About all

Best way to relieve a headache: 18 Remedies to Get Rid of Headaches Naturally


18 Remedies to Get Rid of Headaches Naturally

Headache symptoms can be managed at home with a number of natural treatments, including drinking water, taking a nap, applying a cold compress and more.

Headaches are a common condition that many people deal with on a daily basis.

Ranging from uncomfortable to downright unbearable, they can disrupt your day-to-day life.

Several types of headaches exist, with tension headaches being the most common. Cluster headaches are painful and happen in groups or “clusters,” while migraines are a moderate-to-severe type of headache.

Although many medications can be used to treat headache symptoms, a number of effective natural treatments also exist.

Keep reading for 18 effective home remedies to naturally get rid of headaches.

Headaches have a number of causes, some of which are much more serious than others.

Research shows that certain dietary and lifestyle factors could increase the risk of experiencing headaches. Examples include (1, 2, 3, 4):

  • lack of sleep
  • dehydration
  • caffeine withdrawal
  • alcohol use
  • nutrient deficiency
  • undereating

However, serious injuries and underlying health issues can also cause headaches.

For example, headaches can result from potentially life threatening conditions, including tumors and blood clots, as well as from traumatic brain injury (5).

Medication overuse and infections of the central nervous system can cause headaches as well (6).

Additionally, some people are more likely to experience headaches than others.

People with obesity, those with sleep disorders, those who smoke, and those with high caffeine intake are more at risk of experiencing headaches. People with a family health history of headaches are more prone to headache disorders too (6, 7, 8).

1. Drink water

Inadequate hydration may lead you to develop a headache.

In fact, studies have demonstrated that dehydration is a common cause of headaches (4, 9)

What’s more, being dehydrated can impair concentration and cause irritability, making your symptoms seem even worse (10).

Thankfully, research suggests that drinking more water may help reduce headache occurrence, duration, and severity in some people (11).

To help avoid dehydration headaches, focus on drinking enough water throughout the day and eating water-rich foods like fruits and vegetables.

2. Take some magnesium

Magnesium is an important mineral necessary for countless functions in the body, including blood sugar regulation and nerve transmission (12).

Interestingly, magnesium has also been shown to be a safe, effective remedy for headaches.

Evidence suggests that magnesium deficiency is more common in people who get frequent migraine headaches than in those who don’t (13).

Studies have shown that treatment with supplemental magnesium, in many different doses and forms, may help reduce both the frequency and the severity of migraine headaches (14).

For example, supplementing with 600 mg of magnesium citrate may be effective for reducing headaches in people with migraine (15).

However, taking magnesium supplements can cause digestive side effects like diarrhea in some people, so it’s best to start with a smaller dose when treating headache symptoms and ask a healthcare professional if you have questions related to dosing.

Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate is a great choice for people who want to try magnesium for headaches. Each capsule contains 150 mg of magnesium citrate.

Pure Encapsulations products are tested by third-party, independent laboratories, including Eurofins, Intertek, and Silliker (16).

Shop for Pure Encapsulations Magnesium Citrate online.

3. Limit alcohol

While having an alcoholic drink may not cause a headache in most people, studies have shown that alcohol can trigger migraines in about one-third of those who experience frequent headaches (17).

Alcohol intake is also a risk factor for tension headaches and for cluster headaches, which are among the most severe types of headaches (17, 18).

There are several ways in which alcohol is thought to trigger headaches, including by provoking inflammation, activating certain neuronal pathways, contributing to dehydration, and widening blood vessels, though the exact mechanism is still unclear (17).

People who experience frequent headaches could try cutting back on their alcohol intake to see if it benefits their symptoms.

4. Get adequate sleep

Sleep deprivation can be detrimental to your health in many ways and may even cause headaches in some people.

In fact, research shows that poor sleep quality and insomnia are associated with increased headache frequency and severity (19).

Sleep apnea, a health condition in which breathing repeatedly stops and then starts again during sleep, is associated with morning headaches, while insomnia is linked to increased headache severity in those with tension headaches (20, 21).

However, getting too much sleep has also been shown to trigger headaches. Therefore, getting the right amount of rest important for those looking for natural headache prevention (22).

For maximum benefits, aim for the “sweet spot” of 7–9 hours of sleep per night (23).

Having trouble sleeping? Read more about natural sleep aids.

5. Avoid foods high in histamine

Histamine is a chemical found naturally in the body that plays a role in the immune, digestive, and nervous systems (24).

It’s also found in certain foods, such as aged cheeses, fermented foods, beer, wine, smoked fish, and cured meats.

Studies suggest that consuming histamine may cause migraines in those who are sensitive to it (25).

Some people cannot excrete histamine properly because they have impaired function of the enzymes responsible for breaking it down (26).

Cutting histamine-rich foods from the diet may help reduce symptoms such as headaches in people who are sensitive to histamine (27).

6. Try essential oils

Essential oils are highly concentrated liquids that contain aromatic compounds from a variety of plants.

They have many therapeutic benefits and are most often used topically, though some can be ingested.

Research suggests that peppermint, lavender, and eucalyptus essential oils are especially helpful when you have a headache (28, 29, 30).

If you experience frequent headaches, try diffusing essential oils or rubbing a small amount of an essential oil, like peppermint or lavender oil, mixed with a carrier oil, like jojoba, onto your wrists or temples.

There are a number of high quality essential oils available, with Eden Botanicals being one of the best brands to consider.

Shop for Eden Botanicals essential oils online.

7. Try a B-complex vitamin

B vitamins are a group of water-soluble micronutrients that play many important roles in your body. For example, they contribute to neurotransmitter synthesis and help turn food into energy (31).

Some B vitamins may also have a protective effect against headaches.

Several studies have shown that certain B vitamin supplements, including riboflavin (B2), folate, B12, and pyridoxine (B6) may reduce headache symptoms (32, 33, 34).

B-complex supplements contain all eight of the B vitamins and are a safe, cost-effective way to naturally treat headache symptoms.

B vitamins are considered safe to take on a regular basis, as they are water-soluble, meaning that any excess will be flushed out through the urine (35).

If you’re looking for a high quality B-complex supplement, you may want to try Nordic Naturals Vitamin B Complex. It contains highly absorbable forms of B vitamins, including methylcobalamin and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF).

The supplement is third-party tested, and customers can obtain a certificate of analysis on the Nordic Naturals website.

You can shop for Nordic Naturals Vitamin B Complex online.

8. Soothe pain with a cold compress

Using a cold compress may help reduce your headache symptoms.

Applying cold or frozen compresses to your neck or head area decreases inflammation, slows nerve conduction, and constricts blood vessels, all of which could help reduce headache pain (36).

Studies suggest that cold therapy may benefit those experiencing certain types of headaches, including headaches caused by nitrate medication used to treat heart conditions like chest pain (37).

To make a cold compress, fill a waterproof bag with ice and wrap it in a soft towel. Apply the compress to the back of your neck, your head, or your temples for headache relief.

9. Consider taking coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a substance produced naturally by the body that plays a role in energy production and functions as a powerful antioxidant (38).

Studies have shown that taking CoQ10 supplements may be an effective natural way to treat headaches.

For example, one study in 80 people diagnosed with migraine demonstrated that taking 100 mg of CoQ10 per day reduced migraine frequency, severity, and length (39).

A 2021 review that included 6 studies found that treatment with 30–800 mg of CoQ10 per day was effective for reducing migraine frequency and duration (40).

Thorne Research CoQ10 (previously Q-Best 100), which provides 100 mg of CoQ10 per 1-gelcap serving, is a good option for people who experience migraine.

Thorne Research is a well-trusted supplement company that is certified by several third-party organizations, including the Therapeutic Goods Association, a regulatory agency run by the Australian Government Department of Health (41).

Shop for Thorne CoQ10 online.

10. Try an elimination diet

Studies suggest that food intolerances can trigger headaches in some people (1).

To discover whether a certain food is causing frequent headaches, you may consider trying an elimination diet that removes the foods most related to your headache symptoms.

Aged cheeses, alcohol, chocolate, citrus fruits, and coffee are among the most commonly reported food triggers in people with migraines (1).

A 2016 study in 50 people with migraine found that eliminating migraine-triggering foods from the diet significantly reduced migraine attack frequency, duration, and severity (42).

Read more here about how to follow an elimination diet properly.

11. Drink caffeinated tea or coffee

Share on PinterestBrothers91/Getty Images

Sipping on beverages that contain caffeine, such as tea or coffee, may provide relief when you are experiencing a headache.

Caffeine improves mood, increases alertness, and constricts blood vessels, all of which can have a positive effect on headache symptoms (43).

It also helps increase the effectiveness of common medications used to treat headaches, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen (43).

However, caffeine withdrawal has also been shown to cause headaches if a person regularly consumes large amounts of caffeine and suddenly stops.

Therefore, people who get frequent headaches should be mindful of their caffeine intake (44).

While there are many excellent tea brands on the market, Stash Teas is known for offering a wide variety of flavors, including Green Chai, Orange Spice, and Double Bergamot Early Grey.

Shop for Stash teas online.

12. Try acupuncture

Acupuncture is a traditional Chinese medicine technique that involves inserting thin needles into the skin to stimulate specific points on the body (45).

This practice has been linked to a reduction in headache symptoms in many studies.

A 2020 overview of 15 systematic reviews concluded that acupuncture may be an effective therapy for people with migraine (46).

What’s more, a 2022 study that included 156 people with migraine found that treatments with both 5 and 10 sessions of acupuncture were effective for reducing frequency of migraine attacks and migraine severity (47).

If you’re looking for a natural way to treat chronic headaches, acupuncture may be a worthwhile choice.

13. Relax with yoga

Practicing yoga is an excellent way to relieve stress, increase flexibility, decrease pain, and improve your overall quality of life (48).

Taking up yoga may even help reduce the intensity and frequency of your headaches.

One study investigated the effects of yoga therapy on 60 people with chronic migraines. Headache frequency and intensity were reduced more in those receiving both yoga therapy and conventional care than in those receiving conventional care alone (49).

Additionally, a 2020 review that included six studies found that yoga helped improve headache frequency, duration, and intensity in patients with tension-type headaches (50).

14. Avoid strong smells

Strong odors like those from perfumes and cleaning products can cause certain individuals to develop headaches.

A study of 400 people who experienced either migraine or tension headaches found that strong odors, especially perfumes, often triggered headaches (51).

This hypersensitivity to odors is called osmophobia and is common in those with chronic migraines (52).

If you think you may be sensitive to smells, avoiding perfumes, cigarette smoke, and strongly scented foods may help decrease your chance of getting a migraine.

15. Try an herbal remedy

Research suggests that certain herbs, including curcumin, chamomile, and butterbur, may reduce headache symptoms.

For example, a 2020 review of 19 studies found positive preliminary findings for curcumin as a preventive treatment and for chamomile as an acute treatment for migraine (53).

The review also found limited evidence that supplementing with butterbur, a perennial shrub native to Germany that has anti-inflammatory effects, may benefit those with migraine (53).

Even though some herbs are safe to take, it’s important to be cautious when supplementing with herbs, as many can interact with commonly prescribed medications and may be unsafe for people who are pregnant or have certain health conditions (54).

Of the herbal supplements mentioned in the review listed above, curcumin and chamomile are generally considered safe. However, it’s important to check with a healthcare professional before using any herbal remedy to treat headaches.

Thorne Meriva-SF is an excellent choice for those looking for a high quality curcumin supplement to prevent migraines, and Nature’s Way Chamomile may be helpful if you’re looking for immediate headache relief.

Shop for Thorne Meriva-SF and Swanson Chamomile online.

16. Avoid nitrates and nitrites

Nitrates and nitrites are food preservatives commonly added to items like hot dogs, sausages, and bacon to keep them fresh by preventing bacterial growth.

Foods containing them have been shown to trigger headaches in some people (55).

Nitrites may trigger headaches by causing the expansion of blood vessels (56).

In order to minimize your exposure to nitrites, limit the amount of processed meats in your diet and choose nitrate-free products whenever possible.

17. Take some ginger

Ginger root contains many beneficial compounds, including antioxidants and anti-inflammatory substances (57).

A 2021 review that included three randomized control trials found that treatment with ginger supplements helped reduce pain in people with migraine (58).

What’s more, the ginger treatments helped reduce nausea and vomiting, common symptoms associated with severe headaches (58).

If you’re interested in taking a ginger supplement, Pure Encapsulations Ginger Extract is a high quality supplement that provides 500 mg of ginger root extract per capsule.

You can also make a powerful tea using fresh ginger root. Not only is it cost-effective to make, but drinking the tea is a healthy way to stay hydrated.

Shop for Pure Encapsulations Ginger Extract online.

18. Move more

One of the simplest ways to reduce headache frequency and severity is to engage in physical activity.

A number of studies have shown that exercise could help significantly reduce migraine intensity, frequency, and duration (59, 60, 61)

There are many ways to increase your activity level, but one of the simplest ways is to increase the number of steps you take throughout the day.

Learn 10 ways to move more every day.

If you’re looking for ways to prevent headaches, the following evidence-based tips may help:

  • Stay hydrated: Staying hydrated throughout the day is a simple way to reduce the risk of headaches while benefiting your overall health. Hydration needs vary, depending on factors like activity levels, body size, and more, so let your thirst be your guide (62).
  • Identify underlying causes: There are many potential underlying causes of headaches, including nutrient deficiencies. If you’re experiencing frequent headaches, see a healthcare professional for a thorough checkup to rule out potential causes (2).
  • Eat regularly: Undereating and restricting calories could cause you to develop a headache. Make sure you’re consuming enough calories throughout the day, and don’t go long periods of time without eating (63).
  • Get the right amount of sleep: Both sleep deprivation and oversleeping may trigger migraines. It’s important to get the right amount of sleep, not too much or too little. Aim for 7–9 hours of sleep per night (23).
  • Try to manage your stress: Stress may trigger some types of headaches and take a toll on overall health. Incorporating healthy stress management practices like exercise, medication, and yoga into your life may help reduce your stress level as much as possible (64).

There are many other ways to help reduce headache frequency, duration, and severity. You can work with a healthcare professional to come up with a plan that works best for you.

The occasional mild headache isn’t usually a cause for concern, but if you’re experiencing frequent headaches or a lasting, severe headache, it’s critical that you seek medical care.

Headaches can be a symptom of a serious underlying health issue, such as a tumor, a blood clot, or another medical condition that requires immediate medical attention (5).

A doctor can help rule out potential underlying causes of your headaches and give you the right care.

They can also run tests to help rule out health conditions and nutrient deficiencies, such as B12 and iron deficiency, which may cause or worsen headaches (65, 66).

It’s especially important to seek immediate medical attention if you’re experiencing a headache after an injury or trauma, such as a fall, or if you experience a sudden, very severe headache, as this may be a symptom of a serious medical condition.

What is the fastest home remedy for a headache?

There are several home remedies that may help treat headaches.

For example, if dehydration is causing a headache, drinking water can help quickly improve the symptoms (11).

Taking pain relievers such as ibuprofen can also help reduce headache pain (67).

Relaxing in a dark room, using a cold compress, smelling some peppermint or lavender essential oils, drinking some caffeine, and avoiding loud noises may also help reduce headache severity.

However, keep in mind that these remedies may not be effective for everyone. Effective treatments depend on the type and cause of the headache you’re experiencing.

Are there any home remedies for headaches that you should avoid?

It’s important to avoid taking herbal supplements to treat a headache unless you’ve checked with a healthcare professional first to ensure the supplements are safe for you. Many herbal supplements can interfere with common medications and aren’t safe for everyone (68).

You should also avoid drinking too much caffeine, as this can make you jittery and interfere with sleep (69).

Is there anything that makes headaches worse?

Bright lights, loud noises, and strong smells may make headache symptoms worse.

If you’re experiencing a significant headache, it’s important to relax in a calm, dark, quiet environment.

Lack of sleep, alcohol, stress, certain foods, hormonal fluctuations, calorie restriction, and taking headache medicine too frequently could also trigger or worsen headaches (70, 71).

Because people experience negative effects from frequent headaches, it’s important to find natural and effective treatment options.

Yoga, nutritional supplements, essential oils, and dietary modifications are all natural, safe, and effective ways to reduce headache symptoms.

While traditional methods such as medications are often necessary, there are many natural and effective ways to prevent and treat headaches if you’re looking for a more holistic approach.

Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and More

Nearly everyone experiences head pain once in a while. However, there are different types of headaches. The cause, duration, and intensity of this pain can vary according to each type.

Many of us are familiar with some form of the throbbing, uncomfortable, and distracting pain of a headache. There are different types of headaches. The common types of headaches include:

  • tension headache
  • cluster headache
  • migraine headache
  • hemicrania continua
  • ice pick headache
  • thunderclap headache
  • allergy or sinus headache (Note: This is not an official headache disorder. Rather, it’s a description of symptoms, which usually involve sinus pressure or pain.)
  • hormone headache (also known as menstrual migraine)
  • caffeine headache
  • exertion headache
  • hypertension headache
  • rebound headache
  • post-traumatic headache
  • spinal headache

Immediate medical attention needed

In some cases, a headache may require immediate medical attention. Seek immediate medical care if you’re experiencing any of the following symptoms alongside your headache:

  • stiff neck
  • rash
  • the worst headache you’ve ever had
  • vomiting
  • confusion
  • slurred speech
  • fever of 100.4°F (38°C) or higher
  • paralysis in any part of your body
  • visual loss

If your headache is less severe, read on to learn how to identify the type of headache you may be experiencing and what you can do to ease your symptoms.

Primary headaches occur when the pain in your head is the condition. In other words, your headache isn’t being triggered by something that your body is dealing with, like illness or allergies.

These headaches can be episodic or chronic:

  • Episodic headaches may occur every so often but no more than 15 days in one month. They can last anywhere from half an hour to several hours.
  • Chronic headaches are more consistent. They occur more than 15 days in a month. In these cases, a pain management plan is necessary.

Share on PinterestVisual of different types of headaches. Design by Maya Chastain.

Tension headache

If you have a tension headache, you may feel a dull, aching sensation all over your head. It isn’t throbbing. Tenderness or sensitivity around your neck, forehead, scalp, or shoulder muscles also might occur.

Anyone can get a tension headache. Stress often triggers them.

Cluster headache

Cluster headaches are characterized by severe burning and piercing pain. They occur around or behind one eye or on one side of the face at a time. Symptoms may include:

  • swelling, redness, flushing, and sweating on the side that’s affected by the headache
  • nasal congestion and eye tearing on the same side as the headache

These headaches occur in a series. Each individual headache can last from 15 minutes to 3 hours. During a cluster, most people experience one to four headaches a day, usually around the same time each day. After one headache resolves, another will soon follow.

A series of cluster headaches can be daily for months at a time. In the months between clusters, people are symptom-free. Cluster headaches are more common in the spring and fall. They are also three times more common in men.

Doctors aren’t sure what causes cluster headaches.


Migraine pain is an intense pulsing from deep within your head. This pain can last for days. Migraine headaches significantly limit your ability to carry out your daily routine.

Migraine pain is throbbing and usually one-sided. People with migraine headaches are often sensitive to light and sound. Nausea and vomiting also usually occur.

Some migraine headaches are preceded by visual disturbances. About one-third of people will experience these symptoms before the headache starts. Known as a migraine aura, it may cause you to see:

  • flashing lights
  • shimmering lights
  • zigzag lines
  • stars
  • blind spots

Auras can also include tingling on one side of your face or in one arm and trouble speaking.

Possible medical emergency

The symptoms of a stroke can also mimic a migraine headache. If any of these symptoms are new to you, seek immediate medical attention.

Migraine headaches might run in your family, or they can be associated with other nervous system conditions. Women are three times more likely to develop migraine than men. People with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also have an increased risk of migraine.

Common migraine triggers include environmental factors, such as:

  • sleep disruption
  • dehydration
  • skipped meals
  • some foods
  • hormone fluctuations
  • exposure to chemicals

Hemicrania continua

Hemicrania continua is a moderate headache on one side of your head that lasts continuously for at least 3 months. You might feel periods of increased intensity a few times per day.

Researchers estimate it accounts for about 1 percent of headaches. It’s twice as common in women.

This type of headache may also be accompanied by:

  • tearing or eye redness
  • nasal congestion or runny nose
  • eyelid drooping
  • forehead sweating
  • miosis
  • restlessness or agitation

Ice pick headache

Primary stabbing headaches, or ice pick headaches, are characterized by short, intense stabbing pains in your head lasting only a few seconds.

These headaches can occur a few times per day and come on without warning. Ice pick headaches could feel like a single stab or multiple stabs in succession.

Ice pick headaches usually move around to different parts of your head. If you’re experiencing ice pick headaches that always occur in the same spot, it might be a symptom of an underlying condition.

Thunderclap headache

A thunderclap headache is an extremely severe headache that comes on rapidly, reaching peak intensity in under a minute. It may be benign, but it could also be a symptom of a serious condition requiring immediate medical attention.

In some cases, a thunderclap headache could indicate:

  • blood vessel tears, ruptures, or blockages
  • stroke
  • brain injury
  • reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS)
  • vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels)
  • pituitary apoplexy (bleeding into or loss of blood from an organ)

The first time you experience a thunderclap headache, seek immediate medical attention. If a doctor determines that your headache is not caused by another condition, you can discuss a treatment plan for possible future thunderclap headaches.

Secondary headaches are a symptom of something else that is going on in your body. If the trigger of your secondary headache is ongoing, your headaches can become chronic. Treating the primary cause generally brings headache relief.

Allergy or sinus headache

Headaches sometimes happen as a result of an allergic reaction. The pain from these headaches is often focused in your sinus area and in the front of your head.

Migraine headaches are commonly misdiagnosed as sinus headaches. In fact, up to 90 percent of “sinus headaches” are actually migraine, according to the American Migraine Foundation. People who have chronic seasonal allergies or sinusitis are susceptible to these kinds of headaches.

Hormone headache

Women commonly experience headaches that are linked to hormonal fluctuations. Menstruation, using birth control pills, and pregnancy all affect estrogen levels, which can cause a headache.

Those headaches associated specifically with the menstrual cycle are also known as menstrual migraine. These can occur right before, during, or right after your period, as well as during ovulation.

Caffeine headache

Caffeine affects blood flow to your brain. Having too much can give you a headache, as can quitting caffeine “cold turkey.” People who have frequent migraine headaches are at risk of triggering a headache due to caffeine use.

When you’re used to exposing your brain to a certain amount of caffeine, a stimulant, each day, you might get a headache if you don’t get caffeine. This may be because caffeine changes your brain chemistry, and withdrawal from it can trigger a headache.

Exertion headache

Exertion headaches happen quickly after periods of intense physical activity. Weightlifting, running, and sexual intercourse are all common triggers for an exertion headache. It’s thought that these activities cause increased blood flow to your skull, which can lead to a throbbing headache on both sides of your head.

An exertion headache shouldn’t last too long. This type of headache usually resolves within a few minutes or several hours.

Hypertension headache

High blood pressure can cause a headache. This kind of headache signals an emergency. It occurs when your blood pressure becomes dangerously high.

A hypertension headache will usually occur on both sides of your head and is typically worse with any activity. It often has a pulsating quality.

Medical emergency

If you think you’re experiencing a hypertension headache, seek immediate medical attention. Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room if you have:

  • changes in vision
  • numbness or tingling
  • nosebleeds
  • chest pain
  • shortness of breath

You’re more likely to develop this type of headache if you’re treating high blood pressure.

Rebound headache

Rebound headaches, also known as medication overuse headaches, can feel like a dull, tension-type headache, or they may feel more intensely painful, like a migraine headache.

You may be more susceptible to this type of headache if you frequently use over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers. Overuse of these medications leads to more headaches, rather than fewer.

Rebound headaches are likelier to occur anytime OTC medications are used more than 15 days out of a month. These OTC medications include:

  • acetaminophen
  • ibuprofen
  • aspirin
  • naproxen

They’re also more common with medications that contain caffeine.

Post-traumatic headache

Post-traumatic headaches can develop after any type of head injury. These headaches feel like migraine or tension headaches. They usually last up to 6 to 12 months after your injury occurs. They can become chronic.

Spinal headache

A spinal headache is the result of low cerebrospinal fluid pressure following a lumbar puncture. For this reason, it’s also known as a postdural puncture headache. You might feel this headache in your:

  • forehead
  • temples
  • upper neck
  • back of the head

Research estimates that spinal headaches follow a lumbar puncture between 10 and 40 percent of the time. Onset usually begins within 2 to 3 days, but could start several months later.

Other symptoms of spinal headache include:

  • nausea
  • neck pain
  • dizziness
  • visual changes
  • tinnitus
  • hearing loss
  • radiating pain in the arms

In most cases, episodic headaches will go away within 48 hours. If you have a headache that lasts more than 2 days or that increases in intensity, see a doctor for help.

If you’re getting headaches more than 15 days out of the month over a period of 3 months, you might have a chronic headache condition. Even if you’re able to manage the pain with OTC medications, see a doctor for a diagnosis.

Headaches can be a symptom of more serious health conditions, and some do require treatment beyond OTC medications and home remedies.

If you need help finding a primary care doctor, then check out our FindCare tool here.

Because there are many types of headaches, there are many methods that might be used to diagnose which type of headache you are experiencing. It’s important to figure out whether you’re having a primary or secondary headache to receive effective treatment.

You can expect your headache diagnosis to begin with a physical exam and a thorough medical history. If possible, keep a “headache journal” in the weeks leading up to your doctor’s appointment. Document each of your headaches, including:

  • duration
  • intensity
  • location
  • possible triggers

Your primary care doctor might also refer you to a specialist, such as a neurologist. For some headache types, you could require diagnostic tests to determine the underlying cause. These tests can include:

  • MRI or CT scan
  • lumbar puncture
  • blood tests

Different types of headaches will be managed differently. Treatments could range from simple dietary adjustments to invasive procedures performed by a medical professional.

Not everyone will respond to the same treatments, even for the same types of headaches. If you’re experiencing headaches that you’re not able to treat on your own, speak with a doctor about putting together a treatment plan.

Read on to learn more about the most common treatments for each type of headache.

Tension headache

An OTC pain reliever may be all it takes to relieve your occasional headache symptoms. OTC pain relievers include:

  • aspirin
  • ibuprofen (Advil)
  • naproxen (Aleve)
  • acetaminophen and caffeine

If OTC medications aren’t providing relief, your doctor may recommend prescription medication, such as:

  • indomethacin
  • meloxicam (Mobic)
  • ketorolac

When a tension headache becomes chronic, a different course of action may be suggested to address the underlying headache trigger.

Cluster headache

A doctor may recommend the following to provide relief for the symptoms:

  • oxygen therapy
  • sumatriptan (Imitrex)
  • local anesthetic (lidocaine)

After a diagnosis is made, your doctor will work with you to develop a prevention plan. The following may put your cluster headaches into a period of remission:

  • corticosteroids
  • melatonin
  • topiramate (Topamax)
  • calcium channel blockers


If OTC pain relievers don’t reduce migraine pain during an attack, a doctor might prescribe triptans. Triptans are drugs that decrease inflammation and change the flow of blood within your brain. They come in the form of nasal sprays, pills, and injections.

Popular options include:

  • sumatriptan (Imitrex)
  • rizatriptan (Maxalt, Axert)

Speak with a doctor about taking a daily medication to prevent migraine headaches if you experience headaches that are:

  • debilitating more than 3 days a month
  • somewhat debilitating 4 days a month
  • lasting longer than 6 days a month

According to a 2019 review, preventive migraine medications are significantly underused: Only 3 to 13 percent of those with migraine take preventive medication, while up to 38 percent actually need it.

Preventing migraine greatly improves quality of life and productivity.

Useful preventive migraine medications include:

  • propranolol (Inderal)
  • metoprolol (Toprol)
  • topiramate (Topamax)
  • amitriptyline

Hemicrania continua

One of the defining characteristics of hemicrania continua is a complete response to indomethacin, a drug in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) family. A low dose three times daily with meals usually relieves symptoms within 24 hours.

Taking indomethacin can have side effects, especially at higher doses, so taking the lowest effective dose is generally recommended.

Ice pick headache

Ice pick headaches can be difficult to treat because they last for such a short duration. Most ice pick headaches are over before you have a chance to do much about them.

You might decide to take preventive measures to reduce the frequency or intensity of future headaches. Treatments could include:

  • indomethacin
  • gabapentin
  • cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors
  • melatonin
  • external hand warming

Thunderclap headache

If your thunderclap headache is the result of another condition, you will need to treat the underlying condition.

In the event that your thunderclap headache is not caused by something else, it’s a primary thunderclap headache. These could be treated with NSAIDs, such as indomethacin. Other treatments for thunderclap headache include:

  • calcium channel blockers
  • beta-blockers
  • topiramate
  • lithium
  • triptans

Allergy or sinus headache

Sinus headaches are treated by thinning out the mucus that builds up and causes sinus pressure. Options include:

  • nasal steroid sprays
  • OTC decongestants like phenylephrine (Sudafed PE)
  • antihistamines like cetirizine

A sinus headache can also be a symptom of a sinus infection. In these cases, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to clear the infection and relieve your headache and other symptoms.

Hormone headache

OTC pain relievers like naproxen (Aleve) or prescription medications like frovatriptan (Frova) can work to manage pain.

According to a 2015 study, about 60 percent of women with migraine also experience menstrual migraine, so alternative remedies may have a role in decreasing overall headaches per month. The following may help:

  • relaxation techniques
  • yoga
  • acupuncture
  • eating a modified diet

Caffeine headache

Keeping your caffeine intake at a steady, reasonable level — or quitting it entirely — can prevent these headaches from happening.

Exertion headache

OTC pain relievers, such as aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil), typically ease symptoms.

If you develop exertion headaches often, see a doctor. In some cases, they may be a sign of a serious underlying condition.

Hypertension headache

These types of headaches typically go away soon after blood pressure is under better control. They shouldn’t reoccur as long as high blood pressure continues to be managed.

Rebound headache

The only treatment for rebound headaches is to wean yourself off of the medication that you’ve been taking to manage pain. Although the pain may worsen at first, it should completely subside within a few days.

A good way to prevent medication overuse headaches is to take a preventive daily medication that doesn’t cause rebound headaches and prevents the headaches from occurring to begin with.

Post-traumatic headache

Doctors often prescribe the following medications to manage these headaches:

  • triptans
  • sumatriptan (Imitrex)
  • beta-blockers
  • amitriptyline

Spinal headache

Initial treatment for spinal headaches usually includes pain relievers and hydration. It also helps to avoid being in an upright position. Symptoms typically go away on their own after a week or two.

In some cases, an epidural blood patch might be used. This is a procedure in which a small amount of blood is taken from your body and injected back into your epidural space. It can help stop cerebrospinal fluid from leaking, which in turn stops the headaches.

Many headaches can be managed with preventive measures, but the methods will differ by headache type. Some headache types might be prevented with medication, while others might be caused by the same medication. For this reason, it’s important to know what works for you.

Discuss preventive treatments with a doctor to find a plan that fits your needs. Headache prevention could mean reduced headache frequency or intensity, or prevention of headaches altogether.

In general, many headaches can be prevented or improved with lifestyle changes including:

  • getting enough sleep on a regular schedule
  • getting enough to eat, and eating balanced meals
  • staying hydrated
  • getting adequate regular exercise
  • managing stress

Migraine headaches may be prevented with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) medication. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved one CGRP medication, Emgality, to prevent cluster headaches.

Your outlook will depend on the type of headache you’re having.

Primary headaches don’t cause permanent disability or death. However, if they are frequent and severe enough, they could be debilitating on a temporary basis. These headache types can often be managed when properly diagnosed and treated.

The outlook for secondary headaches will depend on the underlying cause. Some can be managed through simple changes to routines, while others could be fatal without immediate medical attention.

If you’re experiencing recurring or severe headaches, get medical assistance right away. An accurate diagnosis will be the first step in understanding and managing your headaches going forward.

Read this article in Spanish.

Inexpensive but effective pills for headaches, high blood pressure, for the elderly

Publication date: 09/01/2021


The author of the article

Ivanova Daria Yaroslavovna,


All authors

The content of the article

  • Why does it hurt head?
  • Inexpensive yet effective headache pills
  • Migraine pills
  • Headache pills for the elderly, list
  • Sources

Almost every adult has experienced a headache at least once in their life. Pain occurs for various reasons and indicates both serious health problems and fatigue and overwork.

Pills for headaches help to improve well-being and restore efficiency. They are available at any pharmacy, but when using drugs, you need to consider the features of their use.

Why does my head hurt?

Headache is not a disease, but a symptom that occurs with a variety of disorders in the body. Its source may be:

  • sleep failure;
  • change in weather conditions;
  • stress;
  • hypothermia or prolonged exposure to a hot environment;
  • excessive exercise;
  • smoking and alcohol.

More serious provocateurs are:

  • vascular spasm;
  • cervical osteochondrosis;
  • glaucoma;
  • migraine;
  • infectious diseases;
  • hypertension.

To choose an effective remedy, you need to establish the cause of the discomfort. But very often help is needed immediately. In such cases, a single dose of painkillers or their use for a short time is allowed.

Inexpensive but effective headache pills

Head pain tablets:

  • Paracetamol – helps to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, has an antipyretic effect. If the drug helps, you should not look for alternatives.
  • Citramon – contains acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol, caffeine. Helps relieve GB with colds, stress, hangovers. It is used if there are no problems with the digestive tract. Incompatible with alcohol. Headache tablets for high blood pressure
  • Spazmalgon is a combined analgesic. It contains metamizole, pitofenone and fenpiverinium bromide, which help to eliminate pain, inflammation and relax smooth muscles. It is used for short-term symptomatic treatment.
  • Next is a combination drug. Contains 2 active ingredients – paracetamol and ibuprofen. Helps relieve GB with colds, overwork, cervical osteochondrosis. The drug affects blood counts, so it is not recommended to use it for more than 5-7 days.

But doctors do not recommend using Analgin. Studies have shown that it can cause impaired hematopoiesis. Therefore, in many countries the drug is banned.

You may be interested in: Headache: how to get rid of

Tablets for migraine

The main symptom of migraine is severe throbbing headache. Already at the first sign of its approach, you need to take pills.

Several groups of drugs are prescribed for migraine. Their choice depends on the form and course of the disease. If the pain is not very pronounced, the attack lasts no more than 1 day, analgesics and NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) are used.

Analgesics (Paracetamol, Panadol) have a weaker effect. NSAIDs are more effective. This group includes Diclofenac, Ibuprofen, Ketoprofen.

If these drugs do not provide relief or are contraindicated, triptans are prescribed for severe headache. This group of drugs is specifically designed for the treatment of migraine. Possessing a vasoconstrictor effect, they reduce swelling and prevent compression of brain tissue. But you can take triptans only with an accurately established diagnosis.


  • completely stop the attack or significantly reduce its severity within half an hour after administration;
  • well tolerated;
  • have few side effects, most of which go away on their own.

To reduce the risk of complications and addiction, it is recommended to alternate the intake of drugs from different groups.

Headache tablets for the elderly, list

Headache in the elderly is the 3rd most common among various pain syndromes. Most often, neurologists diagnose symptomatic headaches and tension-type headaches (THE).

Symptomatic HA often signal life-threatening diseases (strokes, tumors, venous insufficiency). With their regular occurrence, it is necessary to undergo an examination. To relieve discomfort, first of all, drugs are prescribed that act on causative factors.

The cause of HDN is muscular or mental tension. Treatment tactics depend on the severity of pain and the frequency of its occurrence. For episodic attacks of low intensity, painkillers are prescribed (Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, combination drugs). These medicines are used in single doses or in short courses to prevent abuse and aggravation of the condition.

Any remedy that relieves headache should not be used for a long time (several months or even years). Their frequent use can cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidneys. If your head hurts constantly, you should definitely consult a doctor. He will prescribe an examination and select drugs used for chronic pain.


  • Headaches: In Depth, US National Institutes of Health
  • Tension Headaches, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Health System (USA)
  • Migraine, UK National Health Service


Share Mega Tip

Like this article? Tell mom, dad, grandma and aunt Galya from the third entrance

Copy link

TOP 15 medicines for headaches


  • Causes of headaches: why the head hurts
  • Drug groups
  • Headache pills: TOP-15 medicines
  • Aspirin
  • Citramon
  • Paracetamol
  • Ibuprofen
  • Spazgan
  • MIG 200
  • Pentalgin
  • Nurofen
  • No-shpa
  • Next
  • Excedrin
  • Keterol
  • Nalgezin
  • Analgin
  • Cinnarizine
  • Q&A
  • References

Headache can ruin the day, and with constant repetition of episodes, significantly affect the quality of life. It is an independent manifestation and is able to signal various pathologies. However, regardless of the etiology and pathogenesis, pain is not recommended to endure. For symptomatic therapy, pharmacological treatment is recommended. Tablets from the head should be chosen in accordance with the indications and taken strictly according to the instructions. It is important to consult with your doctor beforehand: drugs have limitations and side effects.

Causes of headaches: why the head hurts

Headaches can be divided into two groups: primary and secondary. The first type suggests that the examination and history did not reveal any abnormalities in the patient that caused the condition. Secondary ones are the result of other diseases: infectious, neurological, associated with damage to the cardiovascular system. Here are some of the types of headaches defined by the International Classification of Diseases:

  • Migraine . Translated from Latin, the name means pain that covers half of the head. Migraine is expressed in strong pulsating sensations that can last up to several days. Often it is accompanied by intolerance of the patient to bright light, certain smells and strong sounds. Migraine increases with physical activity.
  • Tension pain . Another primary type, which is not associated with pathologies and is a benign condition. The sensations last about 30 minutes and do not increase with exercise. The main reason is emotional stress. People with a high degree of anxiety experience episodes on a regular basis. Sometimes the condition becomes chronic.
  • Cluster headache . These are pronounced spasmodic sensations affecting the eye area. It belongs to cluster: attacks occur constantly, with a frequency of several days to several weeks. Sometimes they are seasonal, appearing at certain times of the year. Sometimes the spasm affects not only the eye area, but also the temples, forehead, and chin.
  • Other primary headaches . Syndromes that cannot be attributed to those listed above, but also act as an independent condition.
  • Associated with head or neck trauma . Hereinafter, we are talking about secondary pain that appeared against the background of acute and chronic pathologies. Occurs during an acute condition or as a post-traumatic protracted syndrome. In some cases, such a symptom becomes chronic and requires pharmacological treatment on a regular basis.
  • Against the background of cerebral vascular lesions . Occurs against or after cerebral infarction, ischemic stroke, with saccular aneurysm. It is a symptom of primary and secondary angiitis of the central nervous system. There are other conditions that lead to headaches.
  • For non-vascular extracranial lesions . Associated with increased CSF pressure, intracranial hypertension, lymphocytic hypophysitis. Also among the potential causes of an epileptic seizure, neurosarcoidosis, injection into the shell space.
  • Substance related or drug withdrawal syndrome . It is a consequence of treatment with histamines, analgesics, opiates, caffeine, estrogens. They are also registered with people who take narcotic substances and decide to give up addiction.
  • In case of infection . They can debut with intracranial infections, bacterial meningitis, systemic bacterial and viral infections. There are postinfectious pain syndromes.
  • In case of disturbed homeostasis . Altitude headaches are known to be found in divers associated with eclampsia, starvation and hormonal imbalance. Pain appears with arterial hypertension, myocardial ischemia, and other disorders of homeostasis.
  • Pain associated with pathologies and damage to the structures of the face and skull . The main prerequisites: acute glaucoma, strabismus, pathology of the nasal sinuses, refractive error.
  • Mental illness . They are divided into pain in somatization disorders and in psychotic disorders.
  • Cranial neuralgia and central causes of facial pain . Includes a spectrum of neuralgia: intermediate nerve, laryngeal nerve, trigeminal nerve, central pain in stroke.

If you have a headache, you should take the tablets after identifying the cause and agreeing the therapy with your doctor. Of course, if we are talking about a short-term mild episode, then you should not worry. However, with regular pain, aggravated by movement, accompanied by other signs of infectious or traumatic conditions, with prolonged episodes, complex treatment is required. In this case, pain relief is only part of the recommended therapy.

Drug groups

Which head tablets are effective in a particular case depends on the causes of the condition. There are several groups of drugs recommended as symptomatic treatment. In particular:

  1. Salicylic acid derivatives. Used to relieve tension headaches. They have an anti-inflammatory effect, thin the blood. Dangerous for the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Not used for the treatment of children under 12 years of age due to the high likelihood of dangerous complications.
  2. Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A wide medicinal group that can not only relieve pain of various etiologies, but also affect the inflammatory process. They are an option of choice for patients suffering from diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
  3. Analgesics. Painkillers that can help with pain of varying intensity. There are opiate-based drugs that are needed for strong sensations. There are also non-opioid tablets with analgesic activity. Mixed-action analgesics are usually recommended for tension pain relief.
  4. Psychoactive substances (surfactants). They are used for therapy in patients suffering from discomfort in the goal on the background of a mental disorder. It can also be shown as a means to enhance the action of analgesics.
  5. Vasoactive agents. This is a group of drugs that can dilate blood vessels. Most often, such pills are indicated for people with chronic vascular and heart diseases. Vasodilators are applicable in arterial hypertension.
  6. Antispasmodics. aimed at reducing or completely eliminating muscle spasm. Effective in cases where the headache is caused by muscle tension or is a secondary syndrome from conditions associated with such tension.
  7. Botulinum toxins. It is used as an injection into the head subcutaneously as a method of eliminating migraine.
  8. Preparations of combined action. There are products that contain several active ingredients from different drug groups or one group at once.

Inconsistent therapy and overconsumption of drugs can be dangerous. Most often, in patients who uncontrollably take pills for noise in the head and pain, erosive lesions of the gastrointestinal mucosa are found. In difficult cases, the condition is aggravated by an ulcer.

Headache pills: Top 15 medicines

When choosing headache pills when your head hurts, you should pay attention to the best medicines. Before use, it is important to study the instructions for contraindications. Not all medicines can be combined with certain active substances. This should also be taken into account in advance. The most popular and effective head pills (names and dosages).


The main component of the drug is acetylsalicylic acid, the agent belongs to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Effective in primary and secondary headaches of various etiologies. To get rid of sensations, adults are recommended to take a single dose of 100 mg. The maximum daily dose is 300 mg. To minimize side effects, it is important to drink aspirin strictly after meals, as large amounts of water are required.


Combination drug based on paracetamol, caffeine and acetylsalicylic acid. Relieves pain in the head. as well as pain against the background of the inflammatory process. Increases the reflex excitability of the spinal cord and respiratory center. It has an analgesic and antipyretic effect. Used for migraine. Citramon is taken orally after meals with plenty of water. An adult is prescribed 1-2 tablets (240 + 30 + 180 mg) one-time or at intervals of 2 hours.


Non-steroidal drug indicated for headaches of various etiologies. It can be administered to both adults and children. The drug reduces the temperature and affects the cause of inflammation. To get rid of pain in the head, an adult is prescribed 1-2 tablets at a dosage of 500 mg per day with a minimum interval of 4 hours. The maximum dose is 0 1000 mg per day. I drink paracetamol strictly after meals with a glass of water.


Non-steroidal drug that inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins, leading to the development of an inflammatory process. Shown as a remedy for short-term etiology of pain, including headache. It is the drug of choice for migraine. Adults and children are recommended to take 200 mg (tablets) once or not more than 3-4 times a day. In consultation with a specialist, the daily dose may be increased. Drinking pills from the head is strictly after eating.


Broad-spectrum combination drug used as an analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory. The composition contains an analgesic and antispasmodic, which allows Spazgan to be recommended for various types of pain. In addition, the active substances increase each other’s effectiveness. The dosage regimen is determined specifically for each patient. The dosage is determined by the complexity of the condition and the diagnosis.

MIG 200

The active ingredient of the drug is ibuprofen. The tool is shown as an analgesic, used to relieve fever and inflammation. It is recommended for primary headache, as well as pain that arose against the background of articular pathologies, infectious lesions. To achieve the effect, the drug should be taken orally, without chewing, after a meal. For an adult, the dosage is 1-2 tablets at a time, if necessary, the reception is repeated after 4-6 hours. MIG 200 is allowed for children over 12 years old, the dosage of tablets from the head is similar to that of an adult.


The agent includes a complex of components aimed at relieving pain, spasm, lowering temperature, getting rid of the inflammatory process. Pentalgin is indicated as an emergency remedy for pain syndrome of various etiologies. Take 1-3 tablets, maximum three times a day, on a full stomach. The maximum amount is no more than 4 tablets per day. Long-term therapy with Pentalgin, as a rule, is not carried out, but is possible on prescription.


Ibuprofen-based product, available for adults and children (as a syrup). Nurofen is taken one-time, for a short time, without using the drug for therapy for a long period of time. Adults and children over 12 years of age are prescribed 1 tablet of 200 mg no more than 4 times a day. In cases of severe pain, it is permissible to increase the dosage for adults to 2 tablets three times a day. Children 6-12 years old are also prescribed a tablet no more than 4 times a day. It is important that the weight of the child exceeds 20 kilograms. A maximum of 24 hours for adults can take 6 tablets, for children 6-12 years old – 4 tablets. A young child is not allowed to give the drug.


Antispasmodic drug that relaxes muscles and is effective for tension headache and secondary pain syndrome. No-shpu take 1-3 tablets per day. The maximum amount of the drug for an adult for 24 hours is 240 mg. You can drink no more than 80 mg at a time. You should not drink No-shpu for more than 1-2 days in a row without discussing the appropriateness of treatment with a therapist.


Non-narcotic analgesic used as an urgent pharmacotherapy. It has a pronounced antipyretic effect. Next is prescribed to patients over 12 years of age. Adults take 1 tablet three times a day, but not more than 3 tablets in 24 hours. Children from 12 years of age are allowed on a tablet twice a day.


Relieves pain, stimulates cerebral circulation, relieves fever. It is positioned by the manufacturer as a remedy for migraine, but in fact it can be used for primary and secondary pain in the head of various types. To alleviate the condition, I drink a tablet every 4-6 hours. The dosage is relevant for adults and children from 15 years of age. When a migraine occurs, it is permissible to take 2 tablets of Excedrin at a time. It is forbidden to take more than 6 tablets of Excedrin.


NSAID based on acetic acid derivative. Does not depress breathing and does not cause drug dependence. It is used in the symptomatic treatment of various diseases, including relief of pain in the head. Keterol is taken as a single dose of 10 mg, which is equivalent to one tablet. It is prescribed after meals. Maximum per day you can drink 5 tablets, the course of treatment cannot exceed 5 days.


Used for relief of relieved pain. Not intended for long-term therapy. The dosage per day is 2-4 tablets. You can not be treated for more than two weeks.


Pain reliever with mild anti-inflammatory effect. Analgin is taken whole with a glass of water. A single dose is 1-1 tablets, but not more than 2 tablets. Relief occurs on average 30-60 minutes after ingestion.


Applicable for pain in the head associated with vascular pathologies and impaired cerebral circulation. Dosage ranges from 25 to 50 mg per day. If necessary, the reception is repeated no earlier than after 6 hours.

For noise in the head and ears, tablets are not used for a long time. The first priority is to identify and eliminate the cause of the pain syndrome.


Are all head pills effective for migraines?

Migraine is often difficult to tolerate by the patient. Regular episodes can affect performance and even deprive a person of a career. For mild manifestations, conventional remedies may be effective. However, if the head hurts badly, the doctor decides which pill to take. Perhaps we will talk about potent analgesics, including narcotic ones.

What side effects are possible after taking?

A list of side effects is given in the instructions for a specific drug. Most often it is pain in the gastrointestinal tract, dyspeptic disorders, erosive lesions of the gastric mucosa. Allergic reactions are possible, including anaphylactic shock or Quincke’s edema.

What to do if the pills do not help?

The tool may not have been selected correctly. So, an antispasmodic is needed for spasm, and for migraines, weak drugs are completely ineffective. However, it is worth excluding serious pathologies, and not trying to get rid of only the symptoms. This can aggravate the situation and cause a loss of time. You need to start with an examination of the brain, vessels of the head and neck.

What drugs are given to children?

Babies from three months old can be given children’s Nurofen. From the age of 6 they give Paracetamol or preparations based on it. After 12 years, most drugs are allowed. What pills from the head can be determined by the pediatrician. Children under 12 years of age are prohibited from Aspirin and other medicines based on acetylsalicylic acid. They provoke the development of Rein’s syndrome.


  1. Bryukhanov V.M., Zverev Ya.F., Lampatov V.V., Zharikov A.Yu., Talalaeva O.S. – Lectures on pharmacology
  2. Gaevyj M.D., Petrov V.I., Gaevaya L.M., Davydov V.S. – Pharmacology with prescription. Textbook. 5th edition
  3. Kovalenko V.N., Viktorov A.P. – Compendium. Medications
  4. Mashkovsky M.D. – Medicines. 16th edition
  5. Kharkevich D.A. – Pharmacology with general formulation
  6. Syropyatov B.Ya. – Directory of a doctor and a pharmacist
  7. Chuchalin A.