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Best antibiotic for insect bite infection: Pictures, symptoms, treatment, and more

Pictures, symptoms, treatment, and more

Insects often bite humans in an attempt to feed or in self-defense. Most insect bites are harmless and will disappear after a few days. However, in some instances, an insect bite may become infected.

Many insects will inject a person with formic acid when biting them. This saliva may contain several substances, some of which can cause a person’s body to respond adversely.

Various insects in the United States can bite. These include:

  • bedbugs
  • fleas
  • flies, such as horseflies
  • gnats
  • midges
  • mosquitoes
  • ticks
  • bees
  • wasps

Typically, insect bites do not require medical attention. However, in some instances, an insect bite may become infected.

The skin acts as a barrier to the harmless bacteria on its surface. If the skin breaks, these harmless bacteria can get under the skin and cause an infection.

An insect bite can penetrate the skin, allowing bacteria to enter.

A common symptom of insect bites is a small, itchy lump. If a person scratches this lump, it may break the skin. This can allow bacteria from their hand to enter the bite, leading to an infection.

A person may have to see a doctor for treatment if they have an infected insect bite. However, most infected bites are easy to treat with a course of antibiotics.

Learn why mosquito bites itch.

An infected insect bite may cause one or more of these symptoms:

  • a buildup of pus
  • chills
  • a feeling of warmth around the bite
  • fever
  • increasing pain
  • a red or dark line extending from the bite
  • discoloration and swelling appearing around the bite
  • sores or abscesses on or around the bite
  • swollen glands (lymph nodes)

Insect bites can cause several common infections.

Learn more about different types of infection here.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection. It is most common in young children; however, adults can get it too.

The first sign of impetigo is a patch of red or purplish, itchy skin. This can then develop into sores that burst and ooze before drying up.

Impetigo is easy to treat using antibiotics. According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association (AAD), the infection can cause new sores or blisters to develop if left untreated. The infection can also go deeper beneath the skin, which can be severe.

Learn more about what skin infections look like here.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a relatively widespread bacterial infection that occurs in the deeper layers of the skin. A 2016 article indicated that around 14.5 million people develop cellulitis in the U.S. each year.

Cellulitis can be very painful, often involves skin discoloration, pain in one area, and often feels warm and tender to touch.

The infection can spread rapidly around the body and can lead to sepsis, which is severe. Cellulitis can start suddenly and can become life threatening without quick treatment.

If caught early, a doctor will usually prescribe antibiotics to treat cellulitis. However, if the infection is more severe, it may require intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

Learn more about cellulitis from insect bites here.

Lymphangitis

Lymphangitis is an infection of the lymph vessels. It is a secondary infection, meaning other infections cause lymphangitis to occur. Infections caused by insect bites can cause lymphangitis.

Early signs of lymphangitis include red or dark streaks extending from the bite to areas where lymph glands are present. These include the areas around the neck, armpits, groin, and gut.

Other lymphangitis symptoms include feeling sick or weak, chills, a fever, a headache, low energy, and a loss of appetite.

Lymphangitis can be severe and may spread quickly. Anyone experiencing these symptoms must go to a doctor. A doctor will usually prescribe antibiotics to treat the issue. If IV antibiotics are required, the treatment may take place in the hospital or doctor’s office.

Learn more about the lymphatic system here.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is the most common insect-borne disease in the U.S. Infected blacklegged ticks transfer this disease to humans through their bite.

Lyme disease symptoms include fever, a headache, fatigue, and a rash on the person’s skin. If left untreated, the infection can spread to the heart, joints, and nervous system.

In most cases, a doctor will treat Lyme disease with antibiotics.

Learn more about tick bites here.

The most common treatment for an infected insect bite is a course of antibiotics. Depending on the severity of the infection, a doctor may prescribe oral or IV antibiotics. Doctors will administer IV antibiotics in the hospital or doctor’s office.

A person must take all of the prescribed antibiotics. It is essential not to skip any doses or stop before finishing the course, even if the symptoms have already improved.

Placing a cold compress on the insect bite, taking oral pain relief medication, or using an anesthetic cream can help ease any discomfort.

Learn about how to deal with insect and spider bites here.

There are several things a person can do to prevent insect bites. These include:

  • avoiding bothering insects
  • avoiding heavily scented cosmetics and bright-colored clothing
  • avoiding wooded and grassy areas
  • taking care when eating outside as this may attract insects
  • using insect repellant
  • using structural barriers, such as window screens or netting when indoors
  • wearing protective clothing if necessary

If an insect does bite occur, there are several things a person can do to prevent infection. These include:

  • applying ice compresses to the bite
  • cleaning the bite with soap and water
  • elevating the area if it becomes swollen
  • taking anti-inflammatory drugs
  • updating tetanus status as required

Learn how to identify an infected wound here.

Some people can have an allergic reaction to an insect bite. If this happens, a person should seek medical help. The main sign of an allergic reaction is swelling of the skin around the bite that lasts longer than 24 hours.

Here are some other signs of an allergic reaction to an insect bite:

  • dizziness
  • difficulty breathing
  • feeling of weakness
  • itching or painful sensation at the area of the bite
  • nausea
  • raised skin rash
  • severe itching
  • stomach and bowel problems

It is worth noting that insect bites rarely cause allergic reactions. One study showed that just 2% of people react to insect bites and stings and display symptoms that affect more than only the surrounding area of skin.

An allergic reaction to an insect bite can be severe. When this occurs, a doctor may prescribe oral antihistamines or pain relievers.

Learn more about allergies here.

A person should see a doctor if they believe they have an infected insect bite. Early treatment of the infection can prevent further complications.

A person should seek emergency medical help if they are showing signs of an infection and also have one of the following symptoms:

  • dizziness
  • hives and itching across the body
  • loss of consciousness
  • nausea or vomiting
  • swollen face, mouth, or throat
  • tight chest or throat
  • trouble breathing
  • trouble swallowing

A person should also seek emergency medical help if a poisonous insect or bug has bitten them.

Learn about five poisonous insects here.

Insect bites are common and are often not a cause for concern. They will usually go away after a few days without the need for treatment.

A person should seek medical help from a doctor if their insect bite becomes infected. Treatment will typically involve a course of antibiotics. Early treatment can help prevent further complications and other infections.

If the infection is more severe, a person may require IV antibiotics or other care.

Pictures, symptoms, treatment, and more

Insects often bite humans in an attempt to feed or in self-defense. Most insect bites are harmless and will disappear after a few days. However, in some instances, an insect bite may become infected.

Many insects will inject a person with formic acid when biting them. This saliva may contain several substances, some of which can cause a person’s body to respond adversely.

Various insects in the United States can bite. These include:

  • bedbugs
  • fleas
  • flies, such as horseflies
  • gnats
  • midges
  • mosquitoes
  • ticks
  • bees
  • wasps

Typically, insect bites do not require medical attention. However, in some instances, an insect bite may become infected.

The skin acts as a barrier to the harmless bacteria on its surface. If the skin breaks, these harmless bacteria can get under the skin and cause an infection.

An insect bite can penetrate the skin, allowing bacteria to enter.

A common symptom of insect bites is a small, itchy lump. If a person scratches this lump, it may break the skin. This can allow bacteria from their hand to enter the bite, leading to an infection.

A person may have to see a doctor for treatment if they have an infected insect bite. However, most infected bites are easy to treat with a course of antibiotics.

Learn why mosquito bites itch.

An infected insect bite may cause one or more of these symptoms:

  • a buildup of pus
  • chills
  • a feeling of warmth around the bite
  • fever
  • increasing pain
  • a red or dark line extending from the bite
  • discoloration and swelling appearing around the bite
  • sores or abscesses on or around the bite
  • swollen glands (lymph nodes)

Insect bites can cause several common infections.

Learn more about different types of infection here.

Impetigo

Impetigo is a common and highly contagious skin infection. It is most common in young children; however, adults can get it too.

The first sign of impetigo is a patch of red or purplish, itchy skin. This can then develop into sores that burst and ooze before drying up.

Impetigo is easy to treat using antibiotics. According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association (AAD), the infection can cause new sores or blisters to develop if left untreated. The infection can also go deeper beneath the skin, which can be severe.

Learn more about what skin infections look like here.

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a relatively widespread bacterial infection that occurs in the deeper layers of the skin. A 2016 article indicated that around 14.5 million people develop cellulitis in the U.S. each year.

Cellulitis can be very painful, often involves skin discoloration, pain in one area, and often feels warm and tender to touch.

The infection can spread rapidly around the body and can lead to sepsis, which is severe. Cellulitis can start suddenly and can become life threatening without quick treatment.

If caught early, a doctor will usually prescribe antibiotics to treat cellulitis. However, if the infection is more severe, it may require intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

Learn more about cellulitis from insect bites here.

Lymphangitis

Lymphangitis is an infection of the lymph vessels. It is a secondary infection, meaning other infections cause lymphangitis to occur. Infections caused by insect bites can cause lymphangitis.

Early signs of lymphangitis include red or dark streaks extending from the bite to areas where lymph glands are present. These include the areas around the neck, armpits, groin, and gut.

Other lymphangitis symptoms include feeling sick or weak, chills, a fever, a headache, low energy, and a loss of appetite.

Lymphangitis can be severe and may spread quickly. Anyone experiencing these symptoms must go to a doctor. A doctor will usually prescribe antibiotics to treat the issue. If IV antibiotics are required, the treatment may take place in the hospital or doctor’s office.

Learn more about the lymphatic system here.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease is the most common insect-borne disease in the U.S. Infected blacklegged ticks transfer this disease to humans through their bite.

Lyme disease symptoms include fever, a headache, fatigue, and a rash on the person’s skin. If left untreated, the infection can spread to the heart, joints, and nervous system.

In most cases, a doctor will treat Lyme disease with antibiotics.

Learn more about tick bites here.

The most common treatment for an infected insect bite is a course of antibiotics. Depending on the severity of the infection, a doctor may prescribe oral or IV antibiotics. Doctors will administer IV antibiotics in the hospital or doctor’s office.

A person must take all of the prescribed antibiotics. It is essential not to skip any doses or stop before finishing the course, even if the symptoms have already improved.

Placing a cold compress on the insect bite, taking oral pain relief medication, or using an anesthetic cream can help ease any discomfort.

Learn about how to deal with insect and spider bites here.

There are several things a person can do to prevent insect bites. These include:

  • avoiding bothering insects
  • avoiding heavily scented cosmetics and bright-colored clothing
  • avoiding wooded and grassy areas
  • taking care when eating outside as this may attract insects
  • using insect repellant
  • using structural barriers, such as window screens or netting when indoors
  • wearing protective clothing if necessary

If an insect does bite occur, there are several things a person can do to prevent infection. These include:

  • applying ice compresses to the bite
  • cleaning the bite with soap and water
  • elevating the area if it becomes swollen
  • taking anti-inflammatory drugs
  • updating tetanus status as required

Learn how to identify an infected wound here.

Some people can have an allergic reaction to an insect bite. If this happens, a person should seek medical help. The main sign of an allergic reaction is swelling of the skin around the bite that lasts longer than 24 hours.

Here are some other signs of an allergic reaction to an insect bite:

  • dizziness
  • difficulty breathing
  • feeling of weakness
  • itching or painful sensation at the area of the bite
  • nausea
  • raised skin rash
  • severe itching
  • stomach and bowel problems

It is worth noting that insect bites rarely cause allergic reactions. One study showed that just 2% of people react to insect bites and stings and display symptoms that affect more than only the surrounding area of skin.

An allergic reaction to an insect bite can be severe. When this occurs, a doctor may prescribe oral antihistamines or pain relievers.

Learn more about allergies here.

A person should see a doctor if they believe they have an infected insect bite. Early treatment of the infection can prevent further complications.

A person should seek emergency medical help if they are showing signs of an infection and also have one of the following symptoms:

  • dizziness
  • hives and itching across the body
  • loss of consciousness
  • nausea or vomiting
  • swollen face, mouth, or throat
  • tight chest or throat
  • trouble breathing
  • trouble swallowing

A person should also seek emergency medical help if a poisonous insect or bug has bitten them.

Learn about five poisonous insects here.

Insect bites are common and are often not a cause for concern. They will usually go away after a few days without the need for treatment.

A person should seek medical help from a doctor if their insect bite becomes infected. Treatment will typically involve a course of antibiotics. Early treatment can help prevent further complications and other infections.

If the infection is more severe, a person may require IV antibiotics or other care.

Cellulitis from bug bites: Signs, symptoms, and treatment

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that typically occurs at sites of scrapes, cuts, or bug bites.

Cellulitis can affect the skin anywhere, but it is most common in areas that are prone to sustaining damage, such as the legs, face, and arms.

Several types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, but those most commonly responsible are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. People taking an immune suppressing medication and those with chronic conditions are more likely to develop cellulitis.

Keep reading for more information about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of cellulitis.

Share on PinterestBug bites can allow bacteria to enter below the skin and cause cellulitis.

Any break in the skin can result in cellulitis. A bug bite or sting that penetrates the skin can allow bacteria living on the surface of the skin to get below it and cause an infection.

Bites from the following insects and others can lead to cellulitis:

As insect bites can be itchy, they can cause people to scratch the area, which can further break the skin. Scratching a bite with unwashed fingernails increases the risk of bacteria getting under the skin.

If the site of a bug bite becomes infected, people may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • redness
  • tenderness or pain around the bite
  • red spots or streaks surrounding the bite
  • skin feeling warm
  • swelling
  • skin dimples around the bite

Without treatment, cellulitis can get worse. If this occurs, a person may experience:

Share on PinterestTo diagnose cellulitis, a doctor will conduct a visual examination of the affected area.
Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2017

In many cases, a visual examination of the affected area is enough to diagnose cellulitis. However, a doctor may also want to take a blood sample.

A blood sample can tell the doctor if the infection has entered the bloodstream. If the infection is in the bloodstream, a person may develop sepsis.

Sepsis is a serious, potentially life threatening infectious condition that can be severe enough to harm other parts of the body, including the heart and nervous system.

The treatment for cellulitis usually involves taking antibiotics. The type and severity of the infection will determine how long a person needs to continue taking them. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics based on the location of the infection.

A person should take all prescribed antibiotics without skipping or stopping the doses, even if their symptoms improve earlier.

Warm compresses may help alleviate the swelling on the skin and provide some comfort while a person waits for the antibiotics to take effect.

If the infection is more severe or does not get any better, a person may require hospitalization. Doctors in the hospital will provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

A person can take several steps to help reduce their risk of developing cellulitis. Preventative measures include:

  • washing the bug bite and keeping it clean
  • avoiding scratching the bite or sting
  • using an ointment that helps cover and protect the bite
  • covering the bite with a bandage
  • watching for signs of infection, including swelling, redness, and warmth
  • using ice packs to help reduce swelling, itchiness, or pain
  • keeping the bite moisturized to help prevent cracking from dryness
  • trimming and cleaning the fingernails regularly

People can follow the same steps when they have a cut, scrape, or bruise that could become infected.

Some steps to take to avoid bug bites in the first place include:

  • using bug spray when outside
  • wearing loose fitting clothes that cover the arms and legs
  • using screens around picnic tables and tents to prevent bugs from entering

Share on PinterestIt is advisable for a person to talk to a doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis.

A person should speak to their doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis. Early treatment can help prevent complications.

People should seek emergency treatment if they have cellulitis that is spreading and occurs with:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • swollen glands

If the condition worsens, a person may need to take stronger antibiotics or stay in the hospital so that healthcare professionals can monitor their treatment.

A person can develop cellulitis from a bug bite or any cut, scrape, or abrasion on the skin. Less commonly, cellulitis might appear on skin that does not have any breaks in it.

Early treatment for cellulitis can help prevent complications. Treatment usually involves taking oral antibiotics.

However, if cellulitis spreads or gets worse, a person may need IV antibiotics or other treatments. Without treatment, cellulitis could cause sepsis, which is a life threatening infection.

Cellulitis from bug bites: Signs, symptoms, and treatment

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that typically occurs at sites of scrapes, cuts, or bug bites.

Cellulitis can affect the skin anywhere, but it is most common in areas that are prone to sustaining damage, such as the legs, face, and arms.

Several types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, but those most commonly responsible are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. People taking an immune suppressing medication and those with chronic conditions are more likely to develop cellulitis.

Keep reading for more information about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of cellulitis.

Share on PinterestBug bites can allow bacteria to enter below the skin and cause cellulitis.

Any break in the skin can result in cellulitis. A bug bite or sting that penetrates the skin can allow bacteria living on the surface of the skin to get below it and cause an infection.

Bites from the following insects and others can lead to cellulitis:

As insect bites can be itchy, they can cause people to scratch the area, which can further break the skin. Scratching a bite with unwashed fingernails increases the risk of bacteria getting under the skin.

If the site of a bug bite becomes infected, people may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • redness
  • tenderness or pain around the bite
  • red spots or streaks surrounding the bite
  • skin feeling warm
  • swelling
  • skin dimples around the bite

Without treatment, cellulitis can get worse. If this occurs, a person may experience:

Share on PinterestTo diagnose cellulitis, a doctor will conduct a visual examination of the affected area.
Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2017

In many cases, a visual examination of the affected area is enough to diagnose cellulitis. However, a doctor may also want to take a blood sample.

A blood sample can tell the doctor if the infection has entered the bloodstream. If the infection is in the bloodstream, a person may develop sepsis.

Sepsis is a serious, potentially life threatening infectious condition that can be severe enough to harm other parts of the body, including the heart and nervous system.

The treatment for cellulitis usually involves taking antibiotics. The type and severity of the infection will determine how long a person needs to continue taking them. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics based on the location of the infection.

A person should take all prescribed antibiotics without skipping or stopping the doses, even if their symptoms improve earlier.

Warm compresses may help alleviate the swelling on the skin and provide some comfort while a person waits for the antibiotics to take effect.

If the infection is more severe or does not get any better, a person may require hospitalization. Doctors in the hospital will provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

A person can take several steps to help reduce their risk of developing cellulitis. Preventative measures include:

  • washing the bug bite and keeping it clean
  • avoiding scratching the bite or sting
  • using an ointment that helps cover and protect the bite
  • covering the bite with a bandage
  • watching for signs of infection, including swelling, redness, and warmth
  • using ice packs to help reduce swelling, itchiness, or pain
  • keeping the bite moisturized to help prevent cracking from dryness
  • trimming and cleaning the fingernails regularly

People can follow the same steps when they have a cut, scrape, or bruise that could become infected.

Some steps to take to avoid bug bites in the first place include:

  • using bug spray when outside
  • wearing loose fitting clothes that cover the arms and legs
  • using screens around picnic tables and tents to prevent bugs from entering

Share on PinterestIt is advisable for a person to talk to a doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis.

A person should speak to their doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis. Early treatment can help prevent complications.

People should seek emergency treatment if they have cellulitis that is spreading and occurs with:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • swollen glands

If the condition worsens, a person may need to take stronger antibiotics or stay in the hospital so that healthcare professionals can monitor their treatment.

A person can develop cellulitis from a bug bite or any cut, scrape, or abrasion on the skin. Less commonly, cellulitis might appear on skin that does not have any breaks in it.

Early treatment for cellulitis can help prevent complications. Treatment usually involves taking oral antibiotics.

However, if cellulitis spreads or gets worse, a person may need IV antibiotics or other treatments. Without treatment, cellulitis could cause sepsis, which is a life threatening infection.

Cellulitis from bug bites: Signs, symptoms, and treatment

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that typically occurs at sites of scrapes, cuts, or bug bites.

Cellulitis can affect the skin anywhere, but it is most common in areas that are prone to sustaining damage, such as the legs, face, and arms.

Several types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, but those most commonly responsible are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. People taking an immune suppressing medication and those with chronic conditions are more likely to develop cellulitis.

Keep reading for more information about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of cellulitis.

Share on PinterestBug bites can allow bacteria to enter below the skin and cause cellulitis.

Any break in the skin can result in cellulitis. A bug bite or sting that penetrates the skin can allow bacteria living on the surface of the skin to get below it and cause an infection.

Bites from the following insects and others can lead to cellulitis:

As insect bites can be itchy, they can cause people to scratch the area, which can further break the skin. Scratching a bite with unwashed fingernails increases the risk of bacteria getting under the skin.

If the site of a bug bite becomes infected, people may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • redness
  • tenderness or pain around the bite
  • red spots or streaks surrounding the bite
  • skin feeling warm
  • swelling
  • skin dimples around the bite

Without treatment, cellulitis can get worse. If this occurs, a person may experience:

Share on PinterestTo diagnose cellulitis, a doctor will conduct a visual examination of the affected area.
Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2017

In many cases, a visual examination of the affected area is enough to diagnose cellulitis. However, a doctor may also want to take a blood sample.

A blood sample can tell the doctor if the infection has entered the bloodstream. If the infection is in the bloodstream, a person may develop sepsis.

Sepsis is a serious, potentially life threatening infectious condition that can be severe enough to harm other parts of the body, including the heart and nervous system.

The treatment for cellulitis usually involves taking antibiotics. The type and severity of the infection will determine how long a person needs to continue taking them. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics based on the location of the infection.

A person should take all prescribed antibiotics without skipping or stopping the doses, even if their symptoms improve earlier.

Warm compresses may help alleviate the swelling on the skin and provide some comfort while a person waits for the antibiotics to take effect.

If the infection is more severe or does not get any better, a person may require hospitalization. Doctors in the hospital will provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

A person can take several steps to help reduce their risk of developing cellulitis. Preventative measures include:

  • washing the bug bite and keeping it clean
  • avoiding scratching the bite or sting
  • using an ointment that helps cover and protect the bite
  • covering the bite with a bandage
  • watching for signs of infection, including swelling, redness, and warmth
  • using ice packs to help reduce swelling, itchiness, or pain
  • keeping the bite moisturized to help prevent cracking from dryness
  • trimming and cleaning the fingernails regularly

People can follow the same steps when they have a cut, scrape, or bruise that could become infected.

Some steps to take to avoid bug bites in the first place include:

  • using bug spray when outside
  • wearing loose fitting clothes that cover the arms and legs
  • using screens around picnic tables and tents to prevent bugs from entering

Share on PinterestIt is advisable for a person to talk to a doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis.

A person should speak to their doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis. Early treatment can help prevent complications.

People should seek emergency treatment if they have cellulitis that is spreading and occurs with:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • swollen glands

If the condition worsens, a person may need to take stronger antibiotics or stay in the hospital so that healthcare professionals can monitor their treatment.

A person can develop cellulitis from a bug bite or any cut, scrape, or abrasion on the skin. Less commonly, cellulitis might appear on skin that does not have any breaks in it.

Early treatment for cellulitis can help prevent complications. Treatment usually involves taking oral antibiotics.

However, if cellulitis spreads or gets worse, a person may need IV antibiotics or other treatments. Without treatment, cellulitis could cause sepsis, which is a life threatening infection.

Cellulitis from bug bites: Signs, symptoms, and treatment

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that typically occurs at sites of scrapes, cuts, or bug bites.

Cellulitis can affect the skin anywhere, but it is most common in areas that are prone to sustaining damage, such as the legs, face, and arms.

Several types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, but those most commonly responsible are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. People taking an immune suppressing medication and those with chronic conditions are more likely to develop cellulitis.

Keep reading for more information about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of cellulitis.

Share on PinterestBug bites can allow bacteria to enter below the skin and cause cellulitis.

Any break in the skin can result in cellulitis. A bug bite or sting that penetrates the skin can allow bacteria living on the surface of the skin to get below it and cause an infection.

Bites from the following insects and others can lead to cellulitis:

As insect bites can be itchy, they can cause people to scratch the area, which can further break the skin. Scratching a bite with unwashed fingernails increases the risk of bacteria getting under the skin.

If the site of a bug bite becomes infected, people may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • redness
  • tenderness or pain around the bite
  • red spots or streaks surrounding the bite
  • skin feeling warm
  • swelling
  • skin dimples around the bite

Without treatment, cellulitis can get worse. If this occurs, a person may experience:

Share on PinterestTo diagnose cellulitis, a doctor will conduct a visual examination of the affected area.
Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2017

In many cases, a visual examination of the affected area is enough to diagnose cellulitis. However, a doctor may also want to take a blood sample.

A blood sample can tell the doctor if the infection has entered the bloodstream. If the infection is in the bloodstream, a person may develop sepsis.

Sepsis is a serious, potentially life threatening infectious condition that can be severe enough to harm other parts of the body, including the heart and nervous system.

The treatment for cellulitis usually involves taking antibiotics. The type and severity of the infection will determine how long a person needs to continue taking them. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics based on the location of the infection.

A person should take all prescribed antibiotics without skipping or stopping the doses, even if their symptoms improve earlier.

Warm compresses may help alleviate the swelling on the skin and provide some comfort while a person waits for the antibiotics to take effect.

If the infection is more severe or does not get any better, a person may require hospitalization. Doctors in the hospital will provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

A person can take several steps to help reduce their risk of developing cellulitis. Preventative measures include:

  • washing the bug bite and keeping it clean
  • avoiding scratching the bite or sting
  • using an ointment that helps cover and protect the bite
  • covering the bite with a bandage
  • watching for signs of infection, including swelling, redness, and warmth
  • using ice packs to help reduce swelling, itchiness, or pain
  • keeping the bite moisturized to help prevent cracking from dryness
  • trimming and cleaning the fingernails regularly

People can follow the same steps when they have a cut, scrape, or bruise that could become infected.

Some steps to take to avoid bug bites in the first place include:

  • using bug spray when outside
  • wearing loose fitting clothes that cover the arms and legs
  • using screens around picnic tables and tents to prevent bugs from entering

Share on PinterestIt is advisable for a person to talk to a doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis.

A person should speak to their doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis. Early treatment can help prevent complications.

People should seek emergency treatment if they have cellulitis that is spreading and occurs with:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • swollen glands

If the condition worsens, a person may need to take stronger antibiotics or stay in the hospital so that healthcare professionals can monitor their treatment.

A person can develop cellulitis from a bug bite or any cut, scrape, or abrasion on the skin. Less commonly, cellulitis might appear on skin that does not have any breaks in it.

Early treatment for cellulitis can help prevent complications. Treatment usually involves taking oral antibiotics.

However, if cellulitis spreads or gets worse, a person may need IV antibiotics or other treatments. Without treatment, cellulitis could cause sepsis, which is a life threatening infection.

Cellulitis from bug bites: Signs, symptoms, and treatment

Cellulitis is a bacterial skin infection that typically occurs at sites of scrapes, cuts, or bug bites.

Cellulitis can affect the skin anywhere, but it is most common in areas that are prone to sustaining damage, such as the legs, face, and arms.

Several types of bacteria can cause cellulitis, but those most commonly responsible are Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. People taking an immune suppressing medication and those with chronic conditions are more likely to develop cellulitis.

Keep reading for more information about the signs, symptoms, and treatment of cellulitis.

Share on PinterestBug bites can allow bacteria to enter below the skin and cause cellulitis.

Any break in the skin can result in cellulitis. A bug bite or sting that penetrates the skin can allow bacteria living on the surface of the skin to get below it and cause an infection.

Bites from the following insects and others can lead to cellulitis:

As insect bites can be itchy, they can cause people to scratch the area, which can further break the skin. Scratching a bite with unwashed fingernails increases the risk of bacteria getting under the skin.

If the site of a bug bite becomes infected, people may experience the following signs and symptoms:

  • redness
  • tenderness or pain around the bite
  • red spots or streaks surrounding the bite
  • skin feeling warm
  • swelling
  • skin dimples around the bite

Without treatment, cellulitis can get worse. If this occurs, a person may experience:

Share on PinterestTo diagnose cellulitis, a doctor will conduct a visual examination of the affected area.
Image credit: James Heilman, MD, 2017

In many cases, a visual examination of the affected area is enough to diagnose cellulitis. However, a doctor may also want to take a blood sample.

A blood sample can tell the doctor if the infection has entered the bloodstream. If the infection is in the bloodstream, a person may develop sepsis.

Sepsis is a serious, potentially life threatening infectious condition that can be severe enough to harm other parts of the body, including the heart and nervous system.

The treatment for cellulitis usually involves taking antibiotics. The type and severity of the infection will determine how long a person needs to continue taking them. In some cases, a doctor may prescribe antibiotics based on the location of the infection.

A person should take all prescribed antibiotics without skipping or stopping the doses, even if their symptoms improve earlier.

Warm compresses may help alleviate the swelling on the skin and provide some comfort while a person waits for the antibiotics to take effect.

If the infection is more severe or does not get any better, a person may require hospitalization. Doctors in the hospital will provide intravenous (IV) antibiotics and other care.

A person can take several steps to help reduce their risk of developing cellulitis. Preventative measures include:

  • washing the bug bite and keeping it clean
  • avoiding scratching the bite or sting
  • using an ointment that helps cover and protect the bite
  • covering the bite with a bandage
  • watching for signs of infection, including swelling, redness, and warmth
  • using ice packs to help reduce swelling, itchiness, or pain
  • keeping the bite moisturized to help prevent cracking from dryness
  • trimming and cleaning the fingernails regularly

People can follow the same steps when they have a cut, scrape, or bruise that could become infected.

Some steps to take to avoid bug bites in the first place include:

  • using bug spray when outside
  • wearing loose fitting clothes that cover the arms and legs
  • using screens around picnic tables and tents to prevent bugs from entering

Share on PinterestIt is advisable for a person to talk to a doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis.

A person should speak to their doctor if they suspect that they have cellulitis. Early treatment can help prevent complications.

People should seek emergency treatment if they have cellulitis that is spreading and occurs with:

  • a fever
  • chills
  • swollen glands

If the condition worsens, a person may need to take stronger antibiotics or stay in the hospital so that healthcare professionals can monitor their treatment.

A person can develop cellulitis from a bug bite or any cut, scrape, or abrasion on the skin. Less commonly, cellulitis might appear on skin that does not have any breaks in it.

Early treatment for cellulitis can help prevent complications. Treatment usually involves taking oral antibiotics.

However, if cellulitis spreads or gets worse, a person may need IV antibiotics or other treatments. Without treatment, cellulitis could cause sepsis, which is a life threatening infection.

90,000 07/27/2017 Everyone needs to know this!

Camping outside the city often turns into a tragedy due to the bites of various stinging insects. The most dangerous in terms of the development of anaphylactic shock and angioedema are stings of a bee, wasp, hornet, bumblebee and tarantula. All these insects have a strong damaging effect due to the production of poison located directly in the sting. The bite of a taiga tick is no less dangerous in terms of the development of severe infectious diseases – borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis and Lyme disease.

First aid for all cases of insect bites

Regardless of which insect bite you received, doctors recommend applying a cotton swab moistened with calendula tincture to the wound – it will not only relieve inflammation, but also serve as an antiseptic due to the alcohol it contains. In any case, if you are going to nature, you need to have a gel or ointment with an antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effect on hand (for example, fenistil-gel, homeopathic cicaderm ointment).If, after a bite, you have shortness of breath, headache, nausea and vomiting, you should immediately consult a doctor!

If you have been bitten by a bee, wasp, hornet, ant.

Insects of this species sting for self-defense. With a bite, a poison enters the human body, consisting of proteins and other components that are classified as strong allergens. Therefore, the skin responds to the introduction of these substances with redness, pain and swelling. Moreover, the reaction to the ingress of the poisons of these insects into the body is very fast (20 minutes or less).Immediately after the bite, it is necessary to carefully, slowly, pull out the sting if it remains in the wound. Then, for disinfection, apply a cotton swab moistened with calendula tincture, hydrogen peroxide or an alcohol-containing liquid. Apply ice to the bite to relieve swelling and prevent it from developing. You can also use a piece of raw, halved potato (or tomato), or place chopped parsley leaves over the affected area to help relieve pain and swelling. To prevent an allergic reaction, it is best to take an antihistamine (loratadine, suprastin, diazolin, tavegil).

First aid for spider bite

If bitten by a spider:

Thoroughly wash the bite site with soap and water

Immobilize the affected part of the limb, fixing it with a board, a branch (tying them to the leg or arm). Movement will only accelerate the spread of the poison throughout the body.

If the bite site is on an arm or leg, apply a tight bandage above the bite site to prevent or slow the spread of the venom.Make sure that the bandage is not tight enough to cut off circulation to the limb.

Apply a cold compress to the bite site. You can use an ice pack or a bottle of cold water.

In order to eliminate the poison in the urine, it is recommended to drink plenty of fluids.

For mild symptoms, an adult can be given aspirin or acetaminophen. Do not give aspirin to children. It is better to give the child paracetamol.

Seek urgent medical attention if:

A child was bitten by a spider

The condition of the victim of a spider bite deteriorates sharply

3.If you suspect a bite of a “black widow” and a brown hermit, in the treatment of which it is necessary to administer an antidote.

First aid for bites of fleas, lice, scabies mites

Lesions caused by bites of fleas, lice and scabies are so similar that their diagnosis is often difficult. Flea bites usually have a zigzag pattern, especially on the lower leg and lower back. Lesions appear as red dots surrounded by eruptions and swelling. The itching is intense, and often dull red spots remain even after the lesions have resolved. In children, bites can be complicated by the development of impetigo. Treatment is aimed at preventing secondary infection. The bite sites are thoroughly washed with soap and water. In children, nails are cut short to prevent scratching. Starch baths (about 1 kg of starch per bath), topical application of calamine, cold wraps, and antihistamines such as trimeprazine can help reduce discomfort and itching. With significant discomfort, topical application of steroids in the form of ointments or aerosols is indicated.If a secondary infection develops, topical antibiotics, such as neomycin or polymyxin, may be required.

First aid for tick bites

The danger of ticks is that these blood-sucking insects carry many infections, both bacterial and viral, among which the most dangerous are hemorrhagic fevers, encephalitis and borreliosis. The traditional habitat of ticks is woodland, the greatest activity is observed in the warm season, from about mid-spring to mid-summer. During this period, you need to be especially careful when visiting the forest – it is best to wear closed clothes. If, nevertheless, trouble did occur, you should know how to properly provide first aid in order to minimize the possible danger. It should be remembered that severe infectious diseases transmitted by ticks appear some time after the bite, and this time can vary significantly – from several days to several weeks. The first thing to do is to remove the tick.This should be done very carefully, trying not to crush the insect, since in this case the risk of infection increases many times over. To remove the tick, you can use medical tweezers, a special device sold in pharmacies, or a loop made from thread yourself. Try to grab the insect closer to the head, remove it slowly, pull it perpendicular to the skin, while making swinging or slightly rotating (unscrewing) movements. The removed tick must be placed in a small glass container with water, equipped with a tight-fitting lid. After the insect has been completely removed, the wound is washed with soap and water, then treated with an antiseptic. If the proboscis of the tick breaks off and remains in the skin, it should not be picked out, after a while – it usually takes several days – it will come out on its own. The bite site is treated in the same way. At the first signs of an allergic reaction, as a first aid measure, it is necessary to give the victim an antihistamine (loratadine, suprastin, diazolin, tavegil, etc.). First aid provided, what to do next? If the region in which such a case occurred is classified as unfavorable in terms of the epidemiological situation in relation to ticks, for example, there are known cases of the development of tick-borne encephalitis or other infectious diseases carried by them, then immediately after providing first aid, it is necessary to take the extracted insect to the laboratory for analysis ( or consult an infectious disease doctor at the place of the attached territory).

First aid for snakebite

So, everything has already happened – a man was bitten by a poisonous snake. What to do in this case, how to help the victim and prevent the development of severe complications?

Firstly, it is necessary to put the bitten person in a horizontal position and try to calm him down – anxiety, tantrums and panic will definitely not help. If the snake is fixed on the skin at the site of the bite (this, by the way, happens often), it must be removed and destroyed, but not thrown away anywhere – the reptile may be needed for examination by a specialist.

Secondly, if possible, you need to immediately call an ambulance, contact rescuers or a recreation center, a hotel. While you are doing all these actions, carefully observe the victim – the absence of burning, swelling and pain at the site of the bite, most likely, indicates the non-toxicity of the snake.

Thirdly, the affected part must be freed from clothing and jewelry – they can put pressure on the bite site and provoke increased edema.

Please note: if the symptoms indicate that the person was bitten by a poisonous snake, then medical assistance must be provided immediately, without waiting for the arrival of the ambulance team!

Snake venom poisoning involves the introduction of specific serums (antidotes) – it is advisable to do this on the first day after the bite.In the future, if necessary, you can enter another dose of serum.

ATTENTION!

In the event of a bite from wool, ticks, other insects, the victim can contact an infectious disease doctor, a surgeon at the place of residence or the trauma center of the TGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital named after Archbishop Luke of Tambov “

In case of a poisonous snake bite – directly to the emergency room of the TOGBUZ “City Clinical Hospital named after Archbishop Luka of the city of Tambov “, the admission department of the GBUZ” Tambov Regional Clinical Hospital named afterV.D. Babenko “.

isp .: head. 1 ter dep. – Meshcheryakova Lyudmila Vyacheslavovna

Action recommendations for bites of midges and mosquitoes – Planet of Health

The prevalence of midges around the globe is so wide that this type of insect does not live only in Antarctica. That is why so many people are attacked every day. It would seem that a millimeter insect can do bad things to a massive person. But the whole difficulty lies in the toxicity of their saliva in relation to the tissues of the human body.Each of the subspecies of midges has a different toxicity, causing a variety of pathological abnormalities.

The general scientific name for the body’s reactions to midge bites is called simulidotoxicosis.

The manifestations of the attack of midges are not long in coming. Although in some situations a person may not even understand what happened to him, without seeing and not feeling what he was subjected to. This is due to the extreme aggressiveness of most of the midges.They attack so quickly that the skin receptors do not have time to fix the irritation. When it hits the surface of the skin, the midge instantly gnaws out part of its surface layers, lubricating the wound surface with saliva (the main difference from mosquitoes). She, acting as an anesthetic, allows the insect to remain unnoticed for a certain time. If the moment of the bite was not felt, the midge sucks blood and lymph from the wound surface, which is necessary for its life cycle and reproduction of offspring.

Allergy to a bite is based on the contents of the salivary glands of an insect, which is represented by hemolyzing and allergenic substances.There is a pattern – the more painful the bite, the stronger the reaction to it. It consists of manifestations, which are very clearly displayed in the table.

Symptoms

Manifestations

Local changes

  • Predominantly affecting the upper and lower extremities, less often the trunk and face 90 120 90 119
    Redness of the skin at the sites of multiple bites 90 120 90 119
    Puncture wound in the center of the reddened lesion 90 120 90 119
    Pain and burning at bite sites 90 120 90 119
    Swelling and itching of the affected areas and adjacent tissues 90 120 90 119
    Various types of rashes from spots to blisters or dense nodules (papules) 90 120 90 119
    Wounds under a black scab in the areas of scratching

General reactions

  • Hyperthermia with an increase in body temperature from 37. 1C to 39.3C 90 120 90 119
    An increase in the size of regional lymph nodes and their soreness 90 120 90 119
    Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) 90 120 90 119
    Lowering blood pressure

The severity of the allergy depends on several factors:

  1. The type of midges and the number of bites

  2. The immune status of the body and the age of a person

  3. Propensity for allergic reactions

  4. Individual intolerance to the components of the saliva of midges

  5. Infection of bitten wounds with infection when scratching

The clinical manifestations, duration and symptoms of bites, as well as their outcomes, depend on the degree of these conditions or their combination.The most critical manifestation may be the development of anaphylactic shock, which requires immediate resuscitation measures. Fortunately, this is rare.

Itching from a midge bite

Itching is the main complaint of most people. The itching is very persistent and makes you scratch the affected area, which further aggravates the skin condition. But a regularity has been fixed – the more itching and local manifestations, the less the degree of general toxic reactions.The body thus limits the process only to the site of localization of the focus of intoxication.

Itching itself, as a defensive reaction, is twofold. On the one hand, it signals danger, on the other, it becomes the cause of further changes. Therefore, this symptom can rightfully be called central in the development of local changes with midge bites. Everything is due to the fact that people constantly comb the bite sites, bringing pathogenic pyogenic microorganisms into the thickness of the damaged skin.This becomes the reason for the progression of local changes on the part of soft tissues, their suppuration and a prolonged course of the wound process.

How to remove swelling from a midge bite?

Puffiness of the skin in the area of ​​the bites is another of the main symptoms of multiple midge bites. It is worth noting that it is persistent, bringing discomfort along with itching for a long time. The swelling is caused by a massive release of substances that cause inflammation in soft tissues.Sometimes it is so extensive and pronounced that it spreads to areas distant from the bite (head, neck, face). Such manifestations are eliminated using the methods shown in the table.

Type of edema

Necessary activities

Local edema

  • Cold covering bitten areas 90 120 90 119
    Pressing on the swollen areas.Can be punctuated (only bite sites) or with an elastic bandage for generalized edema 90 120 90 119
    Lotions with semi-alcohol (alcohol with water 1: 1) or hypertonic (saline) solutions 90 120 90 119
    Rubbing with boric alcohol
  • Local application of hormonal ointments with a decongestant effect ( hydrocortisone , sinaflan , trimistin, triderm )
  • Local antiallergic drugs – fenistil gel , cynovit cream

General swelling

The amount of measures aimed at reducing edema depends on the intensity and speed of its growth. In most cases, you have to deal with local edema, which lends itself well to elimination under the influence of the above local measures. But in the case of a lightning-fast increase in the type of an anaphylactic allergic reaction with spread to the neck and respiratory organs, there is an immediate threat to human life. The response must be immediate. Such patients are provided with free air access and transported as quickly as possible to the nearest medical institution. Fortunately, this rarely happens with midge bites.

What to do, how to treat a midge bite?

Very often, multiple midge bites become a real problem not only in relation to unpleasant symptoms, but also resistance on the way to its elimination. In most cases, bite marks bother patients for a long time (2-3 weeks). This is especially true if you do not take any measures in this regard or are limited to only some of the necessary ones. The approach should be comprehensive, aimed at blocking all links in the pathogenesis of the disease.This is the only way to prevent possible complications.

In a typical course of the wound process on a midge bite, the sequence of changes looks like this: bite – rashes – itching – scratching – skin infection – formation of a wound with inflammation of the surrounding cover. The same clear sequence of measures should be connected to the treatment process, corresponding to pathological changes. The scope of necessary actions, depending on the staging of the process, is presented in the form of a table.

000 claritin

Rash that occurs a few minutes or hours after receiving a bite.

Type of changes

Scope of events

Bite at the time of receipt, accompanied by pain, burning

  • Wash the skin surface with clean cold water, preferably with plain gray laundry soap 90 120 90 119
    Pat dry with blotting movements. Cannot be rubbed 90 120 90 119
    Pressing bite sites with fingers or objects for a few minutes 90 120 90 119
    Treatment with water or alcohol-based antiseptic solutions ( furacilin , chlorhexidine , dekasan)
  • Taking painkillers and antiallergic drugs ( paracetamol , imet, diazolin ,
000)
  • Soda solution lotions (1 teaspoon per glass of water) 90 120 90 119
    If antihistamines have not been taken, they must be administered 90 120 90 119
    Rubbing with ammonia

Itching accompanying bites at all stages of the wound process

  • Local application of antipruritic ointments and gels ( fenistil , cynovit cream)
  • It is strictly forbidden to comb the bite sites 90 120 90 119
    Lightly stroking the skin and closing with a wet-drying dressing with novocaine (0.5%), furacilin , semi-alcoholic solution

Scratching, represented by the superficial layers of the dermis

Infection of the skin with the formation of wounds

  • Daily toilet wounds with soapy water
  • Washing with 3% hydrogen peroxide 90 120 90 119
    Lotions or rinsing with water antiseptics ( chlorhexidine , dekasan).Alcohol solutions can only be used on intact skin, as they cause a burning sensation 90 120 90 119
    Closing wounds with antiseptic ointment dressings (levosin, levomekol , oflokain)
  • In the case of a pronounced temperature or local inflammatory reaction, antibiotics are prescribed ( augmentin , azithromycin , ciprofloxacin )

Covering wounds with black scab

  • Subject to surgical treatment with removal of the scab under which pus can accumulate 90 120 90 119
    Treatment of wounds according to the above scheme
  • Topical application of hormonal ointments to reddened skin to reduce inflammation 90 120 90 119
    Antibiotic therapy

Healing wounds

What you should never do:

  1. Treat bite sites with hygienic products from the category of household chemicals.This can provoke an aggravation of allergic manifestations.

  2. Combing the affected areas

  3. Apply hormonal ointments directly to wounds. This will cause a burning sensation and slow down their healing. They are applied strictly around the wounds in the area of ​​reddened skin.

  4. Ignore the use of antibiotics or antiallergic drugs if indicated

  5. Independently prescribe the listed groups of drugs.
    Seeking help and medical supervision are obligatory !!!

What to do in case of a tick bite: an algorithm of actions.

Do you have a feeling that in recent years everyone around is trumpeting about ticks every spring? So it is, it didn’t seem to you. Indeed, the activity of ticks has increased many times over. Not everyone knows what to do with a tick bite.

And I did not pass by: the other day my son was bitten by a tick right next to the house. Information about ticks around the sea, however, is very contradictory: is it worth examining a tick for infections, which infections are relevant, what is the risk of infection and, most importantly, what exactly needs to be done, whether it is necessary to drink antibiotics, in what dose.

Why is the activity of ticks increased now?

  • There are several versions of increasing the number of ticks:
  • Changing the technique of applying mineral fertilizers to the soil
  • Ban on burning grass around towns and villages
  • Ban on the use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (dust, DDT). DDT was banned due to its high accumulation in plants and animals. It is the only poison that has been able to stop the multiplication of ticks throughout the country.

The last version is considered the most plausible and is adhered to by most infectious disease specialists.

When clamp is active

Ticks begin to hunt when the temperature rises to + 4-4.5 degrees, activity increases, as a rule, from mid-April, reaches a peak by mid-June, then declines, the second peak of activity in some species is in autumn. Maximum activity is at a temperature of +10 – +25 degrees, but ticks do not like heat – direct sunlight has a depressing effect on them.

Why a tick bite is dangerous:

There are a large number of species of ticks in Belarus, especially ixodid forest ticks are dangerous in relation to the transmission of diseases, and meadow ticks are also dangerous

In total, ticks carry about 20 diseases, of which 9 of them are dangerous to humans. First of all, it is Lyme borreliosis (erythema migrans) and tick-borne encephalitis. Also, an increase in the transmission of anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, babesiosis (piroplasmosis) and bartonellosis is now characteristic.

What is the risk of infection:

However, it is too early to panic: not all ticks are infectious. The risk of contracting lime borreliosis is highest, about 33% of ticks are infected, in Belarus about 1000 people are sick every year. Even if the tick is contagious, half of those bitten will simply develop antibodies, and the other half will show symptoms of the disease.

The risk of tick-borne encephalitis is 1.5%, about 100 people are infected in Belarus annually. Our area is characterized by the Western European type of tick-borne encephalitis, it is characterized by a more favorable course than the Far Eastern type.

What a tick looks like

A tick in a hungry state is no more than 3 mm in length, having sucked and drunk with blood, it can increase 50-100 times.

Various forms are hunted: both nymphs and adults, both females and males. Females can be sucked on a person for up to 10 days.

How the tick hunts

In 2016, 53.6% of those bitten suffered from ticks in the forest zone.Ticks love deciduous and mixed forests, places with tall grass, and in dry coniferous forests and in swamps there are an order of magnitude less of them.

Ticks hunt from grass or bushes, they do not fall from trees and cannot jump. A tick, sitting on a blade of grass and holding onto it by three pairs of paws, raises the front pair upward, as if in prayer. Ticks are able to sense a source of heat, and this is how they sense a prey. The front pair of legs are equipped with hooks and suction cups for gripping. Once on the body, the tick, as a rule, crawls for 30 minutes in search of a secluded spot with softer skin.Therefore, timely inspection after visiting potentially dangerous areas is so important.

In humans, the favorite places for ticks are the armpits, groin, back, neck, skin behind the ears, legs.

The tick introduces saliva into the host’s body by sticking the proboscis into the skin. The tick’s saliva contains an anesthetic substance, so tick bites, as a rule, are not felt, are painless, and the bite site may itch somewhat. Also in saliva there are blood thinners and cementitious substances, as well as pathogens.When answering the question of what to do with a tick bite, you should remember: the longer the tick is on the body, the more saliva it will enter into the bloodstream, the higher the risk of transmission of the disease.

What to do in case of a tick bite: algorithm of actions

Having found a tick, you can go in two ways: run to the surgeon in the nearest trauma center or get the tick yourself.

Option 1: Contact a surgeon to remove the tick

Pros:

  • A knowledgeable specialist will remove the tick professionally, without damaging the body or tearing off the head.Thus, there is less risk of squeezing pathogens into the bloodstream, which is often the case with improper extraction of 90 120
  • The doctor will give professional advice on the likelihood of infection, preventive treatment and indicate the laboratories where the tick can be examined

Cons:

  • The longer the tick is in the sucked state, the more saliva enters the bloodstream, the higher the risk of infection. You can spend a lot of time on the way to a specialist, waiting at the front desk
  • An unpleasant feeling, the desire to get rid of the parasite as soon as possible does not add pleasant minutes to waiting for help
  • Often the child’s fear of medical manipulation and

Option 2: Remove by yourself

Pros:

  • Can be done on site, minimizing tick dwell time
  • Less stress for the child from medical manipulations

Cons:

  • Risk of tearing off the head in case of improper extraction, in this case the head remains in the skin
  • Risk of squeezing onto the abdomen and squeezing the contents into the blood

How to get the tick correctly?

The longer the tick is in the sucked state, the more likely it is to become infected!

Do not use oil, greasy cream to remove the mite! In this case, his spiracles become clogged, and he reflexively releases saliva and pathogens into the blood, thus increasing the risk of infection.

Methods for removing the tick

With cotton thread

It is tied in a knot as close to the proboscis as possible. Twisting the ends of the thread with the help of a circular motion, remove the tick, slowly pulling it up and swinging it to the sides. Sudden movements are unacceptable.

Multi-strand

You need to tie several threads, pulling the second thread without sudden movements, pull the tick out of the skin.

Tweezers

The tick should be captured as close to the proboscis as possible. Then it is carefully pulled out, rotating around its axis in a convenient direction. Usually, after 1-3 turns, the tick is removed entirely together with the proboscis. If you try to pull out the tick, there is a high probability of its rupture. You cannot press on the abdomen – it is possible to squeeze out its contents together with pathogens into the wound.

With special tools :

Pincers.

With a lasso pen.

With a sterile (calcined) needle – like a splinter.

After removing the tick, we treat the bite site with iodine or alcohol-containing liquid.

How the doctor works

The algorithm of actions of medical workers when a patient applies for a tick bite is regulated by order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus dated April 19, 2016 No. 338 “On measures to prevent diseases transmitted by ticks”:

p.7. In the case of seeking medical help in the first 72 hours after the bite, a patient who does not have medical contraindications for taking medications is prescribed emergency chemoprophylaxis. The patient (his legal representative) should be informed that the maximum prophylactic effect is achieved only if emergency prophylaxis is started in the first 72 hours.

clause 8. For persons with medical contraindications for taking medications, a medical worker issues a referral for laboratory testing of a tick in the form, in accordance with Appendix 2 to the above Algorithm, and informs the address of the nearest healthcare organization carrying out laboratory testing of the tick.

item 10. Patients who are prescribed emergency chemoprophylaxis of tick-borne infections are not given a referral for laboratory testing of the tick. In this case, it is explained to the patient that he has the right to independently apply to the microbiological laboratory conducting the study of vectors to conduct a study of the tick on a paid basis.

That is, the doctor is obliged to prescribe an antibiotic for everyone as a prophylaxis for Lyme borreliosis, with the exception of pregnant women and other persons for whom the antibiotic is contraindicated.Only they will be given a referral for free research, for everyone else this procedure will be paid.

What is included in emergency prevention

Emergency prophylaxis is most effective when given for the first time 72 hours after the bite. For adults and children from 8 years of age, emergency prophylaxis of Lyme borreliosis is carried out with doxycycline, 0.1 g, once.

Doxycycline is contraindicated in pregnant women and children under 8 years of age. For them, the doctor decides to send the tick for research or prescribes an approved drug, usually amoxicillin, in a dosage corresponding to age.

Is it necessary to examine the tick?

The paradox is that the results of a tick test will be ready in 3 working days, and emergency antibiotic prophylaxis is effective only when administered within the first 72 hours after the bite. And if after 3 days it turns out that the tick is infected with Lyme borreliosis, it will be too late to start taking the drug prophylactically.

On the other hand, the antibiotic does not work against tick-borne encephalitis. In endemic areas where there is a high risk of becoming infected, the bitten is injected with immunoglobulin – antibodies produced by people who have had tick-borne encephalitis.They cannot prevent infection, but they can provide an easier course of the disease.

In our country, emergency prophylaxis with immunoglobulin is not carried out, and therapy with antiviral drugs (remantadine), unfortunately, is ineffective. But here, if you wish, you can get vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis.

For your own comfort, in order to sleep well and not flinch from every speck on the body and a rise in temperature, you can hand over a tick for laboratory research.The body of the tick is examined for lime borreliosis, and the head is examined for tick-borne encephalitis.

If a tick test is not performed in your locality, you can take the tick to the nearest hygiene and epidemiology center, then it will be sent for testing.

Examination of a removed tick is indicated only in cases where there are contraindications for prescribing prophylactic treatment to persons who have suffered from a tick bite.

In other cases, the study of the tick is carried out on a paid basis at will.According to the results of laboratory studies of ixodid ticks conducted at the state institution “Minsk City Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology” in 2019, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis was identified in 6.1% of cases.

In the state institution “Minsk City Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology”, ticks are tested for infestation with borrelia (the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis), more detailed information can be found at the link: http://www.minsksanepid.by/node/42.

The study of ticks (identification of pathogens of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme borreliosis, anaplasmosis, ehrlichosis) is carried out at the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Epidemiology and Microbiology at the address:Minsk, st. Filimonova, 23 on a paid basis, phone 374-24-41 or on the website: http://www.belriem.by/services.

When self-removing a stuck tick, you should contact your local therapist (infectious disease doctor, pediatrician), who will prescribe preventive treatment. Taking the prescribed antibiotic prophylactically will prevent not only Lyme disease, but also other bacterial tick-borne infections.

For reference: Analysis of the incidence of Lyme borreliosis in St.Minsk, shows that in the overwhelming majority of cases (more than 97%), the disease develops in people who have ignored chemoprophylaxis after a tick bite.

The results of the mite test are sent to health care institutions at the place of residence. All positive results are reported by telephone message on the day of the study to the territorial center of hygiene and epidemiology according to the place of residence. You can also find out yourself by calling the laboratory.

What to do if the tick is infected

The main thing is not to panic!

If a tick is infected with Lyme borreliosis, the disease will manifest itself in 50% of those bitten.Half of the people will only develop antibodies. In the rest, redness appears at the site of the bite after 2-30 days, over time the spot increases, in the center it turns pale, at the edges the color turns into a more intense one. The next stage is the appearance of spots in different parts of the body, involvement of the joints, damage to the liver, nerve endings. More often, the disease proceeds without an increase in temperature, sometimes there may be malaise, chills, muscle weakness, headache. There is a high risk of becoming chronic with the involvement of various organs and systems.

If the tick is infected with tick-borne encephalitis, you need to monitor your health for a month. The disease begins with fever, like ARVI, fever up to 38-40 degrees, chills, general weakness, sharp headache. Possible nausea and vomiting, sleep disturbances. Characterized by numbness of the skin of the face and neck, weakness of the muscles of the neck and limbs. Rarely, in severe cases, paralysis, damage to the meninges, disability and even death are possible. The earlier the complex treatment in the hospital is prescribed, the more favorable the prognosis.

If, within a month after the bite, a spot appears on the skin, the temperature rises, you should immediately contact an infectious disease specialist.

In a number of paid laboratories, 3 weeks after a tick bite, you can take a blood test for antibodies to borrelia (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis) and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The presence and titer of class M (IgM) antibodies indicate an active disease, the presence of class G (IgG) antibodies – memory cells – indicates that the body has previously encountered these infections.

How to get rid of ticks

Ways to reduce the number of ticks include harvesting fallen leaves and weeds, timely mowing. In addition, parks and green areas are centrally treated with special acaricidal agents. This service can be ordered at the dacha, or you can process the site yourself.

Acaricidal agents include: Alpicide, Breeze 25% e. k. “,” Gardex Extreme “,” Concentrate to protect the territory from ticks “,” MEDILIS-tsiper “,” Kleschevit super “,” Tsifoks “.The processing method is indicated on the package insert.

Avoiding tick-borne infections

As a personal prophylaxis, it is recommended to wear clothes that cover the body as much as possible.

Clothing should be light and monochromatic so that the tick is visible on it. If you are going to the forest, in the area of ​​activity of ticks, the trousers should be tucked into the socks, the shirt should be zipped and tucked into the trousers, the cuffs should be close to the wrists.A tick cannot bite through clothes. You can also buy clothes treated with acaricidal compounds.

However, it is difficult to imagine that, when going to have a rest on a picnic, we dress in a suit similar to a spacesuit, and even more so we dress children in this way. What do we do?

Ticks react very poorly to repellents, although products containing at least 25-30% DEET (diethyltoluamide) have at least some significant effect. Ticks are afraid of acaricides, but these products should never be applied to the skin, only outdoors.

Knowing the peculiarities of the mite’s behavior on the skin, we understand that we have 30-60 minutes while the mite crawls in search of a tidbit for self and mutual examination. Do not forget to inspect your pets as well. We try not to delve into unmown areas, stopping for a picnic in dry, well-lit meadows with rare grass.

Another variant of tick-borne encephalitis infection: through raw goat’s milk. As a preventive measure, it is recommended to drink goat’s milk only in boiled form, it should be boiled for at least 2 minutes.

And one more, the most reliable way to protect against tick-borne encephalitis: vaccination with an efficiency of more than 90%.

For the prevention of tick-borne infections in Belarus, two vaccines “Entsevir” and “Tick-E-Vac” are approved for use. The course of prophylactic immunization against tick-borne encephalitis consists of 2 vaccinations performed at intervals of 1-7 months. The vaccination course (two vaccinations) can be carried out throughout the year, including in the summer, but no later than two weeks before visiting the tick-borne encephalitis focus.The most optimal interval between the first and second vaccinations is 5-7 months.

Experts recommend doing the first vaccination in October-November, the second in March-April. To maintain immunity, it is recommended to do revaccination one year after the completion of the vaccination course. In the future, revaccination is done every 3 years.

For emergency prevention, when vaccinations are started in the summer, the interval between vaccinations can be reduced to 14 days.

Human tick-borne infections.Dossier – Biographies and information

TASS-DOSSIER. On April 9, 2018, the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare (Rospotrebnadzor) informed about the beginning of the tick activity season in the Russian Federation. In total, 800 people in 35 Russian regions have turned to medical institutions in connection with the bites of these insects this year. The editorial staff of TASS-DOSSIER prepared material on tick-borne infections and methods of combating them.

Ticks and infections carried by them

Tick (lat.Acari) is an insect from the arachnid class. The greatest danger to humans is posed by the Ixodidae family of ticks, which are distributed almost throughout Russia. A number of members of this family are blood-sucking. In a hungry state, the size of insects does not exceed 4 mm, a well-fed tick can reach 3 cm.

The peak activity of ticks in the Central European regions of Russia occurs in mid-May – July. They live in grass, bushes and trees. As a rule, a tick clings to a person’s clothes and shoes, then crawls upward, choosing the most suitable place for a bite – where there is thinner skin.It can be on the human body for several days. Many of the ticks are infected with dangerous diseases (viral encephalitis, Lyme disease or tick-borne borreliosis), which are transmitted by a bite.

Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by a virus from the Flaviviridae family. The disease begins with fever and headache, and then can lead to damage to the central nervous system, including meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). Mortality from tick-borne encephalitis in the absence of timely treatment is up to 20-25%.At the same time, neurological complications remain in 10-20% of patients for life.

Borreliosis is caused by bacteria of the genus Borrelia. Its initial symptoms are similar to encephalitis. With the wrong treatment, including antibiotics, the disease can cause arthritis, skin neoplasms, liver and brain damage.

Medical assistance

When bitten, the tick’s head deepens under the skin, so it cannot be pulled out roughly with tweezers, squeezed, dripping oil or alcohol on it – in this case, the tick will die, and toxic substances will enter the human blood.Doctors advise using a special hook or thread to remove the tick, disinfect the bite site and consult a doctor within two days. In this case, it is advisable to bring with you a removed live tick, since a simple blood test of a person on the first day after the bite may not show an infection.

You can protect yourself from the effects of the bites of these insects with the help of vaccinations and repellents. Also, acaricidal (anti-mite) treatment is carried out regularly in forests and parks.When resting in nature, it is undesirable to sit on the grass and lie on it, bring home freshly picked flowers and plants. It is important to dress correctly: wear a light-colored jumpsuit with long sleeves, tuck trousers into socks or shoes.

Statistics

According to the Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute “Microbe” of Rospotrebnadzor (Saratov), ​​in 2017, 509 thousand 262 people turned to Russian medical institutions due to tick bites, which is 6% more than in 2016.1 thousand 943 cases of infection with tick-borne encephalitis and 6 thousand 717 cases of infection with tick-borne borreliosis were registered. In total, 28 people died from tick-borne infections (two less than in 2016) in 14 regions of the Russian Federation.

The highest incidence rates of tick-borne infections were recorded in the Kirov region, Perm region and Udmurtia.

In 2017, 41 cases of tick-borne encephalitis and 30 cases of tick-borne borreliosis were registered in Moscow.

In 2017, acaricidal treatments were carried out on an area of ​​243.5 thous.ha, which is 50% more than in 2016. At the same time, in 2018, the total area of ​​the treated area may exceed 300 thousand hectares.

According to Rospotrebnadzor, as of April 6, 2018, more than 700 thousand Russians received vaccinations against tick-borne encephalitis. At the same time, a total of 2.7 million Russians were vaccinated in 2017.

Antibiotics for cats and dogs

Antibiotics are one of the most commonly used groups of drugs in medicine and veterinary medicine.Means of this group suppress the activity of bacteria, preventing their reproduction or destroying the cellular structure, helping to cure dangerous diseases. Today we will talk about how and why such medicines are used in the treatment of pets.

In Latin, antibiotic is the elimination of life (anti-against, bios- life), that is, a drug that reduces activity and destroys bacteria. Without them, modern medicine and veterinary medicine would not be able to cope with most infections.But the means of this group cannot be considered harmless, because, destroying pathogenic microorganisms, they also negatively affect the beneficial bacteria that live in humans and animals, therefore, their use should be justified.

Antibiotics are used in the treatment of intestinal, bacterial and genitourinary infections, diseases of the upper respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues, and also for prophylaxis in the postoperative period.

What diseases do antibiotics treat?

The use of drugs with antibacterial activity is justified in diseases caused by the activity of pathogenic or opportunistic microflora, belonging to the class of bacteria or protozoa:

  • intestinal infections – dysentery, salmonellosis, clostridiosis and others;
  • inflammation of the hepatobiliary tract – hepatitis, pancreatitis, cirrhosis;
  • diseases of the upper respiratory tract – sinusitis, sinusitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, pneumonia;
  • genitourinary infections – cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, vaginitis, balanoposthitis;
  • diseases of the skin and soft tissues – pyoderimia, folliculitis, dermatitis, furunculosis;
  • inflammation of glandular tissues – mastitis;
  • soft tissue injuries (for the prevention of infection) – cuts, burns, bites;
  • joint diseases – bursitis, synovitis, arthritis, myositis;
  • bacterial infections of the nervous system – meningitis, neuritis;
  • postoperative period for the prevention of complications.

Also drugs of this group can be prescribed with a significant decrease in immunity as a prophylaxis for bacterial infections.

Suspension for injection, bottle – 10 ml

suspension for injection, bottle – 100 ml

Suspension for injection, bottle – 10 ml

WARNING

Drug names are for informational purposes only.

It is permissible to give any medicine to a pet only as directed by a veterinarian.

Fields of application of antibiotics

There are practically no obstacles to the use of antibiotics – they are effective for diseases of any organs and systems.This became possible due to the variety of substances with antibiotic properties. Each of them is active against a certain type of bacteria or protozoa. There are also broad-spectrum antibiotics. There are also antibiotics that can penetrate and accumulate in certain types of tissues: bone, soft, parenchyma of internal organs, brain substance.

Groups of antibiotics used in humane and veterinary medicine:

  • Penicillins – beta-lactam substances synthesized by the filamentous mold Penicillinum.Shows activity against anaerobic, gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria. It has a bactericidal effect, that is, it destroys the membranes of bacterial cells. Penicillins quickly penetrate into all tissues and accumulate in them at a therapeutic dose. The only exceptions are prostate tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and the internal environment of the eyes. Penicillin preparations are prescribed for pulmonary, gynecological, urological, dental and ENT infections, for bacterial inflammation of the pleura, pericardium, abdominal organs, small pelvis, soft tissues, skin, joints.Used for the prevention, treatment of purulent complications after surgery.
  • Cephalosporins are substances similar in structure and properties to penicillins. They have increased resistance to degradation by beta-lactamase and are effective against bacteria that are resistant to penicillin. Antimicrobial properties consist in the destruction of the cell membranes of microorganisms. They are especially active in relation to staphylococci. There are 4 generations of drugs based on cephalosporins.
  • Macrolides – complex substances with a cyclic structure of molecules consisting of a lactone ring. Macrolide-based drugs are used to treat infections caused by gram-positive cocci (pneumococci, streptococci), protozoa (listeria, spirochetes and chlamydia, ureaplasma and mycoplasma), as well as whooping cough and diphtheria. The agent acts bacteriostatically. Macrolides are not used to treat infections caused by enterobacilli and pseudomonas.
  • Tetracyclines – an antimicrobial drug of early classes, which are used to treat severe forms of bacterial infections.It is used in the treatment of brucellosis, anthrax, tularemia, plague, leptospirosis, as well as in complicated chlamydia, cholera, syphilis, actinomycosis, mycoplasma infections. Acts as a bacteriostatic.
  • Aminoglycosides – an organic group of drugs, the molecules of which consist of amino sugars linked to the aminocyclic ring of the glycosidic chain. This structure makes such substances active against aerobic bacteria of the gram-negative group, which cause infections of the urinary tract, inner ear, and endocardium.With prolonged therapy, they can have a toxic effect on the kidneys, hearing organs. Aminoglycosides act as bactericides, that is, they destroy bacteria.
  • Levomycetin is a synthetic preparation with a huge list of indications. It is active against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms, including staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci, effective against diseases caused by some viruses and protozoa. Copes with infections caused by resistant to other groups of antibiotics.Acts as a bacteriostatic.
  • Lincosamides – organic and semi-synthetic substances active against gram-positive cocci and anaerobic flora that does not form spores. The highest concentrations of these substances are observed in bile, sputum, pleura, intra-articular fluid and bones. Therefore, lincosamides are often used to treat bacterial inflammation of these organs. When taken in standard doses, they act as bacteriostatics, and when the concentration is increased, as bactericides.
  • Antifungal antibiotics – a special group of organic substances that destroy the cell membranes of the pathogens of mycoses. This effect is called lytic. Due to their low effectiveness, they are often replaced with synthetic antifungal agents.

Suspension for injection, bottle – 100 ml

oral solution, bottle – 10 ml

oral solution, bottle – 1 l

How are antibiotics for animals different from medicines for humans?

In terms of molecular structure and properties, medicines intended for humans do not differ in any way from products for animals.In humanitarian and veterinary medicine, in fact, the same active substances are used, even their names differ little. The only difference is the concentration of compounds in the preparation.

Can animals be given human antibiotics?

Theoretically, antibacterial agents from the owner’s first-aid kit can also be given to a pet, but due to high concentrations of active substances there is a risk of error in dosing of the agent. It is very difficult to accurately measure 1/6, 1/8 or 1/12 of the tablet, or 1/4, 1/12, 1/16 of the contents of the ampoule.If you give your pet a higher dose, there is a risk of intoxication, and lower doses can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance by bacteria.

solution for injection, bottle – 100 ml

suspension for injection, bottle – 100 ml

How to determine the dosage of an antibiotic for a cat or dog?

In the instructions for most veterinary medicinal products, it is recommended to calculate the dosage based on the weight of the animal.For example, 1 mg of active substance per 1 kg of animal weight, but not more than a certain value. For example, 0.01 mg / 1 kg of body weight, but not more than 0.2 mg at a time. Dosages can be adjusted depending on the severity of the infection, the type of pathogen, the duration of the infectious process, the affected organ, the age of the animal, and whether it has chronic systemic diseases. The sensitivity of microorganisms to the active substances of drugs is taken into account when determining the dose.

In veterinary medicine, combined products for cats and dogs are often used, containing several types of active substances.They are more effective, almost completely exclude the development of drug resistance by bacteria.

When choosing medicines for animals, veterinarians are guided by the following indicators:

  • the effectiveness of an active substance against a specific pathogen;
  • sensitivity / resistance of bacteria to antibiotics;
  • the age of the animal;
  • concomitant and basic diseases in an animal;
  • ease of use of drugs at home.

oral solution, bottle – 10 ml

oral solution, bottle – 1 l

Forms of production of veterinary antibiotics

In veterinary pharmacology, there are many forms of antibacterial drugs.The most common and demanded are injectable drugs for subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous administration. Effective drugs Gentham, Amoxisan, Sulfetrisan are produced in such formats. They are used for inpatient treatment of pets. They are suitable for outpatient therapy, if the owner can give the pet injections himself. If this is not possible, they make a choice in favor of oral solutions, for example, Oflosan. They are perceived by animals as a delicacy due to their attractive taste, do not irritate mucous membranes, and are well absorbed in the digestive tract, without causing vomiting and salivation.

Consult your veterinarian before choosing medications for your pet. This will help to avoid a variety of complications, because, as mentioned earlier, since these substances are used in the treatment of serious pathologies, they have a number of contraindications and do not exclude the appearance of some side effects. In addition, even the most expensive and high-quality drug may be ineffective in a particular case due to the resistance of bacteria to this substance. In this case, there is a high probability of the spread of infection, the death of the animal.

Only a veterinarian can diagnose, prescribe treatment for pets. He should also be entrusted with the choice of medicines for your pet.

90,000 Kremgen is a drug for treatment in dermatology.

Dermatoses include inflammatory skin diseases caused by the influence of various pathogenic factors (physical, chemical, etc.). In recent years, in Ukraine, as in other countries of the world, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of dermatoses (on average by 5% per year), especially of an allergic nature (Dobrovolsky Yu.N., 2000). Such a widespread prevalence of dermatoses and the lack of highly effective drugs for the treatment of patients with this pathology dictate the need for a constant search for new drugs, the use of which will improve the quality of therapy. In the treatment of dermatoses, agents for external use are traditionally used in the form of ointments and creams containing glucocorticosteroids (GCS) and antibiotics. GCS for external use have a pronounced anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antipruritic, local anesthetic, antiproliferative effect, which allows these drugs to be classified among the main drugs for the treatment of patients with skin lesions, accompanied by inflammation, itching, increased exudation, epidermal proliferation, allergic reactions, etc.

It should be noted that the therapeutic activity of GCS for external use is significantly increased when combined with antiseptics or broad-spectrum antibiotics with a minimal allergenic effect. Until recently, domestic medicines for external use containing a combination of active corticosteroids and antibiotics were not presented on the Ukrainian pharmaceutical market. The first and so far the only domestic drug containing fluorinated GCS of the 3rd generation fluocinonide and the aminoglycoside antibiotic of the 2nd generation gentamicin, intended for the treatment of patients with dermatoses of allergic and infectious genesis, is CREMGEN in the form of an ointment produced by JV Sperko Ukraine (St.Vinnytsia).

Fluocinonide (acetate of fluocinolone acetonide) has 5-10 times higher activity than fluocinolone acetonide, 17-valearate of betamethasone and triamcinolone acetonide (Burdick K.H., 1972; Ortega N. et al., 1972).

When KREMGEN is applied externally, fluocinonide is converted into an ether that better penetrates the skin, enhancing the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects of GCS. The formation of the ester helps to prolong the action of fluocinonide, slow down the degradation of its molecule, gradually penetrate into the deep layers of the skin and prevent the drug from entering the systemic circulation.As a result of esterification processes, the polarity of fluocinonide decreases, its solubility in lipids increases, and it better penetrates the cell membrane. Since fluocinonide is a highly lipophilic GCS, it accumulates well in skin cells, stabilizes lysosomal membranes, and prevents cellular disintegration, which inevitably occurs during an inflammatory process in the skin. The requirements for new GCS for external use are quite high: the drug should be highly active and should not cause the development of systemic and local side effects.Fluocinonide fully meets these requirements. When applied externally, fluocinonide does not affect the level of cortisol in the blood (Pozzo, Prandidni, 1972). Gentamicin, which is part of CREMGEN, when applied topically provides a rapid achievement of a bactericidal effect, has a wide spectrum of antibacterial action, most pronounced against the main pathogenic microorganisms that cause secondary skin infection – Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Kalyuzhnaya L.D. et al., 1999), good tolerance and high absorption in the affected skin areas (erosion, inflammation, burns).

Indications for the use of KREMGEN are:

  • allergic dermatoses,
  • eczema,
  • psoriasis,
  • dermatoses,
  • complicated by secondary infection,
  • dyshidrosis,
  • contact, exfoliative, solar, radiation, seborrheic, intertriginous dermatitis,
  • lichen planus,
  • systemic lupus erythematosus,
  • erythema multiforme,
  • stasis-dermatitis,
  • trophic ulcers and bedsores,
  • folliculitis,
  • anogenital and senile pruritus,
  • burns,
  • insect bites.

Contraindications include hypersensitivity to drug components, viral, fungal, primary purulent skin lesions, chickenpox and skin tuberculosis.

KREMGEN is applied in a thin layer to the affected skin 2-3 times a day, rubbing gently. After the onset of clinical improvement, the drug can be used 1-2 times a day. Thanks to the well-chosen components of the base of the CREMGEN ointment, the duration of the action of the active substances of the drug increases.

CREMGEN has a minimal resorptive effect and practically no systemic side effects. The results of studies carried out in a number of leading clinics in Ukraine (Kolyadenko V.G., 1999; Zaikova A.A. et al., 1999; Zaikov S.V. et al., 1999) confirmed the high efficiency and safety of CREMGEN in the treatment of patients with allergic dermatitis, microbial eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus, trophic ulcers of the legs.

Thus, the arsenal of drugs for external therapy of dermatoses of allergic and infectious genesis has been replenished with a new highly effective domestic drug KREMGEN, which has undoubted advantages:

  • a combination of two active ingredients in one preparation;
  • a successful combination of GCS of the third generation, which has a high anti-inflammatory activity, and a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic;
  • good penetration into all layers of the affected skin;
  • the minimum number of side effects;
  • the preparation is easily washed off the skin and does not leave stains on clothes.

KREMGEN should rightfully take its rightful place in the practice of allergists and dermatologists.

S.V. Zaikov,
Doctor of Medical Sciences

The publication was prepared based on materials
provided by JV “Sperko Ukraine”
Ukraine, 21027, Vinnytsia,
st. 600th anniversary, 25
Tel .: (0432) 46-65-26,
tel./fax: (0432) 52-30-36

90,000 INFECTIOUS DISEASES.RULES OF CONDUCT OF THE POPULATION

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. RULES OF CONDUCT OF THE POPULATION

According to the World Health Organization, more than 1 billion people annually carry infectious diseases on the globe. Large numbers of people can become infected in a short time. Thus, cholera El Tor, which began in 1960 in Indonesia, by 1971 covered all countries of the world. The fourth influenza pandemic (an epidemic covering a group of countries, continents) in two years (1968-1970) affected about 2 billion.people of all continents and claimed about 1.5 million lives. No, no, yes, and there are patients with plague, cholera, brucellosis. The incidence rate of acute dysentery, typhoid fever, diphtheria, viral hepatitis, salmonellosis, and influenza is still high. Their occurrence is especially dangerous in enterprises, educational institutions, military collectives, where one can infect everyone.

That is why it is very important to know the signs of infectious diseases, the ways of their spread, methods of prevention and rules of behavior.

OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

November 1990 The taiga town of oil producers Langepas (Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug) turned into a huge infirmary. More than 2000 people came to the hospital with intestinal infection, more than 100 were hospitalized, of which 13 were in a very serious condition. What is the reason? The fact that the water and sewer pipes were laid side by side, in the same trench. As a result, fecal water began to enter the water supply network.

Another example. At the Rodnik camping site on the outskirts of Stavropol, 45 of its settlers fell ill with cholera. There was a critical situation, because 733 people visited the camp in a short time. They had to be found, isolated and cured. Vibrio cholerae carriers were found in Barnaul, Perm, Krasnodar and many other cities. Only extraordinary measures prevented the spread of the infection. The fault was a spring near the camping. Landslides damaged the sewerage network, and sewage entered the spring water.

It must be remembered that pathogens of infectious diseases, penetrating into the body, find there a favorable environment for development. Reproducing rapidly, they secrete toxic products (toxins) that destroy tissues, which leads to disruption of the normal life processes of the body. The disease usually occurs within a few hours or days after infection. During this period, called incubation, microbes multiply and toxic substances accumulate without visible signs of disease.

Their carrier infects others or infects various objects of the external environment with pathogens.

There are several ways of spreading: contact, when there is a direct contact of the patient with a healthy person; contact-household

– transmission of infection through household items (linen, towels, dishes, toys) contaminated with patient secretions; airborne

– when talking, sneezing; water. Many pathogens remain viable in water for at least a few days.In this regard, the transmission of acute dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever can occur through it very widely. If the necessary sanitary measures are not taken, water epidemics can lead to dire consequences.

And how many infectious diseases are transmitted with food? In the Tula region, five cases of brucellosis were identified. The reason? Neglect of veterinary requirements and norms: the state farm sent 65 heads of cattle sick with brucellosis to a meat processing plant, from whose products people were infected,

Today, salmonellosis is of leading importance.Their incidence has increased 25 times. This is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Various animals can be carriers: cattle, pigs, horses, rats, mice and poultry, especially ducks and geese. Such infection is possible from a sick person or a carrier of Salmonella.

Patients who do not consult a doctor in a timely manner are a great danger to others, since many infectious diseases are easy. But at the same time, there is an intensive release of pathogens into the external environment.

The terms of survival of pathogens are different. So, on smooth surfaces of celluloid toys, the diphtheria bacillus remains less than on soft toys made of wool or other fabric. Pathogens can live for a long time in ready-made dishes, in meat, milk. In particular, milk is a favorable breeding ground for typhoid and dysentery sticks.

In the human body, protective barriers – skin, gastric mucosa, some constituent parts of blood – stand on the way of penetration of pathogenic microbes.Dry, healthy and clear skin releases substances that kill germs. Mucus and saliva contain a highly active enzyme, lysozyme, which destroys many pathogens. The airway lining is also a good protector. A reliable barrier against microbes is the stomach. It releases hydrochloric acid and enzymes that neutralize most infectious pathogens. However, if a person drinks a lot of water, then the acidity, diluted, decreases. Microbes in such cases do not die and with food penetrate into the intestines, and from there into the blood.

It should be noted that the protective forces are more effective in a healthy, hardened body. Hypothermia, lack of personal hygiene, trauma, smoking, radiation, alcohol intake sharply reduce his resistance.

RECOGNIZING INFECTIOUS DISEASES

The most typical signs of an infectious disease are: chills, fever, fever. In this case, there is a headache, pain in muscles and joints, malaise, general weakness, weakness, sometimes nausea, vomiting, sleep disturbances, appetite worsening.With typhoid, a meningococcal infection, a rash appears. With flu and other respiratory diseases – sneezing, coughing, sore throat. Sore throat and diphtheria cause sore throat when swallowing. With dysentery, diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea are signs of cholera and salmonellosis.

Let us consider briefly the most common infections, their ways of spreading and methods of prevention.

Respiratory tract infections are the most numerous and most common diseases.Annually, they add up to 15-20% of the total population, and during epidemic outbreaks of influenza – up to 40%. Pathogens are localized in the upper respiratory tract and spread by airborne droplets. Microbes enter the air with saliva and mucus when talking, sneezing, coughing the patient (the highest concentration is at a distance of 2-3 m from the patient). Large drops containing pathogens settle down rather quickly, dry up, forming microscopic nucleoli. With dust, they rise again into the air and are carried to other rooms.When they are inhaled, infection occurs. With high humidity in rooms, insufficient ventilation and other violations of sanitary and hygienic rules, pathogens remain in the external environment longer.

In the event of a natural disaster and major disasters, people usually accumulate, the norms and rules of the community are violated, which determines the massiveness of the disease with influenza, diphtheria, sore throat, meningitis.

Influenza. Its virus can infect a significant number of people within a short time.It is resistant to freezing, but quickly dies when heated, dried, under the influence of disinfectants, under ultraviolet irradiation. The incubation period lasts from 12 hours to 7 days. The characteristic signs of the disease are chills, fever, weakness, severe headache, cough, sore throat, runny nose, rawness behind the breastbone, hoarse voice. In severe cases, complications are possible – pneumonia, inflammation of the brain and its membranes.

Diphtheria is characterized by an inflammatory process in the pharynx and toxic damage to the cardiovascular and nervous systems.The causative agent of the disease is a diphtheria bacillus. The entrance gate of infection is most often the mucous membranes of the pharynx, larynx and nose. It is transmitted by airborne droplets.

Incubation period from 5 to 10 days. The most characteristic manifestation of the disease is the formation of films in the upper respiratory tract. Danger to life is toxic damage to the poisons of diphtheria rods of the patient’s body. When they spread, breathing problems may occur.

Cholera, dysentery, typhoid fever, salmonellosis, infectious hepatitis – all these acute intestinal infections rank second after airborne droplets.In this group of diseases, pathogens penetrate inside with ingested food or water.

The destruction of water supply and sewerage networks, low sanitary culture, carelessness and imprudence in the use of open water bodies lead to the emergence of these epidemics.

Acute bacterial dysentery. Pathogens — dysentery bacteria that are excreted in the feces of the patient. In the external environment, they persist for 30-45 days. The incubation period is up to 7 days (usually 2-3 days).The disease is accompanied by fever, chills, fever, general weakness, headache. It starts with cramping abdominal pains, frequent loose stools, in severe cases mixed with mucus and blood. Sometimes there is vomiting.

Typhoid fever. Source of infection – sick or carriers of bacteria. The bacillus of typhoid and paratyphoid fever is excreted in feces and urine. They can be stored in soil and water for up to four months, in feces for up to 25 days, on damp linen – up to two weeks.The incubation period lasts from one to three weeks. The disease develops gradually: the state of health worsens, sleep is disturbed, the temperature rises. On the 7-8th day, a rash appears on the skin of the abdomen, chest. The disease lasts 2-3 weeks and can be complicated by intestinal bleeding or intestinal perforation at the site of one of the many ulcers formed.

FUNDAMENTALS OF PROTECTION AND RULES OF CONDUCT OF THE POPULATION

Infectious diseases arise from three main factors: the presence of a source of infection, favorable conditions for the spread of pathogens and a person susceptible to the disease.If at least one link is excluded from this chain, the epidemic process stops. Consequently, the purpose of preventive measures is to influence the source of infection in order to reduce contamination of the external environment, to localize the spread of microbes, and also to increase the population’s resistance to diseases.

Since the main source of infection is a sick person or a carrier of bacteria, early detection, their immediate isolation and hospitalization are necessary. With a mild course of the disease, people, as a rule, go to the doctor late or do not do it at all.Household visits can help in the early identification of such patients.

Rooms where the patient is located must be regularly ventilated. Allocate a separate room for him or fence off with a screen. Service personnel must wear protective gauze masks.

Urgent and specific prophylaxis is of great importance in preventing the development of infectious diseases.

Emergency prophylaxis is carried out when there is a danger of mass diseases, but when the type of pathogen has not yet been precisely determined.It consists in the population taking antibiotics, sulfa and other drugs. Means of emergency prophylaxis, with their timely use according to the schemes provided in advance, can largely prevent infectious diseases, and if they occur, facilitate their course.

Specific prophylaxis – the creation of artificial immunity (immunity) by means of protective vaccinations (vaccinations) – is carried out against certain diseases (smallpox, diphtheria, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, etc.)) constantly, and against others – only when there is a danger of their occurrence and spread.

It is possible to increase the population’s resistance to infectious agents by means of mass immunization with protective vaccines, the introduction of special sera or gamma globulins. Vaccines are weakened pathogenic microbes killed or by special methods, when introduced into the body of healthy people, they develop a state of immunity to the disease. They are administered in different ways: subcutaneously, skin, intradermally, intramuscularly, through the mouth (into the digestive tract), by inhalation.

For the prevention and weakening of infectious diseases in the order of self-help and mutual assistance, it is recommended to use the means contained in the first-aid kit of the individual AI-2.

When a focus of an infectious disease occurs, in order to prevent the spread of diseases, a quarantine or observation is declared.

Quarantine is introduced in the event of especially dangerous diseases (smallpox, plague, cholera, etc.). It can cover the territory of a district, a city, a group of settlements.

Quarantine is a system of regime, anti-epidemic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures directed to the complete isolation of the focus and the elimination of diseases in it.

The main regime measures in establishing quarantine are: protection of the outbreak of an infectious disease, settlements in it, infectious isolation wards and hospitals, control points. Prohibition of the entry and exit of people, the entry and exit of animals, as well as the export of property.Prohibition of transit passage of transport, with the exception of rail and water. Dividing the population into small groups and limiting communication between them. Organization of delivery of food, water and basic necessities to apartments (houses) to the population. Termination of the work of all educational institutions, entertainment institutions, markets. Termination of production activities of enterprises or their transfer to a special mode of operation.

Anti-epidemic and treatment-and-prophylactic measures under quarantine conditions include: the use of medicines by the population, protection of food and water, disinfection, disinsection, deratization, sanitization, stricter adherence to personal hygiene rules, active identification and hospitalization of infectious patients.

Observation is introduced if the type of pathogen is not particularly dangerous. The purpose of the observation is to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and eliminate them. For this, essentially the same preventive and curative measures are carried out as during quarantine, but with observation, isolation and restrictive measures are less strict.

The period of quarantine and observation is determined by the duration of the maximum incubation period of the disease, calculated from the moment of isolation of the last patient and the end of disinfection in the outbreak.

People who are on the territory of the outbreak of an infectious disease should use cotton-gauze bandages to protect their respiratory organs. For short-term protection, it is recommended to use a handkerchief or kerchief, towel or scarf rolled in several layers. Safety glasses are also useful. It is advisable to use capes and raincoats made of synthetic and rubberized fabrics, coats, quilted jackets, rubber shoes, shoes made of leather or leather substitutes, leather or rubber gloves (mittens).

Protection of food and water consists mainly in creating conditions that exclude the possibility of their contact with a contaminated atmosphere. All types of tightly closed containers can be reliable means of protection.

Water from the water supply system and artesian wells is allowed to be used freely, but it must be boiled.

In the focus of an infectious disease, disinfection, disinsection and deratization are indispensable.

Disinfection is carried out with the aim of destroying or removing microbes and other pathogens from objects in the external environment with which a person may come into contact.For disinfection, solutions of bleach and chloramine, lysol, formalin, etc. are used. In the absence of these substances, hot water with soap or soda is used.

Disinsection is carried out to destroy insects and ticks – carriers of infectious diseases. For this purpose, various methods are used: mechanical (knocking out, shaking, washing), physical (ironing, boiling), chemical (using insecticides – chlorophos, thiophos, DDT, etc.), combined.To protect against insect bites, repellants (repellents) are used to lubricate the skin of the exposed parts of the body.

Deratization is carried out to exterminate rodents – carriers of infectious diseases. It is carried out most often with the help of mechanical devices and chemicals.