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Benefits of low fat diets: The Benefits of a Low–Fat Diet – Weight Center

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The Benefits of a Low–Fat Diet – Weight Center

If you are thinking about losing weight, you might want to consider a low-fat diet. It’s a healthy approach that gives you all the nutritional components you need.

The Low-Fat Diet: Everyone Benefits

“I’m a big advocate of following a low-fat diet as an eating plan for life, rather than a diet that you go on and get off,” says Elizabeth Ricanati, MD, medical director for Lifestyle 180 at the Wellness Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation. “If you want good health, you need to eat a healthy diet. You don’t put tomato juice in a car and expect it to work.”

In addition to helping you lose weight by using calories on more filling foods, following a low-fat diet can help you ward off serious medical conditions, including heart disease, high cholesterol, and diabetes.

The Low-Fat Diet: Choose Wisely

The body needs some fat to function properly. But even though every gram of fat contains 9 calories, not all fats stack up the same nutritionally. Some are better for you than others:

  • Unsaturated fats include both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which come from plants; you know them as olive, corn, and canola oils, among others. (Commonly used plant-based foods you want to avoid because they contain saturated fat are coconut, palm oil, and cocoa butter.) On a low-fat diet that limits the amount of fat you can eat, most of your fats should be from this category.
  • Saturated fats come from animal products such as meat and dairy foods. They increase the risk of heart disease because they raise the “bad” LDL cholesterol in the body. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), 10 percent or less of your daily calories should be from saturated fats. The American Heart Association recommends even less — 7 percent.
  • Trans fats are found in products like margarines and shortening as well as in many snacks such as cookies, cakes, pies, and potato chips. Trans fats are created when a food manufacturer changes liquid oils into more solid fats, sometimes called “partially hydrogenated oils,” often to increase the shelf life of packaged food. Trans fats can raise your bad cholesterol. Dr. Ricanati recommends avoiding them altogether.

The Low-Fat Diet: Tracking Fat Grams and Calories

To follow a low-fat diet, keep track of how many calories and grams of fat you eat and plan most of your meals around lean protein, vegetables, fruit, and whole grains.

  • Low-fat diet for maintenance. Current nutritional guidelines from the NIH suggest that only 20 to 35 percent of your total daily intake should come from fat. For the average 2,000-calorie-a-day maintenance diet, that means about 400 to 700 calories, or 44 to 77 grams of total fat per day. Want to follow a low-fat diet? Aim for the low end of that range, with most of the fat in your diet coming from unsaturated sources. To keep saturated fat to 10 percent of your total intake, limit it to 200 calories or 22 grams of fat per day, taken from your daily fat allowance.
  • Low-fat diet for weight loss. On a weight-loss diet of 1,200 calories, limiting fats to only 20 percent of total daily intake means you can have 240 calories, or 26 grams, of fat each day, with a maximum of 120 calories, or 13 grams, coming from saturated fat. That leaves you nearly 1,000 calories to “spend” on protein and carbohydrates.

While it’s hard to know exactly how many fat grams are in a piece of red meat (you can estimate using a calorie-counting guidebook), for packaged foods, the nutritional label tells you everything you need to know, including total fat grams and calories, and the grams and calories of any saturated and trans fat in the food.

The Low-Fat Diet: Better Building Blocks

“A low-fat diet includes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and proteins such as lean meat and fish,” says Tera Fridley, RD, LD, clinical nutrition manager at AVI Foodsystems, Hillcrest Hospital, a Cleveland Clinic hospital in Mayfield Heights, Ohio. How you prepare food is important. Use low-fat methods — baked, roasted, or broiled instead of deep-fried. “You can eat all kinds of delicious foods on a low-fat diet,” Fridley says. “If you have a favorite food that’s high in fat, you can still enjoy it in moderation.”

When calorie counting to lose weight, be sure your calories are spread out wisely:

  • To get enough calcium, don’t shun dairy products — just choose low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, and cheese for your needed three servings a day.
  • Eat whole-grain foods like rye or whole-wheat bread, whole-wheat crackers, brown rice, popcorn (without butter!), barley, and bulgur wheat.
  • Get your fill of fresh produce — usually 2 cups of fruits and 2 1/2 cups of vegetables — every day. Have a rainbow of colors to get an assortment of vitamins and minerals.

Ricanati emphasizes that a low-fat diet doesn’t need to focus on what you’re skipping: “If you’re trying all the new, wonderful things you can have on a low-fat diet, you’re unlikely to feel deprived.

Long-term benefits of a low-fat diet — ScienceDaily

A team led by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has identified several women’s health benefits from a low-fat diet. The findings, published in the September issue of the Journal of Nutrition, found a low-fat diet commensurate with an increase in fruit, vegetable and grain servings reduced death following breast cancer, slowed diabetes progression and prevented coronary heart disease.

Dr. Ross Prentice, member of the Cancer Prevention and Biostatistics programs at Fred Hutch and his colleagues in the Women’s Health Initiative originally launched the Dietary Modification Trial in 1993. The study involved nearly 49,000 postmenopausal women across the U.S. to test whether a low-fat dietary pattern would reduce the risk of breast and colorectal cancers and coronary heart disease. After nearly nine years of dietary change, they found that the low-fat diet did not significantly impact outcomes for these conditions. However, after longer-term follow-up of nearly 20 years, researchers found significant benefits, derived from modest dietary changes emerged and persisted including:

  • A 15-35% reduction in deaths from all-causes following breast cancer
  • A 13-25% reduction in insulin-dependent diabetes
  • A 15-30% reduction in coronary heart disease among 23,000 women without baseline hypertension or prior cardiovascular disease

“The WHI’s Dietary Modification Trial has provided women with nutrition and disease prevention insights for some years,” Prentice said. “The latest results support the role of nutrition in overall health, and indicate that low-fat diets rich in fruits, vegetables and grains have health benefits without any observed adverse effects.”

Unlike other studies examining the link between diet, cancer and other diseases, WHI investigators designed the study as a long-term, randomized controlled clinical trial to limit bias and establish causal conclusions. Participants made intentional dietary changes resulting from learned integrated concepts about nutrition and behavior, taught by trained nutritionists during the first year and reinforced quarterly for nearly a decade.

“The sheer number of new diets and nutrition trends can be overwhelming to people who simply want to know, ‘What should I be eating?'” said Dr. Garnet Anderson, a co-author of the study and senior vice president and director of Fred Hutch’s Public Health Sciences Division. She also serves as principal investigator of the Fred Hutch-based WHI Clinical Coordinating Center. “While there are many diets that provide short-term benefits like weight loss, this study scientifically validates the long-term health effects of a low-fat diet.”

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Materials provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Low Fat Diet – StatPearls

Definition/Introduction

There is a consensus among all clinical specialties that the fat content of the average diet should be lowered to decrease the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Low-fat diets are food where 30% or less of the calories come from fat. Multiple correlational studies have related a country’s cardiovascular mortality to the food consumption of its population.[1]

A general rule is that if a provides 100 calories and it has 3 grams or less of fat, then it is a low-fat food. Common examples include vegetables, fruits, whole grain cereals, egg whites, chicken and turkey breast without skin, beans, lentils, peas, seafood, and low-fat dairy, among others.

Fats are essential to us, but we need to consume them in a limited amount. The main four types of dietary fats include polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, trans, and saturated fats. These four varieties of fats differ in their physical and chemical structures. The saturated and trans fats are considered solid at room temperature, whereas the mono and polyunsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Regardless of their physical and chemical properties, these all different forms of fat provide nine calories for every gram consumed, which is much higher than the amount of energy supplied per gram of carbohydrates or proteins. The saturated and trans fats raise the low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and are considered unhealthy, whereas the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which lower LDL, are considered beneficial.

Current National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines for adults based on ATP III (Adult Treatment Panel III) recommends reducing intake of saturated fats to less than 7 % of the total calories and cholesterol to less than 200 mg/day. Guidelines also recommend that polyunsaturated fat constitutes up to 10% of total calories, and monounsaturated fats constitute up to 20% of total calories.[2]

There is abundant literature to suggest that a decrease or modification of serum cholesterol is a possible way to prevent atherosclerosis. Decreasing the amount of fat intake is an effective means of lowering the serum cholesterol concentration. Hence, a low-fat diet has been widely advocated by clinicians for reducing the cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality of their patients.

Issues of Concern

There have been multiple issues of concern and controversies around the concept of a low-fat diet. The biggest concern with the promotion of the low-fat diet has been that manufacturing companies are touting products labeled as low-fat products, where they are replacing the fat with large amounts of refined carbohydrates, which increase the risk of metabolic disorders and hypertriglyceridemia. Studies are also reporting that diets rich in carbohydrates, and low in unsaturated fat, can also negatively impact lipoprotein risk factors and increase cardiovascular risks.[3] There is also a proposed theory that refined carbohydrates decrease the cardioprotective action of HDL by altering its metabolic functions.[4] There has undoubtedly been a focus on replacing the carbohydrates for fats, but the specificities of the replaced carbohydrates remain poorly defined.[5] These concerns have led to the development of alternative dietary approaches.[6]

Studies have also raised concern over the potential of lowering HDL cholesterol, raising triglycerides, and cause unfavorable postprandial lipemic changes. [7][8] So much so that the “2013 AHA/ACC Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk” did not state any recommendations for dietary cholesterol and indicated a lack of sufficient evidence to show that lowering of dietary cholesterol reduces LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) or not.[9]

The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee did not endorse limiting dietary cholesterol to less than 300 mg/dL as presented in their prior editions. The committee made recommendations with a focus on dietary patterns rather than on the macronutrients.[10]

Clinical Significance

Association with
Cardiovascular Disease

There has been a direct relationship between dietary fat intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD).[11] Besides, dietary cholesterol has been a focus of considerable attention due to a direct connection between diet and blood cholesterol levels and the subsequent risk for coronary artery disease.[12] The level of LDL particles is the best predictor of cardiovascular risk. [13][14] Studies have concluded that saturated fatty acids raised blood cholesterol levels, whereas PUFA’s reduced serum cholesterol levels and MUFA’s were neutral.[15] Studies have also found myristic and palmitic acid to have cholesterol elevating effects, whereas stearic acid did not affect the levels.[16] Trans fatty acids are similar to saturated fatty acids in raising cholesterol, as well.[17] The level of saturated fats, trans-fatty acids should be low, and the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids should be high.[15] The results from the Nurses’ Health Study, in which the women who consumed diets low in saturated and trans fatty acids and relatively high in unhydrogenated mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids had the least risk for cardiovascular outcomes.[18]

Recent studies have reported that in men, the reduction of total fat and saturated fatty acids from 36% and 12% of energy to 27% and 8% of energy, respectively, resulted in a substantial decline in the total and LDL cholesterol levels. [19][20]. Over the years, although there has been some decline in the percentage of fat intake, there has been a paradoxical increase in the total amount of fat intake, suggesting that the total energy intake has increased. A large part of the U.S. population still consume diets that contain more total and saturated fatty acids than recommended in dietary guidelines, which is an area of concern.

Association with Cancer

The association between dietary fat and the risk of cancer development has had consistent support through multiple studies. There is epidemiologic evidence demonstrating associations between dietary fat intake and breast, prostate, colon, and even lung cancers in humans.[21]

Of those cancers, dietary fat intake has been the most extensively linked with breast cancer.[22] Various mechanisms have been suggested, including conversion of essential fatty acids to short-lived hormone-like lipids, the production of reactive oxygen species that carry the potential to induce changes in the genomic DNA changes, leading to alterations in gene expression. [23] Other potential mechanisms include modifications in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis leading to alterations in hormone levels, the effect on enzyme functions affecting the estrogen, changes in the structure and functioning of the cells, and changes in immune function.[24] Studies have also suggested a positive effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially the omega -3 fatty acids, to have a protective effect against the development of cancers and high animal fat to have the strongest positive correlation for developing these cancers.

One potential mechanism for the relationship between fat intake and prostate cancer include altered levels of sex hormones.[25] Studies have shown that mortality data from colorectal cancer correlated with the consumption of animal fat. Potential mechanisms for a diet and colon cancer link are primarily related to bile acid secretion or intestinal metabolism.[26] Populations that consume foods containing olive oil or oils derived from marine animals and fish have a significantly lower likelihood of developing colon cancer, suggesting again that fat quality is much more important than the type of dietary fat. [27]

Association with Obesity

Obesity is a chronic disease associated with a plethora of comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, fatty liver, and obstructive sleep apnea, to name a few.[28][29][30] It has multiple external and internal influences. Among the many environmental impacts, dietary fat intake is thought to have the strongest association. Energy imbalances result from excessive nutritional intakes along with low levels of physical activity. If we use BMI as the criterion to define obesity, more than one-third of adults in the United States are categorized as overweight or obese.[31] The rate at which obesity is increasing in this country and throughout the world is alarming. The relationship between diet composition and body weight has been studied in various epidemiological studies, including ecologic, cross-sectional, and prospective studies.[32] Most of the cross-sectional studies show that obese patients have a higher intake of energy from fat than people with a healthy BMI. [33] Fat being an energy-dense food contributes to excess calorie ingestion as compared to other foods. There has also been a hypothesis that obese subjects have difficulty oxidizing fat and maybe under oxidizing it compared to their leaner counterparts.[34]  Recent data suggest that for a reduction in absolute amounts of fat consumed and a decline in the percentage of total dietary intake at the population level, a concomitant decrease in body weight has not occurred.[35]

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions

As an interprofessional health care team taking care of patients, practitioners must work in unison to provide the best dietary care practices. Recent recommendations have focused more on advocating proper dietary patterns rather than laying emphasis on macronutrients. Commensurate with the above approach focuses on a lifestyle approach, also called the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC). It is the lifestyle component of the third report of the NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III guidelines and is currently advocated by various health organizations, including the American Diabetes Association, American Heart Association, and The Obesity Society. It is currently a recommended therapeutic strategy for metabolic and cardiovascular health benefits.

The providers must develop tools to educate their team members, including nursing and allied health personnel, about this concept. This approach will help in forming a comprehensive team approach to propagate this strategy among the patient population. The team members need to comprehend the benefits of such a diet, which are not limited to improving the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Patients should receive advice to follow a dietary pattern with emphasizes increased intake of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy, poultry, fish, legumes, nontropical vegetables and oils, and limits consumption of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red meats. It also emphasizes the DASH dietary pattern along with lower sodium intake. Adults should also engage in aerobic physical activity to reduce LDL cholesterol and non -HDL cholesterol to counter the obesity epidemic and its various co-morbidities. The team of primary care providers, nurse practitioners, dietitians, and internists must be aware of the perils of high-fat content in the diet and form a multidisciplinary approach to manage the patient. A shared decision-making process with the patient is imperative to initiate this dietary change.

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How to Create a Healthy Diet With Reduced Fat

It’s true that a diet high in fat can lead to weight gain. But it takes more than just eating low-fat foods to lose weight. You must also watch how many calories you eat.

Remember, your body stores extra calories as fat, even if they come from fat-free, trans fat-free, and low-fat foods. If you replace high-fat foods with high-calorie foods, like sweets, you’ll likely gain weight rather than lose weight.

To lose weight, you need to burn more calories than you eat. You can do that by exercising more and by eating less fat and fewer calories.

How Much Fat Should I Eat?

Experts recommend that most adults get 20%-35% of their daily calories from fat. That’s about 44 to 77 grams of fat a day if you eat 2,000 calories a day.

Read nutrition labels on food packages. Nutrition labels show the number of grams of fat per serving and calories per serving. Eat a variety of lower-fat foods to get all the nutrients you need.

Eat mostly plant foods (such as vegetables, fruits, and whole grains) and a moderate amount of lean and low-fat, animal-based food (meat and dairy products) to help control your fat, cholesterol, carbs, and calories.

When you’re shopping, choose fish, poultry, and lean meats. Limit these to 5-7 ounces per day.

Other good low-fat sources of protein include dried beans and peas, tofu, low-fat yogurt, low-fat or skim milk, low-fat cheese, and tuna packed in water.

Choose foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as salmon, flaxseed, and walnuts for heart health. The American Heart Association recommends eating fatty fish such as salmon twice weekly for the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids.

5 Tips for Low-Fat Cooking

  1. Trim all visible fat and remove the skin from poultry.
  2. Refrigerate soups, gravies, and stews, and remove the hardened fat on top before eating.
  3. Bake, broil, or grill meats on a rack that allows fat to drip from the meat. Don’t fry foods.
  4. Sprinkle lemon juice, herbs, and spices on cooked vegetables instead of using cheese, butter, or cream-based sauces.
  5. Try plain, nonfat or low-fat yogurt and chives on baked potatoes rather than sour cream. Reduced-fat sour cream still has fat, so limit the amount you use.

When You’re Eating Out

Choose simply prepared foods such as broiled, roasted, or baked fish or chicken. Avoid fried or sautéed foods, casseroles, and foods with heavy sauces or gravies.

Ask that your food be cooked without added butter, margarine, gravy, or sauce.

If you’re ordering salad, ask for low-fat dressing on the side.

Select fruit, angel food cake, nonfat frozen yogurt, sherbet, or sorbet for dessert instead of ice cream, cake, or pie.

What’s The Best Fat Diet For Health?

When it comes to diets, picking between high fat and low fat is difficult.

Discover the pros and cons of each diet and how to choose.

In recent decades, the West has undergone a shift in eating patterns from low-fat, high-carbohydrate to a diet which is completely the opposite – a factor which not only impacts your overall health, but also your gut microbiome.

It wasn’t long ago, just several decades, that the medical profession promoted the consumption of low-fat diets to treat heart disease, but recent research has turned this belief on its head. By cutting out the fat in processed foods, more sugar was added to enhance the flavour. Today, low-fat diets are only recommended on a medical basis, they’re not for all.

Table of contents

Your gut is home to trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, which make up a unique ecosystem called your gut microbiome. For your gut microbes to thrive, they need complex carbs for fuel. For that reason, they don’t flourish on high-fat, low-carb diets. They equally won’t flourish on a low-fat, low-carb, high-protein diet!

What are fats: high-fat diet vs low-fat diet:?

There’s a distinct difference between dietary and body fat. Dietary fats are the ones you eat, and there are several types, some are good for you, and others bad.

In this case, you are not what you eat. The fat you eat doesn’t automatically deposit itself on your waist, hips, thighs, or bingo wings. The simple act of consuming fat also doesn’t directly raise blood lipids and cholesterol levels.

Contrary to widespread belief, fat is not “bad” in reasonable quantities when you choose the right ones. Low-fat diets may have specific benefits for people with metabolic problems, like high cholesterol and triglycerides, heart problems, and damaged arteries, but if you’re relatively healthy and consume a balanced diet, there’s no need to fear fat.

Unsaturated, saturated, and trans fats

Dietary fats make up one of the three macronutrients (the others are carbohydrates and proteins). Fats are found in both plants and animals. Humans need fats for warmth, energy storage, nerve cell function, and making important things like hormones and vitamins.

The reason plants contain fats is because it provides energy for future baby plants. Their seeds are cushioned in a type of fat which promotes growth. Generally, plant fats are unsaturated and generally considered beneficial and heart healthy. Fish is also a source of unsaturated fats.

Dairy products like cheese contain saturated fats

On the other hand, beef and pork (especially fatty cuts) are sources of saturated fats – so is dark chicken and whole dairy. Saturated fats stay solid at room temperature (butter or the fat on steak) and should be consumed in moderation.

Trans fats are the one fat that you should strive to avoid, because they’re linked to many diseases including colon cancer, heart disease, and type II diabetes. These partially hydrogenated oils are industrially modified to stay solid at room temperature (like margarine, so it imitates butter). Deep-frying at high temperatures can also cause trans fats to occur.

☝️FACT☝️Processed foods contain less trans fats than before, but they can still be found in cheap processed foods like baked goods, margarine and shortening.

Types of dietary fat

Fat Sources
monounsaturated fats olive oil, avocado, most nuts
polyunsaturated fats fish, walnuts, seeds, flax, vegetable oils
saturated red meat, lard, whole fat dairy, ghee, butter, cream, coconut oil
trans fats fast food, processed food, dairy, cakes, pastries

What is a low-fat diet?

A low-fat diet restricts the amount of dietary fat you can eat. Generally, it’s limited to less than 30% of your daily energy intake. However, it can also be determined by the amount of fat consumed in a day, for example, less than 20g.

Often, low-fat diets encourage restricting saturated and trans fats, the ones which are related to adverse health outcomes. They’re often used to promote weight loss or for medical reasons, like metabolic control or protection from heart disease and diabetes.

However, cutting out certain food groups isn’t always healthy. For example, there are certain fats which your body needs to function properly, like omega-3s found in fish, which promote both heart and brain health.

☝️FACT☝️Low-fat processed foods often contain higher levels of sugar which offsets the benefits of cutting fat from the diet, because refined sugar isn’t healthy either .

What is a high-fat diet?

A high-fat diet is essentially the opposite to low-fat. In recent decades, there has been an emergence of diets like low-carb, high-fat like the ketogenic or Atkins diets. Despite their popularity in the mainstream population, there is little data regarding their long-term effects on the body.

When it comes to weight loss, these high fat diets can show promising initial results, however their long-term effects may be less beneficial – and it’s one of the least popular diets. One recent study of 487,759 people showed that people who followed a long-term low-carb diet increased their risk of dying earlier from deadly health problems like cancer, heart disease, and stroke.

FACT Low-carb, high-fat diets are linked with negative changes in the composition of your bacterial ecosystem that can impact your overall health.==

Fat vs healthy diet: do you really need to choose?

What you eat can greatly impact your overall health. Certain populations across the globe are healthier and live longer compared to some who eat too much of the wrong foods.

The health span of different populations can vary greatly, as can the prevalence of certain chronic conditions, and research pinpoints the role of traditional diet in these effects. Studies highlight important links between food cultures and health outcomes depending on the primary diet followed the people of different locations.

The Mediterranean diet, which is a balanced diet with lots of fiber from plants, olive oil, and moderate meat and fish intake, is associated with greater heart health, healthy body weight, and obesity prevention. The Japanese diet, which contains lots of fish and seafood, with very little refined sugar and animal protein, also helps explain how they stay slim and live longer.

Conversely, the Western diet is linked with a high presence of obesity, type II diabetes, and heart disease. It is made up of large amounts of animal protein, fried foods, and refined sugar, yet is low in complex carbohydrates like vegetables, whole grains, and pulses. It also disrupts gut health by reducing levels of beneficial bacteria which contribute to whole body health.

Is a high-fat diet bad?

A higher fat diet replaces carbs with fat as the body’s primary energy source, but too much fat and not enough plants can have consequences for your health.

For many years, we were told that fat is bad, and that is that. Until recently, we struggled to rid ourselves of this idea, but now popular culture has embraced high-fat diets as a quick and easy way to shed extra pounds. Yet somehow, there’s still people buying low-fat milk.

What’s true is that foods like olive oil, avocado, and nuts contain beneficial fats, and the omega-3s present in fish are good for your heart and brain. However, partially hydrogenated trans fats are bad for you – there’s no debating this – and eating too much saturated fat may contribute to obesity.

Metabolism and body weight

Diets like keto are effective for weight loss, but cutting carbs out removes sources of essential things the body and gut bacteria need, like fiber, nutrients, and polyphenols. Equally, choosing the wrong fats in the pursuit of a high-fat diet could have less attractive results.

Avocado is a source of healthy, unsaturated fat

For example, an increase in saturated fat-rich foods like beef, sausages, cheese, and cream may affect blood cholesterol levels and increase the risk of heart disease. Here, it’s worth remembering that the fiber found in complex carbs actually captures cholesterol and removes it from your system.

Heart health

You’re probably aware that your diet has a key role in your risk of developing heart disease. It is the leading cause of death worldwide. It affects your heart and your blood vessels because fatty deposits build up in the arteries. As a result, blood can’t flow freely and the blood vessels are less elastic. These deposits can break off and cause a complete or partial blockage, leading to a heart attack.

Saturated fats and trans fats are associated with an increased risk of developing heart disease. Unfortunately, the Western lifestyle is largely to blame because it contains high levels of fats and sugar, which can also damage blood vessels when blood glucose levels are too high for long periods. People who follow the Western diet also have lower rates of physical activity that the body needs to stay healthy.

FACT In the UK alone, one person dies every three minutes from heart and circulatory disease. On average, every day 2,980 people are admitted to hospital for these diseases.==

Heart disease risk factors

  • high saturated and trans-fat intake
  • physical inactivity
  • high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood
  • low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood
  • being overweight or obese
  • smoking

Until recently, the medical world promoted low-fat diets to treat heart disease, but recent research questions this. Instead, there are lots of studies which show that replacing saturated fat intake with polyunsaturated fats, like those in plant oils, can lower your risk of heart disease. So rather than banning all fats, think about what specific fats you should put in your body.

Brain health

Unbelievably, dietary fat can have a real impact on your brain health. For example, the Western world has seen an increase in brain diseases, including mood disorders. Why? Well, it seems your diet could be a factor.

Recent research has emerged which shows that eating a high-fat diet increases the risk of dementia. Plus, in the short-term, it has side effects like brain fog and reducing your ability to concentrate. It can even make you feel depressed.

A study carried out by Yale University found that eating a high-fat diet can affect the part of the brain which regulates your metabolism and body weight, called the hypothalamus. A high-fat diet causes inflammation in this region causing physiological changes seen in obese people, as well as encouraging increased calorie intake.

Gut health: high or low-fat diet?

Your gut is home to trillions of microbes that work hard each day to keep you in tip-top condition, but when it comes to food, they can be a little fussy too.

Current research suggests that a balanced diet consisting of naturally low-fat plant-based foods like whole grains, legumes, vegetables, seeds, fruit, and nuts is the most beneficial for the gut. Yes, you’re right, that is pretty much the opposite of a high-fat diet.

In fact, a high-fat diet fails to nourish the beneficial bacteria in your gut, leading to lower diversity. Crucially, “good” bacteria perform essential roles that help prevent inflammation, promote gut lining health, and regulate metabolic activities (like blood sugar, weight gain, and blood lipids). So when you have less of them, your whole body feels the effects.

The best fat diet contains lots of edible and colourful plants

That’s because plant-based foods contain essential energy for your good gut bacteria, known as prebiotics. Prebiotics are different substances, especially different types of dietary fibers (but also resistant starches and polyphenols) that bacteria use to support their existence and perform their health-promoting functions. So a high-fat diet can actually starve them.

Research looking at three diets differing in their fat and carbohydrate content found that individuals fed a diet made up of 20% fat and 60% carbs showed an increase in bacteria that produce butyrate. This short-chain fatty acid prevents inflammation and is the main source of energy for your gut lining.

According to the same study, those on a high-fat diet had increased markers for inflammation in their blood, a risk factor for chronic conditions like cancer and heart disease. However, that’s not to say that all low-fat diets are good. For example, following a Western diet but consuming low-fat dairy isn’t good for your gut microbiome either!

FACT☝See how healthy your microbiome is with the Atlas Microbiome Test and get food recommendations for your diet.

Is a low-fat diet bad for the body?

Low-fat products often contain more sugar to make them more flavoursome, which means they may not be as good for you as you first thought.

There are many reasons why people choose to follow a low-fat diet, like reducing calories intake, lowering cholesterol levels, or for weight loss. They were once promoted for lowering the risk of heart disease, but subsequent research has found that saturated fat may not be the villain it was once thought to be.

Eating less fat is not necessarily the best way to lose weight or to lower the risk of chronic disease. It’s better to focus on the quality of your diet, increasing your fibre intake, and lowering your intake of processed and fatty meats rather than placing attention on a zero-fat diet.

The final word on high-fat diet and low-fat diet trends

There is a distinct difference between low-fat and diet high in fat and their effects on the body, including your gut. Aiming to eat a moderate fat diet is healthier because a balanced diet is rich in important macro and micronutrients that your body needs.

Research shows that following a more traditional diet of low-fat and high-carbohydrates keeps your gut microbiome diverse which supports better health. The more diverse your gut is, the better protection you’ll have from chronic diseases.

  • Forouhi, N, G. Dietary Fat and Cardiometabolic Health: Evidence, Controversies, and Consensus for Guidance, 2018
  • Freeman, L, R et al. Damaging Effects of a High-Fat Diet to the Brain and Cognition: A Review of Proposed Mechanisms, 2014
  • Hannon, B, A et al. Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials, 2017
  • Kim, J, D et al. Microglial UCP2 Mediates Inflammation and Obesity Induced by High-Fat Feeding, 2019
  • National Health Service. Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), 2019
  • Netto Candido, T, L et al. Dysbiosis and Metabolic Endotoxemia Induced by High-Fat Diet, 2018
  • Sacks, F, M et al. Dietary Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: A Presidential Advisory From The American Heart Association, 2017
  • Shively, C, A et al. Mediterranean versus Western Diet Effects on Caloric Intake, Obesity, Metabolism, and Hepatosteatosis in Nonhuman Primates, 2019
  • Telle-Hansen, V, H et al. Impact of a Healthy Dietary Pattern on Gut Microbiota and Systemic Inflammation in Humans, 2018
  • Wan, Y et al. Effects of Macronutrient Distribution on Weight and Related Cardiometabolic Profile in Healthy Non-Obese Chinese: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trial, 2017
  • Yancy Jr, W, S et al. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet to Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial, 2004
  • British Heart Foundation, Heart and circulatory diseases in numbers

Healthy low-carb, low-fat diets linked to longevity | News

January 21, 2020—When eating a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet (LCD or LFD), choosing healthy foods is key to reducing the risk of premature death, according to a new study led by researchers from Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health.

People who ate healthy versions of the diets—filling their plates with whole grains, non-starchy vegetables, whole fruits, and nuts—had a lower risk of premature death compared to people who did not follow either diet. On the other hand, people who ate unhealthy LCDs or LFDs, including high amounts of low-quality carbohydrates, animal protein, and saturated fat, had a higher risk of premature death compared to people who didn’t follow those diets.

“Our findings show clearly that the quality rather than the quantity of macronutrients in our diet has an important impact on our health,” said first author Zhilei Shan, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Nutrition. “The debate on the health consequences of low-fat or low-carbohydrate diets is largely moot unless the food sources of fats or carbohydrates are clearly defined.”

The study was published online January 21, 2020 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

Previous research has shown that different types of carbohydrates and fats have varying effects on disease risk and health. For example, low-quality carbohydrates, such as white bread or sugar-sweetened cereals, can cause spikes in blood sugar that may contribute to insulin resistance and other metabolic problems. And foods high in saturated fat, such as red meat and butter, may increase the risk of heart disease. The current study is the first known investigation of associations between low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets and mortality that considers macronutrient quality.

The researchers used data from 37,233 adults ages 20 or older participating in the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. Participants’ diets were scored on their fat, protein, and carbohydrate consumption.

They found that when macronutrient quality was not taken into consideration, LCDs and LFDs did not affect mortality. But when they looked at whether or not people on these diets were emphasizing high-quality carbohydrates and fats, differences emerged.

Compared to people who did not eat LCDs, people who ate the healthiest LCDs were 27% less likely to die prematurely, while people who ate the unhealthiest LCDs increased their risk of premature death by 16%. Compared to people who did not eat LFDs, people who ate the healthiest LFDs had a 27% decreased risk of premature death, while those who ate the unhealthiest LFDs had a 12% increased risk.

Other Harvard Chan School authors included Frank Hu, Yanjun Guo, and Qibin Qi.

— Amy Roeder

Photo: iStock

Low-Fat Diet Not a Cure-All | The Nutrition Source

Results from large, long Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial shows no effect on heart disease, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, or weight.

The low-fat, high-starch diet that was the focus of dietary advice during the 1990s-as reflected by the USDA food guide pyramid-is dying out. A growing body of evidence has been pointing to its inadequacy for weight loss or prevention of heart disease and several cancers. The final nail in the coffin comes from an eight-year trial that included almost 49,000 women. Although the media have made much of the “disappointing” results from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification Trial, it would be a serious mistake to use these new findings as reason to load up on sausage, butter, and deep-fried fast food.

The trial and its findings

The Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial was started back in 1993, at a time when dietary fat was seen as a dietary evil and the low-fat diet was thought to be a straightforward route to preventing heart disease, some cancers, and the epidemic of obesity that was beginning to sweep the country. With funding from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, researchers recruited almost 50,000 women between the ages of 50 and 79 years. Of these, 19,541 were randomly assigned to follow a low-fat diet. Their goal was to lower their fat intake from almost 38% of calories to 20%. They were helped in this effort by a series of individual and group counseling sessions.Another 29,294 women were randomly assigned to continue their usual diets, and were given just generic diet-related educational materials.

After eight years, the researchers looked at how many (and what percentage) of women in each group had developed breast cancer or colorectal cancer. They tallied up heart attacks, strokes, and other forms of heart disease. They also looked at things like weight gain or loss, cholesterol levels, and other measures of health.

The results, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, showed no benefits for a low-fat diet. Women assigned to this eating strategy did not appear to gain protection against breast cancer,(1) colorectal cancer,(2) or cardiovascular disease.(3) And after eight years, their weights were generally the same as those of women following their usual diets.(4)

The researchers saw a trend toward a lower risk of breast cancer among women in the low-fat group. This trend was not statistically significant, meaning it could have been due to chance. It could also have been due to the very small weight loss during the early years of the study among women in the low-fat group, who received intensive dietary counseling. There is strong evidence from many studies that being overweight increases the risk of breast cancer after menopause, and that staying slim after menopause is an effective way to reduce risk of breast cancer, along with many other diseases.

Limitations of the study

Some nutrition experts say that the WHI Dietary Modification Trial doesn’t really lay to rest the low-fat hypothesis because the women in the study only modestly lowered their fat, from 38% to 29%. Had they reached the trial’s target of 20%, benefits from the low-fat approach may have become more apparent, these nutritionists suggest.

It is possible that the participants in the low-fat group may have actually overstated how much they reduced their fat intake. This has happened in other studies, as shown by comparisons between self-reported changes and biochemical measures of dietary change. Significant reductions in fat intake are usually reflected in a decrease in HDL (good) cholesterol and an increase in triglycerides. Yet in the WHI trial, there were no differences in blood levels of HDL cholesterol or triglycerides between the low-fat and usual diet groups. This casts doubt on the degree of fat reduction achieved in this study.

Two other limitations of the trial are the study population and duration. The trial included women who were aged 50 to 79 years at the beginning of the trial. By this time in life, it may be too late for changes in diet to reduce risks of cancer and other chronic conditions. In addition, it takes years for the effects of dietary change to be seen, and so it is possible that eight years wasn’t enough time to see the true impact of a low-fat diet.

The debate will likely continue as to why the WHI observed little benefit for a low-fat diet. Was it because reducing the intake of dietary fat truly has little benefit? Was it because the women in the trial didn’t lower fat intake enough? Or had the study focused on a younger population, or lasted longer, would it have revealed a benefit?

In any case, the dietary intervention didn’t work, even though the WHI trial was, by far, the most expensive study of diet ever conducted (costing many hundreds of millions of dollars) and even though the women in the low-fat group received intensive dietary counseling from some of the best nutritionists and dietitians in the country.

Change was already in the air

The dietary fat reduction arm of the WHI (it also has a hormone replacement therapy component and a calcium and vitamin D component) was controversial from the beginning.(5-8) Members of the HSPH Department of Nutrition argued that the hypothesis that a reduction in total fat intake would have major health benefits was not supported by existing data. It also noted that maintaining a contrast in diets between two groups over many years was difficult, and for this reason the study might not provide a clear answer even if the hypothesized benefits were true.

Such a study had failed in the past. The Multiple Risk Factors Intervention Trial (MRFIT, often called Mister Fit) aimed to decrease risk of coronary heart disease by a program aimed at controlling key risk factors for the disease. Some of the participants received intensive counseling to stop smoking, control high blood pressure, and reduce their intake of saturated fat. At the end of the trial, there was no significant difference in rates of coronary heart disease. (9) Even so, the investigators argued that their hypotheses were still correct because the members of the control group had, on their own, began to stop smoking and eat less saturated fat, making differences in smoking rates and diet between the two randomized groups very small.(10) The results of the WHI add further evidence that clear answers to questions about the long term effects of diet on risks of cancers and other major diseases may not be obtainable by large randomized intervention trials, no matter how much money is spent conducting them.

Type trumps percentage

The findings from the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial came as a surprise to many Americans who have been hearing for years that reducing fat is important for long-term health. Yet long-term follow-up studies such as the Nurses Health Study have consistently found little relation between the percentage of calories from fat and risks of breast cancer, colon cancer, or coronary heart disease. Such studies are one reason why major reviews of diet and health during the last five years, including those conducted by the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the U.S. Dietary Guidelines Committee, have moved away from advocating low fat intake to an emphasis on the type of fat.

Many lines of evidence indicate that the type of fat is very important to long-term health. Replacing saturated and trans with natural vegetable oils can greatly reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes. In the Nurses’ Health Study II we have seen that women who consume high amounts of red meat and high-fat dairy foods during their early adult years are at increased risk of developing breast cancer.

Making good dietary choices does really matter, but it is the type of fat, not the amount, that is most important. And keep in mind that too many calories from both fat and carbohydrate will lead to weight gain, which will increase risks of breast cancer, colon cancer, and heart disease.


References

1. Prentice RL, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:629-42.
2. Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA.2006; 295:643-54.
3. Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:655-66.
4. Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial. JAMA. 2006; 295:39-49.
5. Michels KB, Willett WC. The women’s health initiative: will it resolve the issues? Recent Results in Cancer Research. 1996; 140:295-305.
6. Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: consistency of the epidemiologic data, and disease prevention that may follow from a practical reduction in fat consumption. Cancer Causes and Control. 1990; 1:81-97; discussion 99-109.
7. Prentice RL, Sheppard L. Dietary fat and cancer: rejoinder and discussion of research strategies. Cancer Causes and Control. 1991; 2:53-8.
8. Willett WC, Stampfer MJ. Dietary fat and cancer: another view? Cancer Causes and Control. 1990; 1:103-109.
9. Multiple risk factor intervention trial. Risk factor changes and mortality results. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. JAMA. 1982; 248:1465-77.
10. Willett W. Nutritional epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

90,000 Low carb and ketogenic diets. Difference

Low carb versus ketogenic diets, what’s the difference?

Ketogenic diets are often confused with other diets such as low carbohydrate diets.

Often times, people who claim to be on a ketogenic diet are actually following a low carb diet.

Let’s try to clear up the confusion surrounding the difference between low-carb and ketogenic diets and discuss the benefits of having a healthy ketogenic diet versus a traditional low-carb diet.

Determination of Low Carb Diet

Although the definition varies according to literature sources, a low-carb diet tends to be classified as a diet containing less than 30% of calories from carbohydrates (1,2). While most low-carb diets contain between 50 and 150 grams of carbs per day, some athletes on this type of diet consume more than 200 grams of carbs due to their higher energy requirements.

The remainder of the dietary calories usually comes from high protein foods and moderate to high fat intake.

Differences in ketogenic diets

Unlike a typical low carb diet, a ketogenic diet (properly formulated) is high in fat, moderate in protein, and low in carbohydrates, for example. 75% fat, 20% protein, and 5% carbohydrates. The ketogenic diet is usually limited to about 20-50 grams of carbs per day (3).

This macronutrient distribution profile allows the body to begin forming, and ultimately, using an alternative fuel source known as ketones (4). This process is analogous to changing the fuel source of your car to a different, more durable, more affordable and more stable overall.

The main problem is the emphasis on low carbohydrates in the diet

A common mistake in the definition of a ketogenic diet has to do with the term “low carb,” but still high in protein and moderate in fat. Restricting carbohydrates is essential to a ketogenic diet.However, the “high fat”, “moderate protein component” is equally important in her concept. If protein intake is too high on a low-calorie, low-carb diet, then the body can increase glucose production through a process known as gluconeogenesis. As a result, it can prevent you from entering a state of nutritional physiological ketosis.

Benefits of the ketogenic diet in relation to the “low carbohydrate”

Although calorie balance can be a critical factor in determining weight loss or gain, a low carb diet can negatively affect quality of life and nutritional outcome. This effect is largely due to an inability to achieve a state of “ketosis” or to produce enough carbohydrates for energy. Most people here can essentially get stuck between the two options.

There are several advantages of a ketogenic diet over a conventional low-carb diet:

Greater fat loss and muscle retention

Ketogenic diets are about preserving and conserving protein, which means that the body will not “burn” amino acids for fuel, but instead will use ketones as the main source of energy (5,6).

On a low carbohydrate diet, protein and amino acids are likely to be used for energy due to lack of glucose from carbohydrates. But instead, in ketosis, the body triggers and uses gluconeogenesis to produce glucose as an energy source. Therefore, “low-carb” diets can lead to less effective weight loss.

One study (7) compared:

1) low carbohydrate diet (100 grams),

2) a diet with a lower carbohydrate content (60 grams) and

3) ketogenic diet (30 grams).

Subjects prepared all their meals themselves and consumed the same amount of protein. The study subjects in the “ketogenic” group lost significantly more body fat and retained muscle mass more effectively than their “counterparts” in the other two groups. This is likely due to the higher ketone levels in the 30-gram carbohydrate group and their effect on reducing protein breakdown.

Improvements in brain function

The problems people face while on a low-carb diet are unpredictable, from mild discomfort and dizziness to severe flu symptoms such as nausea, lethargy, confusion, headaches, cramps, diarrhea, etc.d.

When you are actually in ketosis, your body’s energy levels tend to be higher and more stable, there may be increased tone and activity, and any “flu-like” symptoms disappear as soon as organs and tissues adapt to this diet. These benefits are likely due to the fact that ketone levels do rise higher with a ketogenic diet compared to a traditional low-carb diet.

Reduced hunger and improved satiety

Low carbohydrate diets have been shown to improve satiety compared to the standard “Western” diet (8), mainly due to increased levels of fat and protein in the diet.Reducing carbohydrate intake and increasing amounts of protein and fat can help reduce fluctuations in blood sugar levels, promote fatty acid metabolism, and ensure satiety or satiety through the interaction of digestive hormones.

When you are on a ketogenic diet, your body is fueled by a long-term, sustainable and readily available fuel source – ketones. This reserve source of energy is extremely large, regardless of the person’s fatness. Compare this to “working on glucose” derived from carbohydrates or protein, which are only available in limited quantities, and which we can store in the body and receive from the diet.After meals high in carbohydrates, people tend to end up with hypoglycemia, which makes people feel more hungry and agonizes to find more food. But, with a ketogenic diet, appetite hormones, t

Such as leptin and ghrelin appear to promote better satiety and keep you feeling fuller longer.

The macronutrient composition of traditional low-carb diets usually does not meet the requirements of a true ketogenic diet.If a truly ketogenic diet is followed correctly, there are improvements in body composition, brain function, and appetite regulation.

Conclusions

Low carb diets can be helpful too, but it is important to distinguish between ketogenic and low carb diets due to the uniqueness of being in ketosis.

The ketogenic diet is a very low carbohydrate diet containing moderate amounts of protein and high levels of fat, allowing the body to switch fuel sources and begin producing ketones.

Low carbohydrate diets can limit carbohydrate intake in a manner similar to ketogenic diets.

Ketogenic diets can improve body composition (reduce body fat, preserve muscle mass) more than low-carb diets.

References

  1. Bueno, N. B., de Melo, I. S. V., de Oliveira, S. L., & da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.British Journal of Nutrition, 110 (07), 1178-1187.
  2. Nordmann, A. J., Nordmann, A., Briel, M., Keller, U., Yancy, W. S., Brehm, B. J., & Bucher, H. C. (2006). Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of internal medicine, 166 (3), 285-293.
  3. Freeman, J. M., Kossoff, E. H., & Hartman, A. L. (2007). The ketogenic diet: one decade later. Pediatrics, 119 (3), 535-543.
  4. Westman, E. C., Yancy, W. S., Olsen, M. K., Dudley, T., & Guyton, J. R. (2006). Effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet program compared to a low-fat diet on fasting lipoprotein subclasses. International journal of cardiology, 110 (2), 212-216.
  5. Manninen, A. H. (2006). Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass. Nutrition & metabolism, 3 (1), 1.
  6. Vazquez, J. A., & Adibi, S. A. (1992). Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus nonketogenic very low calorie diet.Metabolism, 41 (4), 406-414.
  7. Young, C. M., Scanlan, S. S., Im, H. S., & Lutwak, L. (1971). Effect on body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 24 (3), 290-296.
  8. Gibbons, C., Caudwell, P., Finlayson, G., Webb, D. L., Hellström, P. M., Näslund, E., & Blundell, J. E. (2013). Comparison of postprandial profiles of ghrelin, active GLP-1, and total PYY to meals varying in fat and carbohydrate and their association with hunger and the phases of satiety.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 98 (5), E847-E855.

90,000 The Keto Diet: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

The Ketogenic Diet is a very low carbohydrate, high fat diet / pohudejkina

The ketogenic diet (or keto for short) is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet that is offers many health benefits.

In fact, over 20 studies show that this type of diet can help you lose weight and improve your health.

The keto diet may even have benefits against diabetes, cancer, epilepsy, and Alzheimer’s.

Here’s a comprehensive beginner’s guide to the keto diet.

The ketogenic diet is a very low carbohydrate, high fat diet that has a lot in common with the Atkins and low carbohydrate diets.

Read also15 thousand dollars for a diet: world celebrities “hooked” on a new weight loss plan

It includes a sharp reduction in carbohydrate consumption and replacing them with fat.This reduction in carbohydrates puts your body into a metabolic state called ketosis.

When this happens, your body is incredibly efficient at burning fat for energy. It also converts fat into ketones in the liver, which can supply the brain with energy.

A ketogenic diet can cause dramatic drops in blood sugar and insulin levels. This, along with the increased ketone content, has many health benefits.

Types of ketogenic diets

There are several options for the ketogenic diet, including:

The Standard Ketogenic Diet (SKD): This is a very low carb, moderate protein, and high fat diet.It usually contains 75% fat, 20% protein, and only 5% carbohydrates.

Cyclic Ketogenic Diet (CKD): This diet includes periods of re-eating high in carbohydrates, such as 5 ketogenic days followed by 2 high carbohydrate days.

Targeted Ketogenic Diet (TKD): This diet allows you to add carbohydrates during exercise.

High Protein Ketogenic Diet: This is similar to the standard ketogenic diet but includes more protein.The ratio is often 60% fat, 35% protein, and 5% carbohydrates.

However, only the standard ketogenic diet and the high protein ketogenic diet have been extensively studied. Cyclic or targeted ketogenic diets are more advanced methods and are mostly used by bodybuilders or athletes.

Ketogenic diets can help you lose weight

The ketogenic diet is an effective way to lose weight and reduce your risk factors for disease.

In fact, research shows that the ketogenic diet is far superior to the often recommended low-fat diet.What’s more, the diet is so full that you can lose weight without counting calories and without tracking your food intake.

One study found that people on a ketogenic diet lost 2.2 times more weight than people on a low-calorie, low-fat diet. Triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels also improved.

There are several reasons why a ketogenic diet is superior to a low-fat diet, including increased protein intake, which offers many benefits.

Elevated ketones, lower blood sugar, and increased insulin sensitivity may also play a key role.

Health Benefits of the Keto Diet

The ketogenic diet actually originated as a tool for treating neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

Studies have shown that diet is beneficial for a wide variety of health conditions:

  • Heart disease: A ketogenic diet can improve risk factors such as body fat, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure and blood sugar.
  • Cancer: The diet is currently used to treat several types of cancer and slow tumor growth.
  • Alzheimer’s Disease: The keto diet may reduce the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease and slow its progression.
  • Epilepsy: Studies have shown that a ketogenic diet can cause a significant reduction in seizures in children with epilepsy.
  • Parkinson’s Disease: One study found that diet helped improve the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A ketogenic diet may help lower insulin levels, which may play a key role in polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • Brain Injury: One animal study showed that diet can reduce concussion and promote recovery from brain injury.
  • Acne: Lowering insulin levels and eating less sugar or processed foods can help get rid of acne.

Keep in mind, however, that research in many of these areas is far from conclusive.

Foods to Avoid

Any foods high in carbohydrates should be limited.Here is a list of foods to cut or eliminate on a ketogenic diet:

  • Sugary foods: sodas, fruit juice, smoothies, cakes, ice cream, candy, etc.
  • Cereals or starches: wheat based foods, rice, pasta, cereals, etc.
  • Fruit: All fruits except small berries such as strawberries.
  • Beans or legumes: peas, beans, lentils, chickpeas, etc.
  • Root vegetables and tubers: potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, parsnips, etc.
  • Low-fat or dietetic foods: These are highly processed and often high in carbohydrates.
  • Certain condiments or sauces: These often contain sugar and unhealthy fats.
  • Unhealthy fats: Limit your intake of processed vegetable oils, mayonnaise, etc.
  • Alcohol: Many alcoholic beverages, due to their carbohydrate content, can put you out of ketosis.
  • Sugar-free diet foods: These are often high in sugar alcohols, which in some cases can affect ketone levels.These products also tend to be highly processed.

One study found that people on a ketogenic diet lose 2.2 times more weight / Pixabay

What you can eat on a keto diet

You should base most of your meals on the following foods:

  • Meat: red meat , steak, ham, sausage, bacon, chicken and turkey.
  • Fatty fish: salmon, trout, tuna and mackerel.
  • Eggs: Look for homemade eggs or whole eggs with omega-3s.
  • Butter and cream
  • Cheese: unprocessed cheese (cheddar, goat, butter, blue or mozzarella).
  • Nuts and Seeds: Almonds, Walnuts, Flaxseeds, Pumpkin Seeds, Chia Seeds, etc.
  • Healthy Oils: Mainly extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil and avocado oil.
  • Avocados: Whole avocados or freshly made guacamole.
  • Low carb vegetables: most green vegetables, tomatoes, onions, peppers, etc.
  • Seasonings: You can use salt, pepper and a variety of healthy herbs and spices.

Keto Diet Menu

To help you get started, here is a sample one week ketogenic diet meal plan.

Monday

Breakfast: bacon, eggs and tomatoes.

Lunch: chicken salad with olive oil and feta cheese.

Dinner: Salmon with asparagus cooked in butter.

Tuesday

Breakfast: scrambled eggs, tomatoes, basil and goat cheese.

Lunch: Almond milk, peanut butter, cocoa powder and stevia milkshake.

Dinner: Meatballs, cheddar cheese and vegetables.

Wednesday

Breakfast: ketogenic milkshake.

Lunch: Shrimp salad with olive oil and avocado.

Dinner: pork chops with parmesan, broccoli and salad.

Thursday

Breakfast: omelet with avocado, salsa, pepper, onion and spices.

Lunch: a handful of nuts and celery sticks with guacamole and salsa.

Dinner: chicken stuffed with pesto sauce and cream cheese, along with vegetables.

Friday

Breakfast: sugar-free yoghurt with peanut butter, cocoa powder and stevia.

Lunch: Roast beef in coconut oil with vegetables.

Dinner: Burger without bun with bacon, egg and cheese.

Saturday

Breakfast: ham and cheese omelet with vegetables.

Lunch: slices of ham and cheese with nuts.

Dinner: white fish, egg and spinach cooked in coconut oil.

Sunday

Breakfast: scrambled eggs with bacon and mushrooms.

Lunch: Burger with salsa, cheese and guacamole.

Dinner: steak and eggs with a side dish.

Always try to alternate between vegetables and meats for a long time, as each type provides different nutrients and health benefits.

Keto Plus Side Effects and How to Minimize Them

While the ketogenic diet is safe for healthy people, some initial side effects may occur as your body adapts.

This is often referred to as the keto flu and usually goes away within a few days.

The keto flu includes decreased energy and mental performance, increased hunger, sleep problems, nausea, digestive discomfort, and decreased physical activity.

To keep this to a minimum, you can stick to a regular low-carb diet for the first few weeks. This can teach your body to burn more fat before you completely eliminate carbs.

The keto diet can also alter the water and mineral balance of your body, so adding salt to food or taking mineral supplements can help.

For minerals, try 3000-4000 mg sodium, 1000 mg potassium, and 300 mg magnesium daily to minimize side effects.

At least in the beginning it is important to eat until you are full and not to restrict too many calories. Usually, the keto diet results in weight loss without intentionally limiting calories.

90,000 Doctors warn about the long-term dangers of ketogenic diets

Ketogenic diets, according to many people who have tried them, give very good results. However, doctors are finding more and more evidence that they are harmful to health.

The authors of a new observational study examined the use of ketogenic diets, including in the treatment of serious diseases, including cancer and diabetes. The result was published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition.As a result, the authors of the review article concluded that popular ketogenic diets are bad for most people.

“Ketogenic” experts call diets very low in carbohydrates, moderate in protein and high in fat. This way of eating is aimed at causing ketosis – the production of ketone bodies by the body, which doctors sometimes call simply acetone.

Ketone bodies in abnormal circumstances for the body (with prolonged fasting, heavy physical exertion, with severe diabetes mellitus) serve as a source of energy for muscles, kidneys and brain.That is why the urine of a person in a diabetic coma and even the vapors exhaled by him smell like acetone. In a normal situation, a healthy human body maintains a small amount of ketone bodies in the blood.

The point of ketogenic diets is to induce ketosis, that is, increased production of acetone in the body, by severely limiting carbohydrates. The body, in the absence of carbohydrates in food, receives energy by burning accumulated fats. At the same time, body weight should be reduced.

It is worth noting here that the ketogenic diet strategy was developed a century ago for the treatment of childhood epilepsy.However, in recent years, she has received a second wind. Stopping eating bread, cereals, potatoes, sweets, fruits and milk, a person switches mainly to meat and fatty foods. At the same time, body weight decreases really quickly.

However, scientists continue to study the long-term health effects of the ketogenic diet. Many nutritionists argue that ketogenic diets are fundamentally unhealthy. For example, nutritionist Lee Crosby, lead author of this review, even calls the typical keto diet a “disease-causing disaster.”

“Eating red meat, processed meats and saturated fat while limiting carbohydrate-rich vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains is a recipe for poor health,” says Crosby.

A review article by scientists indicates that ketogenic diets are especially dangerous for pregnant women and people with kidney disease.

However, the long-term health effects of the diet are unclear, as many ketogenic foods are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and cancer, the review authors said.

In addition, the review emphasizes that weight loss by any means leads to a decrease in total cholesterol, but this rule does not apply in the case of the keto diet.

“In addition to the significant risk for kidney patients and pregnant women, keto diets are also dangerous for others because they can raise LDL levels and may increase the overall risk of chronic disease,” explains Crosby. the approach is no more effective than other weight loss diets. “

The reviewers acknowledge that ketogenic diets are effective in reducing the incidence of epileptic seizures and support their use in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. But in almost all other cases, “the risks of [ketogenic] diets outweigh the benefits.”

Interestingly, a clinical case study of the keto diet was funded by a non-profit organization called the Physicians’ Committee for Responsible Medicine. This organization promotes vegetarianism and fights against the use of animals in science to test the safety of drugs and other chemicals useful to humans.

While the rationale behind the published review of ketogenic diets may be conflicting, the long-term health effects of this diet are still deeply unclear. Therefore, we will give scientists time to radically understand this. In the meantime, we know for sure that in nutrition, as in any business, you need to adhere to a sense of proportion.

It is undeniable that cereals, vegetables, milk and fruits have health benefits. Isn’t it better not to give up these products, but also not to enrich your diet with proven unhealthy foods, ending this or that diet?

Earlier, we wrote about how a high-calorie diet makes the course of covid heavier, and about what vegetarianism leads to in children.We also talked about how fast food can cause premature aging of the brain.

More news from the world of science and medicine can be found in the “Science” and “Medicine” sections on the “Look” media platform.

Low Fat Diets :: Lose Weight Together. Ru

Main page / diets
/ Low fat diets

With such diets, the amount of fat in the diet is sharply limited, animals
saturated fats are almost completely eliminated, and foods containing polyunsaturated
(and / or monounsaturated) fats are consumed only in small amounts.The proportion of fat in total calories may vary for
different diets, therefore diets in which the proportion of fat is less than twenty
percent are discussed on the page “Diets
very low in fat. ” Here we look at the benefits
and the disadvantages of diets containing a moderately low amount of fat – 20-30%.
Oddly enough, only a few well-known diets fall into this category.
although this includes most diets based on the glycemic index,
and Patrick Holford’s Fat Burning Diet.

Diet

A low fat diet may include about 25% fat, 20-25%
proteins and 50-55% carbohydrates. The diet is based on the fact that energy
the value of fats reaches 9 kcal / g, so the easiest way to reduce
the number of calories is to reduce the proportion of fat in the diet. This diet contains
high in carbohydrates (most low fat diets prescribe
eating large amounts of complex carbohydrates such as
whole grains, potatoes and legumes, as well as lots of fruits and vegetables),
therefore you will not be hungry.

Estimated daily calories: 1500
Expected weight loss: Most low-diet diets
fat assumes a stable weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week.
Sample daily menu:
Breakfast: Muesli with skim milk and fresh fruit, toasted bread
wholemeal flour, “light butter” and jam.
Lunch: Mackerel in its own juice, vegetable salad with olive oil, fat-free
yogurt and some dried apricots.
Dinner: Lean carb fried in peanut butter with chopped
vegetables, egg noodles, banana, glass of wine.
Drinks: Tea, coffee (with skim milk), water, fruit juices.
Short-term effectiveness: Since the diet is rich in carbohydrates,
at the initial stage, weight loss will not be as noticeable as on diets,
containing a high percentage of proteins and therefore possessing a diuretic
action. But, if the amount of calories from food is sufficient
low, fat reserves will certainly begin to be consumed.Points: 3
Long-term effectiveness: World Health Organization
concluded that a diet with a reasonable restriction of fat and high
the content of complex carbohydrates give the best results in the long term,
than just counting calories, and the USDA claims
that such diets lead to weight loss, even if the amount of carbohydrates
is not limited. Other studies show that people are more likely to
stick to diets that leave enough daily calories
a comfortable level (most of them among low-fat diets),
than those that drastically restrict calories.Points: 5
Ease of use: Moderate diets with low
their fat content means they are easier to stick to than everyone else.
In such diets, you usually use the usual set of foods. Points: 4
Cost: No special products required,
and complex carbohydrates such as root vegetables and whole grains cost
cheap. Points: 4
Tolerance: People who are used to fatty foods, decrease
the amount of fat in the diet can be difficult, especially
at first time.Points: 3
Fullness: Diets high in carbohydrates usually
satisfying enough. Most of them are encouraged to use in
eating a lot of fruits and vegetables. This increases the portion sizes,
and it takes more time to eat them, which means you don’t have to get up
hungry from the table. However, not all low-fat diets are
make full use of carbohydrate foods with a low glycemic index,
which could provide additional benefits in terms of satiety.Points:
4
Health risk: Most international associations,
dealing with the problems of cardiovascular diseases, it is recommended to include
as little saturated fat and more carbohydrates in your diet. Small
the amount of unsaturated fat present in diets with relatively
low in fat may have positive health effects.
In 2001, the USDA recommended diets with
low in fat as optimal for providing the body with all
essential nutrients.Points: 5
Scientific evidence: Low fat diets
help people lose weight by reducing the amount they consume
calories, due to which there is an energy deficit, providing slow,
but steady weight loss. However, it is possible to follow a diet low in
fat content and still get too many calories from carbohydrates
and protein foods (or alcohol). If the total calories remain
at the same level, a low-fat diet will not work.Points: 4
Total Points: 32
Percentage Rating: 80%
The basic diet is 25% fat and rich
carbohydrates.
See also: 20 popular diets, Diets
by the glycemic index, Diets with
very low in fat.

Judith Wills “The Diet Bible”

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Halibut on your menu – what is its use and how it can harm?

Halibut is often called a fish for people who don’t like fish :).
Due to its firm texture, halibut cooks well as a fillet, steak and can withstand grilling and pan-frying.

In terms of nutrition, halibut offers a large amount of trace elements – selenium, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and niacin, and a lot of high quality protein. It is low in fat at 1 gram per serving, making it an ideal fish for those in need of a low fat diet.

Carbohydrates

Since halibut contains no starches, fibers or sugars, it does not contain any carbohydrates.

Fats

Halibut, cooked without oil, is a low-fat food. There are not so many omega-3 fatty acids in halibut when compared to fish species such as herring or salmon.
Protein

Pacific and Atlantic halibut is a good source of protein. One 3-ounce serving provides 16 grams of this macronutrient — 32% of the DV.
Microelements

Halibut is rich in several important vitamins and minerals.Selenium is excreted as the most abundant mineral, with 55% of the daily value – 100 g, and also Iacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, phosphorus and vitamin D.

Health Benefits

Adding halibut to your diet can bring significant health benefits. Here is some of them.

May reduce various inflammations

One of the main trace elements in halibut, selenium, is a well-known antioxidant.

Protects the heart muscle

Because selenium helps reduce inflammation, experts have suggested that it may help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (or death from these diseases).

In addition, some of the omega-3 fats of halibut contain eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid.

Suitable for many special diets

It is difficult to find a special diet that does not include halibut. This fish is low in carbohydrates, sodium and gluten free.

Useful for pancreatitis and gallstone disease

Contrary to popular belief in past years, eating fat does not make you fat. In fact, healthy fats are required for various processes in the body, including the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, K, and E.A low-fat diet is essential if you are living with certain medical conditions, such as pancreatitis or gallbladder disease.

May reduce the risk of diabetes

Halibut is an impressive source of magnesium that offers many health benefits. First, diets high in magnesium have been associated with significant reductions in diabetes risk. Experts believe this is due to the role of magnesium in glucose metabolism.

Allergy to fish halibut

Fish is one of the most common food allergens, so some people will need to stay away from halibut.The good news is that being allergic to one type of fish does not necessarily guarantee that you will be allergic to all of the fish, nor does it mean that you are definitely allergic to shellfish.

Adverse Effects

Many people are concerned about the mercury content of seafood. Halibut is not considered a fish high in mercury; it contains low levels of this toxin.

Varieties

Atlantic and Pacific Halibuts live in different oceans, but they don’t differ much in terms of taste, texture or best culinary practices.They can be used interchangeably in recipes.

90,000 Such healthy fat. The Pros And Cons Of The Ketogenic Diet | Nutrition and Diet | Kitchen

Vegetable food is considered to be the most beneficial for health, which prevents weight gain, helps to lower blood pressure and has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract.

However, plant-based foods are good for your health, and you need foods that consist of fats to prolong life. Experiments on mice have shown that this type of diet contributes to the formation of ketone bodies (fat breakdown products) in the body, which change metabolism in such a way that the body begins to use ketone bodies instead of glucose.

Mice will not be fooled

This is important, because in this way the fat already present in the body is consumed, and not new fat that comes with food is accumulated. In addition, the ketogenic diet can be considered as a preventive measure for certain diseases, such as cancer. It is known that cancer cells require only glucose for reproduction, and ketone bodies are not suitable for them as food.

The ketogenic diet also allows you to lose weight.

Experiments, however, have so far been carried out only on rodents. But they showed that despite the high fat content in the diet, the weight of rodents on a ketogenic diet dropped compared to mice who ate their regular food.

A tests showed that the ketogenic diet helps maintain memory – “older” mice coped with tasks no worse than younger ones. The ECG results showed that a high-fat diet supported heart function in adulthood.It is known that the results obtained in animals cannot be transferred to humans, so for now the ketogenic diet can only be called promising. However, many scientists believe that over time it could become the mainstay of anti-aging therapy.

What is it eaten with?

“The ketogenic diet is a diet low in carbohydrates, moderate in protein and high in fat,” says nutritionist Irina Gushchina.

With this diet allowed:

All types of meat (beef, pork, poultry), fish and seafood (shrimp, squid, mussels), eggs, vegetables (preferably green and those with a lot of fiber – tomatoes, eggplant, bell peppers), fatty dairy products (cream , cottage cheese, butter, cheese), nuts, mushrooms, vegetable oils (olive, coconut, almond).For drinks, strong tea and coffee are allowed (of course, without sugar). You should add as much spices as possible to your food.

Strictly prohibited:

Sugar in any form and sweet foods, cereals (wheat, rye, oats, barley, millet), harmful vegetable oils (soybean, corn, sunflower), fruits, legumes (beans, lentils, peas), tubers (potatoes, carrots, beets), low-fat foods (diet cottage cheese), gravies and sauces, alcohol.

From such an extensive allowed diet, you can make up a lot of dishes. For breakfast – scrambled eggs or omelets, cottage cheese and yogurt. For lunch – any soups, for dinner – casseroles, fish with vegetables, fried and baked meat.

Strictly speaking, the ketogenic diet can hardly be called a diet, since it does not imply not only a slight feeling of hunger, but even no restrictions. You can eat often, to your fill, and even as a snack, dense foods are recommended – cheese, eggs, nuts, seeds and vegetables allowed by the diet.

Where does the weakness come from?

However, adhering to this diet is not easy. With long-term observance, weakness, dizziness, nausea, insomnia, chronic fatigue, irritability, tearfulness, cold extremities are possible. Bad breath and problems with the gastrointestinal tract are possible. Researchers believe that these are problems of keta adaptation (restructuring of the body to consume fats, not glucose), which lasts 2-3 weeks.

I must say that there is no consensus among experts about the benefits of a ketogenic diet.

– In fact, this diet is similar to the Atkins or “Kremlin” diet – explains Svetlana Derbeneva, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Head. Department of the Clinic of Medical Nutrition of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Research Institute of Nutrition” – Despite its high efficiency in terms of weight loss, such a diet is indicated only for young and completely healthy people. Even for them, it is recommended to adhere to such a diet for no more than 2 weeks. Excess protein increases blood clotting and increases the risk of thrombosis, and increases the burden on the kidneys and liver.Excess mthionine and cysteine ​​(obtained from protein breakdown) can lead to genetic breakdowns and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

90,000 Nutrition and Diet Trends from Valio Experts

The benefits of different diets are often justified in the same way

Each nutritional and dietary trend has a specific feature that makes it stand out and gain popularity. In essence, however, these features are often interconnected, complement or repeat each other.A wide variety of diets can actually help you lose weight or improve your overall health. Especially if the person initially ate randomly or gained excess weight. The reason for the effectiveness of the diet often lies not in the rejection of a particular product, but in an overall improvement in the diet, for example, in an increase in the number of vegetables in the diet. This applies, for example, to the Mediterranean diet, which has been scientifically proven to be beneficial.

The reason for the effectiveness of the diet often lies not in the rejection of a particular product, but in the general improvement of the diet, for example, in the increase in the number of vegetables in the diet.

Weight loss diets can bring quick results for another reason. If the dietary restrictions are very strict, the weight is simply reduced due to the fact that a person consumes less energy than usual. However, in the long term, weight often returns to the old numbers: diets with severe restrictions are so complex that they cannot be followed indefinitely. Strict diets contain requirements that also bring social restrictions – as a result, you even have to go on a visit with your own food.

Diet or

type of power supply

Diet 5: 2

Paleo diet

Low Carb Diet


(including the keto diet)

Mediterranean


type of power supply

Diet according to WHO recommendations
Peculiarities This type of diet assumes that 5 days a week meals are going on as usual, and for two days energy consumption is limited. Avoiding long-term processed foods focus on plant-based foods and low-fat meats Avoiding refined carbohydrates Mainly plant-based food, obtaining fats from fish and rapeseed oil Avoiding high-energy, highly processed foods, lots of vegetables and moderate portions

Fasting days

Various options for fasting days managed to win their fans.The idea of ​​such a diet is to limit the amount of food for a period of time – its duration can vary from 16 hours to several days.

Intermittent (intermittent) fasting

One of the most popular fasting days is intermittent fasting. For example, with a 16: 8 meal, all meals should be completed within 8 hours, after which no meals should be eaten for 16 hours. How well this method works for losing weight depends on the amount and quality of food eaten over 8 hours.Activity throughout the day will also be of great importance. If the diet for the permitted 8 hours is complete, moderate and varied, such a regime can bring noticeable results. It is worth weighing, however, whether such a diet is safe for your health and whether it does not harm your social life.

Diet 5: 2

Another option for fasting days is a 5: 2 diet. It is based on the fact that for five days, power is allowed in normal mode, and for two days a week, a restriction is introduced and power consumption is allowed four times less than on normal days.For men on the days of restrictions, no more than 600 kcal is allowed, and for women – no more than 500. Such days should not be held in a row, and there are no specific restrictions on products in the diet on the days of unloading – you can eat what you want without exceeding the established consumption limit calories.

However, the human body is designed in such a way that, despite the significant difference in calorie intake on different days, the weight will remain almost unchanged. This is caused, among other things, by hormonal signals and the general influence of previous eating habits.Unfortunately, the mechanism reacts more sensitively to an abundant intake of calories, and not to its reduction, as those who often die on diets rightly note. A two-day power limitation will likely result in the deficiency being more than compensated for during periods when power is not limited.

Paleolithic diet

The paleo diet is based on the idea that the human digestive system has not undergone significant changes over the past 10,000 years – from the era of gathering and hunting, when agriculture was not yet established by humans.In accordance with this, our body has not rebuilt for the new diet, which means that simple foods are more appropriate for it, which a caveman could get for himself. The basis of such a diet is vegetables and berries, meat and seafood, eggs, seeds, nuts and mushrooms. At the same time, the diet implies the rejection of dairy products, bakery products, refined sugar, and legumes.

With the right approach, there are many advantages in such a diet, for example, an abundant intake of vegetables and fruits, as well as a rejection of salt (after all, the caveman did not use it, which means that sodium should be obtained from ordinary food).On the other hand, it is quite difficult to fully adhere to the diet of a caveman in modern society. Low calcium intake can also be a problem. Often associated with the paleo diet is the misconception that the caveman’s diet was rich in fats and especially saturated. This is not confirmed by experts. There is also no conclusive evidence that the caveman diet actually contributed to well-being and a better quality of life.

The Keto Diet

The ketogenic or keto diet is a low-carb type of diet.Its idea is that the amount of carbohydrates is reduced enough for the body to start the process of ketosis – getting energy from fats. Usually, the body draws energy from glucose, formed from the intake of carbohydrates. The ketogenic diet deprives the body of a source of glucose and forces it to draw energy from other sources – namely, from fat.

The keto diet means avoiding all sources of carbohydrates – from chocolate to dairy products and even fruits. The basis of the diet is fats, vegetable and animal origin.Protein intake is sufficient – thanks to the presence of eggs, meat and fish in the diet. The consumption of mainly green vegetables is also quite abundant.

The ketogenic diet was originally used primarily for the treatment of severe epilepsy and obesity, but has recently gained more prominence. It has been studied that for obesity and type 2 diabetes, this type of diet for one year gives good results, if, at the same time, the quality of fat is sufficiently high.However, the ketogenic diet is difficult to stick to for long periods of time, and the results of its effects on the body are not yet available in the framework of longer studies. One of the disadvantages of the diet is the extremely low fiber intake and, as a result, negative changes in the gut microbiota. As you know, microbiota is one of the most important factors in the quality of life.

Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean diet is believed to increase life expectancy as well as cardiovascular health.Studies have shown that a Mediterranean diet reduces the risk of waist deposits and inflammation that can trigger heart disease and cancer.

The Mediterranean diet involves an abundant consumption of traditional local products: vegetables and berries, rye, rapeseed oil and fish. The basis of such a diet is whole grains, fruits and vegetables, a large number of berries, as well as fish dishes – at least three times a week. Fats are recommended to be replaced with rapeseed oil and other vegetable-based spreads.In addition, it is recommended to consume low-fat or low-fat dairy products. The Mediterranean diet brings together all the most popular nutritional trends that have emerged recently: locally produced products, care for the environment and your own health, the real taste of products.

Principle 80 to 20

The 80/20 nutritional principle means that you don’t need to eat perfect all the time. It is enough if 80% of your diet is represented by correct and healthy meals.The remaining 20% ​​of the diet can be made up of momentary whims. In other words, sometimes you should pamper yourself if you mostly eat the right and quality food.

Advantages of this principle:
• There is no need to cook absolutely all meals at home
• You can afford a small piece of cake during the holiday
• Healthy eating is a lifestyle, not a short-term diet
• There is no need to scold yourself and endlessly strive for the ideal – no one is perfect

Someone may consider the 80-20 principle insufficient.For example, aspiring athletes may feel like they need more precise dietary optimization. This can be helpful in some cases, but keep in mind that the benefits of strict diets are often marginal, and severely restricted diets not only limit normal living but can also lead to serious eating disorders.

There is no need to scold yourself and endlessly strive for the ideal – no one is perfect.

For example, athletes who are forced to strictly control their eating habits have been found to have many more eating disorders than the general population. A Norwegian study showed that the incidence of eating disorders occurs in 24% of athletes who specialize in endurance sports and in 40% of athletes in aesthetic sports such as gymnastics and figure skating, which is significantly higher than among the general population.

And even if the 80-20 principle seems too gentle, it will be a significant step for most people. Research has shown that more than half of adults in Finland are overweight and one in five can be classified as obese.