmarsh, T. E., Coleston-Shields, D. M., and Steiner, T. J. Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of homoeopathic prophylaxis of migraine. Cephalalgia 1997;17(5):600-604. View abstract.

Belladonna: The Good, the Bad, and the Medicinal

Meet Belladonna. A plant with a charming name and a long, sordid history of use and abuse. In Italian, it translates to “beautiful lady” as the juice of its berries was once artfully used by Venetian women to redden cheeks and widen eyes. Its name in English — deadly nightshade — is a nod to its illustrious career as a poison tracing back to ancient times where it allegedly took down Emperors Claudius and Augustus of Rome.

Nevertheless, belladonna contains substances with therapeutic properties that benefit a variety of medicines. Here’s everything you need to know about this infamous plant.

A Dangerous Beauty

Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) is a perennial plant native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, but also grows wild in some parts of the U.S. You can identify this plant by its purple, bell-shaped flowers. It also bears juicy jet-black berries that further add to its sinister look.

Atropa belladonna is a member of the Solanaceae family which includes potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplant. While those varieties of nightshade plants are safe to eat, deadly nightshade should never be ingested. All parts of it contain the alkaloid compounds atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscyamine that are lethal to humans, especially the berries. Oddly enough, these toxins do not affect certain animals like rabbits and cattle who can happily graze without any serious problems. Regardless, deadly nightshade is not the best choice for gardens since it remains toxic to pets and other wildlife.

A Friend to Medicine

Despite being poisonous, belladonna has a long history of medicinal use. Ancient Greek healers would put it in drinks to induce numbness and drowsiness in patients about to undergo amputations and other rudimentary surgical procedures of the time. Today, scientists extract its atropine to make prescription medications for all kinds of conditions, including gastrointestinal spasms from IBS and colitis, tremors caused by Parkinson’s disease, and even heart problems. And if you’ve recently had an eye exam, chances are your eye doctor used drops containing this same chemical to dilate your pupils.

In its homeopathic form, deadly nightshade is prepared in a
way that removes the plant’s toxic properties. Homeopathic Belladonna is ideal
for conditions with symptoms that arise suddenly and are accompanied by
sweating. The 6C dilution relieves high fevers of sudden onset with profuse
sweating and can be found as one of the active ingredients in ColdCalm.
Similarly, it can be used for headaches with head congestion and sensitivity to
light and noise; hot flashes with sweating; and restless sleep with sweating
caused by fear from a nightmare. Belladonna 30C helps relieve red, hot, and
painful skin from a burn or sunburn.*

Learn more about Boiron Belladonna in this video featuring pharmacist Gary Kracoff, NMD, RPh.

References

  1. https://books. google.com/books?id=bMCzyrAtrvYC&pg=PA20&dq=hallucinogenic++Atropa+belladonna&hl=en#v=onepage&q=hallucinogenic%20%20Atropa%20belladonna&f=false
  2. https://www.mentalfloss.com/article/23174/5-classic-poisons-and-people-who-used-them
  3. https://slate.com/technology/2014/08/poisonous-plants-belladonna-nightshade-is-the-celebrity-of-deadly-flora.html
  4. https://www.cardiosmart.org/Healthwise/d001/74/d00174

*Claims based on traditional homeopathic practice, not accepted medical evidence. Not FDA evaluated.

The Healing Powers of Deadly Nightshade – Pry House Medicinal Garden



Posted on:


As we exit the cold, deadly night shade of winter, what better time to relax and listen to Stevie Nicks 1981 album Bella Donna. We now turn to one of our more dangerous plants, Deadly Nightshade (atropa belladonna) of the genus Atropa which comes from the Atropos, one of the three Fates in Greek mythology.

The belladonna plant

The name belladonna is derived from Italian, meaning “beautiful woman” because it was used as eye drops by women to dilate the pupils of their eye in order to make them more seductive and beautiful. The term deadly nightshade is thought to derive from the poisonous qualities of the plant. Other non-toxic plants from the nightshade family include tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant, tobacco, chili peppers and jimsonweed.

Stille’s Therapeutic and Materia Medica textbook describes belladonna as having an “herbaceous stem of a purplish color, cylindrical, branched, somewhat tomentose, and three or four feet in height. The upper leaves are in pairs, the lower alternate, oval, pointed at both ends, soft, of a dark-green color above, but lighter beneath. The flowers are axillary, pedunculated and form cylindrical purple bells. They are succeeded by a berry which is at first green, then red, and when ripe, of a dark purple color, and closely resembles a cherry in appearance. It contains in two separate cells a number of kidney-shaped seeds, and its juice has a sickly sweetish taste. The root is fleshy and creeping. All parts of the plant exhale a nauseous and rank odor, and are pervaded by its narcotic principle.”

The 1858 edition of the United States Dispensatory describes the medicinal properties of belladonna as

“a powerful narcotic and anodyne, possessing also diaphoretic properties and somewhat disposed to operate on the bowels. Among its first obvious effects, when taken in the usual dose, and continued for some time, are dryness and stricture of the fauces and neighboring parts, with slight uneasiness or giddiness of the head, and dimness of vision. In medicinal doses, it may also occasion dilatation of the pupil, decided frontal headache, slight delirium, colicky pains and purging, and a scarlet efflorescence of the skin; but this last effect is rare. In large quantities, belladonna produces the most deleterious effects. It is in fact a powerful poison, and many instances are recorded in which it has been taken with fatal consequences.”

All parts of the plant are active, but the leaves are the only area of the plant recognized as official by pharmacopeias of the mid-19th century for medicinal purposes. The active ingredients of belladonna include atropine, hyoscyamine and scopolamine. The flowers bloom from June to early September while the berries ripen to shiny black from August to October.

Belladonna is one of the most toxic plants found in the Eastern Hemisphere and is rarely found in gardens. The foliage, berries and roots are extremely toxic, but the berries pose the greatest threat to children because they look attractive and have a somewhat sweet taste. Signs of belladonna poisoning include delirium and hallucinations.

Belladonna berries

Extract of belladonna was included in the United States Army Standard Supply Table and therefore commonly carried in field medical wagons and used in camp hospitals in the Civil War era. Belladonna could be used to treat a variety of ailments such as neuralgias, whooping cough, scarlet fever, spasmodic asthma, intestinal cramps and to dilate the pupil of the eyes. Given the common occurrence of intestinal complaints, it was frequently used as an antispasmodic to treat diarrhea. It was particularly effective in treating neuralgias such as trigeminal neuralgia and sciatica.

Sciatica is neuralgia along the course of the sciatic nerve, most often with pain radiating into the buttock and lower limb, most commonly due to herniation of a lumbar disk. A liniment or ointment would have been used in the treatment of a neuralgia.

During the Civil War, one can imagine a member of the Quartermaster Department engaged in his duty loading and unloading wagons. One day he injures himself, shows up for daily sick call and describes symptoms consistent with sciatica. The camp surgeon may have prescribed a belladonna ointment to be made by the camp’s hospital steward. The United States Dispensatory describes the recipe for compounding the ointment by mixing 1 grain (65 mg) of belladonna with 1 drachm (1/8 oz) of lard. The soldier would have been told to apply this prescription to the affected leg 2 to 3 times day.

Modern day uses for the compounds found in belladonna are similar to those during the Civil War and include atropine drops to dilate the pupil for eye examinations and hyoscyamine to treat a variety of stomach and intestinal problems such as cramps and irritable bowel syndrome. Today, scopolamine is applied as a patch behind the ear to prevent motion sickness.

Next time, we will continue along a musical vein by focusing on the British invasion with such songs as “Thyme” by Pink Floyd, “Thyme Waits for No One” and “Thyme is on My Side” by the Rolling Stones. As you may have guessed, we will be taking a look at the medicinal uses of English Thyme.

Learn more in this interview with Greg Susla, the post’s author

This is the fourth in a series of posts about the Pry House Medicinal Garden. Click below to be directed to the others.

PART ONE PART TWO PART Three Part five part six part seven part eight


About the Author

Greg Susla has been a volunteer at the National Museum of Civil War Medicine since January 2011. Greg’s interest in the Civil War stems from his home town, Torrington, CT, the birth place of the abolitionist John Brown. Greg received his pharmacy degrees from the Universities of Connecticut and Florida and completed a critical care pharmacy residency at the Ohio State University Hospitals. Greg spent the majority of his career as the ICU pharmacist at National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD and volunteered his time in the ICU at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, MD. Greg has been active in the Society of Critical Care Medicine for over 25 years serving on a number of the Society’s committees, and is a Fellow in the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Greg recently retired as the Associate Director of Medical Information at MedImmune in Gaithersburg, MD. Greg is leading the restoration of the garden and is being assisted by his wife Lisa and other staff members and volunteers at the Museum and Pry House. Greg and his wife Lisa live in Frederick, MD.



Tags: Belladonna, Civil War Medicine, Greg Susla, Nightshade, pry garden, Pry House, Pry House Field Hospital Museum, Pry House Medicinal Garden Posted in: Pry

Belladonna Alkaloids And Phenobarbital (Oral Route) Proper Use

Proper Use

Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex

Take this medicine about 30 minutes to 1 hour before meals, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Take this medicine only as directed by your doctor. Do not take more of it, do not take it more often, and do not take it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.

Dosing

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor’s orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.


  • For stomach or intestine problems:


    • For oral dosage forms (capsules or tablets):


      • Older adults, adults, and teenagers—1 or 2 capsules 2 to 4 times a day. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

      • Children—Dose must be determined by your doctor.

    • For oral dosage form (solution):


      • Adults and teenagers—The usual dose is 1 to 2 teaspoons (5 to 10 milliliters (mL)) 3 or 4 times a day. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

      • Children—Dose is based on body weight and must be determined by your doctor. The usual dose is 0.5 to 7.5 mL every 4 to 6 hours. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

    • For oral dosage form (chewable tablets):


      • Older adults, adults, and teenagers—Chew 1 or 2 tablets 3 or 4 times a day. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

      • Children 2 to 12 years of age—Chew one-half to 1 tablet 3 or 4 times a day. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

      • Children up to 2 years of age—Use is not recommended.

    • For long-acting oral dosage form (extended-release tablets):


      • Older adults, adults, and teenagers—1 tablet every 8 to 12 hours. Your doctor may adjust the dose if needed.

      • Children—Use is not recommended.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Keep out of the reach of children.

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Portions of this document last updated: Nov. 01, 2021

Copyright © 2021 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.


.

Homeopathic Belladonna: What is it & Does it Work?

Used centuries ago as a poison, hallucinogen, and even as a beauty remedy, belladonna is a plant rich in potentially deadly alkaloids. But the dose makes the poison: in low or even homeopathic doses, this plant may help with IBS, menopausal complaints, migraines, and flu-like symptoms. Read on to learn more about its dark history and why safer alternatives are available.

What Is Belladonna?

“All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison.”

This 500-year-old principle of toxicology from the Swiss physician and chemist Paracelsus precisely describes the effects of belladonna (Atropa belladonna). It sheds light on why this unusual plant can be both a deadly poison and a healing remedy.

Belladonna, also known as deadly nightshade and devil’s cherries, is an herb belonging to the same family as tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco, and Jimsonweed (Solanaceae). It can be recognized by its purple, bell-shaped flowers and cherry-like, blackberries. Native to Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, belladonna is also sometimes cultivated as an ornamental plant in the US [1, 2].

Belladonna is very poisonous. It contains up to 20 different alkaloids. Its alkaloids are anticholinergics, substances that block the “rest-and-digest” action of acetylcholine in the body. One of the main active compounds is hyoscyamine, which is converted into a mixture called atropine in the body [1, 2].

Cholinergic activity in the body is generally beneficial, as opposed to fight-or-flight overdrive. However, blocking cholinergic activity is beneficial for some diseases, especially when it comes to respiratory disorders. Belladonna can be used to relax blocked airways, relieve headaches, irritable bowel syndrome, and menopausal symptoms [3, 4, 5, 6].

The therapeutic potential of belladonna was explored in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Belladonna and its alkaloids were used to improve conditions such as:

  • Asthma [7, 8]
  • Pneumonia [9, 10]
  • Parkinson’s disease [11, 12]
  • Huntington’s disease [13, 14]
  • Motion sickness [15]
  • Scarlet fever [16]
  • Bowel obstruction [17, 18]
  • Indigestion [19]
  • Diabetes insipidus, a rare condition caused by problems with a chemical called vasopressin [20, 21]
  • Joint and nerve pain [22, 23, 24]
  • Weakness in the muscles and tissues of the groin (inguinal hernia) [25]

Belladonna is still available as a component of conventional medicines such as Bellergal (0. 2 mg alkaloids) and Donnatal (0.13 mg alkaloids). However, these have largely been replaced by safer compounds with more specific effects. Belladonna is also sold as herbal preparations and homeopathic remedies [2].

Belladonna, also called deadly nightshade, is a poisonous plant from the same family as potatoes, tomatoes, and tobacco. It contains many toxic compounds, but in very small quantities, it is believed to have some therapeutic potential.

Homeopathic Uses of Belladonna

Belladonna is used in homeopathy since its origins, dating to over 200 years ago when Samuel Hahnemann (the founder of homeopathy) prescribed it for scarlet fever. Nowadays, homeopathic belladonna is used for several conditions including migraines, menopausal complaints, otitis, sore throat, pink eye, and runny nose. Note, however, that the FDA doesn’t approve the use of homeopathic remedies for any conditions [26].

What’s the Difference Between Homeopathic and Herbal Belladonna?

It’s very important to discriminate between herbal preparations and homeopathic ones. Homeopathic remedies are not the same as herbal tinctures, extracts, and other products used in conventional and herbal medicine in an evidence-based way.

Sometimes herbal products are combined with homeopathic remedies. But homeopathy relies on completely different principles, such as the vital force, to explain how the remedies supposedly act.

Homeopathy also uses a lot of substances that are toxic in normal, oral doses, including Belladonna. Substances are greatly diluted in water or alcohol in a process called “dynamization” or “potentisation” and thought to exert an energetic effect on the body.

Based on the belief that “like cures like”, homeopaths choose remedies based on the results of so-called “remedy provings”. In these trials, healthy people take the substance to find out which effects it produces. Homeopaths will eventually use it to cure ill people with similar symptoms [27+].

In 4 remedy provings on over 400 healthy people, however, homeopathic belladonna 30C didn’t cause more symptoms than placebo [28, 29, 30, 31].

Homeopathic preparations are commonly critiqued for using such high dilutions that they contain only a few or no molecules of the active compound. Homeopathy does not consider that the effects of the remedies come from the active components of the substance used.

Scientific evidence does not back up the claims made by homeopathy. Indeed, a meta-analysis concluded that homeopathic remedies had no effect beyond placebo [32].

Homeopathic belladonna preparations are available, but there is no scientific evidence that they work. In fact, a meta-analysis found that homeopathic remedies in general are no more effective than placebos.

Understanding Homeopathic Dilutions and Doses

Homeopathic dilutions are written as a number followed by a letter (e.g., 30C). The number is how many times the diluting process was performed. The letter represents the dilution factor, or how much the substance was diluted [33+]:

  • X or D: 1/10 means it was diluted 10 times and contains 10% of the active compound; 1 part of extract per 10 of alcohol or water
  • C: 1/100
  • M: 1/1,000,000

So, a homeopathic belladonna remedy labeled as 10X would contain only about 0.000000001% of Belladonna. One labeled as 30C would contain much less, as it would mean that the substance was 30 times diluted by 100.

Because homeopathic belladonna preparations are not standardized, it’s almost impossible to compare the doses of different products. But it’s worthy to note that most of them probably do not contain any belladonna at all. The upside of this is that, unless adulterated or improperly diluted, they act similar to placebo and won’t cause serious side effects or drug interactions [34].

Homeopathic products are often diluted so far as to make it impossible to compare doses between products. Furthermore, most homeopathic belladonna products are so diluted that they essentially contain no belladonna at all.

Insufficient Evidence for:

The following purported benefits are only supported by limited, low-quality clinical studies. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of homeopathic for any of the below-listed uses. Remember to speak with a doctor before using homeopathic belladonna, and never use it in place of something your doctor recommends or prescribes.

1) Runny Nose

In two studies on over 2,600 children with upper respiratory tract infections and nasal allergies, homeopathic belladonna (6C and 30C) improved runny and stuffy nose. However, neither of them was placebo-controlled [35, 36].

2) Menopausal Symptoms

In an observational study on over 400 menopausal women, 300 noticed an improvement in their symptoms and 83 stopped experiencing hot flashes after homeopathic therapy. Belladonna was the second most commonly prescribed remedy. However, the dilution was not specified and the study didn’t include placebo controls [37].

3) Ear Inflammation

In an observational study on over 100 children with ear inflammation (otitis), homeopathic therapy (including belladonna) prevented the inflammation from coming back and shortened the duration of the symptoms compared to conventional medicines. However, the dilution of the remedies was not specified and the study was neither randomized nor blinded [38].

4) Acute Brain Inflammation

In a clinical trial on over 600 children with acute brain inflammation (encephalitis), homeopathic belladonna (30C, 200C, and 1M) added to conventional therapy reduced death and disability better than placebo. There was some risk of bias in the study since the groups were not blinded to the researchers and the disability evaluation was subjective [39].

5) Skin Damage from Radiotherapy

In a clinical trial on 66 women undergoing radiotherapy after breast cancer surgery, both belladonna 7C and another homeopathic preparation (X-Ray 15C) slightly improved skin inflammation when compared to placebo. However, the results were based on a subjective evaluation of the symptoms [40].

6) Tonsil Inflammation

In a clinical trial on 30 children, a homeopathic complex with belladonna (4C) improved tonsil inflammation caused by viral infections. It reduced pain in the tonsils, ears, and after swallowing better than placebo. However, the placebo group included almost 3 times more girls, who are more prone to tonsil inflammation and experienced greater pain on day 1 [41, 42].

Researchers have investigated whether homeopathic belladonna could help with a number of inflammatory conditions, menopausal symptoms, and runny nose, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend it for any purpose.

Possibly Ineffective for:

Migraines

In an observational study on 168 children, one-third received homeopathic belladonna (normally 9C) to manage their migraine attacks. Belladonna reduced the duration of the attacks and school absence, but the results were inconclusive because the study didn’t include placebo controls [43].

At a lower concentration (30C), homeopathic belladonna had no effect on migraines in a clinical trial on 60 people. Indeed, 2 reviews concluded that homeopathy doesn’t have any effects beyond placebo on migraines [44, 45, 46].

A review of clinical evidence found that homeopathic belladonna was no more effective than a placebo at reducing migraines.

Lack of Evidence for:

Epilepsy

In a study in epileptic dogs, homeopathic Belladonna (200C) reduced the frequency of the seizures. However, the study was very small and no human research on this potential benefit has been carried out [47].

Other Conditions

Anecdotally, homeopathic belladonna is used as a remedy for:

  • High fever and confusion
  • Inflammation
  • Cold and flu
  • Teething in babies
  • Seizures, vomiting, and nausea in children
  • Asthma and cough

However, no preclinical or human studies have confirmed its benefits for these health concerns.

Some people use homeopathic belladonna for a number of purposes for which it has not been studied in a clinical setting. There is no evidence to support these uses.

Toxicity, Safety & Side Effects

Although the dilution in homeopathic remedies is usually so high that they contain few or no molecules of the active compound, the level of belladonna alkaloids may be enough to cause adverse effects if improperly diluted.

After over 400 cases of adverse effects (including 10 deaths) were reported in babies taking homeopathic belladonna teething tablets, the FDA warned against their use and some manufacturers stopped producing them. In a recent laboratory analysis, the FDA found that Hyland’s teething tablets contained alkaloid levels exceeding by far the amount stated on the label and asked the company to recall them [48].

Other adverse effects reported after using homeopathic belladonna include:

  • Seizures and fever from belladonna tablets (dilution not specified) for colics in a baby [49]
  • Blurred vision, headache, and memory loss from a belladonna 6X cream in a man [50]
  • Unequal size of the pupils (anisocoria) from Belladonna 6X eye drops in a woman [51]

For more about the dangers of belladonna poisoning, check out this post.

Even though most homeopathic remedies effectively contain no belladonna, improper dilution may result in dangerous levels of alkaloids remaining in the product.

Supplementation

Homeopathic belladonna is usually sold as pills. The most common dilutions are 6C, 30C, 200C, and 1M [35, 36, 39].

Other forms of supplementation for homeopathic Belladonna include [49, 50, 52, 51]:

  • Tablets
  • Creams
  • Ointments
  • Eye drops

Dosage

The doses used in trials testing homeopathic Belladonna were:

  • Migraines: belladonna 9C and 30C, as needed [43, 44]
  • Runny nose: belladonna 6C or a kit containing belladonna 30C and other remedies, as per needed [35, 36]
  • Ear inflammation (otitis): 30 globules/day (dilution not specified) combined with other remedies [38]
  • Acute brain inflammation (encephalitis): belladonna 30C, 200C, and 1M, as needed [39]
  • Skin reactions caused by radiotherapy: belladonna 7C, as per needed [40]
  • Tonsil inflammation: 2 belladonna 4C tablets, 4x/day [41]

Limitations and Caveats

Homeopathic Belladonna was usually given as needed in the trials, so it’s difficult to compare its effects in different studies or even different people in the same study.

Most studies on homeopathic belladonna had design flaws such as:

  • Lack of placebo controls [43, 35, 36, 37]
  • Lack of blinding or randomization [38, 39]
  • Not specifying the dilution used [37, 38]
  • Results mostly based on subjective measures [40, 39]
  • An uneven composition of groups despite randomization [41]

Additionally, some were funded by the companies selling the remedies, most health claims were investigated in only one study, and one (improvement of epilepsy) was only tested in dogs.

Takeaway

Belladonna is a plant rich in alkaloids with a dark past — deadly in high amounts and potentially useful at lower doses. Its combination with other drugs may improve irritable bowel disease, menopausal complaints, headaches, and surgical pain. At the doses prescribed by doctors or contained in properly diluted homeopathic remedies, belladonna is generally safe.

However, exceeding the doses or eating the plant can cause severe poisoning. Overall, safer and more effective alternatives are out there for most conditions belladonna can be used for.

Further Reading

Atropa Belladonna – an overview

ANTICHOLINERGICS

Numerous plants and mushrooms exhibit anticholinergic properties. The best known of these are the members of the Solanaceae family. Of the anticholinergic plants, the genera Atropa, Datura, and Hyoscyamus produce hyoscyamine (atropine). Other members of this group produce scopolamine. The members of both groups are listed here, but for this discussion Datura species are the primary focus because they account for more hospitalizations than the other plants.

The first recorded Datura poisoning occurred in 1676 during the Bacon Rebellion, when soldiers under Captain John Smith made a salad of Datura stramonium leaves and began to hallucinate. The name “Jamestown weed” was given to this plant, and its name has been corrupted over the years to “Jimson weed.”

Plants

Anticholinergic properties are found in Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade), Datura meteloides (sacred datura; Figure 47-3), Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Datura arborea (trumpet lily), Datura candida, Datura suaveolens (angel trumpet), other Datura species, Hyoscyamus niger (henbane), Lycium barbarum (matrimony vine), and Mandragora officinarum (mandrake).

Location

D. meteloides is a perennial southwestern plant that grows well in desert areas. D. stramonium grows as an annual on recently disturbed ground throughout the United States. It is often found in soybean fields.

Description

D. meteloides is a stout bushy plant with thick stems. The large leaves are oval with wavy edges. The foliage has a pungent odor. Seeds are found in spiney pods about 1.5 inches long. The flowers are 6 to 8 inches long and white with purple edges. D. stramonium is similar to D. meteloides; Jimson weed has a dark purple stem and is a taller plant.

Toxic Parts

The entire Datura plant is toxic. The flowers, fruits, and seeds are especially toxic.

Mechanism of Toxicity

The members of the genus Datura contain varying amounts of hyoscyamine and scopolamine. Young plants tend to contain mostly scopolamine, but as they mature, hyoscyamine predominates. The toxicity of these compounds results from competitive blockade of acetylcholine at peripheral and central muscarinic receptors.

Clinical Presentation

Onset of anticholinergic symptoms is usually within 30 to 60 minutes of ingestion and may last for 24 to 48 hours. Both central and peripheral syndromes may be seen. Levy described 27 cases in which every patient had altered mental status and mydriasis.25

Central Anticholinergic Syndrome

Central nervous system (CNS) excitation often manifests as agitation and hallucinations. CNS depression and coma may follow. Hallucinations are generally visual but may be auditory. Speech has a characteristic mumbling quality and is often incomprehensible. Patients often answer questions with appropriate one-word answers, but if prompted (and able) to speak in sentences, the fragmented speech pattern becomes obvious. Undressing behavior is not uncommon.

Peripheral Anticholinergic Syndrome

Tachycardia and mydriasis are common findings of peripheral anticholinergic syndrome. Flushed skin may be more difficult to detect. Fever is occasionally noted. Bowel sounds may be depressed or absent but are usually persist. Bladder motility may be decreased as well. Although dry mucous membranes may be associated with hyperventilation, dry axillae, in association with the other signs, indicate anticholinergic poisoning and help distinguish it from increased adrenergic activity.

Datura accounts for many admissions to critical care units each year. Although children are occasionally poisoned, most exposure occurs in patients who have ingested seeds or a tea brewed from the seeds in an attempt to induce hallucinations. Death is rare and may occur more as the result of impaired judgment than direct toxicity. A few death reports do seem to indicate potentially fatal toxicity in high-dose exposures.26,27 Petechial hemorrhages of the endocardium and hyperemia and edema of the lungs were reported in both cases.

Laboratory Studies

Atropine may be detected by radioimmunoassay, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, thin-layer chromatography,28 and liquid chromatography. Scopolamine has been analyzed in plasma and urine by radioreceptor assay and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.29

Management

Anticholinergic decontamination is best accomplished with the administration of activated charcoal if the ingestion has occurred within the previous 2 hours. The recommended dose of activated charcoal is 0.5 to 1 g/kg in children or 25 to 100 g in adults. Tachycardia rarely requires treatment. Patients should be monitored for urine output and bladder distention. A nasogastric tube should be inserted in patients with decreased gut motility. Hypotension should be treated with intravenous isotonic fluids. Dopamine may be used if hypotension persists after the patient’s intravascular volume has been restored, but this is unusual. The combination of impaired diaphoresis with agitation may lead to severe hyperthermia, which must be aggressively treated with sedation or paralysis and active cooling. Rhabdomyolysis is common and explains renal failure and other complications seen in severe Datura toxicity. Because of their anticholinergic activity, phenothiazines and diphenhydramine should be avoided. Haloperidol does not appear to be effective for resolution of central anticholinergic effects.30 Benzodiazepines are, on the other hand, effective in the treatment of agitation.

Several authors have advocated the use of intravenous physostigmine for patients with central anticholinergic effects.25,30,31 Physostigmine inhibits acetylcholinesterase, thus increasing the amount of acetylcholine available to the muscarinic receptors. While benzodiazepines may be used to sedate agitated patients, physostigmine may restore the patient’s level of consciousness to its baseline. It is particularly helpful in differentiating anticholinergic poisoning from other causes of altered mental status. It should not be used unless peripheral anticholinergic signs accompany a clinical picture of central anticholinergic poisoning. Seizure activity, bradycardia, heart blocks, and asystole have followed use of physostigmine.32,33 Potential benefit should be weighed against risk before use.

Flashback Friday – Belladonnas Dark Past • University of Virginia School of Nursing

Shakespeare’s Juliet likely took it to fake death, and induce catatonia. 14th century Italian women used it in their eyes to get a glassy, “come hither” look. The Romans contaminated their enemies’ food and liquor supplies with it, and until an FDA crackdown in 2010, some infant teething rings and gels laced with it promised to soothe fussy babies.

But make no mistake about it: Belladonna – derived from plant Atropa belladonna, from the nightshade family – can be dangerous and even deadly.

Belladonna (literally ‘beautiful woman’ in Italian), a plant native to southern Europe, is also commonly known as Atropine, named in the mid-1700s for Atropos, the mythical Greek Fate who cuts the thread of life. Derived by drying and creating a powder from the plant’s leaves and berries, it’s been used for pain relief from ancient to modern times, and remains an ingredient in a variety of homeopathic remedies today that promise to soothe everything from inflammatory bowel disease to asthma, hay fever to colds.

Belladonna is made from the dried leaves and berries of this plant.

0/3

Though used to relieve pain and muscle spasms, it could be used topically, too.

1/3

Clarks Pills were used as a laxative, with ingredients to purge the body.

2/3

 

Nursing textbooks from the 1920s to the 1950s noted Belladonna’s uses – pain reliever, pupil dilator, a muscle relaxant, and respiration booster prior to the use of chloroform anesthesia – and careful dosing parameters, as well as the hazards and symptoms when too much is taken.

“It stands on the borderline between central stimulants and central depressants,” says the 1926 nursing text MATERIA MEDICA, by Linette Parker, B.Sc., RN, “because while it stimulates in therapeutic doses, if certain rather narrow limits of dosage are exceeded, the stimulation passes to depression, and large doses cause complete depression and paralysis.”

At toxic doses, too much belladonna could cause excitement, dry mouth, intense thirst, elevated body temperature, inability to swallow, and talkativeness (called “belladonna jag”), followed by delirium, paralysis, and coma, according to the nursing text THE USE OF DRUGS (Modell: 1955). It was apparently sometimes even a poison of choice for those with criminal intent, being that “the mental symptoms of chronic atropine poisoning are so slow to develop and so prolonged that they have led to diagnoses of insanity” (Parker: 1926).

Belladonna paralyzes nerve endings, causing respiration to rise, and body fluids – mucus, gastric juices, and breast milk – to cease production. Patients with asthma, “colic of the bile ducts,” and “spasms of the heart, bladder and uterus” ingested it for relief, but belladonna could also be used topically as a pain reliever, too. And if a Belladonna plant’s leaves were burned, and the fumes inhaled, it was also said to soothe the hacking of asthmatics and individuals with whooping cough.

This bottle of “Clarks Pills” from our Bjoring Center archives – used as a nighttime laxative or a purgative – also contained ingredients that seemingly had the opposite effect of belladonna: aloin (a stimulant-laxative), capsicum (an herbal supplement derived from peppers), chionanthus (derived from tree and root bark of the fringe tree), calomel (mercurous chloride, a mineral), ipecac (a plant derivative that induces vomiting), irisin (a hormone), and podophyllin (a resin derived from the May apple plant).

We are unsure of its vintage, though Chicago Pharmacal Co. received patents for medicines as late as 1957 (and paid fines in 1946 for “adulteration and misbranding” their sterile solution Thinoicavin), and was ultimately acquired by Alcon Labs – which specializes today in eye care – in 1962.

Belladonna remains a key ingredient in many homeopathic remedies, and is not regulated by the FDA. According to the National Library of Medicine, there remains “insufficient evidence” that Belladonna is effective for treatments (though it’s still used by optometrists and ophthalmologists to dilate patients’ eyes).

This FlashbackFriday brought to you by the Bjoring Center for Nursing Historical Inquiry. Special thanks to AAHN President @Arlene Keeling, professor emerita.

###

Belladonna and Opium | Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

This document, provided by Lexicomp ® , contains all the information you need to know about the drug, including the indications, route of administration, side effects and when you should contact your healthcare provider.

Warning

  • This medicine is a powerful pain reliever that can be addictive, abuse or misuse.Misuse or abuse of this drug can lead to overdose and death. Please consult your doctor.
  • You will be closely monitored to avoid misuse, abuse or dependence on this drug.
  • This drug may cause very bad and sometimes deadly breathing problems. Call a doctor right away if breathing is slow, shallow, or difficult.
  • The risk of serious and sometimes fatal respiratory problems may be increased when this drug is started or if the dose is increased.
  • Even one dose of this drug, taken by another person or by mistake, can be deadly, especially in children. If this drug has been taken by another person or by mistake, get medical help right away.
  • Store all medicines in a safe place.Keep all medicines out of the reach of children and pets.
  • Long-term use of this drug during pregnancy may cause withdrawal in newborns. This can be life threatening. Consult your doctor.
  • This medicinal product contains an opioid. Serious side effects have occurred with the use of opioid drugs with benzodiazepines, alcohol, marijuana, or other forms of cannabis, as well as prescription or over-the-counter drugs that can cause drowsiness or slow action.These effects include slowed down or labored breathing and death. Benzodiazepines include drugs such as alprazolam, diazepam, and lorazepam. Benzodiazepines can be used to treat many health conditions such as anxiety, sleep disturbances, or seizures. If you have any questions, please consult your doctor.
  • Many drugs interact with this drug and can increase the risk of side effects, such as deadly breathing problems.Check with your doctor and pharmacist to make sure this drug is safe to use with all your other drugs.
  • Do not take with alcohol or foods containing alcohol. Dangerous, sometimes deadly, effects can develop.
  • Get immediate medical attention if you feel very sleepy, dizzy, or pass out. Guardians or others should seek immediate medical attention if the patient does not respond, does not respond, or does not respond normally, or if he is asleep and does not wake up.

What is this drug used for?

  • Used to relieve pain.

What should I tell my doctor BEFORE taking this drug?

For all patients taking this drug:

  • In case of an individual allergic reaction to atropine, belladonna, morphine, opium or any other component of this drug.
  • If you are allergic to this drug, any of its ingredients, other drugs, foods or substances.Tell your doctor about your allergy and how it manifested itself.
  • If you have any of the following health conditions: severe reactions to opioid drugs, premature birth, glaucoma, kidney or liver disease, seizures.
  • If you have any of the following health conditions: Lung or breathing problems such as bronchial asthma, difficulty breathing or sleep apnea; high levels of carbon dioxide in the blood; gastrointestinal obstruction or narrowing.
  • If you currently have alcohol withdrawal.
  • If you have recently consumed a large amount of alcohol.
  • If you have taken a drug for depression or Parkinson’s disease in the past 14 days. These include isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, selegiline, or rasagiline. An episode of very high blood pressure may occur.
  • If you are taking any of the following drugs: linezolid or methylene blue.
  • If you are taking any of the following drugs: buprenorphine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, or pentazocine.

Children:

  • If the patient is a child under 12 years of age. Do not give this drug to children younger than 12 years old.

This list of drugs and diseases that may be adversely associated with this drug is not exhaustive.

Tell your doctor and pharmacist about all medicines you take (both prescription and over-the-counter, natural products and vitamins) and your health problems.You need to make sure that this drug is safe for your medical conditions and in combination with other drugs you are already taking. Do not start or stop taking any drug or change the dosage without your doctor’s approval.

What do I need to know or do while taking this drug?

  • Tell all healthcare providers that you are taking this drug.These are doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists.
  • Avoid driving vehicles and other activities that require increased attention until you see how this drug affects you.
  • To reduce the risk of dizziness or loss of consciousness, get up slowly from a lying or sitting position. Use caution when going up and down stairs.
  • Do not use more than the prescribed amount. Do not use more often or for longer than recommended by your doctor.Doing any of these things can increase your risk of developing very serious side effects.
  • If you take this drug for a long time or in high doses, its effectiveness may decrease, and a higher dose may be needed to obtain the same effect. The so-called drug tolerance develops. Talk to your doctor if this drug stops working. Do not take the drug in higher doses than your doctor prescribed.
  • Long-term or regular use of opioid drugs like this can lead to dependence. Reducing the dose or stopping suddenly from this drug may cause a serious risk of a withdrawal reaction or other serious impairment. Talk to your doctor before lowering the dose or stopping this drug. Follow your doctor’s instructions. Tell your doctor if you experience severe pain, mood changes, suicidal thoughts, or any other side effects.
  • This drug may increase the risk of seizures in some people, including people with a history of seizures. Talk with your doctor to see if you are at increased risk of seizures with this drug.
  • Strong light may cause irritation. Wear glasses.
  • Do not take this drug with any other strong pain reliever or with a pain reliever patch without first consulting your doctor.
  • If you are 65 years of age or older, use this drug with caution. You may have more side effects.
  • When used during pregnancy, the drug may have a harmful effect on the fetus. If you are pregnant or become pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.
  • If you are breastfeeding or planning to breastfeed, tell your doctor. This drug passes into breast milk and may harm your baby.

What side effects should I report to my doctor immediately?

WARNING. In rare cases, some people with this drug can have serious and sometimes deadly side effects. Call your healthcare professional or get medical attention right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may be associated with serious side effects:

  • Signs of an allergic reaction such as rash, hives, itching, reddened and swollen skin with blistering or scaling, possibly associated with fever, wheezing or wheezing, tightness in the chest or throat, difficulty breathing, swallowing or speaking, unusual hoarseness, swelling in the mouth, face, lips, tongue, or throat.
  • Difficulty, slow or shallow breathing.
  • Severe dizziness or fainting.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Severe constipation.
  • Convulsions.
  • Chest pain or pressure or heart palpitations.
  • Severe drowsiness.
  • Confusion of consciousness.
  • Obstruction of the urinary tract.
  • Blurred vision.
  • If bright light irritates the eyes.
  • A serious and sometimes deadly condition called serotonin syndrome can happen when this drug is used with certain other drugs.Call your doctor right away if you develop agitation, imbalance, confusion, hallucinations, fever, tachycardia or irregular heartbeat, flushing, muscle twitching or stiffness, seizures, tremors or tremors, excessive sweating, severe diarrhea, nausea or vomiting , severe headache.
  • This type of opioid may occasionally cause very severe adrenal dysfunction. Call your doctor right away if you experience very severe dizziness or fainting, very severe nausea or vomiting, decreased appetite, feeling very tired or weak.
  • Long-term use of an opioid drug can lead to a decrease in the level of sex hormones. If you have a decreased interest in sex, impaired fertility, missing menstrual periods, or trouble ejaculating, see your doctor.

What are some other side effects of this drug?

Any medicine can have side effects. However, many people have little or no side effects.Call your doctor or get medical help if these or any other side effects bother you or do not go away:

  • Dizziness.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Constipation.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Feeling tired or weak.
  • Headache.
  • Abdominal pain.

This list of potential side effects is not exhaustive. If you have any questions about side effects, please contact your doctor.Talk to your doctor about side effects.

You can report side effects to the National Health Office.

You can report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-332-1088. You can also report side effects at https://www.fda.gov/medwatch.

What is the best way to take this drug?

Use this drug as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Read all the information provided to you.Follow all instructions strictly.

  • Apply the candle to the rectum.
  • Before use, remove the foil wrapper and soak the candle in cold water. Using your finger, insert the candle into the rectum at the optimal distance.

What should I do if a dose of a drug is missed?

  • If you are taking this medicine regularly, take the missed dose as soon as you can.
  • If it is time for your next dose, do not take the missed dose and then return to your normal dose schedule.
  • Do not take a double dose or additional doses.
  • In most cases, this drug is used as needed. Do not use this medicine more often than prescribed by your doctor.

How do I store and / or discard this drug?

  • Store at room temperature. Do not place in refrigerator or freezer.
  • Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
  • Store this drug in a protected place, out of the reach of children, and out of the reach of other people.A box or room, which is locked with a key, can act as a protected storage location for the drug. Keep all medicines out of the reach of pets.
  • Dispose of unused or expired drugs. Do not empty into toilet or drain unless directed to do so. If you have any questions about the disposal of your medicinal products, consult your pharmacist. Your area may have drug recycling programs.

General information on medicinal products

  • If your health does not improve or even worsens, see your doctor.
  • You should not give your medicine to anyone and take other people’s medicines.
  • Some medicines may have different patient information sheets. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • A separate patient instruction sheet is attached to the preparation. Please read this information carefully. Reread it every time you replenish your supply. If you have questions about this drug, talk with your doctor, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional.
  • A drug called naloxone can be used to treat an overdose with this drug. Your doctor may prescribe naloxone to keep you with you while you are taking this drug.If you have any questions about buying or using naloxone, ask your doctor or pharmacist. If you think an overdose has occurred, seek immediate medical attention, even if you are using naloxone. Be prepared to tell or show which drug you took, how much and when it happened.

Use of information by the consumer and limitation of liability

This information should not be used to make decisions about taking this or any other drug.Only the attending physician has the necessary knowledge and experience to make decisions about which drugs are appropriate for a particular patient. This information does not guarantee that the drug is safe, effective, or approved for the treatment of any disease or specific patient. Here are only brief general information about this drug. It does NOT contain all available information on the possible use of the drug with instructions for use, warnings, precautions, information about interactions, side effects and risks that may be associated with this drug.This information should not be construed as a treatment guide and does not replace information provided to you by your healthcare professional. For complete information on the possible risks and benefits of taking this drug, consult your doctor. Use of this information is governed by the Lexicomp End User License Agreement available at https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lexicomp/about/eula.

Copyright

© UpToDate, Inc.and its affiliates and / or licensors, 2021. All rights reserved.

90,000 media received reports of US child deaths due to homeopathy

FDA reports of child deaths after taking homeopathic remedies have been leaked to the media. Loss of consciousness, convulsions, delirium, respiratory arrest were caused by a homeopathic medicine with a poisonous plant to relieve teething pain. The manufacturer continues to insist on the safety of the tablets.

“My daughter started having a seizure, passed out and stopped breathing half an hour after I gave her three Hyland’s Teething Tablets.After mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, she breathed again and we rushed to the hospital. ”

This is a story by one of many mothers about the experience of using the homeopathic medicine Hyland’s Teething Tablets to relieve teething pain in children, cited in issue STAT .It contains calcium phosphate, coffee beans, chamomile and belladonna in several decimal dilutions. The described symptoms are characteristic of the poisoning of the latter: belladonna is a poisonous plant that can cause death from paralysis of the respiratory center, its properties were described by ancient Greek doctors.

Other stories did not end well. Using the US Freedom of Information Act, journalists have access to reports on the use of this drug. They describe how children suffered from recurrent seizures after taking them.How they fell into a delusional state. Finally, how they turned blue and died.

From 2006 to 2016 to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

there were almost 400 reports that after taking pills or using gum gel from the same manufacturer with a similar composition, children suffered from seizures and convulsions, fainted, suffocated, suffered from constipation and nausea.

Eight babies died, in two more cases the connection between the death of a child and poisoning with belladonna remained in question.

In November 2016, FDA warned 90,042 parents against using Hyland’s Teething Tablets, but refrained from directly blaming the company due to a lack of evidence of a link between health problems and the drug. Hyland’s also posted on its website about no proven link. The pills are now discontinued, but you can still buy them at the pharmacy or online.

Hyland’s is a privately held company that has existed for over a century.Its representatives insist that their products are safe. “This does not mean that children cannot be sensitive to the components of the drug,” says their spokesman Mary Borneman. “Children are sensitive to many things, and you need to monitor this, but that does not mean that there is something wrong with all the products.”

“This story illustrates the security issue of unscrupulous manufacturers. If homeopathic medicines went through the same checks as usual, then dangerous violations of production technology would be detected.It is clear that a dummy drug cannot harm, but who checked the composition of these funds? Alas, no one, says Alexander Panchin, a member of the RAS Commission for Combating Pseudoscience, Candidate of Science in Biology. – Homeopathic companies do not need to spend money on scientific experiments.

Their task is different: to create such a favorable environment for their sales that even the American FDA, having every reason to do so, could not do anything with them for many years. ”

Despite the statements of employees, some doctors are convinced that there can be no doubt about the dangers of pills.So, in 2011, an American therapist sent a letter to the company, where he told about a five-month-old girl who stopped responding to external stimuli 45 minutes after taking the pills.

“I’m sure it wasn’t an allergic reaction,” he wrote. “I would like you to contact the FDA, initiate an investigation and remove this dangerous drug from pharmacies.”

One of the mothers reported that after taking the pills, her son’s pupils dilated unnaturally, another told about the seizures that began in her daughter after taking the drug.“I hate, I hate, I hate you for this,” she wrote.

Doctors note that often when a child is admitted with a seizure or other symptoms of poisoning, parents do not mention that they gave him homeopathic medicines, as they consider them natural and incapable of harming health. This makes it difficult to diagnose. However, homeopaths are not required to test medicines before they are placed on the market, so the consequences of taking them can be unpredictable. Despite the fact that homeopathy implies dilution of the active substance several tens of times, sometimes its content may be enough to harm the body, especially children.

The perceived “naturalness” of the products has weakened the vigilance of Karinna Talbott, a 26-year-old mother from Colorado Springs. “When our fourth child started to cut teeth at three months, we thought: how can we ease his pain? Someone recommended these pills to us, and we decided to try them. ”

After taking the pills, the baby’s hands began to twitch, but Talbott did not associate this with the drug. And the twitching meanwhile intensified, and the legs began to twitch. The family went to the doctor, but he was not sure about the cause of the seizures.However, when the pills were stopped for the baby, the convulsions stopped.

“The neurologist said he may have been sensitive to the components of the pills,” Talbott said.

When diluted dozens of times, belladonna should not pose a threat to life. But in 2010, the FDA tested the drug and found that the amount of extract in the tablets varied markedly.

The agency issued a warning highlighting that children are highly susceptible to neurotoxic drugs.But the parents continued to use it anyway, and the number of accidents with children grew.

“My son took three Hyland’s Teething Tablets,” another mother reported in 2012 after the drug caused her son to have seizures. – I am shocked by their popularity and lack of warning labels.

If they are going to continue to sell these pills, they must warn parents about the side effects! Do something!”

Despite requests from the FDA to recall the pills from pharmacies, Hyland’s did not.However, the company stopped production on the pretext that the FDA’s reports of the pills’ dangers had caused confusion among parents. An open letter to consumers was published on the manufacturer’s website.

“By forcing you to make choices in the face of conflicting information, the FDA undermines its credibility,” the letter says.”Hyland’s products, including those you already own, are safe to use.”

At the end of January, FDA issued another warning . As it turned out in the course of laboratory analysis, the content of belladonna in the tablets was much higher than that indicated on the package. The FDA has urged parents not to use the pill and seek immediate medical attention if a child develops symptoms such as shortness of breath, muscle weakness, seizures, or any other painful conditions that occur after taking homeopathic medicines.

Recall that in November last year, the US authorities ordered homeopaths to warn consumers about the unscientific nature of the homeopathic approach and the lack of proven effectiveness of the drug. Hyland’s has faithfully followed the letter of the law – their website states that “their products are based on traditional homeopathic practice and have not been tested by the FDA.” True, this message can be hidden by clicking on the cross, and it will no longer appear.

The work of the FDA has raised many questions from consumers.In their opinion, it was possible to deal with the controversial drug much earlier and the agency lost a lot of time, allowing several hundred children to suffer.

90,000 Belladonna is … What is Belladonna?

Belladonna
General view of a flowering plant
Scientific classification

intermediate ranks

View: Belladonna
International scientific name

Atropa belladonna L.

Belladonna , or Ordinary paint , or Beauty , or Sleepy fool , or Crazy berry , or Wild cherry – Atróna [3] 9000 herbaceous plant, species of the genus Krasavka ( Atropa ) of the Solanaceae family ( Solanaceae ).

The specific name “belladonna” (belladonna) comes from Italian words and translated into Russian means “beautiful woman”.In the old days, Italian ladies buried belladonna juice in their eyes, the pupils dilated, and the eyes acquired a special shine, they also rubbed their cheeks with berries so that they acquired a “natural” blush. And in Russia this plant has long been known as “belladonna”. Another name – “rabies” – is associated with the fact that atropine, which is part of the plant, in humans can cause strong excitement, reaching the point of rabies.

Botanical Description

Perennial herb 1-2 m high.

It has a multi-headed rhizome with numerous large branched roots.

Stems are tall, straight, branched, thick, juicy, green or dark purple.

The leaves are petiolate, broadly lanceolate, the lower ones are alternate, the upper ones are paired together (and one is always much larger than the others), dense, up to 20 cm long and up to 10 cm wide, dark green. Outwardly – elliptical, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, pointed towards the apex, whole-edged, tapering towards the base into a short petiole.The color of the leaves is green or brownish green above, lighter below.

Flowers five-membered, solitary, medium-sized, drooping, emerging from the axils of the upper leaves, bell-shaped, regular, with a double perianth; corolla of dirty purple (sometimes yellow) color. Blooms from May to late autumn.

Fruit – a shiny black (sometimes yellow) berry with many seeds in a blue-violet juice, reminiscent of small cherries, sweetish in taste. The fruits ripen from July to the end of the growing season.

Distribution and ecology

Distributed in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco), Central, Southern, Eastern and Western Europe, Crimea, the Caucasus, Asia Minor (Turkey, Syria).

Grows in sparse beech, oak, fir and hornbeam forests, sometimes at an altitude of 1,000 m above sea level.

Grown in culture in the Krasnodar Territory of Russia and the Crimea.

Chemical composition

From left to right: stem, flower, fruit

The aerial part contains flavonoids, oxycoumarins [4] .All parts of the plant are poisonous, contain alkaloids of the atropine group: roots up to 1.3%, leaves up to 1.2%, stems up to 0.65%, flowers up to 0.6%, ripe fruits up to 0.7%. Belladonna, in addition to atropine, also contains hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine). Atropine can cause severe poisoning.

Signs of poisoning

Signs of mild poisoning (appear after 10-20 minutes): dryness and burning sensation in the mouth and throat, difficulty swallowing and speaking, palpitations (tachycardia). The voice becomes hoarse.The pupils are dilated, do not react to light. Near vision is impaired. Photophobia, flashing of flies before the eyes. Dryness and redness of the skin. Excitement, sometimes delusions and hallucinations.

In severe poisoning, complete loss of orientation, sharp motor and mental agitation, sometimes convulsions. A sharp increase in body temperature, shortness of breath with the appearance of periodic respiration of the Cheyne-Stokes type, cyanosis (blue discoloration) of the mucous membranes, an irregular weak pulse, a drop in blood pressure.Death from paralysis of the respiratory center and vascular insufficiency is possible.

A specific complication of atropine poisoning is trophic disorders – significant swelling of the subcutaneous tissue of the face, in the area of ​​the forearms and legs.

First aid

Gastric lavage followed by the introduction through a tube of 200 ml of vaseline oil or 200 ml of 0.2-0.5% tannin solution. For the relief of acute psychosis – chlorpromazine intramuscularly. At high body temperature – cold on the head, wrapping in wet sheets.Of the more specific means – the introduction of 1-2 ml of a 0.05% solution of proserin under the skin.

Option: Gastric lavage with water with the addition of carbolene or potassium permanganate solution 1: 1000, followed by the introduction of a saline laxative by tube, rest, bed rest, cold to the head. For weakness – caffeine tablets. In case of respiratory failure – artificial respiration, oxygen inhalation.

Antidotes are widely available.

Treatment for atropine poisoning

Methods for active detoxification. When taken orally – gastric lavage through a tube, abundantly lubricated with vaseline oil, forced diuresis.

Antidote treatment. In a coma in the absence of sharp excitement – 1 ml of a 1% solution of pilocarpine again, proserin 1 ml of a 0.05% solution or 1 ml of a 0.1% solution of eserine subcutaneously repeatedly.

Symptomatic therapy. When excited, 2.5% chlorpromazine solution – 2 ml intramuscularly, 1% diphenhydramine solution – 2 ml intramuscularly, 1% solution of promedol 2 ml subcutaneously, 5-10 mg of diazepam intravenously.With severe hyperthermia – 4% amidopyrine solution – 10-20 ml intramuscularly, ice bladders on the head and groin areas, wrapping with a damp sheet and blowing with a fan.

Using

In ancient sources, the use of belladonna in medicine is practically not mentioned, although it is quite obvious that its poisonous properties were known. For the first time [ source unspecified 214 days ] belladonna is mentioned as a medicinal plant in De Materia Medica, written by Dioscorides (about 40-90 AD).Only the authors of medieval herbalists told in detail about this medicinal plant. Belladonna is mentioned in Fox’s herbal book published in the second half of the 15th century. But even earlier, people began to use this plant as a source of poison. An ointment was prepared from it, which was used during the witch trials. When rubbed in, the active substances entered the bloodstream, which caused hallucinations, and the victims under torture said whatever was required of them. Lovely potions were also made from belladonna. K. Baugin in the herbalist (Basel, 1596) mentions that the cut and applied belladonna herb heals all ulcers and tumors, inflamed stomach and liver, while quenching the heat.Modern folk medicine refuse to use such a dangerous medicinal plant, but earlier belladonna extracts with wine and juices were taken both internally and as an external remedy for pain of various origins.

Leaf, grass and belladonna root (lat. Folium, Herba, Radix Belladonnae ) are used as medicinal raw materials. Raw materials are collected mainly from plantations: leaves are harvested in the flowering phase, grass – in the fruiting phase; dried quickly at a temperature of 45-50 ° C [4] .

Preparations based on belladonna extract are used to study fundus vessels, inflammatory diseases of the gastric mucosa, bronchial asthma, treatment of gastritis and kidney stones.

Independent use of belladonna is unacceptable.

Pharmacological action

The pharmacological properties of belladonna coincide mainly with those of atropine.

Belladonna preparations prevent the stimulating action of acetylcholine, reduce the secretion of salivary, gastric, bronchial, lacrimal, sweat glands, exocrine function of the pancreas.They reduce the tone of the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, bile ducts and gallbladder, but increase the tone of the sphincters. They cause tachycardia, improve atrioventricular conduction. They dilate the pupils, impede the outflow of intraocular fluid, increase intraocular pressure, cause accommodation paralysis [5] .

Readings

Belladonna preparations are used for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, cholelithiasis, spasms of smooth muscles of the abdominal organs, biliary and renal colic, bradycardia, atrioventricular blockade, hemorrhoids, anal fissures.

Medicines containing belladonna are contraindicated in case of hypersensitivity to their components, angle-closure glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy with impaired urine outflow. During the period of treatment, care must be taken when driving vehicles and engaging in other potentially hazardous activities that require increased concentration of attention, speed of psychomotor reactions and good vision.

As a side effect and in case of an overdose, psychomotor agitation, dry mouth, mydriasis, accommodation paresis, intestinal atony, dizziness, tachycardia, urinary retention, hyperemia of the eyelids, photophobia are observed. [5]

Dosage forms

Used in the following dosage forms:

  • Vegetable raw materials:
    • thick extract ( Extractum Belladonnae spissum ) – a thick mass of dark brown color, a peculiar smell, contains from 1.4 to 1.6% alkaloids.
    • dry extract (Extractum Belladonnae siccum) – a powder of brown or light brown color with a faint odor, a peculiar taste, hygroscopic, contains 0.7-0.8% alkaloids.Due to the lower content of alkaloids in the manufacture of dosage forms, the dry extract is used in double the amount in relation to the thick extract.
  • Tincture ( Tinctura Belladonnae ) is a clear greenish or reddish-brown liquid with a peculiar odor and a bitter taste. Prepared from belladonna leaves (1:10) with 40% alcohol; contains 0.027-0.033% alkaloids.
  • Rectal suppositories with a dosage of 15 mg [5] .

Belladonna preparations are also included in Zelenin drops and many other combined medicines.

Notes

  1. The name Angiosperms is also used.
  2. For the convention of specifying the class of dicotyledons as a superior taxon for the group of plants described in this article, see the APG Systems section of the Dicotyledons article.
  3. V. Dahl’s Explanatory Dictionary gives the following dictionary entry: BELLADONNA – f. poisonous plant Atropa Belladonna; rabies, rabid or wolfberry; beauty, cucumber, cherries, sleepy stupor, black dogs? (dog, nightshade).
  4. 1 2 Blinova K.F. et al. Botanical and pharmacognostic dictionary: Ref. allowance / Ed. K.F. Blinova, G.P. Yakovleva. – M .: Higher. shk., 1990. – S. 198-199. – ISBN 5-06-000085-0
  5. 1 2 3 Search in the drug database, search options: INN – Belladonna leaves , flags “Search in the register of registered drugs” “Search for TKFS” , “Show lekforms” . Circulation of medicines . Federal State Institution “Scientific Center for Expertise of Medicinal Products” of the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare of the Russian Federation (26.05.2009). – A typical clinical and pharmacological article is a by-law and is not protected by copyright in accordance with part four of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation No. 230-FZ of December 18, 2006. Archived from the original on August 22, 2011. Retrieved on August 19, 2009.

Literature

  • Everything about medicinal plants in your beds / Ed.Radelova S. Yu .. – SPb: OOO SZKEO, 2010. – P. 170. – 224 p. – ISBN 978-5-9603-0124-4

References

Medicine Information | Public services portal

In order to avoid the spread of coronavirus infection, you can get free testing for coronavirus infection at the clinic at the place of attachment. For this you need:

  1. Using the portal of public services of the Moscow region: https: // uslugi.mosreg.ru/zdrav/ go to your personal account (enter the number of your compulsory medical insurance policy and your date of birth) and make an appointment with a doctor, then select a convenient date and time for the test in the “Clinical laboratory diagnostics” tab.
  2. If you do not have access to the Internet, you can call the Single number 8-800-550-50-30 and make an appointment by phone.
  3. If you are not attached to the clinic, but you have a compulsory medical insurance policy issued in the Moscow region, use our service.Find the nearest test point on the map and sign up by phone.
  4. Networks of commercial medical centers and laboratories are also available for you, use our service. Find the nearest test point on the map and sign up by phone.

Testing by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) .This is a high-precision method of molecular genetic diagnostics, which allows you to identify various infectious and diseases in a person, both in the acute stage and long before the disease can manifest itself.

A swab is taken from the nose and oropharynx.

Simple preparation required for research:

  • Two hours before the test, it is recommended not to eat, drink or smoke.
  • For 30 minutes, do not chew gum and suck candy, gargle, use a spray or nasal drops.

Networks of certified government and commercial medical organizations and laboratories are available for you, where you can get tested on a paid basis, use our service. Find the nearest point on the map and sign up by phone.

Appointment to doctors:

  • renewed appointment to see physicians, pediatricians, surgeons, oncologists, obstetricians-gynecologists, dentists, psychiatrists-narcologists, psychiatrists, phthisiatricians, dermatovenerologists;
  • registration to narrow specialists: cardiologist, endocrinologist, neurologist – referral from a general practitioner, pediatrician and general practitioner;
  • it is possible to make an independent appointment with a narrow specialist if you are registered with him at the dispensary.

Temporarily suspended:

  • preliminary, periodic preventive medical examinations;
  • vaccine prevention;
  • planned prophylactic medical examination;
  • day hospitalization.

IF you have a fever, cough and runny nose, you need to stay at home and call a doctor in one of the following ways:

  1. Call 8-800-550-50-30;
  2. Place a call on the public services portal;
  3. Call an ambulance at 112.

Belladonna – Item – World of Warcraft

Comment by

V3rtige

Weird that it’s said “Added in patch 8.3.0” when you actually find those in Revendreth

Comment by

lucka23

As of now, only ONE person in a group was able to loot this. I do not know if this is across the board with all players.

Comment by

Melch2337

With the combined data of over 100.000 herbs, these are the milling results:

Results are per 100 herbs:
19.6 Umbral pigment 9.9 Luminous pigment 0.5 Tranquil pigment – Bone Root
19.4 Umbral pigment 9.6 Luminous pigment 0.5 Tranquil pigment – Widow flower
9.9 Umbral pigment 19.4 Luminous pigment 0.5 Tranquil pigment – Slavolist
9.7 Umbral pigment 20.5 Luminous pigment 0.4 Tranquil pigment – Sentinel torch
14.4 Umbral pigment 14.7 Luminous pigment 0.5 Tranquil pigment – Deathbloom
26.3 Umbral pigment 23.2 Luminous pigment 30.5 Tranquil pigment – Belladonna

As we round these numbers up it’s easy to see Deathbloom gives about equal amounts of Umbrals and Luminous.
Bone Root and Widow Blossom give twice as many Umbrals as Luminous.
Gladolist and Watcher’s Torch give twice the amount of Luminous as Umbrals.

Comment from

SaclemAmanThul

This is the rare herb of Shadowlands, which is the same way Anchor Weed is designed. They have a chance to spawn every time herbs respawn.

After days of farming I have found a really easy route with no mobs!

Head to Aspirant’s Rest in Bastion .
Head up to (45.79) – there are normally 2-4 going up there.
Come back down the hill and head to (50.76) (a very likely spawn for Belladonna)
then head over to around (52.73) , near Crystal Beak (another very likely spawn for Belladonna)
and then head up hill along the road again – there are plenty that spawn along the way.

By the time you walk this route, new ones have spawned again. I was getting at least 1 Belladonna spawn every couple of runs, and TONNES of Sweetheart, and Deathbloom

Hope this helps!

Comment by

Dijkstrath

Anyone know how I can harvest these? Any time I harvest one, I get a “Nightshade Petal” with a description that says “This herb requires a special knowledge to harvest correctly.”I’ve tried googling but I can’t find anything.

Comment by

gogocaptain

for those wanting to mill mass amount of this. Will lead to lot of which very pricy to buy but the end results are awsome

Comment by

SuperSnivy

Strangely, this herb can be found in the Maw.How they survive is anyone’s guess.

Comment by

octavitza

It’s not reare. You can find a lot in Korthia

Belladonna is a dangerous medicine for pain: medicinal properties

Belladonna treats eye diseases, stomach and duodenal ulcers, hernia, tuberculosis.An article on the medicinal properties of belladonna.

Anisimov A.M.
⏳ 03-12-2018 08-05-2021

Belladonna flower. Photo: Puusterke Belladonna flower. Photo: Puusterke

Belladonna and belladonna preparations treat eye diseases, stomach and intestinal ulcers, joint pain, epilepsy and hernia. The medicinal properties of belladonna are pronounced, but the danger to humans when collecting leaves is very high. It is worth thinking ten times before harvesting and treating belladonna leaves.

Belladonna grows in the wild in the Caucasus and Ukraine (and the Crimea, the Carpathians) – on forest edges, forest roads and on the banks of rivers. It is widely cultivated in Belarus, in the North Caucasus, in the Crimea, in the Nizhny Novgorod, Novosibirsk and Moscow regions and even in the Far East.

Botanical description

Belladonna (belladonna, sleepy stupor) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae family. In the first year of growth, the plant, having only basal leaves, stands out for its unbranched stem 60–90 cm high.During the second year, the stems of belladonna reach a height of one to one and a half meters.

Belladonna berries give the plant belongs to the Solanaceae family. Photo: Le petit herboriste

At the bottom, the stems are simple, and at the top, fork-like branched, covered with glandular hairs, ash.

Belladonna leaves are alternate, ovate, pointed; the upper side of the leaf is green, bare; the lower one is gray-green, glandular-pubescent. The lower leaves are almost 25 cm long and half as wide.

Belladonna flowers are yellowish or greenish brown, bell-shaped, drooping, sit one by one, less often two in the axils of the leaves. The fruit is a black, shiny, juicy berry. Belladonna blooms in June – August.

Medicinal properties and preparation of raw materials

Belladonna – highly poisonous plant , all parts of the plant are poisonous. Leaves are harvested as a medicinal raw material during flowering (June – August). When working with belladonna leaves, you must work with gloves, it is forbidden to touch your face, lips and eyes with to protect yourself from poisoning.

Leaves are harvested for medicinal purposes, taking precautions. Photo: RWBY Wiki

Belladonna is rich in atropine and other alkaloids, therefore it is used in scientific medicine:

  • as an analgesic and antispasmodic agent,
  • for gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
  • for articular, muscle and neuralgic pain
  • pulmonary tuberculosis,

  • with purulent bronchitis,
  • with convulsive cough,
  • epilepsy,
  • hernia.

Belladonna is used to treat bradycardia (slow heartbeat).

Atropine – a drug from belladonna – is used to treat eye diseases, but is contraindicated in glaucoma .

Atropine is an effective antidote for poisoning with morphine and poisonous mushrooms (take 20 drops of tincture at a time).

Belladonna preparations are taken for spasmodic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder), for cholelithiasis and for bronchial asthma as an antispasmodic and analgesic agent.

Before the arrival of the doctor, people use belladonna in the form of powder and fresh juice, this is permissible at home, but with a strict dosage of .

Methods of using belladonna preparations:

  • Belladonna leaf powder: 0.01–0.02 g each ramma, that is, on the tip of a penknife, 2-3 times a day.
  • Fresh belladonna juice: 5-10 drops, 2 times a day.

Signs of belladonna poisoning

Signs of mild poisoning (appear after 10–20 minutes): dryness and burning sensation in the mouth and throat, difficulty swallowing and speaking, palpitations (tachycardia).The voice becomes hoarse. The pupils are dilated, do not react to light. Near vision is impaired. Photophobia, flashing of flies before the eyes. Dryness and redness of the skin. Excitement, sometimes delusions and hallucinations.

In severe poisoning, complete loss of orientation, sharp motor and mental agitation, sometimes convulsions. A sharp increase in body temperature, shortness of breath with the appearance of periodic breathing of the Cheyne-Stokes type, cyanosis (blue discoloration) of the mucous membranes, an irregular weak pulse, a drop in blood pressure.Death from paralysis of the respiratory center and vascular insufficiency is possible.

A specific complication of atropine poisoning is trophic disorders – significant swelling of the subcutaneous tissue of the face, in the area of ​​the forearms and legs.

Source: Wikipedia

Sources:

  1. Belladonna – Wikipedia

Industrial medicine technology. Electronic textbook


Questions for self-check




Question 3. For the rectification of valuable extractants in production, rectification columns are used, which are classified depending on the internal structure. Select the correct one from the listed classifications:

Packing, sieve, cap, film

Rotary, drip-jet, condensing

Carousel, nozzle, cap, film

Rotary, sieve, condensing

Sieve, rotary, carousel, film, condensation























Question 25. The phytochemical department of the enterprise produces tinctures using the repercolation method. In what sequence is the equipment used:

Scales, grinder, sieve, measuring tank, battery of percolators, sump, filter

Scales, measuring tank, percolator battery, sedimentation tank

Scales, grinder, sieve, measuring tank, percolators, settler, filter, evaporator “Simax”

Batch, grass cutter, vibrating sieve, scales, percolator, sump

Mernik, grass cutter, vibrating sieve, battery of percolators, sump




Question 28. The phytochemical department of the enterprise produces tinctures by maceration. Specify the sequence of technological operations when receiving tinctures by this method:

Infusion for 7 days with periodic stirring of the resulting extract, cleaning the extract, standardization, packaging

Soaking for swelling, infusion for 24-48 hours, obtaining an extract, cleaning the extract, standardization, packaging

Infusion for 24-48 hours, obtaining an extract, cleaning the extract, standardization, packing

Infusion for 7 days, obtaining an extract, cleaning the extract, standardization, packing

Soaking for swelling, infusion for 7 days, obtaining an extract, cleaning the extract, standardization, packaging













































Question 72. The main working parts of the Simax vacuum evaporator are:

Heating flask, “trunk”, expander flask, refrigerator, receiver

Spray nozzles, shaft with scrapers, body with heated walls, spray catcher

Pump, nozzles, heat exchanger, evaporation chamber, fan, separator, working tank

Extractor, siphon tube, heating flask, refrigerator

Expansion flask, shaft with scrapers, fan, separator









Question 80. The plant’s phytochemical department produces oil extracts. What extraction methods are more rational to use in this case:

Countercurrent extraction, percolation, repercolation, maceration

Fractional maceration, percolation, repercolation, maceration

Fractional maceration, countercurrent extraction, circulating liquefied gas extraction

Circulating extraction with liquefied gases, percolation, repercolation, maceration

Fractional maceration, countercurrent extraction, percolation, repercolation











Total questions:

Received replies:

Correct:

Incorrect:

.