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Splinter in hand infected: How to Remove a Splinter


6 Creative Ways to Painlessly Remove a Splinter

Splinters are a huge bummer. At best, they’re irritating. At worst, they can get infected and turn into a much bigger issue. Luckily, there are a number of ways to quickly and painlessly remove a splinter at home. Below are some tips for how to remove a splinter yourself.

But first, here’s what not to do when removing a splinter

Don’t try to “squeeze” it out. You’ll risk splitting the splinter into parts which will make it much more difficult to remove. Also, it’s best not to try to remove certain kinds of splinters at home. If the splinter is very large, deep, infected, or located on or near your eye, it will likely require medical attention. Splinters that go straight into the skin are also notoriously tricky to remove by yourself. If any of these things are going on, make an appointment at your local urgent care center and they’ll fix you right up.

How to Remove a Splinter

A tried and true way to remove a splinter: tweezers and a needle

Most splinters can be taken care of at home with the good old tweezers and needle approach. But remember, it’s best to deal with a splinter right away. You don’t want it to burrow deeper into the skin or get infected.

The first step is to clean the area (with soap and water) and your tools (you can clean tweezers and the needle with rubbing alcohol). Then, inspect the splinter to see which direction it entered the skin and whether a portion of it is poking out or not. A magnifying glass is super helpful here (and a good thing to have in your first aid kit). If a section of the splinter is visible, use the tweezers to pull it out the same way it went in.

If the entire splinter is embedded in the skin, however, you’ll need that small needle. Gently pierce the surface of the skin at one end of the splinter. Keep lightly pushing out part of the splinter until you can see the tip. Then use your tweezers to remove it. After you’re done, clean the area again, apply petroleum jelly, and bandage it up until it heals.

Tweezer method not working? Not a problem. Here are six more creative, easy ways to remove that pesky splinter.  

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1. Pull it off with duct tape

Sticky tape (like duct tape) can work wonders to remove shallow splinters. Cover the tip of a splinter with a small piece of tape and leave it on for 30 minutes. Then slowly remove the tape in the opposite direction that the splinter entered the skin. The tape should stick to the end of the splinter and pull it free as you peel the tape away. Pro tip: soak the area in water first to soften the skin.

2. Cover it with baking soda paste

Make a paste using one tablespoon of baking soda and one tablespoon of water. Cover the skin around the splinter with the paste. Then, put a bandage over the area and leave it alone for at least 24 hours. The baking soda solution should work to pull the splinter up to the surface, making it easier to pull out with tweezers easily and painlessly.

3. Peel it away with glue

Elmer’s glue can also come to the rescue in splinter situations. Simply cover the area of skin around the splinter with glue and let it dry completely (it won’t work if it’s still wet). Once the glue is dry, peel it off. It should come out quickly when you peel away the glue. This method is best used if the splinter is small and near the surface.

4. Use hydrogen peroxide to pop it out

Pour a little hydrogen peroxide over the affected area. As the peroxide bubbles, it will move the splinter closer towards the surface. In just a few minutes, the peroxide can pop the splinter completely out of the skin, without any pain. This method can work on large splinters but may be less effective if the splinter is too deep. Don’t have any hydrogen peroxide laying around? Try white vinegar instead.

5. Soak it in epsom salts

Epsom salt baths are miracle workers for a number of ailments, including splinters. They can help draw those deep splinters closer to the surface. Just dissolve a cup of the salts into a warm bath and soak the affected area. You can also put some salts on a bandage pad and leave it on your skin for the day. The salts will work to bring the splinter up to a tweezable location.

6. Try banana peels or sliced potatoes

Some people swear by potatoes or banana peels for their splinter removal abilities. Tape a slice of a potato or a portion of a ripe banana peel over the splinter area. The enzymes will go to work to soften your skin, helping to move the splinter towards the surface. Leave it on for a few hours, or better yet, overnight. Hopefully by morning, the splinter will rise to the surface where you can pull it out with tweezers. If it doesn’t work after one night, replace the peel or slice and keep it on for another day.

Getting a splinter out doesn’t have to be a painful process. Depending on where the splinter is and how deep it goes, you may be able to get it out of your skin by yourself. However, if you’re feeling iffy or suspect that the wound may be infected, take out the guesswork and book an appointment at one of Solv’s urgent care centers.

Foreign object in the skin: First aid

You can usually safely remove a small foreign object — such as a wood splinter, thorn, fiberglass or glass — that’s just under the surface of the skin:

  • Wash your hands and clean the area well with soap and water.
  • Use tweezers cleaned with rubbing alcohol to remove the object. Use a magnifying glass to help you see better.
  • If the object is under the surface of the skin, sterilize a clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. Use the needle to gently break the skin over the object and lift up the tip of the object.
  • Use a tweezers to grab the end of the object and remove it.
  • Wash the area again and pat dry. Apply petroleum jelly or an antibiotic ointment.

Seek prompt medical help for a foreign object that seems to be more deeply embedded in the skin or muscle. Follow these precautions and steps first:

  • Don’t try to remove the object. Doing so could cause further harm.
  • Bandage the wound. First put a piece of gauze over the object. Then, if it helps, put clean padding around the object before binding the wound securely with a bandage or a piece of clean cloth. Take care not to press too hard on the object.

In addition, seek medical help if:

  • The object is hard to see (as with clear glass) or doesn’t come out easily (as with a fishhook).
  • The injury involves an eye or is close to an eye.
  • The wound is deep or dirty and the injured person’s last tetanus vaccination was more than five years ago. The doctor may recommend a booster.


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Show references

  1. Litin SC, et al., eds. First aid and emergency care. In: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book. 5th ed. Mayo Clinic; 2018.
  2. Thompson DA. Skin, foreign body. In: Adult Telephone Protocols: Office Version. 4th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics; 2018.
  3. How to remove a splinter. American Academy of Dermatology. https://www.aad.org/injured-skin/remove-splinters. Accessed Oct. 24, 2019.


Removing a Splinter – Consumer Health News

Getting a splinter is a common occurrence, but removing one is easy. It’s important to do so right away, however, since splinters left in the skin can become infected. Be careful not to let a wooden splinter get wet for very long because the moisture will make it swell.

Start by washing your hands with soap and water, then washing the affected area. If one end of the splinter is sticking out of the skin, grasp it with tweezers and gently pull it out. (Remember to pull in the opposite direction from the way the object entered the skin.) Clean the area well with soap and water, and apply a bandage.

If the object is completely embedded in the skin, you’ll need to enlarge the puncture in the skin through which the splinter entered, or create a small opening to reach it, using a sterilized needle or tweezers as tools. In difficult cases, you may need to visit a doctor or nurse to have this done for you.

What you’ll need

  • Tweezers
  • A bandage
  • A needle
  • Alcohol or a match

What to do

Wash your hands, then clean the affected area with soap and water as well. Next clean the needle, either by rinsing it in alcohol, holding it in a flame for a few seconds, or boiling it for about five minutes. If you use a flame, protect your fingers by grasping the needle with a piece of cloth, and wipe off any carbon deposit that may be left on the needles tip.

Let the needle cool off before you deal with the splinter. Pierce the surface of the skin with the needle at one end of the splinter. (You may need to use the needle to create an opening large enough to grasp the splinter with tweezers.) Gently grasp the exposed end of the splinter and remove it. A magnifying glass can help you see the object better.

For a splinter under a fingernail

If the splinter is embedded too deeply to reach, use nail clippers to cut a V-shaped notch in the nail above the splinter. Remove just enough nail to allow you to reach the splinter with the tweezers. Then wash the area with soap and water, and apply an antibiotic ointment and a bandage.

When to see a doctor

Watch for signs of infection. These include a mild fever, pus, swelling, redness, or a feeling of heat radiating outward from the site of the splinter. If the area becomes infected, call your doctor. It’s also important to call your doctor if:

  • The splinter is large enough to have damaged blood vessels, nerves, or other parts of the body.
  • The splinter is in or near the eye.
  • The splinter cannot be removed.

You probably don’t have to worry about very small splinters in areas of the body that don’t pose a danger. They will usually just disintegrate or fall out by themselves as the skin grows and exfoliates.


Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care, American Medical Association.

American College of Emergency Physicians, First Aid Manual.

The American Red Cross First Aid and Safety Handbook.

MayoClinic.com. Foreign object in the skin: First aid.

National Library of Medicine Medical Encyclopedia. Splinter Removal.

Sliver or Splinter | | SG Pediatrics

First Aid – Removing a Fishhook

This method of fishhook removal is sometimes called the Advance and Cut Method.

There are four steps in removing a fishhook:

  1. Step 1. Using pliers (or needle drivers) firmly grasp the hook.
  2. Step 2. Push (advance) the hook until the tip of the hook pops out through the skin.
  3. Step 3. Cut off the tip of the hook and the barb.
  4. Step 4. Back out the hook out.

Important Note:

  • Use these instructions when you can’t get into see a doctor right away. Most of the time, it is best to have a doctor (or other health care provider) remove a fishhook.
  • The hook in this drawing has only a single barb at the tip, so the tip of the hook (with the barb) can be cut off and the hook pulled backwards through the skin.
  • Some hooks can have more than one barb. In such cases, it is better to cut off the ring at the bottom of the hook and push the hook all of the way through the skin.

First Aid – Removing a Splinter

You can remove splinters, larger slivers, and thorns with a needle and tweezers. Check the tweezers before you start, to be certain the ends meet exactly. If they do not, bend them until they do. Sterilize the tools with rubbing alcohol or a flame.

Clean the skin around the sliver carefully with rubbing alcohol before trying to remove it. Be careful not to push the splinter in deeper. If you don’t have rubbing alcohol, use soap and water, but don’t soak the area if splinter is wood. Reason: soaking can cause swelling of the splinter.

Remove the splinter:

  • Step 1: Use the needle to completely expose the large end of the sliver. Use good lighting. A magnifying glass may help.
  • Step 2: Then grasp the end of the sliver firmly with the tweezers and pull it out at the same angle that it went in. Getting a good grip the first time is very important for slivers that go in perpendicular to the skin or those trapped under the fingernail.

Easy Ways to Remove a Splinter

Summer is a time for frolicking around in sandals, flip-flops, and of course bare feet. It’s also a time for splinters. Splinters are painful and can need medical attention, but most of the time the occasional piece of wood that gets stuck in your hand or foot can be remedied at home. Tweezers and/or sterilized needles work well, especially if the splinter isn’t too deep.

Sometimes, though, these common household items can incite screaming and crying when the patient is a child, or can be difficult to use if you are by yourself. If you’d prefer a more “natural” removal method, why not give one of these a try:


From Duct to Scotch to masking many people swear by this removal method. This method is best for more superficial splinters rather than deep ones. Simply break off a piece of tape large enough to cover the area, then pull off the tape in the opposite direction the splinter went in.

Potato Slices
Cut a potato into thin slices. Place one slice on the splinter (use the side without the skin). Varying sources suggest leaving it on the spot for 10-20 minutes to the whole night. If you decide to leave it overnight, secure the potato slice with two bandages to keep it in place. When you remove the potato, it should pull out the splinter.

Baking Soda Paste
This method is best for those tiny, invisible splinters. You should use this only after you’ve tried other methods, as this paste will cause the skin to swell and push the splinter out. Make the paste by combining about ¼ tsp of baking soda with enough water to give it a paste-like consistency. Apply the paste to the cleaned area and put a bandage on top to keep it in secured. Leave it in place for 24 hours, and then remove. The splinter may be sticking out and need to be pulled out the rest of the way with tweezers or sterilized needle. If you don’t see it, repeat this process for another 24 hours.

Which splinter removal do you use? Share your favorite remedy here.

Keep Exploring

Sliver or Splinter – Pediatrician in {Cincinnati}, {OH}

Is this your child’s symptom?

  • A foreign object stuck in the skin
  • Some examples are a wood splinter, fishhook, glass sliver or needle

Symptoms of a Foreign Object in the Skin

  • Pain. Most tiny slivers in the top layer of skin do not cause much pain. An example of these tiny slivers is plant stickers. Objects that are deeper or go straight down are usually painful to pressure. Objects in the foot are very painful with standing or walking.
  • Foreign Object Sensation. Older children may complain about something being in the skin. (“I feel something in there.”)

Types of Foreign Bodies (Objects)

  • Wood (Organic): splinters, cactus spines, thorns, toothpicks. These objects are irritating and become infected if not removed.
  • Metallic: BBs, nails, sewing needles, pins, tacks
  • Fiberglass slivers
  • Fishhooks may have a barbed point that makes removal difficult
  • Glass sliver
  • Pencil lead (graphite, not lead)
  • Plastic sliver

When to Call for Sliver or Splinter

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • Object is a BB
  • Object is causing severe pain
  • You want a doctor to take out the object
  • You tried and can’t get the object out
  • Wound looks infected (spreading redness)
  • Fever occurs
  • You think your child has a serious injury
  • You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Deep puncture wound and last tetanus shot was more than 5 years ago
  • You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • You have other questions or concerns

Self Care at Home

  • Tiny, pain-free slivers near the surface that don’t need to be removed
  • Tiny plant or cactus spines or fiberglass slivers that need to be removed
  • Minor sliver, splinter or thorn that needs removal. You think you can do it at home.

Care Advice for Minor Slivers and Splinters

  1. Tiny, Pain-Free Slivers – Treatment:
    • Tiny, pain-free slivers near the skin surface can be left in.
    • They will slowly work their way out with normal shedding of the skin.
    • Sometimes, the body also will reject them by forming a little pimple. This will drain on its own. Or you can open up the pimple. Use a clean needle. The sliver will flow out with the pus.
  2. Tiny Painful Plant Stickers – Treatment:
    • Plant stickers or cactus spines are hard to remove. Fiberglass slivers may also be hard to get out. Reason: They are fragile. Most often, they break when pressure is applied with a tweezers.
    • Tape. First, try touching the spot lightly with tape. The stickers should attach to the tape. You can use packaging tape, duct tape or another very sticky tape.
    • Wax Hair Remover. If tape doesn’t work, use wax hair remover. Put a thin layer on. Let it air dry for 5 minutes. You can also speed up the process with a hair dryer. Then peel it off with the stickers. Most will be removed. The others will usually work themselves out with normal shedding of the skin.
  3. Needle and Tweezers for Slivers and Splinters:
    • For larger splinters, slivers or thorns, remove with a needle and tweezers.
    • Check the tweezers first. Be certain the ends (pickups) meet exactly. If they do not, bend them. Clean the tool with rubbing alcohol before using them.
    • Clean the skin around the sliver briefly with rubbing alcohol. Do this before trying to remove it. If you don’t have any, use soap and water. Caution: Don’t soak the spot if the foreign object is wood. Reason: can cause swelling of the splinter.
    • Use the needle to uncover the large end of the sliver. Use good lighting. A magnifying glass may help.
    • Grasp the end firmly with the tweezers. Pull it out at the same angle that it went in. Get a good grip the first time. This is important for slivers that go straight into the skin. This is also important for those trapped under the fingernail.
    • For slivers under a fingernail, sometimes part of the nail must be cut away. Use a fine scissors to expose the end of the sliver.
    • Slivers (where you can see all of it) often can be removed at home. Pull on the end. If the end breaks off, open the skin with a sterile needle. Go along the length of the sliver and flick it out.
  4. Antibiotic Ointment:
    • Wash the area with soap and water before and after removal.
    • Use an antibiotic ointment (such as Polysporin) once after sliver is taken out. No prescription is needed. This will help to decrease the risk of infection.
  5. Call Your Doctor If:
    • You can’t get the object out
    • Object is out, but pain gets worse
    • Starts to look infected
    • You think your child needs to be seen
    • Your child becomes worse

And remember, contact your doctor if your child develops any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Copyright 2000-2020 Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

First Aid – Removing a Splinter

You can remove splinters, larger slivers, and thorns with a needle and tweezers. Check the tweezers beforehand to be certain the ends (pickups) meet exactly. (If they do not, bend them.) Sterilize the tools with rubbing alcohol or a flame.

Clean the skin surrounding the sliver briefly with rubbing alcohol before trying to remove it. Be careful not to push the splinter in deeper. If you don’t have rubbing alcohol, use soap and water, but don’t soak the area if FB is wood (Reason: can cause swelling of the splinter).

Remove the splinter:

  • Step 1: Use the needle to completely expose the large end of the sliver. Use good lighting. A magnifying glass may help.
  • Step 2: Then grasp the end firmly with the tweezers and pull it out at the same angle that it went in. Getting a good grip the first time is especially important with slivers that go in perpendicular to the skin or those trapped under the fingernail.

90,000 Frequently Asked Questions about HIV and AIDS


1) What is HIV?

HIV is the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system (mainly CD4-positive T cells and macrophages, essential cellular components of the immune system), destroying or disrupting them. Infection with this virus leads to a progressive depletion of the immune system, which results in immunodeficiency.

Immunodeficiency is a condition of the immune system in which it can no longer fulfill its role in the fight against infections and diseases. Immunocompromised people are significantly more vulnerable to a variety of infections and various cancers, most of which are rare in people who are not immunocompromised. Diseases associated with severe immunodeficiency are called opportunistic infections because they get the opportunity to develop due to a weakened immune system.

2) What is AIDS?

AIDS – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome is a complex of symptoms and infections associated with acquired deficiency of the immune system. It has been established that the cause of AIDS is HIV infection. The transition from HIV infection to AIDS is determined by the degree of immunodeficiency or the appearance of certain infectious diseases-indicators (see question 4) .

3) What are the symptoms of HIV infection?

Most people with HIV are unaware of this.Some people may develop a painful condition resembling glandular fever (with a rise in temperature, rash, joint pain and swollen lymph nodes) immediately after infection, coinciding with the period of seroconversion. Seroconversion is the appearance of antibodies to HIV, which usually occurs within the second month after infection ( see question 32) .

Although there are often no symptoms when infected with HIV, the infected person becomes contagious himself and can transmit the virus to other people ( cm.question 7) . You can determine if you are HIV-positive using HIV test (go to question 31) .

HIV infection leads to a gradual depletion and weakening of the immune system. This makes the person more vulnerable to infectious diseases and certain types of cancer and may develop AIDS ( see questions 2 and 4 ) .

4) When is it believed that a person has AIDS?

The term “AIDS” is applied to the last stages of the development of HIV infection.

Without treatment, most people with HIV develop AIDS symptoms after 8-10 years.

The development of certain infections indicates the presence of AIDS. The first stage of HIV disease is asymptomatic and is not considered AIDS. The second (accompanied by minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent infections of the respiratory tract), the third (chronic diarrhea of ​​unknown etiology, lasting more than a month, severe bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis) and the fourth (toxoplasmosis of the brain, candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs and Kaposi’s sarcoma ) the stages of HIV disease are AIDS and are determined by the presence of the corresponding diseases. Most of these diseases are opportunistic infections that are easily treatable in healthy people.

In addition to this classification, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention diagnoses AIDS if the number of CD4 positive T cells in 1 mm 3 blood is less than 200 (see: http://www.cdc.gov/epo/ dphsi / print / aids1993.htm). CD4 positive T cells are vital for the body’s effective immune response to infections.

5) How quickly do people with HIV develop AIDS?

This period can be different for different people.It can take 10-15 years from HIV infection to AIDS, sometimes even more, sometimes less. Antiretroviral therapy prevents progression to AIDS by reducing viral load on the infected organism (see question 26) .


6) Where is HIV found?

HIV is present in body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk.

7) How can HIV be transmitted?

HIV is transmitted through penetrative (anal or vaginal) sex, blood transfusion, the use of one contaminated syringe in medical institutions and through injecting drug use, as well as from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

Sexual transmission of the virus

HIV can be transmitted through penetrative sex. This method of HIV transmission is not very effective, therefore, with a single vaginal intercourse, the risk of infection is low.According to statistics, infection is 10 times more likely to occur with anal sex than with vaginal sex. For an untreated patient with an STI, especially if there is ulceration or discharge, the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV during sex is on average 6 to 10 times higher.

Oral sex is considered a low-risk sexual activity in terms of HIV transmission.

Transmission of the virus by sharing needles and syringes

Reusing or sharing needles or syringes is a highly effective mode of HIV transmission.The risk of transmission among people who inject drugs can be significantly reduced by always using new disposable needles and syringes or by properly sterilizing reusable needles / syringes before using (see question 19) . To reduce transmission in healthcare settings, healthcare professionals should follow universal precautions (go to question 20) .

Mother-to-child transmission

A baby can get HIV from a mother during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.In general, the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV before and during childbirth is 15 to 30%. Several factors can increase the likelihood of infection, in particular the viral load on the mother at birth (the higher the load, the higher the risk). After birth, a mother can also transmit the virus to her baby through breastfeeding (see question 21) . If the mother receives antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby is very low.

Transmission of the virus through blood transfusion

With transfusions of contaminated blood and blood products, the risk of contracting HIV is very high (over 90%). However, the implementation of blood safety standards ensures that all patients requiring transfusion receive only safe, quality and compliant blood and blood products. Ensuring blood safety includes screening all donated blood for HIV and other blood-borne pathogens, and proper selection of donors.

8) What is the risk of HIV transmission through kissing, including deep kissing?

No risk of transmission with kissing on the lips.The possibility of spreading the virus through saliva during kissing has not been confirmed.

9) What is the risk of HIV transmission through piercing or tattooing?

There is a risk of HIV transmission if contaminated instruments are not sterilized or reused. Instruments that compromise the integrity of the skin should be used once and then disposed of or thoroughly cleaned and sterilized.

10) What is the risk of HIV transmission if you use an infected person’s razor?

Any cut with an unsterilized object, such as a razor blade, can transmit HIV. Sharing razors is not recommended unless they are sterilized after each use.

11) Is it safe to have sex with someone living with HIV?

Sex with a person living with HIV is safe if the person’s virus is completely suppressed through treatment. Sex is also safe with proper condom use or pre-exposure prophylaxis as recommended by the healthcare provider.

12) Is it safe for two people living with HIV to have unprotected sex exclusively with each other?

It is undesirable for people living with HIV to become infected with another strain of the virus.Therefore, the recommendations given in the answer to question 11 should be followed – apart from advice on pre-exposure prophylaxis, as it is not intended for people living with HIV.


13) How can HIV infection be prevented?

Sexual transmission of HIV can be prevented in the following ways:

  • Monogamous relationship between uninfected partners.
  • Non-penetrating sex.
  • Consistent and correct use of male or female condoms.
  • Couple sex in which one partner is living with HIV but is on antiretroviral therapy and has undetectable viral load
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis for people not infected with HIV.
  • Voluntary medical male circumcision reduces a man’s risk of contracting HIV from women.

Additional ways to prevent infection:

  • If ​​you inject drugs, always use new disposable needles and syringes, or reusable needles and syringes that are properly sterilized before use (seequestion 20) , or select other preventive measures such as opioid substitution therapy.
  • Ensure that blood safety standards are followed and that blood and blood products are tested for HIV.
  • See questions 19-22 .
14) What is “less risky sexual behavior”?

Less risky sexual behavior is the use of precautions that reduce the risk of transmitting or receiving sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, through sex. These practices include correct and consistent condom use during sex, oral and non-penetrative sex, and pre-exposure prophylaxis if you are at risk of HIV infection or have undetectable viral load while living with HIV.

15) How effectively do condoms protect against HIV?

Quality assured condoms are the only product available today that protects against HIV and other STIs during sex.Used correctly, condoms are a proven and effective means of preventing HIV infection for both women and men.

Condoms must be used correctly and consistently in order to be effective. If used improperly, the condom may slip or break and the protective effect will be reduced.

16) How to use the male condom?
  • Lubricated condoms are less likely to break during handling and use.Do not use oil-based lubricants, such as petroleum jelly, as they can damage the condom.
  • The condom should be opened immediately prior to use. Otherwise, the grease will dry on it. When opening the package, be careful not to break or damage the condom. If the condom breaks, throw it away and open a new container.
  • The condom in the package is rolled into a flat circle. Place the rolled condom over the glans of the penis with the right side out.Use your thumb and forefinger to squeeze the tip of the condom to squeeze air out of it. This will leave room for semen after ejaculation. While holding the tip of the condom with one hand, roll out the entire length of the erect penis to the pubic hair with the other.
  • If ​​there is not enough lubricant on the condom, an additional water-based lubricant (such as silicone, glycerin, or K-Y gel) can be applied. Never use oil-based lubricants (vegetable oil or cooking oil, mineral oil, baby oil, petroleum jelly, and most beauty creams) as they can damage the condom.

After intercourse, the condom must be removed correctly.

  • Immediately after ejaculation, the man should hold the base of the condom so that it does not slip.
  • The penis should then be removed while it is still erect.
  • With your penis fully pulled out, remove the condom from it and discard. Don’t flush the condom down the toilet.

If you have repeated intercourse, take a new condom and proceed in the same way.

17) What is a female condom?

The female condom is a barrier contraceptive that is controlled by the woman. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath that is inserted into the vagina before intercourse. It completely covers the vaginal surface and, when used correctly and consistently, provides protection from both pregnancy and many sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.The female condom has no known side effects or risks, and does not require the appointment or intervention of a healthcare provider to use it.

18) How to use the female condom?
  • Carefully remove the condom from the protective packaging. If desired, apply additional lubricant to the inner and outer rings of the condom.
  • To insert a condom, sit down and spread your knees, or place one foot on a stool or chair.Hold the condom with the open end hanging down. Hold the top ring (the closed end of the condom) and squeeze it between your thumb and middle finger.
  • Place your index finger between your thumb and middle finger. Keeping your fingers in this position, squeeze the top of the condom into a flat oval. With your other hand, part your labia and insert the closed end of the condom into your vagina.
  • When the closed end of the condom is inside, slide it inward with your index finger.Make sure the top end of the condom is behind the pubic bone – you can feel it if you bend your index finger, which is inserted into the vagina, a few centimeters. The condom can be inserted in advance, up to a maximum of eight hours before intercourse.
  • Take care not to twist inside the vagina. If this happens, remove the condom, add some lubricant, and reinsert. Please note that about two centimeters from the open end of the condom should remain outside of your body.If your partner inserts his penis under or to the side of the condom, ask him to stop immediately. Remove the condom, discard it, and insert a new one. Until you and your partner get used to the female condom, it is best to guide his penis into the vagina with your hand.
  • After your partner ejaculates, as he removes his penis, squeeze and twist the open end of the condom to prevent semen from escaping. Remove the condom carefully. Throw away the used condom (but don’t flush it down the toilet).
  • Reuse of female condoms is not recommended (see http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/rtis/reuse.en.html).

See also: http://www.who.int/reproductive-health/publications/RHR_00_8/RHR_00_8_chapter5.en.html.

19) What is PEP?

Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) includes drug treatment, laboratory tests and counseling. PEP begins within hours of probable exposure to HIV and continues for approximately four weeks. Studies have shown that starting drug treatment as soon as possible after likely exposure to HIV (no later than 72 hours, ideally within the first two hours) helps prevent HIV infection.

See http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/prophylaxis/en/ for details.

20) How can people who inject drugs reduce their risk of contracting HIV?

People who inject drugs can take a number of measures to reduce their own and public health risks:

  • Take drugs by mouth (switch from injection to non-injection use).
  • Never reuse or share syringes, water, or drug preparation equipment.
  • Use a new syringe (obtained from a trusted source, such as a needle and syringe program, or purchased from a pharmacy) to prepare and administer drugs each time.
  • Use sterile water or clean water from a reliable source for drug preparation.
  • Before administration, clean the injection site with a fresh alcohol swab.
21) How can mother-to-child transmission of HIV be prevented?

Transmission of the virus to a child from a mother living with HIV can occur during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as after childbirth through breastfeeding. In the absence of interventions, the risk of transmission by mothers living with HIV during pregnancy and childbirth is estimated at 15–30%. Breastfeeding increases the risk of HIV transmission by 10-15%. This risk depends on clinical factors as well as the mode and duration of breastfeeding.

Great progress has been made in reducing the number of children born with HIV. Effective antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding can reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV by up to 5% or less. A key thrust of this strategy is preventing new HIV infections among women of childbearing age, combined with early access to antenatal care and HIV diagnostics. Women living with HIV are also encouraged to continue treatment throughout their lives to maintain their own health (approach strategy B +).

Early diagnosis of newborn infants is essential for identifying their HIV status and improving the effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs, since the highest mortality among children who acquire HIV infection occurs between the ages of six weeks and four months.

22) What procedures should healthcare professionals follow to prevent transmission of the virus in healthcare facilities?

Health care workers must follow universal precautions.Universal Precautions are infection control guidelines designed to protect healthcare workers and their patients from contracting diseases transmitted through blood and certain body fluids.

Universal precautions include the following:

  • Handle and dispose of sharp objects (which may cause cuts or puncture wounds, including needles, injection needles, scalpels and other blades, knives, infusion sets, saws, shards of glass and nails) carefully.
  • Washing hands with soap and water before and after any procedure.
  • Use of barrier protective equipment such as gloves, gowns, aprons, masks and goggles when in direct contact with blood and other body fluids.
  • Safe disposal of waste contaminated with blood and other body fluids.
  • Appropriate disinfection of instruments and other contaminated equipment.
  • Proper handling of dirty laundry.

In addition, it is recommended that all healthcare workers take steps to prevent injury from needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments and devices. Under universal precautions, everyone’s blood and body fluids are considered to be infected with HIV and other possible viruses, regardless of the person’s known or suspected status.

For details see p.at http://www.who.int/hiv/topics/precautions/universal/en/.

23) Can HIV be cured?

HIV cannot be completely eradicated. However, there is effective treatment that, when started promptly and regularly, provides a person with HIV with a quality and life expectancy comparable to that of uninfected people.

24) What treatment is available?

Antiretroviral drugs are used to treat HIV infection.They fight HIV infection by blocking the multiplication of the virus in the human body (see question 4). When a person living with HIV receives effective antiretroviral therapy, they are no longer infectious.

25) How do antiretroviral drugs work?

Once inside an infected cell, HIV reproduces copies of itself, which can then infect new, healthy cells in the body. The more cells are infected with HIV, the higher the effect of the virus on the immune system (immunodeficiency).Antiretroviral drugs slow down the replication and, consequently, the spread of the virus within the body, disrupting the replication process in various ways.

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The human immunodeficiency virus requires an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to make its own copies. Drugs of this group suppress the formation of reverse transcriptase, thus disrupting the process of reproduction of the genetic material of the virus.

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Drugs in this group also disrupt HIV replication by binding the reverse transcriptase enzyme itself. As a result, it is removed from the replication process, and the production of new viral particles in the infected cell stops.

Protease inhibitors. Protease is a cleavage enzyme required during HIV replication to create new viral particles. It breaks down proteins and enzymes in infected cells, after which they can enter other cells.Protease inhibitors suppress this protein breakdown, thus slowing down the production of new viral particles.

Clinical trials of other drugs are currently underway that disrupt other stages of the virus life cycle (for example, the entry of the virus into an uninfected cell and fusion with it).

26) Are antiretroviral drugs effective?

The use of a combination of three antiretroviral drugs has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of AIDS-related illnesses and deaths.Although antiretroviral combination therapy does not cure AIDS, it does provide people with HIV with longer, healthier and more productive lives by reducing viremia (the amount of HIV in the blood) and increasing the number of CD4-positive cells (white blood cells that are central to the effective functioning of the immune system).

For antiretroviral therapy to be effective for a long time, it is necessary to combine different antiretroviral drugs. This treatment is called combination therapy.Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is used when a combination of three or more HIV drugs is used.

It has been shown that when treated with only one drug, the virus changes over time and develops resistance to it. As a result, such a drug becomes ineffective, and the virus begins to reproduce at the same rate as before treatment. When two or more antiretroviral drugs are taken together, resistance develops much more slowly.

Antiretroviral drugs should be taken strictly as prescribed by a healthcare professional.


27) What is an HIV test?

An HIV test is a test to find out if a person has been exposed to HIV. A routine HIV test detects the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to HIV, so they are much easier (and cheaper) to detect than the virus itself.In response to infection, the immune system produces antibodies.

In most people, they appear one month after infection. Antibodies can be found in blood or saliva.

28) How long after probable exposure should an HIV test be done?

An HIV test is usually recommended three months after probable exposure to an infection. Although HIV antibody tests are highly sensitive, there is a window of up to two months between contracting HIV and developing detectable antibodies to the virus, depending on the type of test.For the most sensitive HIV antibody tests recommended today, this period is about three weeks. When using less sensitive tests, it is larger.

During this time, people infected with HIV do not yet have antibodies in their blood that can be detected by an HIV test. However, the level of HIV in body fluids (blood, semen, vaginal fluid and breast milk) in such a person may already be high. Despite the fact that an HIV test cannot yet confirm the presence of the virus in such a person, during the window period, he is already able to transmit HIV to others.

29) Why should I get an HIV test?

Knowing your HIV status has two vital benefits. First, if you are infected with HIV, you will start treatment quickly, which may extend your life for many years (go to question 36) . Second, knowing that you are infected, you can take all the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of HIV (go to question 13) . If you are not infected with HIV, you can learn how to protect yourself from HIV infection in the future.

30) Where can I take the test?

HIV testing can be done in many places: at a private doctor, at the local health department, in hospitals, family planning centers, and designated HIV testing sites. Always try to choose a place where HIV counseling is provided. Also, an HIV test can be done independently using a special test system. However, if such a test is positive, you will need to seek medical attention in order to receive confirmation and the necessary treatment.

31) Are my test results confidential?

Everyone who is tested for HIV must first give informed consent. Information about the test results is considered completely confidential.

Various test options available:

Confidential HIV test. The medical professionals conducting the test record the test result as confidential information on medical records.Such results cannot be disclosed to third parties without the prior consent of the person to whom the analysis was performed.

Anonymous HIV test. The test taker’s first and last name is not matched against the sample. Instead, it is assigned a code or number that the person can then use to retrieve their test results. Records by which a person could be associated with the test are not kept.

It is recommended that you choose a shared privacy policy — that is, share information with loved ones, which may include family members, loved ones, caregivers, and trusted friends.However, caution should be exercised when disclosing results, as this can lead to discrimination in health care settings, at work and in the community. Therefore, shared confidentiality is at the discretion of the person taking the test. While the HIV test result must be kept confidential, other professionals – such as counselors or social workers – must have access to information about a person’s HIV-positive status in order to provide the necessary care.

32) What if I have HIV?

Thanks to new methods of treatment, an HIV-positive person can live a long and healthy life. However, it is very important that your doctor knows how to treat HIV. A healthcare professional or trained HIV counselor will be able to advise you and help you find the right doctor.

33) What does a negative HIV test mean?

A negative test result means that no HIV antibodies were found in your blood at the time of the test.If your status is negative, take care to maintain it: become familiar with the facts about HIV transmission and avoid risky behavior.

Nevertheless, the risk of infection still remains, as it can take up to three months until your immune system develops enough antibodies for a blood test to show infection. It is recommended to repeat the test after some time, and until then take the necessary precautions. During the window period, a person is highly contagious, so measures must be taken to prevent possible transmission of the virus.


34) Can mosquito bites lead to HIV infection?

HIV is not spread by mosquitoes and other stinging insects. Even if the virus enters a mosquito or other blood-sucking or stinging insect, it cannot reproduce inside such an insect. Thus, the insect cannot contract HIV and cannot transmit HIV to another person when bitten.

35) Should you be afraid of contracting HIV while playing sports?

There is no evidence to support the transmission of HIV through sports.

36) Can I get HIV through the household (shaking hands, hugging, using the same toilet, drinking from the same glass with a person living with HIV, or being around an infected person who has a runny nose or cough)?

HIV is not transmitted through everyday contact – communicating with friends, at school or at work. You will not get infected by shaking hands with someone living with HIV, hugging them, using the same toilet or drinking from the same glass, or coughing or sneezing in your presence (seequestion 7) .

37) Only homosexuals and drug users get HIV?

No. Anyone who has sex without a condom, shares injecting equipment with others, or is given contaminated blood can become infected with HIV. Newborns can contract HIV from their mothers during pregnancy and childbirth, and later through breastfeeding.

38) Can you tell by the person’s appearance that he has HIV?

It is impossible to tell from a person’s appearance that he or she has HIV.A person infected with HIV may look healthy and feel good, but still transmit the virus to you. An HIV test is the only way a person can find out if they have the virus.

39) Can a person have several sexually transmitted diseases at the same time?

Yes, a person can have several sexually transmitted diseases at once. Each infection requires its own treatment. Immunity to STIs is not developed. One and the same disease can be infected multiple times.When infected with STIs, many men and women do not notice and do not feel early symptoms, but at the same time they can infect their sexual partner.

40) Can HIV be passed on to others while on antiretroviral therapy?

If antiretroviral therapy is effective and the virus is completely suppressed, you cannot transmit HIV to another person. Therefore, monitoring of viral load suppression is recommended when treating people living with HIV.

COVID-19 and HIV

41) If I have HIV, what should I know about COVID-19?

COVID-19 is a serious illness and all people living with HIV should take all recommended preventive measures to minimize the risk of contracting the virus that causes COVID-19.

Like the general population, older people living with HIV and people who have heart or lung problems in addition to HIV have a higher risk of contracting the virus and more severe symptoms.

Countries where both epidemics are active will be able to provide more accurate data on the combined impact of HIV and COVID-19 on people living with HIV. Lessons learned from innovating and adapting services to minimize the impact on people living with HIV will be discussed and shared as they become available.Until more accurate information is known, people living with HIV, especially those in the late stages, are advised to exercise caution and take appropriate preventive measures.

42) How can people living with HIV protect themselves from the virus that causes COVID-19?

People living with HIV must protect themselves and others from the virus that causes COVID-19, just like everyone else.

  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
  • Maintain a distance of at least 1 meter from anyone who coughs or sneezes.
  • Do not touch your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands.
  • Follow (and ask people to follow) good respiratory hygiene: cover your nose and mouth with your elbow or handkerchief when coughing or sneezing and throw away disposable handkerchiefs and tissues immediately.
  • Follow local health guidelines for social distancing: stay home except for urgent matters, sports, and medical attention.
  • Do not gather in groups of several people.
  • Stay at home if you feel unwell. Seek medical attention in advance if you develop a fever, cough, or difficulty breathing. Follow the directions of your local health care provider.

Nonetheless, UNAIDS recognizes that in many countries, underdeveloped health systems, informal settlements, overcrowded cities and public transport, and lack of clean water and sanitation may not be feasible for such self-protection, social distancing and virus containment. …

43) Does UNAIDS have any specific guidance for people living with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic?

UNAIDS recommends that people living with HIV stock up on essential drugs for a period of time, ideally 30 days or more. These include both antiretroviral drugs and conventional drugs such as tuberculosis, noncommunicable diseases, and contraceptives and mental health products.

The World Health Organization, in its HIV treatment guidelines, has mandated that most patients be given a supply of drugs for three months or more during routine visits.Not all countries adhere to this rule, which is why UNAIDS is calling for the widespread adoption of this practice.

Know how to call the clinic if you need a consultation. Know how to get treatment and other help you need in your community. Such treatment may include antiretroviral therapy, treatment for tuberculosis (if available), and other medications for other conditions, if available.

Remember that during the COVID-19 pandemic, other diseases also remain active.Seek medical attention if you experience or worsen any symptoms, including those related to sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and trauma. Generally, the risk of poor quality or inappropriate treatment is higher than the risk of contracting COVID-19 in a healthcare facility.

44) How can key populations protect themselves from HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Key populations, including people who use drugs, sex workers, gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender people and prisoners, must continue to adhere to HIV prevention guidelines: use sterile needles and syringes and ( or) opioid substitution therapy, as well as condoms and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

45) How to protect human rights and reduce stigma and discrimination during the COVID-19 pandemic?

UNAIDS calls on all countries to strike an appropriate balance between protecting health, preventing economic and social crisis and protecting human rights.

UNAIDS is working with partners to integrate human rights concerns into the response to COVID-19 and to ensure that people living with or affected by HIV have the same level of access to services as everyone else, and ensuring the continuity of HIV services.

Given the overcrowding of many prisons and other places of detention, which endangers basic hygiene, health, safety and human dignity, measures to protect against COVID-19 in closed institutions will not be enough. UNAIDS is calling on political leaders to ensure that such institutions are prepared to prepare and respond appropriately for COVID-19, taking into account fundamental human rights.

46) What if there is a gender-based violence problem during the COVID-19 pandemic?

If you are a victim of violence, contact your family, friends or neighbors for support, call the hotline or, if safe, use the online violence service.Find out if relevant local organizations (eg shelters, counseling services) are open and contact them if necessary.

Make a safety plan in the event of repeated violence against you or your children. What to include in this plan?

  • Names of neighbors, friends, relatives, colleagues, or the name of a shelter where you can take refuge if you have to leave home urgently for your own safety.
  • A plan to safely leave the home and move to a location (such as transportation).
  • A set of essentials (for example, personal documents, phone, money, medicine and clothing), as well as a list of phone numbers in case of an emergency.
  • If ​​possible, agree with your neighbors about a prearranged signal, noticing which, they can come to your aid if necessary.
47) What if there is a mental health problem during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Pay special attention to your mental health:

  • Avoid excess media coverage of COVID-19.Use only information from reliable sources.
  • Take care of your body. Do breathing exercises, stretch, or meditate. Try to eat healthy, balanced meals, exercise regularly, sleep a lot, and avoid alcohol and drugs if possible.
  • Take time to rest, remind yourself that negative emotions will go away. Take breaks from watching, listening and reading the news – being constantly reminded of a crisis can be frustrating.Try doing other things you like to get back to normal.
  • Communicate with others. Share your fears and feelings with a friend or family member.
  • 90 175 90 000 XXI. Labor protection requirements in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations / ConsultantPlus

    XXI. Labor protection requirements in clinical diagnostic

    laboratories of medical organizations

    181. Samples of biological material entering the clinical diagnostic laboratory are considered potentially infectious, which requires compliance with safety measures aimed at protecting personnel.

    The equipment of the clinical diagnostic laboratory must be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and the safety measures provided therein.

    182. During transportation, the biomaterial should be placed in test tubes, closed with rubber or polymer stoppers, and the accompanying documentation – in a package that excludes the possibility of its contamination with biomaterial. It is not allowed to place referral forms in test tubes with blood or containers with other biological materials.

    183. Transportation of biomaterials should be carried out in closed containers that are regularly disinfected.

    184. The examination of biomaterial samples should be carried out in laminar flow boxes, in biological safety boxes and on automatic analyzers.

    185. When working with blood, serum or other biological fluids, it is prohibited:

    a) pipet by mouth,

    b) transfuse blood, serum over the edge of the tube.

    Automatic and semi-automatic sample dosing devices, mechanical and electronic pipettes, pipette dispensers should be used.

    186. When opening the caps of bottles, test tubes with blood or other biological materials, do not splash their contents.

    187. Work procedures must minimize the risk of contamination. Work procedures in contaminated areas should help prevent contamination of personnel. For this purpose, at the preanalytical and analytical stages, systems for moving laboratory containers, automatic analyzers, automated and robotic systems, multimodal complexes should be used.

    188. Potentially infectious or toxic standard samples and control materials should be stored, handled and used with the same degree of precaution as for samples with unknown risk.

    189. If samples are in a damaged or leaking container on arrival at the laboratory, trained personnel wearing appropriate protective equipment must open these containers in the biosecurity cabinets to avoid leakage or aerosols.If the contamination is significant or if the sample is judged to be unacceptably tainted, it should be safely removed without opening.

    190. When storing potentially infectious materials in the refrigerator, place them in a sturdy plastic bag.

    191. Where laboratory personnel handle samples from lower risk groups, recirculation of air from biological safety boxes is permitted provided that air is passed through high-efficiency filters before being released to the environment.When working in the laboratory with cultures containing microorganisms of high risk groups, air recirculation is prohibited.

    192. Appropriate warning and prohibition signs (inscriptions) shall be posted on the laboratory doors.

    193. Solutions for neutralizing concentrated acids and alkalis must be kept on the rack (shelf) during the entire working time.

    194. The integrity of glassware, equipment and utensils should be monitored and items with cracks and chips should not be used in work.

    195. If laboratory glassware breaks, do not pick up its fragments with unprotected hands, but use a brush and scoop for this purpose.

    196. Workplaces for conducting tests of urine and feces should be equipped with fume hoods with mechanical induction.

    Biochemical, hematological, immunological, coagulological and other studies of biomarkers can be carried out on automatic analyzers (stand-alone or integrated into multimodal complexes) or on semi-automatic analyzers.

    197. The sashes (doors) of the fume cupboard during operation should be kept as closed as possible (lowered with a small gap at the bottom for traction). They can only be opened during the maintenance of devices and installations. Raised sashes should be firmly reinforced with devices that prevent unexpected fall of these sashes. Fume cupboard gas and water taps should be located at the front sides (edges) and installed taking into account the impossibility of accidental opening of the faucet.

    198.When operating centrifuges, the following requirements must be observed:

    a) when loading centrifuges with glasses or test tubes, observe the rules of pairwise equilibration;

    b) before connecting the centrifuges to the electrical network, it is necessary to check the strength of the fastening of the cover to the body;

    c) the centrifuge should be connected to the electrical network smoothly with the help of a rheostat, after disconnection it is necessary to allow the rotor to stop, it is forbidden to brake the rotor by hand;

    199.When using air or liquid thermostats, do not put flammable substances in them. The thermostat should only be cleaned and disinfected after disconnecting it from the mains.

    200. When operating refrigerators (refrigerators), it is not allowed to close the ventilation openings and hinder the cooling of the condensing unit. Rearrangement and relocation of refrigerators should be carried out with the participation of a laboratory specialist.

    201. Laboratory tables for microscopic and other precise examinations should be located by the windows.

    202. To prevent fatigue and harmful effects on the organs of vision when working with a microscope and using other optical devices, it is necessary to provide illumination of the field of view, provided for this microscope or device. When working, one should not close a non-working eye; it is necessary to work alternately with one or the other eye. Regulated work breaks of 7% or more of working time should be taken. Working with optical devices (including microscopes, magnifiers) should take no more than 50% of the working time.

    203. In the absence of a centralized gas supply, it is not allowed to arrange group balloon installations and store cylinders with flammable gases in the room where the technological process of using the flammable gas in them is carried out.

    204. The gas from the cylinder must be released through a reducer designed exclusively for this gas. Open the reducer valve slowly.

    A pressure gauge with a scale must be installed at the inlet to the reducer, which provides the ability to measure the maximum working pressure in the cylinder.

    205. Only cylinders with inscriptions and coloring established by the requirements for this gas, equipped with protective caps, are allowed for use.

    206. It is prohibited in the laboratory premises:

    a) leave lighted burners and other heating devices unattended, keep cotton wool, gauze, alcohol and other flammable substances and objects near burning burners;

    b) clean up accidentally spilled flammable liquids when burners are lit and electric heating devices are on;

    c) light a fire and turn on electric lighting, electrical equipment (devices, apparatus) if the laboratory smells of gas.First, it is necessary to identify and eliminate the gas leak and ventilate the room. The location of the gas leak is determined using a soapy emulsion;

    g) pour fuel into a burning spirit lamp, use an alcohol lamp with a metal tube and a washer for compressing the wick, carry out work related to distillation, extraction, rubbing harmful substances with inoperative or faulty ventilation;

    e) when working in a fume hood, keep your head under traction, taste and inhale unknown substances, tilt your head over a vessel in which some liquid is boiling;

    f) store stocks of toxic, flammable and explosive substances on work tables and racks, store and use reagents without labels, as well as any substances of unknown origin;

    g) perform work not related to the task and not provided for by the research methods;

    207.During work, it is necessary to comply with the requirements of asepsis and antiseptics, the rules of personal hygiene. Before and after each contact with the material, hands should be washed, followed by their treatment with one of the bactericidal preparations.

    208. It is necessary to disinfect and wash hands with soap every time you leave the premises, before eating and after work (use approved disinfecting solutions and skin antiseptics).

    209. In case of blood contamination of overalls or workplace, overalls must be taken off and soaked in containers with a disinfectant solution or placed in a special bag for subsequent transportation to the place of disinfection and stripping, the workplace must be filled with disinfectant solution with a certain exposure exposure.

    210. For disinfection of various laboratory objects in work, use disinfectants that ensure the death of bacteria and viruses permitted for use on the territory of the Russian Federation. For disinfection of laboratory glassware, consumables, it is allowed to use physical and chemical disinfection methods. The current cleaning of the premises of the clinical diagnostic laboratory must be carried out using disinfectant solutions.

    211. The air in the laboratory and in the boxes must be periodically disinfected using germicidal lamps, in accordance with the established regime.

    212. Storage areas for hazardous liquids, including acids and alkalis, must be below eye level. Large containers should be stored closer to floor level, but at a height that can be handled safely and ergonomically.

    213. Secure devices (eg chains and grips) must be installed to prevent unwanted movements of gas cylinders, reagents and glassware.

    214. In laboratories where there is a risk of eye injury from chemical contamination, eye wash devices should be provided.

    215. If the nature of the chemical hazard poses a risk of contamination of the entire torso, rain showers should be fitted.

    How to remove a tooth root at home

    Date of publication: 17.09.2018

    The roots of the teeth are in the bone, and they are not densely located, with a certain degree of mobility and the ability to absorb. The tooth is denser than the surrounding tissue. These factors create the possibility of removal. In this case, the ligamentous apparatus is destroyed, and the spongy bone, in which the root is located, is crushed.The process is complicated if the root has a curved shape or if the root canals have been previously filled.

    The condition of the teeth deteriorates over time. This is due to insufficient care, economic factors and lifestyle characteristics. Many people are afraid to go to the dentist and therefore endure pain. The crown of a tooth decayed by caries gradually collapses until only the root remains of it.

    Why is it dangerous to leave the root of the tooth in the gum?

    • The inflammatory process in it has not stopped, the risk of inflammation of the jaw tissues increases;
    • Caries can spread to adjacent teeth;
    • ENT diseases may develop.

    The root of the decayed tooth must be removed. This is a complex manipulation that requires the use of antibacterial drugs and anesthesia. It should be performed by an experienced doctor.

    Self-extracting the roots of the teeth is dangerous, as it is difficult to extract it completely. In addition, there is a high risk of infection of the well.

    It is possible to tackle this problem on your own only under certain conditions:

    • A decayed tooth loosens heavily;
    • It is impossible to get to the dentist’s office, and the tooth hurts unbearably.

    What are the risks:

    • Inflammation may develop;
    • The root can only be partially removed;
    • Possible heavy bleeding.

    Do not use the doorknob to remove. Safe removal is only possible after systematic loosening.

    To do this with minimal risk of tissue damage and infection, a number of guidelines must be followed.

    • Assess the situation – will you cope with the task. If the tooth is firmly attached, is it worth starting the extraction? A tightly held tooth cannot be extracted.
    • A loose tooth should be loosened further with the tongue. Perhaps he will fall out himself.
    • Before attempting to extract the root, wash the flour, brush your teeth with a paste, and rinse your mouth with a disinfectant (mouthwash) for maximum disinfection. You can use special solutions.It is important that they contain alcohol.
    • Use of pain relievers. The pain reliever should not cause side effects. To start the action of the drug, you must wait at least half an hour.


    • Grasp the tooth with a sterile bandage and pull. Keep wobbling it. You can use tongs, pliers, tweezers.
    • Do not squeeze the tooth too much so that it does not split.
    • From time to time try to pull it firmly, but without jerking, so as not to break off part of the root and cause an inflammatory process.
    • Proceed smoothly, swinging the tooth and periodically trying to pull it out. Jerks are unacceptable, as you can damage the gum or break the root. Then you cannot do without the help of a surgeon.

    After successful extraction:

    • Place a sterile swab on the well for half an hour.
    • Pull it out without breaking the formed clot.
    • Do not eat for three hours.
    • Monitor the condition of the gums in the injured area, rinse your mouth with vodka, potassium permanganate solution, hydrogen peroxide or other disinfectant.
    • Oak bark decoction can be used to speed healing and relieve pain.

    To remove the root of a tooth, you need to prepare:

    • Spitting container;
    • Antiseptics;
    • Pain reliever;
    • Gauze swabs and pads;
    • Mirror.

    These tips should not be used if there is an opportunity to consult a professional, since root extraction is a rather serious and risky operation.

    Can I cut the gum myself

    Even if it seems that it will become easier, it is strictly forbidden to do so, since:

    • Possible infection and severe inflammation;
    • May cause bleeding;
    • Debris may remain in the gums, rot and infect adjacent tissues;
    • The operation will be painful.

    The best option is to contact a specialist.

    What do you need to know?

    The procedures for removing milk and molars are similar, but the latter are fixed in the tissues much stronger and deeper. Before removing, make sure that the trouble comes from this particular tooth. If blood has flowed during removal, you need to use tampons soaked in an antiseptic.

    After removal, you need to remove parts of the tooth and blood from the mouth, wash your hands, and apply cold to the injury site to reduce the risk of swelling.Over the next few days, you should stop smoking, exclude heavy physical activity.

    You cannot pull out a tooth yourself without pain. Only professional pain relief can provide such an effect. If removal was successful, observe the hole for a week. If suppuration or swelling occurs, use an antiseptic and see a doctor. If, after starting the removal, it is not possible to complete the process, there is severe pain, stop immediately and go to the hospital.Until then, do not load the tooth or eat.

    The dentist must be informed:

    • When the tooth was extracted;
    • When the pain started;
    • What means were used.

    Expert opinion

    Emir Romanovich Omerelli

    Maxillofacial surgeon, implantologist

    Experience: more than 13 years

    It is impossible to remove a tooth root at home.This is a very dangerous and traumatic procedure that can lead to serious negative consequences – from damage to the oral cavity and trauma to healthy teeth, to purulent processes in the hole, inflammation of bone tissue and even sepsis. The entire tooth or any part of it, including the root, must be removed by the dentist under sterile conditions, using anesthesia and special instruments.

    Extraction of wisdom teeth

    You can remove a wisdom tooth if you can loosen it and grab it tightly with your fingers.A cotton swab should be placed in front of the cheek in the area of ​​the problem tooth. These teeth have long roots, so it’s almost impossible to remove them yourself. Extraction of teeth requires a careful approach, but it is equally important to avoid infection in the future.

    For this:

    • Provide maximum rest for an empty hole;
    • Brush your teeth, but be careful not to wash out the formed clot;
    • To improve blood circulation in the injured area, apply warm, moist compresses to the gums;
    • Rinse your mouth after every meal;
    • Stick to a diet – avoid hot and cold foods;
    • Use Pain Relief Tablets only when absolutely necessary and avoid overdose.

    90,000 The shard itself came out from under the driver’s skin 4 years after the accident

    The driver survived the accident, but four years later he found out that he had escaped not only with fright. An old shard of windshield emerged from his hand, and photographs of the piece are capable of surprising both social media users and doctors. After all, such cases are rare.

    Reddit user airwolfevenes shared a photo that made viewers flinch: a small shard of glass sticks out of his hand.In 2016, a guy in his car had an accident and thought that he quickly recovered from the consequences, but that was not the case.

    Four years later, a piece of windshield decided to remind airwolfevenes of an unpleasant incident.

    Redditor said that after the accident, his entire arm was cut with shards of glass, but the doctors tried to completely clean the wounds. As it turned out later, one of the pieces was able to escape their attention.

    When the glass began to break through, a little blood appeared, but since then I did not feel pain, and there was no more blood, – said the driver in the comments.

    There is only one caveat: why airwolfevenes continues to walk with a foreign object in his hand. This is the question the readers of his post asked.


    Seriously, just take a sterile blade and make a cut. The darkened skin around the shard is already dead, it won’t hurt. Pull the glass out with tweezers. There is no need to pay doctors, and it is not such a serious damage to go somewhere

    However, the redditor is not eager to self-medicate.


    After the incident, I feel uncomfortable at the sight of blood, especially my own. So I won’t even try to do it myself. Moreover, I live in Germany and the operation will cost me nothing.

    Although the airwolfevenes post has collected more than three thousand upvotes, his case is not so rare. Infection with splinters of various types occurs – and very often, but usually accompanied by pain, because of which a person decides on surgical treatment procedures.

    Exception – rare cases of encapsulation, when a foreign body under the skin becomes overgrown with fibrous plastic tissue and ceases to give a person anxiety and discomfort. The shard of the redditor ended up in this position, and in the comments to the post, there were many people who experienced a similar experience.


    In 2014, on vacation, I got a splinter from a palm branch in my thumb.By Christmas 2015, she made it out on her own.


    It’s not such an interesting story, but still. I was working with tempered glass and a small piece got in my finger. I thought I pulled it out completely, because there was practically no pain, and the cut looked like a tiny wound. But after a few days, I began to experience pain every time I touched something with this finger.By that time, the wound had already healed, and I had to try to squeeze out the glass. It was not very pleasant, but not as serious as I thought. I pulled it out with my teeth and since then my finger has been fine.


    I have always liked to walk barefoot around the house. Exactly until he lived with his friend. Once he broke a bottle, and then a glass goblet. Shards scattered all over the floor.I “collected” them [with my feet] for several months in a row, so I became an expert in removing glass [from under the skin]. Fortunately, the skin on the feet is thinner and it is not difficult to get the shard. But it was still extremely unpleasant.

    Other users of the site have already found a use for the splinter, which doctors will remove from the hand of airwolfevenes.


    Attach the shard back to the car’s windshield.

    Cats, no matter how graceful they are, can also splinter their beautiful paws. The guy showed what it would be like if they had legs instead of paws. Not only does it look too much, but it is also dangerous.

    A cut on the hand of a guy who does not leave fingerprints would also be unusual. Then he saw at least something on his pillows.

    90,000 Meteorite That Wasn’t? – Spark No. 30 (5526) dated 13.08.2018

    110 years have passed since the fall of the Tunguska meteorite, but disputes about the nature of the phenomenon continue to excite the scientific community today.Just before the anniversary, another unexpected version of

    was in the spotlight of the experts.

    On the occasion of the 110th anniversary of the meteorite fall (June 30, 1908), which is often called a more general term – a phenomenon, an international conference was held in Krasnoyarsk dedicated to the problems and hypotheses in its study. One of the reports made at the conference immediately thundered: its author, Professor of the Department of Physical Geography and Landscape Science of the Faculty of Geography of the Lomonosov Moscow State University, Doctor of Geographical Sciences Alexei Reteyum is sure: the Tunguska phenomenon has terrestrial nature! Ogonyok publishes excerpts from the sensational report with the permission of the author, who also answered questions from the editorial board.

    – How did it happen that for so many years science has not come close to solving the Tunguska phenomenon?

    – There is an explanation: when the research was just beginning, it was believed that it was a meteorite, of the Sikhote-Alin type, and that the main task was to find its traces. This was the basic setting.

    Few people imagine the enormous effort it took to find the shards. Hands fingered tons of soil, dug in incredibly difficult conditions, and all in vain. It is now recognized that this setting was wrong.But she also influenced the wording of questions to eyewitnesses! On expeditions to Siberian villages, people were asked questions about what happened “after” what happened – about the body itself, its color, shape. And not a single question was asked about what was “before.” This is the problem: all the witnesses of the extraordinary event died long ago, and we will never know firsthand what was “before” after all. And there were, apparently, interesting and strange phenomena. Some eyewitnesses talked about them: it turns out that the event had precursors! These phenomena had different shapes, different colors, different trajectories, looked differently, flew at different speeds – moreover, they were observed in various regions of Siberia.

    – You said that searching for a meteorite was considered the wrong approach. And by whom exactly is this recognized?

    – Organizers of various scientific meetings – they were timed to coincide with the 90th anniversary, the 100th anniversary of the Tunguska event. This is recognized today by many well-known scientists.

    – I would like to clarify directly about your research. How long have you been dealing with this problem?

    – At least twenty years. For a long time, I was just interested in this, as well as others.Why am I interested in the Tunguska phenomenon as a scientist? It’s very simple: nature is best manifested in such grandiose phenomena, and when we study them, it is easier for us to find something else. So, there is nothing more grandiose than the Tunguska event – except perhaps large volcanic eruptions or earthquakes.

    This phenomenon itself is so mysterious that it is useless to collect facts just like that today.

    A library can be compiled from the books written about the Tunguska event. What’s the point in writing another one? So it was important for me to find a concept that explains it.And I had such a concept about ten years ago. This was the idea of ​​an expanding and pulsating Earth. Let me explain: the Tunguska event fell on a unique epoch for many centuries (rather short, but still an epoch), when a sharp decrease in the Earth’s rotation rate was replaced by its growth, and the size of the planet itself changed – slowing down, it obviously expanded. But then, just from the moment of the Tunguska event, the Earth began to accelerate and shrink. This compression is evidenced, for example, by the fact that the day before, in 1907, there was a long-term record maximum in the number of volcanic eruptions.This has not happened either before or after – for many decades!

    – In the context of the Tunguska event, you are also talking about the influence of celestial bodies on the Earth. This concept is controversial in the scientific community. How do you respond to critics?

    – I can answer that this can be seen in experiments, the facts indicate that there is such an influence. However, facts are often overlooked in the scientific community. By the way, the Tunguska event is also interesting as an example of the fantastic blindness of people: those who believe that this is a meteorite or that these are aliens, they absolutely do not want to notice and take into account other facts.There is a known case when one professor, who was an adherent of the space theory of the Tunguska phenomenon, challenged a colleague who adhered to a different point of view interpreting the phenomenon to a duel. Meanwhile, it is obvious that adherence to this or that version is not proof of its correctness. And the example of the Tunguska event convinces of this: you can bring mountains of facts, but those who wish to believe will believe what they are inclined to – someone in the experiments of Nikola Tesla, someone in UFOs.

    Interviewed by Kirill Zhurenkov

    In 1928 “Ogonyok” told a fascinating story of the first explorer of the Tunguska meteorite

    Read more

    “Astrogeography of the Tunguska phenomenon”

    From the report of Alexey Reteyum at the International Scientific Conference “Problems and Hypotheses of the Study of the Tunguska Phenomenon” on the occasion of the 110th anniversary of the study

    “Acquaintance with the array of accumulated information, in particular, with reports at conferences held from 1998 to 2018, leaves the impression of a dead end in which science finds itself in the study of a unique phenomenon.This refers not only to the absence of a crater and any material remnants of a cosmic body, despite decades of persistent searches. On June 17, 1908 (according to the old style), witnesses who lived in different regions of Siberia observed glowing or fiery fireballs flying not in one, but in three directions – north, west and east, and at different times of the day. In addition to the well-studied area of ​​disturbed taiga with an area of ​​more than 2 thousand square meters. km, a number of other places were found with traces of probably the same age in the form of a fan.And one more very important point: the appearance of precursors days, weeks and even months before the catastrophe in the form of the glow of the night sky, winter thunderstorms, unprecedented floods (for example, in Moscow), etc. The atmosphere of a purely prejudiced attitude of specialists to facts forces us to look for alternatives …

    The set of reliably recorded evidence already more than 30 years ago gave grounds to speak of the terrestrial origin of the Tunguska phenomenon.

    The Tunguska phenomenon is definitely associated with the geophysical features of the Siberian platform, first of all, with high permeability and a powerful magnetic anomaly on a global scale.Its planetary antipode is the Canadian platform. The roots of both structures are deeply embedded in the Earth’s mantle. Through magnetic fields, they interact with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere, which are subject to periodic disturbances during the movement of the outer planets.

    1908 refers to the only period of fluctuations in the speed of the Earth’s rotation in recent centuries, when, after a sharp deceleration of its movement, a prolonged acceleration occurred … the phenomenon will be marked by anomalies of volcanic and seismic activity.The maximum number of eruptions, dated with an accuracy of a month and a day, should fall on the end of June – beginning of July, because at that moment the Earth’s rotation speed reaches its highest values, which entails the ultimate compression of the planet’s body with obvious consequences. Processing of the relevant information shows that this is indeed the case.

    The highest seismic activity on the meridian of the Tunguska phenomenon, according to long-term data, is observed around midnight Universal Time, that is, just when the event of interest occurred (at 7 o’clock local time), which is due to an increase in solar gravity in the morning hours.

    There is also reason to talk about the nonrandomness of the time of the appearance of the Tunguska diva on the scale of the solar system. June 30, 1908 is a rare moment when three celestial bodies, which largely determine geodynamics, came into opposition. These are the Moon, Jupiter and Uranus. In addition, there was a new moon, which contributes to the movement of underground fluids, as can be judged by the rhythm of volcanic eruptions.

    The study of anomalies in the area located on the outskirts of the American antipode of the East Siberian Platform helps to shed light on the origin of the Tunguska phenomenon.About 78 ° W etc., that is, on the continuation of the 102nd “Tunguska” meridian in the Western Hemisphere, there is a maximum of UFO encounters, which, obviously, are of a completely terrestrial nature. ”

    Saving a child’s eye with six shards of glass

    At the Morozov Children’s Hospital, ophthalmologists rescued a child’s eye, which had been damaged by six shards of glass.

    According to his mother, that day the boy was very excited and active, he was worried about a teething tooth.In the evening, the child played on a shock-resistant rug, and the parents, sitting on the couch, celebrated Valentine’s Day in a great mood with glasses of wine.

    The child was playing, then he climbed onto the sofa, his mother turned to him to insure him, and quite unexpectedly, in a split second, the baby jumped from the headrest of the sofa head first onto the glass of wine that was in his mother’s hand. As a result of the impact, the glass, made of very thin and fragile glass, instantly shattered. As a result, the fragments of the glass significantly damaged the left eye, cut the nasolabial fold, forehead and nose of the boy.Heavy bleeding began in the eye area. The parents immediately called an ambulance, which brought the child to the Morozov children’s hospital.
    In the department of ophthalmology, the child underwent all the necessary diagnostic examination, including CT of the eye, according to which, in the orbital area, fragments were visualized, one of them reaching 14 mm in size. Taking into account the nature of the injury and the severity of the child’s condition, it was decided to urgently intervene.

    The operating team consisting of the head of the department Leonid Borisovich Kononov, ophthalmologist Suzanne Pavlovna Astanyan, anesthesiologist Elena Alekseevna Kulikova performed a complex surgical operation to treat a penetrating wound with the removal of glass foreign bodies from the vitreous cavity of the eye and from the tissues of the orbit.

    During the surgical intervention, under the control of a stereomicroscope, the fragments were carefully removed. Despite the extensive damage, no additional surgical incisions were required during the sparing removal of the fragments.It should be noted that the complexity of this operation consisted in the fact that one fragment, breaking through the conjunctiva of the transitional fold, went into the tissue of the orbit and was there at a depth of more than 1 centimeter. As a result of complex surgical manipulations, the fragments were completely removed, no additional hemorrhages occurred, the internal anatomical structures of the eye were preserved, the lens was not damaged, and the eye itself was completely sealed and restored its shape. By applying cold fixation using nitrogen, doctors have been able to avoid retinal detachment while retaining the promise of visual function.

    After consultations with leading otorhinolaryngologists at the Morozov Hospital, the surgical team performed primary surgical treatment of injuries to the nose and nasolabial folds with suture adaptation.

    In the postoperative period, the patient underwent intensive fibrinolytic therapy.