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Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing and Reviews

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BP level, heart rate may affect coffee consumption

April 15, 2021

2 min read




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Coffee consumption may be “naturally” regulated based on an individual’s BP level and heart rate, researchers wrote in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

The findings could partially explain previous data that suggest coffee consumption, even in high amounts, may be beneficial, according to Elina Hyppönen, PhD, MSc, MPH, director of the Australian Centre for Precision Health at the University of South Australia Cancer Research Institute, and Ang Zhou, PhD, a research associate in the nutritional and genetic epidemiology group at the Australian Centre for Precision Health.

“We knew from past research that when people feel unwell, they tend to drink less coffee,” Hyppönen told Healio Primary Care. “This type of phenomenon where disease drives behavior — reverse causality — can lead to misleading health associations, and indeed, create a false impression for health benefits, if the group of people who do not drink coffee also includes more people who are unwell.”

The researchers analyzed data from up to 390,435 European ancestry participants aged between 39 and 73 years in the United Kingdom’s Biobank. Participants self-reported their coffee consumption and had their systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate measured at Biobank enrollment, while their baseline cardiovascular symptoms were obtained via hospital diagnoses, primary care records and self-reports.

According to Hyppönen and Zhou, participants who reported heart arrhythmia-related symptoms were 85% more likely to drink decaffeinated coffee and 53% more likely to not drink any coffee than to drink caffeinated coffee. Participants who indicated at baseline they were in “poor health” and experienced a “history of long-standing illness” were also more likely to drink decaffeinated coffee or to not drink any coffee than to drink caffeinated coffee.

In addition, higher SBP and DBP were linked to lower caffeinated coffee consumption at baseline, deeming the genetic evidence “consistent” to support a causal explanation, according to the researchers. Genetic analyses also showed that higher resting heart rate was linked to greater odds of being a decaffeinated coffee drinker (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.31-2.21 for each 10 beats a minute).

“We saw that people who have higher BP tend to drink less coffee, and conversely that people with low BP tend to drink more,” Hyppönen said.

The results suggest that reverse causality may account for “some of the controversies in observational studies of coffee consumption,” she added.

“Perhaps even more interestingly, our results also suggest people subconsciously self-regulate safe levels of coffee based on how high their BP is, and this is likely a result of a protective genetic a mechanism,” Hyppönen said.

This means that those who drink more caffeinated coffee may be “more genetically tolerant of caffeine,” whereas noncoffee drinkers or those who drink decaffeinated coffee, could be “more likely prone to the adverse effects of caffeine, and more susceptible to high BP,” she said.

“Whether we drink a lot of coffee, a little, or avoid caffeine altogether, this study shows that genetics are guiding our decisions to protect our cardio health,” Hyppönen said. “If your body is telling you not to drink that extra cup of coffee, there’s likely a reason why. Listen to your body, it’s more in tune with your health than you may think.”

Perspective

Back to Top

Zhaoping Li, MD, PhD

Our genetics determine our food preferences and metabolic response to food. However, the authors of this study did not use genetics. They also did not follow someone from the time they were born to the time they have a first heart attack, or what not. Therefore, from the point of view of this study having a take-home message for physicians, this study has none.

Research into coffee has been extensive over the past 20 years. Studies first showed that coffee drinkers are more likely to have the cardiovascular events and disease. But then there was an analysis that showed coffee drinkers are more likely to be smokers that may have impacted the study conclusion. More recent studies showed if you are not a smoker, the link between drinking coffee and heart disease becomes practically nonexistent. Other studies have shown that if you drink about three cups of coffee, you are protected from heart disease. You can see the potential flaws of analyzing existing data, since using existing data often depends on how you approach it.

That’s not to say that food research is not important. There are some estimates that indicate $20 billion will be spent on research during the next few years to figure out how genetics, environment and humans interactions impact what food does to our bodies.


References:

NIH. Nutrition for Precision Health. https://commonfund.nih.gov/nutritionforprecisionhealth. Accessed April 7, 2021.


O’Keefe JH, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.06.035.


Rebello SA, van Dam RM. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2013;doi:10.1007/s11886-013-0403-1.

Zhaoping Li, MD, PhD

Member, American Society of Nutrition
Professor of medicine, Lynda and Steward Resnick Endowed Chair,
Director, Center for Human Nutrition,
Division chief, clinical nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA


Disclosures: Li reports no relevant financial disclosures.




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Rx Nutrition Resource Center

How Coffee Benefits Your Heart

  • A study presented as part of the Heart Rhythm Society online meeting found that one to two cups of coffee per day can lower your risk of heart arrhythmia, or an irregular heart beat.
  • This is possibly due to the fact that coffee is rich in polyphenols—plant compounds full of antioxidants—which have been linked to better cell function in the heart and blood vessels.

    You love the pick-me-up that coffee brings when it comes to giving you the energy for your early morning miles. But is all that caffeine day after day tough on your heart? Recent research suggests the opposite may be true.

    In a study presented as part of the Heart Rhythm Society online meeting, researchers looked at data on morethan 350,000 participants in the U.K. Biobank, an effort that collected information on about half a million people aged between 40 to 69 for a four-year timespan. Participants provided blood, urine, and saliva samples regularly, as well as details about their habits and medical histories.

    Focusing on the number of arrhythmia (irregular heart beat) events—which happens when the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat is affected, and can lead to serious complications like blood clots—as well as coffee consumption, researchers noted that each daily cup of coffee up to four cups was associated with lower incidence of arrhythmia, lead researcher Eunjeong Kim, M.D., a clinical fellow of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, told Runner’s World.

    “The main message of our study is that it doesn’t appear to be harmful to continue with moderate amounts of regular coffee consumption in terms of overall arrhythmia risk,” she said.

    The sweetest spot for lowering risk seemed to be one to two cups, the research suggests, and five cups was when the risks started to level out. So, a few cups are protective, but more is not always better. Still, those drinking as many as five or six cups daily still had lower incidence of arrhythmic episodes, Kim added.

    Keep in mind that the study is observational and these results are correlative, which means researchers didn’t prove coffee actually causes better heart function. That said, this study adds to others that showcase the potential benefits of caffeine, and coffee specifically.

    For example, a 2011 study noted that physicians often advise patients with arrhythmia to avoid caffeinated coffee in the belief that it increases heart palpitations, but that controlled experiments have shown there’s no evidence of that effect. Much like the recent study, this research also concluded that total caffeine intake was related to lower arrhythmia risk.

    Another study, done on nearly 19,000 people, also showed a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of an irregular heartbeat over a period of nine years for those who drank one to three cups of coffee daily.

    [Run faster, stronger, and longer with this 360-degree training program.]

    Why is coffee so beneficial for heart health? While Kim and her colleagues didn’t explore the exact reason, coffee is rich in polyphenols—plant compounds full of antioxidants—which have been linked to better cell function in the heart and blood vessels. This, in turn, can prevent against other heart issues, too, such as heart disease and stroke.

    The message is clear: Your java habit is more likely to jumpstart your energy levels than your heart.

    Elizabeth Millard
    Elizabeth Millard is a freelance writer focusing on health, wellness, fitness, and food. 

    This content is created and maintained by a third party, and imported onto this page to help users provide their email addresses. You may be able to find more information about this and similar content at piano.io

    Coffee does not affect heart rate, study suggests | The Independent

    Drinking coffee regularly does not cause the heart to beat more, a new study has found.

    The findings go against previous studies which suggested that drinking coffee raises the heart rate, and have prompted the research team to call for clinical recommendations against caffeine to be reconsidered.

    Past research has indicated that premature atrial contractions (PACs) in the top chambers of the organ and excessive premature ventricular contractions (PVC) at the bottom are linked to a number of different forms of heart disease, and can be caused by caffeine consumption.

    Current guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommend that caffeine, alcohol and nicotine use should be stopped entirely to prevent heart problems worsening.

    However, the team at the University California, San Francisco, have cited previous evidence which showed that caffeinated product including coffee, chocolate and tea could in fact have cardiovascular benefits.

    To conduct the study published in the ‘Journal of the American Heart’, scientists analysed 1,388 randomly selected participants from the US’ National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Cardiovascular Health Study database of nearly 6,000 patients. Those with persistent extra heartbeats were excluded.

    How often they ate was taken into account, as well as their coffee, tea, and chocolate intake. Participants also underwent a 24-hour ECG test.

    Food trends in 2016

    Show all 11

    1/11Food trends in 2016

    Food trends in 2016

    Celeriac root

    We had a kale obsession in 2015, but 2016’s vegetable sine qua non is predicted to be the knobbly celeriac root. Celeriac milk (Tom Hunt at Poco in Bristol serves it with winter mussels and wild water celery), celeriac cooked in Galician beef fat (from Adam Rawson of Pachamama, hot new chef in the capital) and salt-baked celeriac (to be found in Matthew and Iain Pennington’s kitchens at The Ethicurean in the West Country) are just a few examples.

    Getty Images

    Food trends in 2016

    Middle Eastern food

    The Middle Eastern Vegetarian Cookbook (£24.95, Phaidon) by grand-dame Salma Hage, author of the bestseller The Lebanese Kitchen (whose halva is pictured here), is out in April

    © Liz & Max Haarala Hamilton

    Food trends in 2016

    Non-alcoholic cocktails

    Grain Store mixologist Tony Conigliaro has created Roman Redhead, a riot of red grape juice, beetroot, pale ale and verjus, and Rose Iced Tea (black tea, rose petals, anise essence, pictured here)

    Food trends in 2016

    Gin

    The discerning will be slurping Hepple gin – from chef Valentine Warner and cocktail guru Nick Strangeway – which is punctuated with bog-myrtle nuances

    Food trends in 2016

    Argyll and Bute

    Restaurant followers are getting in a froth about Pam Brunton in Scotland, who opened the Inver restaurant in Argyll and Bute to acclaim last year

    Food trends in 2016

    Andy Oliver’s Som Saa

    One of the most eagerly awaited restaurants of 2016 will be the permanent incarnation of Andy Oliver’s remarkable pop-up Som Saa opening very soon in east London. Oliver, who worked at Thai god David Thompson’s Nahm in Bangkok, raised a whopping £700,000 through crowdfunding, and is renowned for his piquant Thai flavours and obsessive attention to detail, including in his home ferments and DIY coconut cream

    © Adam Weatherley

    Food trends in 2016

    Venison

    Another ruminant in vogue is venison, with Sainsbury’s doubling its line for 2016. It provides a protein-packed punch, with B vitamins and iron, and it’s low in fat. Its entry into the mainstream is in part thanks to the Scottish restaurant Mac and Wild, just opened in London, whose Celtic head chef Andy Waugh (who also runs the Wild Game Co) has been touting it as street food for years (his venison burger pictured here)

    Food trends in 2016

    Goat

    From Brett Graham’s The Ledbury to Angela Hartnett’s kitchens at Lime Wood Hotel in the New Forest, Cabrito is the go-to goat supplier among the chef cognoscenti (roasted loin of kid pictured here) – but this year, domestic cooks can get in on the action, as Sushila Moles and James Whetlor of Cabrito offer their meat through Ocado

    Mike Lusmore / mikelusmore.com

    Food trends in 2016

    Coffee

    Coffee sage George Crawford is launching the much-anticipated Cupsmith with his partner, Emma. Crawford believes that 2016 is the year purist coffee will finally meet the masses; Cupsmith’s mission will be to make craft coffee as popular as craft beer on the high street. The company roasts Arabica beans in small batches, improving its quality – but sells it online, at cupsmith.com, in an approachable way: expect cheerful packaging and names such as Afternoon Reviver Coffee (designed for drinking with milk – no matter how uncouth, most of us want milk) and Glorious Espresso

    Julia Conway

    Food trends in 2016

    120-day-old steak

    Hanging meat for extremely long lengths of time has become an art. In Cumbria, Lake Road Kitchen’s James Cross is plating up 120-day-old steak (pictured here). The beef is from influential “ager” Dan Austin of Lake District Farmers, who is currently investigating the individual bacterial cultures that go into this maturing process

    Food trends in 2016

    Lotus root

    Diners can expect root-to-stem dining – cue the full lotus deployed by the Michelin-starred Indian Benares in its kamal kakdi aur paneer korma

    Getty Images

    Of the total volunteers, 80 per cent consumed more than one product containing caffeine on a daily basis.

    Researchers found that they did not any more extra heart beats per hour, even after consuming coffee, tea and chocolate.

    Senior author Gregory Marcus, MD, MAS, a UCSF Health cardiologist and director of clinical research in the UCSF Division of Cardiology, said: “Clinical recommendations advising against the regular consumption of caffeinated products to prevent disturbances of the heart’s cardiac rhythm should be reconsidered, as we may unnecessarily be discouraging consumption of items like chocolate, coffee and tea that might actually have cardiovascular benefits.”

    Further research is now needed to understand whether consuming excessive amounts of caffeine affect heartbeats, the team said.

    Caffeine Q & A | University Health Service

    What is caffeine? 

    Caffeine is a plant product that is most commonly found in coffee beans, tea, energy drinks, soft drinks, cocoa and chocolate. Caffeine is also found in some prescription and non-prescription drugs, including cold and allergy medications and pain relievers.

    Why do some people use caffeine?

    Caffeine acts as a stimulant by exerting an effect on the central nervous system. The effects of caffeine on the body may begin as early as 15 minutes after ingesting and last up to six hours.

    Is caffeine safe?

    Caffeine is recognized as an addictive substance by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, when consumed in moderate doses (up to 400 mg per day, or four to five 8-oz cups of coffee), caffeine can help some people feel more alert and less sleepy. Most individuals consuming moderate amounts will experience few, if any, negative side effects.

    What are the health benefits of caffeine?

    Caffeine may reduce the risk of developing certain neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s and dementia as well as certain oral cancers. Caffeine-containing products such as coffee, teas, and chocolate are rich sources of antioxidants and phytonutrients which may have health-promoting effects. 

    What are the negative side effects?

    Caffeine may increase blood pressure, body temperature, blood flow to the skin & extremities, blood sugar levels, stomach acid secretion and production of urine (it acts as a diuretic). People may experience dizziness, hypoglycemia, fruit-like breath odor, troubled breathing, muscle tremors, nausea, diarrhea, increased urine, ketones in urine, drowsiness, thirst, anxiety, confusion, irritability, insomnia, changes in appetite, dry mouth, blurred vision, jitters and cold sweats.

    Too much caffeine may lead to sleep deprivation and a tendency to disregard the normal warning signals that the body is tired and needs rest. Caffeine does not replenish energy or prevent emotional fatigue; food and sleep are the only remedies for these. When normal sleeping patterns are continually disrupted, mood depression may occur. Too much caffeine may also lead to anxiety-related feelings such as excessive nervousness, sweating, and tremors.

    If you want to avoid some of the unintended side effects of caffeinated beverages (e.g., jitters or sleeplessness), switching to decaffeinated drinks may help.

    Are there long-term health risks?

    While consuming moderate amounts of caffeine does not seem to have long-term detrimental effects, consuming large amounts of caffeine (1000 mg or about ten 8-oz cups of coffee a day) on a regular basis may be linked to fertility issues, increased episodes of heartburn, and changes in bowel habits.

    People who take medications for depression, anxiety or insomnia, high blood pressure, other heart problems, chronic stomach upset or kidney disease should limit caffeine until discussing the matter with a clinician.

    Does caffeine improve athletic performance?

    Study results in this arena are mixed. There is some evidence to support the use of caffeine to enhance athletic performance, but it is highly individual.

    Can caffeine help a person ‘sober up’?

    Contrary to popular belief, drinking coffee will not help someone who is intoxicated become sober.

    What is caffeine withdrawal?

    People who stop drinking caffeinated drinks may notice several side effects, especially if they are used to consuming large amounts of caffeine. Some symptoms of caffeine withdrawal include headaches, irritability, nervousness, nausea, constipation, and muscular tension. These symptoms usually appear about 12-24 hours after someone has stopped consuming caffeine and usually last about one week. It is recommended that you gradually decrease your caffeine intake to avoid withdrawal symptoms. 

    Is it okay to have caffeine during pregnancy?

    Some studies show an association between high doses of caffeine and an increased rate of miscarriages, premature deliveries or low birth weights. However, complicating factors such as smoking and alcohol use were not accounted for in these studies. In very high doses, caffeine can affect fetal breathing and heart rate. One 8-oz cup of coffee per day during pregnancy is generally considered safe.

    If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, please discuss caffeine intake with your clinician. 

    Where can I get more information about caffeine content?

    The Center for Science in the Public Interest lists caffeine content of food, drink and non-prescription drugs.

    Caffeine Informer provides a fun calculator and other tools.

    For coffee, caffeine content varies depending on the type of bean, quantity used, how finely beans are ground and brewing time.

    For non-prescription drugs, it’s a good idea to read labels.

    Coffee Doesn’t Raise Your Risk for Heart Rhythm Problems

    In the largest study of its kind, an investigation by UC San Francisco has found no evidence that moderate coffee consumption can cause cardiac arrhythmia.  

    In fact, each additional daily cup of coffee consumed among several hundred thousand individuals was associated with a 3 percent lower risk of any arrhythmia occurring, including atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, or other common heart conditions, the researchers report. The study included a four-year follow up.  

    The paper is published July 19, 2021, in JAMA Internal Medicine

    “Coffee is the primary source of caffeine for most people, and it has a reputation for causing or exacerbating arrhythmias,” said senior and corresponding author Gregory Marcus, MD, professor of medicine in the Division of Cardiology at UCSF.  

    “But we found no evidence that caffeine consumption leads to a greater risk of arrhythmias,” said Marcus, who specializes in the treatment of arrhythmias. “Our population-based study provides reassurance that common prohibitions against caffeine to reduce arrhythmia risk are likely unwarranted.”  

    While some professional societies suggest avoiding caffeinated products to lower the risk for arrhythmia, this connection has not been consistently demonstrated – indeed, coffee consumption may have anti-inflammatory benefits and is associated with reduced risks of some illnesses including cancer, diabetes and Parkinson disease.  

    In the new study, UCSF scientists explored whether habitual coffee intake was associated with a risk of arrhythmia, and whether genetic variants that affect caffeine metabolism could modify that association.  

    Their investigation was conducted via the community-based UK Biobank, a prospective study of participants in England’s National Health Services.

    Some 386,258 coffee drinkers took part in the coffee research, with an average mean age of 56 years; slightly more than half were female. It was an unprecedented sample size for this type of inquiry.  

    In addition to a conventional analysis examining self-reported coffee consumption as a predictor of future arrhythmias, the investigators employed a technique called “Mendelian Randomization,” leveraging genetic data to infer causal relationships. As those with the genetic variants associated with faster caffeine metabolism drank more coffee, this analysis provided a method to test the caffeine-arrhythmia relationship in a way that did not rely on participant self-report and should have been immune to much of the confounding inherent to most observational studies.  

    With a mean four-year follow up, data were adjusted for demographic characteristics, health and lifestyle habits.   

    Ultimately, approximately 4 percent of the sample developed an arrhythmia. No evidence of a heightened risk of arrhythmias was observed among those genetically predisposed to metabolize caffeine differently. The researchers said that higher amounts of coffee were actually associated with a 3 percent reduced risk of developing an arrhythmia. 

    The authors noted limitations including the self-reporting nature of the study, and that detailed information on the type of coffee – such as espresso or not – was unavailable.  

    “Only a randomized clinical trial can definitively demonstrate clear effects of coffee or caffeine consumption,” said Marcus. “But our study found no evidence that consuming caffeinated beverages increased the risk of arrhythmia. Coffee’s antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties may play a role, and some properties of caffeine could be protective against some arrhythmias.”  

    Co-authors are Eun-jeong Kim, MD; Thomas J. Hoffmann, PhD; Gregory Nah, MA; Eric Vittinghoff, PhD; and Francesca Delling, MD, all of UCSF.  

    Disclosures can be found in the paper.  

    UCSF Health is recognized worldwide for its innovative patient care, reflecting the latest medical knowledge, advanced technologies and pioneering research. It includes the flagship UCSF Medical Center, which is ranked among the top 10 hospitals nationwide, as well as UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospitals, with campuses in San Francisco and Oakland, Langley Porter Psychiatric Hospital and Clinics, UCSF Benioff Children’s Physicians and the UCSF Faculty Practice. These hospitals serve as the academic medical center of the University of California, San Francisco, which is world-renowned for its graduate-level health sciences education and biomedical research. UCSF Health has affiliations with hospitals and health organizations throughout the Bay Area.

    Coffee may help reduce risk for heart failure

    (Westend61, Getty Images)

    Drinking one or more cups of coffee a day may reduce the risk of heart failure, according to new research. But only if it’s caffeinated.

    The analysis of data from three large, well-known heart disease trials was published Tuesday in the American Heart Association journal Circulation: Heart Failure. It found the more coffee people drank, the lower their risk for heart failure. But that benefit didn’t extend to people who drank decaf.

    “The association between caffeine and heart failure risk reduction was surprising,” senior author Dr. David Kao said in a news release. Kao is an assistant professor of cardiology and medical director at the Colorado Center for Personalized Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in Aurora.

    “Coffee and caffeine are often considered by the general population to be ‘bad’ for the heart because people associate them with palpitations, high blood pressure, etc.,” he said. “The consistent relationship between increasing caffeine consumption and decreasing heart failure risk turns that assumption on its head.”

    But don’t reach for a refill just yet, Kao said. “There is not yet enough clear evidence to recommend increasing coffee consumption to decrease risk of heart disease with the same strength and certainty as stopping smoking, losing weight or exercising.”

    Using the AHA’s Precision Medicine Platform, which gives researchers tools and access to diverse datasets, Kao and his team analyzed information from the Framingham Heart Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Cardiovascular Health Study. Collectively, these studies included 10 years of follow-up for more than 21,000 adults who drank up to three cups of coffee per day.

    Across all three studies, people who drank more coffee had a lower long-term risk of heart failure.

    Among those in the Framingham and Cardiovascular Health studies, the risk of heart failure fell by 5%-12% per cup of coffee per day, compared to people who drank no coffee. For those in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, there was no change in heart failure risk for people who drank one cup of coffee per day, but a 30% lower risk for those drank two cups or more. Drinking decaf, on the other hand, significantly increased the risk of heart failure for those in the Framingham study, while having no impact on those in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    The studies did not distinguish between coffee prepared by different methods (percolated, drip, French press or espresso), where the beans came from or how strong the coffee was. And while they attributed the reduction in heart failure risk to caffeine consumption, the researchers did not address whether these findings might apply to other caffeinated drinks, such as energy drinks, caffeinated teas, soda or other substances.

    Federal dietary guidelines say three to five 8-ounce cups a day of plain, black coffee can be part of a healthy diet. But popular, coffee-based drinks – such as lattes and macchiatos – can be high in calories, added sugar and fat. Also, despite its benefits, research shows caffeine can be dangerous when consumed in large amounts. The American Academy of Pediatrics cautions it should not be given to children.

    Penny Kris-Etherton, a distinguished professor of nutrition at the Pennsylvania State University College of Health and Human Development in University Park, cautioned against consuming excessive amounts of coffee.

    “The bottom line: enjoy coffee in moderation as part of an overall heart-healthy dietary pattern that meets recommendations for fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat/non-fat dairy products, and that also is low in sodium, saturated fat and added sugars,” she said in the release. Kris-Etherton was not involved in the new research. “Also, it is important to be mindful that caffeine is a stimulant and consuming too much may be problematic – causing jitteriness and sleep problems.”

    If you have questions or comments about this story, please email [email protected]

    90,000 The effect of coffee on the body – what is the benefit and what is the harm?

    Preparing a daily cup of coffee, we do not even think about how this drink affects our body. Well, except that it invigorates. But daily use in one way or another affects the organ systems. But caffeine is beneficial or harmful – we will talk about this in the article.

    What is in a coffee bean?

    Before we analyze the effect of coffee on the human body, let’s see what a coffee bean is.

    The composition of coffee beans contains over 2000 different substances, including:

    • iron;
    • magnesium;
    • pyridine;
    • calcium;
    • quinic acid;
    • oxalic acid;
    • vitamins of different groups;
    • tannins;
    • nitrogen;
    • mineral salts, etc.

    Caffeine is leading this march. This substance belongs to alkaloids, depending on the dosage, caffeine can have both a tonic effect and depress the central nervous system.

    Caffeine in medicine

    Caffeine is used in medicine as a psychostimulant. It is indicated for diseases that are accompanied by suppression of the functions of the cardiovascular system and the central nervous system, with bedwetting, to increase the general tone.

    Caffeine is available in 100 mg and 200 mg tablets. One cup of coffee usually contains about the same amount of caffeine. Adult patients are prescribed two or three times a day from 50 mg to 100 mg. From this it follows that the permissible dose of coffee consumption is up to 3 cups a day.We will talk about the effect of coffee on the body with specific diseases further.

    How does coffee affect various systems of human organs?

    You may have noticed that along with increased performance after a morning espresso, you get heartburn, and you also have a frequent urge to urinate. Have you ever wondered if this could be due to caffeine? Let’s figure it out.

    Effect of coffee on the heart and blood vessels

    Under the influence of caffeine, the heart rate increases.For a young, healthy heart, as well as elastic vessels, this effect is positive at moderate doses. But for people who are at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, heart palpitations can be the cause of complications: lack of oxygen in the heart muscle, hypertensive crisis. And for people with coronary heart disease, high doses of caffeine can trigger arrhythmias and even heart attacks.

    The effect of coffee on the stomach

    The effect of coffee on the stomach and gastrointestinal tract is associated not so much with caffeine as with the acids contained in the drink.Their action is to stimulate the work of gastric secretions, which entails accelerating the digestion of food and activating the production of gastric juice. If there are no pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, and coffee is not consumed in excess of the norm, then the drink will help to establish digestion and stool. But for people with gastritis, stomach ulcers, such a benefit from coffee can be harmful, so you should give it up and switch to herbal teas and cocoa.

    Effects of coffee on the liver

    There is a constant debate about the effect of coffee on the liver.Some doctors argue that the drink is useful, others are inclined to believe that it is harmful. It is important to note that when drinking natural coffee, a person with a healthy liver is not in danger. But instant coffee is generally not recommended to anyone.

    As for the benefits, we all know that the liver cleanses our body. And since caffeine promotes the secretion of gastric secretions and improves metabolism, the cleansing processes are accelerated. It should also be said that coffee beans contain components involved in lipid metabolism.Due to this, the risk of fatty degeneration of the liver is reduced. And the drink also helps to prevent the formation of scar tissue, which contributes to the rapid regeneration of the organ.

    About whether to drink coffee for liver diseases, it is better to consult your doctor.

    Effect of coffee on the brain and nervous system

    Regular coffee consumption improves cognitive abilities, reaction, logical thinking, reduces the effects of stress and the occurrence of depressive conditions.However, abuse and excess of doses leads to depression, lethargy, insomnia. Therefore, you can drink no more than 3 cups a day and no later than 14: 00-15: 00 hours.

    Effect of coffee on the kidneys

    About 10% of caffeine is excreted unchanged from the body by the kidneys. With constant use, the majority of the diuresis increases, which means that a person often goes to the toilet in a small way. This entails increased fluid loss, disrupting the metabolic processes of electrolytes and minerals.Along with this, calcium and sodium are washed out of the body. Together, these processes can lead to the formation of kidney stones. Therefore, after each cup of coffee, it is recommended to drink a glass of clean water to replenish the water balance.

    The effect of coffee on a woman’s body – can pregnant women drink the drink?

    As for the effect of caffeine on the body of the expectant mother, here it is worth saying that it is worth using this invigorating elixir with caution. The recommended dose for pregnant women is 1 cup.Excessive doses can lead to insomnia, anemia, heartburn, and even the threat of miscarriage. You can learn more about coffee during pregnancy from the article “Can coffee be pregnant?”

    We hope that now you will be more conscious about drinking coffee and will listen to your body. And if you are looking for a coffee machine to drink a high-quality drink, we offer you a coffee machine rental on favorable terms. We work in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Novosibirsk.

    90,000 The doctor named the permissible number of cups of coffee per day – RT in Russian

    Gastroenterologist, nutritionist Nuria Dianova told RT how many cups of coffee a day can be drunk without harm to health.

    “Coffee does have an element of addiction formation, and over time this leads to a depletion of the nervous system. Therefore, they still recommend no more than two cups (per day. – RT ), if viewed from the standpoint of the psycho-stimulating effect … Ideal from the point of view of gastroenterology is the use of coffee during meals. For many, coffee for breakfast is a purely ritualistic moment. The mistake may be if it’s just empty coffee without everything. If this is within the framework of a full breakfast, then there is practically no harm to the gastrointestinal tract, ”the doctor said.

    According to the specialist, sometimes people do not even need caffeine itself, but the aroma and taste of coffee.

    “Many are invigorated by the aroma due to the components that are in the beans. They persist, but only in the next 20-30 minutes after the preparation of the drink itself, so you need to brew as much coffee as needed, ideally, not brew for a long time, but use it immediately. If we talk about the second intake of coffee (during the day – RT ), it is already due to a certain decline – approximately after lunch, before dinner there is always such a moment when there is a decrease in performance.If there is a snack that corresponds to an afternoon snack, then this is the time when you can connect the second cup of the day, ”added the nutritionist.

    She noted that we are talking about good, high-quality coffee beans, prepared in any way.

    “The main thing is that the coffee in the second meal should be within the framework of a small snack, then there will be no heartburn … Coffee has a diuretic effect, after all, it is recommended to use water between doses. The most important thing is that two cups are not harmful, only beneficial, ”Dianova emphasized.

    The expert also recalled the recommendations of somnologists, according to which it is necessary to stop drinking strong tonic drinks six hours before going to bed.

    At the same time, Dianova added that coffee immediately increases the frequency and strength of heart contractions, tones the nervous system and increases efficiency.

    “All this happens for a short period of time. Basically, if there are people who want to burn fat, then a cup of regular coffee, if taken some time before physical activity, in a sense works for a person.That is, due to the fact that it will increase the heart rate. The main thing is to control it. Because effective fat burning also occurs in a certain corridor of heart rate, ”- said the doctor.

    She also stated that it is worth limiting the use of coffee for children and pregnant women. The specialist noted that even hypertensive patients can drink one cup of coffee a day if the person does not have obesity, diabetes and takes appropriate therapy.

    Earlier, nutritionists told how often you can eat fast food.

    Arrhythmia: types, diagnostics and treatment

    What is a heart rhythm failure called arrhythmia and why there is a type of tachycardia – says Ekaterina Radikovna Perminova, a cardiologist at the CORDIS Medical Center.

    The resting heart rate (HR) is influenced by age, fitness and other factors. The normal rhythm should be between 60 and 100 beats per minute. The sinus node, which is located in the anterior upper part of the right atrium, is responsible for its regulation.Arrhythmia is a violation of heart rate, arousal and conduction sequence. It can feel like a sinking heart or manifest as extraordinary contractions.

    There are several types of arrhythmias that differ from each other. The three main types are sinus, ventricular, and atrial arrhythmias. Then they are distinguished by heart rate:

    • atrial fibrillation is considered the most common type. Cardiac muscle fibers work asynchronously due to twitching or “flickering” of the atria.Their reduction simply disappears. In this case, the ventricles also stop working normally.
    • tachycardia – in this state, a person’s pulse exceeds 100 beats per minute. Tachycardia that occurs during intense physical exertion is considered the norm. But if you are completely calm, and your pulse is high, you can talk about pathology.
    • bradycardia – with this type of arrhythmia, the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Often it appears when you feel normal. But if you constantly feel unwell, the pathological process has already started.
    • extrasystole usually appears for no apparent reason. A premature contraction is interwoven into a normal heart rate. Severe stress can be the cause of the attack.
    • paroxysmal disturbances are expressed in a sharp increase in heart rate, palpitations with the inability to count its beats. Sometimes their frequency reaches 200 beats per minute. This is a special type of tachycardia that leads to sudden weakness and even loss of consciousness. The condition is considered extremely dangerous.Immediate medical attention is needed here.

    CAUSES OF ARRHYTHMIA
    Arrhythmia does not always arise from heart problems. It can be a consequence of other cardiac pathologies:
    – heart attack
    – ischemic heart disease
    – cardiomyopathy
    – myocarditis
    – arterial hypertension
    – heart failure
    – heart defects (congenital and acquired)
    – cardiosclerosis
    – traumas and injuries of the heart
    diseases lead to damage to the heart muscle and complication of the normal propagation of the heart’s electrical impulse to its parts.

    HOW ARRHYTHMIA MANIFESTED

    • sudden weakness
    • headache
    • dizziness up to loss of consciousness
    • shortness of breath, shortness of breath
    • rapid or slow heart rate
    • chest pressure, pain

    BRADICARDIA

    indicates various cardiac pathologies. Most often, it appears due to blockade of the sinus node and is characterized by a slowing of the heartbeat to 30-50 beats / min.Other causes of bradycardia include:
    – heart attack, ischemic heart disease, arterial hypertension, heart defect
    – age-related changes in the heart muscle area
    – reflex influences (cold water, blow to the chest or neck)
    – increased intracranial pressure, pressure on the carotid artery or eyeballs
    – stomach and duodenal ulcer
    – use of drugs that replace heart rate
    – consequences of chemical or organophosphate poisoning
    – disturbances in potassium balance and calcium levels

    Symptoms of Bradycardia
    If your heart rate is less than 40 beats per minute, it can lead to heart failure.Common symptoms of bradycardia are:

    • general weakness, cold sweat
    • pale skin and mucous membranes
    • dizziness
    • edema
    • convulsions
    • shortness of breath
    • low blood pressure
    • Semi-fainting or short-term loss of consciousness
    • distraction

    WHAT TO DO
    Alas, arrhythmia can be either an independent pathology or a manifestation of another disease.Therefore, if you began to sleep poorly, wake up with shortness of breath in the middle of the night, if you have hand tremors and you panic more and more often, you have heart problems. With sinus bradycardia, there is a rare pulse and respiratory arrhythmia. For its diagnosis, daily ECG monitoring, ultrasound of the heart, as well as exercise cycle ergometry are prescribed. The sooner you see your doctor, the lower your risk of developing cardiovascular problems. Sinus bradycardia needs constant prevention. Give up smoking and alcohol, normalize blood pressure and weight, eat right.Worry less and exercise.

    TACHYCARDIA

    is not considered a severe pathology. Rather, it is a symptom when the heart rate exceeds 100 bpm. It is usually caused by increased physical exertion in those who do not regularly engage in hard physical work or sports. But sometimes the REASONS of tachycardia can be:
    – dehydration
    – hypersensitivity to coffee, strong tea, nicotine, alcohol
    – high temperature
    – sleep problems
    – anemia
    – obesity
    – strong emotions, stress, fear
    – old age
    – hypertension or hypotension
    – taking certain medications (for a runny nose or cough)
    – intoxication
    – in some cases – heart disease

    In a perfectly healthy person, the heart rate can reach 150-200 beats./ min. and higher. It happens that an attack lasts from several minutes to several hours. Your norm for tachycardia and arrhythmias is quickly passing symptoms without weakness, sweating and pressure reduction.

    SYMPTOMS OF TACHYCARDIA
    Consult a doctor when:

    • heart rate failure occurs frequently and for a long time
    • you start to have shortness of breath, lack of air
    • if you feel dizzy and break into a sweat
    • you urinate often
    • you get scared for no reason
    • you stop sleeping normally, your appetite disappears
    • pains appear in the region of the heart
    • general state of health and mood at zero

    WHAT WE DO
    If you suddenly feel sick, apply a cold compress to your forehead, wash yourself with cool water, and then take one of the sedatives: corvalol, valocordin, valerian, motherwort or peony infusion.Of course, if you find yourself with symptoms of arrhythmia, you need to undergo an examination in the form of an ECG. It shows the consequences of rhythm disturbances, even if you are already fine and the attack has passed. But it can happen that tachycardia is accompanied by loss of consciousness, severe chest pain or shortness of breath. Then call an ambulance immediately. It is necessary to treat tachycardia only after finding out its cause.

    Avoid caffeine, spicy foods, chocolate, alcohol, and cigarettes to reduce the likelihood of an unreasonable tachycardia.And also exclude serious physical activity and be less nervous.

    ATIBLE ARRHYTHMIA

    As you know, the heart must contract in a strictly ordered rhythm. And one of the deviations from it is atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation).

    With age, the prevalence of this rhythm disturbance increases: approximately 6% of men and women over 60 years old suffer from atrial fibrillation.

    What happens to our heart during an attack of atrial fibrillation? The atria begin to contract frequently and irregularly, and the sinus node does not coordinate the heart rhythm.These fibrillations can reach 300-600 per minute at a rate of 60 to 90. Scary, isn’t it?

    If atrial fibrillation lasts a long time, blood clots can occur, and hence ischemic strokes and acute arterial insufficiency of the arteries of the upper or lower extremities.

    REASONS
    This disease is caused by a number of reasons associated with both cardiac pathologies and diseases of other organs or external factors of influence on the body:
    – heart attack
    – arterial hypertension
    – tachycardia
    – myocarditis
    – severe heart failure
    – intoxication
    – cardiosclerosis
    – rheumatic heart defects
    – cardiomyopathy
    – thyrotoxicosis
    – diabetes
    – psychoemotional overload
    – underwent surgical interventions
    – hypokalemia

    Atrial fibrillation threatens your life.But atrial fibrillation interferes with the synchronous work of the heart and increases the risk of developing chronic cardiovascular failure and thromboembolic complications.

    SYMPTOMS
    So, we can talk about atrial fibrillation if you have the following symptoms:
    irregular heartbeat

    • a feeling of “fluttering” of the heart
    • chest pain
    • weakness and sweating
    • shortness of breath
    • dizziness and fainting
    • shiver
    • frequent urination
    • a sense of fear


    But as soon as you restore your heart rate, these symptoms disappear.Atrial fibrillation is of three types:
    – paroxysmal from 30 seconds to 7 days
    – persistent – longer than 7 days
    – permanent

    HOW TO DETECT
    The most accurate diagnostic methods to identify atrial fibrillation and the causes leading to it are the following:
    ECG
    Ultrasound of the heart
    MRI of the heart
    Bicycle ergometry and treadmill test
    24-hour Holter monitoring
    blood test, which can be used to confirm or exclude other diseases

    You can measure the pulse yourself and evaluate the regularity and heart rate.A fast, slow or irregular heart rate indicates an irregular heartbeat.

    WHAT TO DO
    First of all, make an appointment with a cardiologist. The doctor will prescribe treatment for you to prevent “rhythm breakdowns” and their complications, correct diseases leading to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. In some cases, with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, inpatient treatment and electrical pulse restoration of the rhythm may be required. We’ll have to reconsider the way of life.If you abuse smoking, alcohol and fatty foods – give up everything that can badly affect your health. Strong tea and coffee can also cause heartbeat irregularities, so reduce your intake.

    * Prices are presented for information purposes only. The current price can be viewed here

    Do you ever wake up in the morning and your heart goes into a fast gallop? Or sit to yourself, work, and your “engine” knocks as if you ran a marathon for half a day? These signals must be treated responsibly!

    Ministry of Health

    The claim that alcohol is in
    small doses are not harmful and even beneficial for the work of the heart, scientists have disproved.Alcohol enters the bloodstream very quickly – a few minutes after
    the use of alcoholic beverages, the pulse quickens. Normal heart rate
    70–80 beats per minute. When drinking alcohol, it reaches 100 or more
    beats per minute – tachycardia develops. There is a risk of developing arrhythmias,
    cardiac arrest. With prolonged use of alcohol, the muscles of the heart lose
    elasticity, become flabby, arterial hypertension develops. Enough
    alcoholic cardiomyopathy is often a consequence of alcoholism.Symptoms
    this disease: enlargement of the heart, uneven ventricular hypertrophy and
    loose myocardial muscles. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a consequence of regular
    alcohol abuse lasting years. Risk of arrhythmia in those who regularly
    drinks alcohol even in small doses, doubles. According to
    Lipid Research Clinics study, male life expectancy,
    consuming more than 168 g of pure ethanol per week is reduced by 5.6 years. For
    women consuming more than half of this dose – 84 g of pure ethanol –
    will result in a reduction in life by 23.8 years.

    Alcohol contributes to a decrease in protein production, alcohol intoxication
    leads to a lack of vitamins (primarily of group B). If alcohol
    takes part in energy processes, metabolism is disturbed and
    redox potential of the cell. The liver accumulates fatty
    acids and triglycerides, fatty degeneration of the liver, hyperlipidemia begins. V
    the body produces a toxic metabolite of alcohol – acetaldehyde, which
    causes severe poisoning, which can lead to sudden death.Revealed
    the connection between alcohol consumption and the uncoordinated work of the nervous and
    cardiovascular systems of the body, so in no case try
    “Drown” stress by drinking alcohol. When stress occurs
    increased release of adrenaline and norepinephrine, and under the influence of alcohol
    the sensitivity of the heart to these hormones increases. As a result, the heart muscle
    loses its natural defenses against the effects of stress hormones exactly at that
    the moment when it is especially needed.If a person suffers from arrhythmia, alcohol
    not only increases the sensitivity of the myocardium, but also disrupts blood circulation:
    increases heart rate, increases blood pressure. That
    there is a heart’s need for oxygen increases, and the ability of the circulatory
    systems deliver it dropping. There is a risk of developing arrhythmias,
    sudden cardiac arrest. Very dangerous
    hypertensive crisis in a state of intoxication. He can provoke
    cerebral hemorrhage, followed by paralysis, up to death.

    You might argue that
    hypertensive crises, strokes and heart attacks affect people suffering
    cardiovascular diseases. But does a person always know about his
    chronic disease? Arterial hypertension, heart failure
    can proceed in a latent form, therefore it is so important to pass on time
    examination, which is why it is so dangerous to drink alcohol even in small
    quantities: the effect of ethyl alcohol on the body of a particular person
    it is often impossible to predict with certainty.

    90,000 Is there a connection between coffee and insomnia: doctors from Ugra have debunked myths about an invigorating drink | Society

    04/15/2020 11:02

    # Society

    # KhMAO – Ugra

    Author: Tatiana Adams, Leonid Chemlyakov, Ildar Muratov, photo – yandex.by

    Read the news of Ugra TV in

    Less than 10 years later, people with plastic cups in their hands became part of a kind of street culture, and Russia entered the top ten most coffee-consuming countries. Is coffee a tonic morning drink or a youth trend? Be that as it may, if you cannot imagine your morning without an invigorating drink – pay attention to the grains from which it is prepared.

    But whichever flavor you choose, you should monitor your body’s response to coffee. It is a well-known fact that this drink stimulates hypertension.

    Olga Pachganova, physician at the Center for Occupational Pathology: “Coffee often raises blood pressure and raises the heart rate. Therefore, we can take 2-3 small cups of coffee during the day without harm to health. 120 to 80 is the pressure figure that everyone is striving for, but the highest figures we can talk about is 139 to 89.These are the numbers up to which the pressure is considered the norm. Heart rate is normal – from 60 to 80 “.

    It is believed that people with high blood pressure are better off drinking instant coffee, because there is less caffeine in it. Please note, if you already have a rapid heartbeat – refrain from drinking your favorite drink, which contains caffeine! Try decaffeinated coffee.

    Victor Solodovnikov, barista: “In fact, it is prepared according to the same scheme, but using a slightly different technology – caffeine is simply expelled from the beans.”

    There is an opinion that there is nothing useful in natural energy, that is, in natural coffee. And if you use it before bedtime, you will have insomnia.

    Roza Batalova, psychotherapist of the Khanty-Mansiysk Clinical Psychoneurological Hospital: “Excessive consumption of coffee is, rather, a symptom of addiction to caffeine. Of course, there will be no insomnia from a cup of coffee. Here it’s not all about coffee anymore. Rather, what preceded the consumption of coffee. If a person does not sleep well and insomnia is inherent in him, then insomnia is caused by other factors.If you are physically healthy and there are no harm and no emotional turmoil, then the causes of insomnia can be looked for in the endocrine system. ”

    Let’s debunk one more stereotype: it is considered that a cup of coffee perfectly relaxes the nervous system. In fact, it is no coincidence that it is called invigorating: after all, on the contrary, it increases activity. Sip on your favorite drink early in the day and keep track of your well-being. 90,000 Why coffee causes fatigue, not energy, and how to avoid it TEA.ru

    Thanks to caffeine, a cup of coffee tends to make us feel more alert and energized. But it also happens the other way around. Hence the question: “If coffee should support us, why does it sometimes act differently?” Let’s figure it out

    Adenosine

    This substance in our central nervous system is responsible for controlling the sleep-wake cycle. During the day, the amount of adenosine gradually increases and we start to feel more tired.Caffeine will temporarily block the receptors responsible for the perception of adenosine. It will be produced in normal quantities, but we won’t feel its effects … until the caffeine wears off. At this point, our receptors are flooded with adenosine above the roof, and a collision with it makes us suddenly and sharply feel sleepy.

    What to do?

    Keeping the level of caffeine in your circulatory system low and high will help mitigate the effects of caffeine.For example, instead of having a large morning coffee at once, you can take it with you in a thermo mug and sip on your favorite drink throughout the morning. Or postpone the right of the first cup until after dinner, when the natural vigor is diminishing.

    Excretory systems

    For a large number of people, caffeine is a diuretic, and in some cases it can also increase bowel activity. In addition, coffee stimulates the heart rate and, as a result, raises the body temperature.

    As a result of this increased activity of the excretory systems, drinking coffee in some cases can lead to dehydration. If we are not vigilant in time, caffeine not only reduces our feeling of thirst, but also forces us to use up our fluid reserves faster. And dehydration is one of the main causes of lethargy and fatigue.

    What to do?

    The solution is obvious; just drink more water.On average, an adult man should aim for 3, and a woman – at least 2 liters per day. But it should be remembered that this water is also taken into account in the products that we consume (soups, fruits, vegetables, drinks), so that ultimately the amount of pure water can be reduced to at least 1 liter per day.

    Insulin

    Some people cannot imagine coffee without sugar, and sugar is an additional burden on the body. You are probably aware that a sharp intake of glucose causes an equally sharp release of insulin, for which the body expends energy.A powerful surge of strength and good mood is invariably followed by a sharp decline in both. So if you generously add syrup to your coffee, it can also cause fatigue in the shortest possible time: sugar is processed much faster than caffeine and although caffeine “drop” can occur after a few hours, sugar “drop” happens already within an hour and a half. This is especially true for people with hypersensitivity to glucose.

    What to do?

    If you don’t like coffee without additional flavors, it may be worth trying to switch to a different variety or method of preparation – sometimes it really completely changes the taste of a familiar drink and makes it perfect even without sugar.Alternatively, you can use an alternative sweetener (honey, stevia, etc.), and there are several types of sugar-free syrups.

    And more …

    If you feel sleepy after coffee all the time, you should take a sober look at other aspects of your lifestyle. For example, admitting that regular caffeine doping after 4-6 hours of sleep is not an option. High stress levels, a sedentary lifestyle, and disturbed eating habits can also affect your energy levels much faster than drinking caffeine, which is just a litmus test of these problems.Drink coffee and listen to your body to get the most out of this wonderful drink.

    Publications in mass media

    (Coffeinum-natrii benzoas)

    Synonyms.

    Composition and form of release. Powder, tablets of 0.075, 0.1 and 0.2 g; 10% and 20% solutions in ampoules of 1 and 2 ml and in syringe tubes of 1 ml.

    Indications. Improving mental and physical performance; infectious and other diseases accompanied by suppression of the functions of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system; poisoning with drugs and other drugs that depress the central nervous system; drowsiness; hypotension; enuresis; migraine.

    Pharmacological action. Caffeine sodium benzoate is a purine derivative psychostimulant. The neurochemical mechanism of action of drugs in this group is their ability to compete with adenosine, for “purine” or adenosine receptors, which contributes to the development of a psychostimulating effect. Caffeine-sodium benzoate in large doses inhibits phosphodiesterase, which leads to the accumulation of intracellular c-AMP, which enhances glycogenolysis, metabolic processes in muscle tissues and the central nervous system.The drug stimulates all parts of the central nervous system. Compared to amphetamine stimulants, it acts more “gently” on the central nervous system. Caffeine-sodium benzoate has a positive inotropic and chronotropic effect, causing an increase in the frequency and strength of heart contractions, increases the cardiac output.

    In high doses, caffeine causes severe tachycardia, and in highly sensitive patients arrhythmias (ventricular premature beats) may develop. The action of caffeine has central and peripheral components in relation to vascular tone.Stimulating the vasomotor center, caffeine increases vascular tone, and with a direct effect on smooth muscles, reduces vascular tone. Caffeine increases systemic vascular resistance, which leads to an increase in blood pressure. These effects are associated with the blockade of adenosine vasodilation by the drug and with the activation of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The drug has a stimulating effect on skeletal muscles, possibly by inducing the release of acetylcholine, increasing the force of contractions and relieving muscle fatigue.Caffeine-sodium benzoate stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid by the sheath marks and the activation of pepsin. The drug has a mild diuretic effect by increasing renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate Decreasing sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal renal tubules. Inhibits uterine contractility, increases the concentration of catecholamines in blood plasma and urine, causes a short-term increase in plasma levels due to stimulation of glycogenolysis and lipolysis. The drug stimulates the respiratory center, increasing the breathing rate.In high doses, caffeine has analeptic properties.

    Pharmacokinetics. The drug is easily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood when taken orally or parenterally. The absorption of methylxanthines occurs mainly due to their lipophilicity rather than water solubility. Caffeine-sodium benzoate is rapidly distributed in all tissues of the body; easily penetrates the placental and blood-brain barriers; the volume of distribution in adults ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 l / kg. Binds to plasma proteins by 25-36%.The peak concentration of the drug in blood plasma is observed 50-75 minutes after ingestion. Therapeutic plasma concentrations are 5-25 μg / ml (25.8-128.8 μmol / L). The drug is metabolized in the liver. About 80% of its dose is converted to paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), about 10% to theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) and about 4% to theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine). These compounds undergo further metabolism by demethylation with the formation of first monomethylxanthines and, ultimately, methylated derivatives of uric acid.T 1/2 averages 3-7 hours. The drug is excreted mainly in the form of metabolites by the kidneys, 1-2% is excreted unchanged.

    Side effects. Dizziness; cardiopalmus; irritability, nervousness, or severe nervous excitement; tremor; sleep disturbance; diarrhea, nausea, vomiting.

    Contraindications. Increased excitability, insomnia; severe hypertension and atherosclerosis, organic diseases of the CVS; glaucoma.

    Adverse reactions when interacting with other drugs. With the simultaneous administration of caffeine sodium benzoate in large doses with MAO inhibitors, including procarbazine and selegiline, caffeine sodium benzoate can cause the development of dangerous cardiac arrhythmias or severe hypertension as a result of increased sympathomimetic effects of caffeine; small doses of caffeine sodium benzoate can lead to a slight increase in blood pressure and tachycardia. With the simultaneous use of the drug with other stimulants of the central nervous system, it is possible to develop hyperstimulation of the central nervous system up to the development of arrhythmias and seizures.The simultaneous use of barbiturates (phenobarbital) and caffeine-sodium benzoate can increase the metabolism of caffeine due to the induction of microsomal liver enzymes caused by barbiturates, which leads to an increase in the elimination of caffeine-sodium benzoate. Cimetidine and OC reduce the metabolism of caffeine in the liver, which leads to an increase in its concentration in the blood and an increase in the side effects of the latter.

    Information for the patient. The drug is taken orally in tablets of 0.1-0.2 g 2-3 times a day 30-40 minutes before meals.Do not take this medicine just before bed. Sustained-release capsules should be swallowed whole without breaking, crushing or chewing. It is not recommended to drink caffeine-sodium benzoate with milk, as it binds to milk protein by 30%, and the release of caffeine from this connection is very slow. When smoking, the metabolism of caffeine-sodium benzoate is accelerated and its therapeutic effects are reduced. Drinking large amounts of coffee with a high caffeine content in your beverage (60 mg of caffeine in 100 g of beverage), tea (50 mg in 100 g of beverage), cola, cocoa and chocolate with preparations containing caffeine or caffeine sodium benzoate can lead to tachycardia , rapid breathing and dizziness.Watch closely for signs indicating the occurrence of possible side effects, especially such as stimulation of the central nervous system and irritation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, dysfunction of the cardiovascular system.

    Missed dose: take the missed dose as soon as possible; do not take it at all if there is no time left before the next dose; do not take double doses.

    .