Bloated after flu: 11 Stomach Flu Symptoms, Contagious, Diet & Treatment
Influenza or Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis)?
Sometimes people mistake symptoms of stomach flu, or gastroenteritis, for the viral infection we commonly call “flu.” But they’re not the same.
Stomach flu happens when your stomach and intestines (also called the gastrointestinal or GI tract) are inflamed and irritated. Causes range from bacteria, viruses, and parasites to food reactions and unclean water.
The flu comes with symptoms like fever, congestion, muscle aches, and fatigue. The cause is the influenza virus. More severe cases can lead to life-threatening illnesses like pneumonia.
Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat bacterial gastroenteritis, but they don’t work against flu viruses.
What Are the Symptoms of Stomach Flu?
They can include:
In severe cases, days of throwing up and having diarrhea (or both) can cause your body to lose a lot of fluid. If you lose too much, you may need medical attention. Sometimes it can be life threatening. Signs to watch for include:
- Sunken eyes
- Being more thirsty
- Dry or sticky mouth
- Lack of normal elasticity of the skin
- Peeing less
- Fewer tears
You can avoid it by drinking plenty of liquids. When you can keep food down again, try bland things like toast, rice, bananas, and applesauce first. Go back to a normal diet within 24 hours if you can.
What Causes It?
Many things cause gastroenteritis, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and poor hygiene.
Bacteria that cause gastroenteritis include:
Viruses cause close to half of all gastroenteritis cases in adults and even more in children. Some of them may include:
Stomach viruses spread fast because people don’t wash their hands well after using the bathroom or changing a baby’s diaper. Wash long enough to sing “Happy Birthday” twice. Many doctors call stomach flu “a family affair” because it’s so highly contagious it can affect every member of a family.
While they’re not as common, parasites like giardia, cryptosporidium, and E. hystolytica (the cause of dysentery) can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. They’re often found in parts of the world where the water isn’t clean. Travelers should drink bottled water to avoid them.
Other causes of gastroenteritis include eating contaminated foods, chemical toxins, and drugs.
Who’s Most Likely to Get It?
Those high on the list are pregnant women, infants, people who aren’t eating well, people whose immune systems are weakened, and older adults.
How severe your case is depends on how well your body can resist the infection.
When Should You Call the Doctor?
If you have symptoms of stomach flu and are weak and dizzy, you may be dehydrated. Call your doctor if you have these symptoms.
- Blood in your vomit or poop
- Dehydration — you can’t pee, or there’s very little when you do go, you’re very thirsty, can’t make tears, and your mouth is always dry
- Fever of 100. 4 degrees F or higher in an infant or 102.2 degrees F or higher in an older child or adult
- Swollen tummy or pain in the right lower part of the belly
- Vomiting that lasts more than 48 hours
If you can’t keep fluids down and you’re losing them from fever, vomiting, and diarrhea, get emergency medical help.
Are the effects of your stomach bug still lingering?
How do stomach bugs come about in the first place?
Although you may not be caring, as all you want to focus on is getting better and forgetting about the ridiculous amount of time you spent in the bathroom, there are a number of different bugs that could have made you ill.
Firstly, there are viral infections, such as norovirus. Commonly known as the ‘winter vomiting bug,’ norovirus is contagious and pretty common in both children and adults alike. Then, there are the bacterial infections to be aware of too. Common strains include salmonella, campylobacter or e coli. Although some strains occur naturally in our digestive tract already, some of the most harmful strains can be spread from animals or faeces (lovely), to us through food or infected surfaces and make us quite ill.
What effects do bugs have on your system?
Initially – diarrhoea galore!
When it comes to most infections, whether they are viral or bacterial in nature, the first few days are often the worst and we can be left feeling quite poorly. You may suffer from vomiting, diarrhoea or both, alongside some other common symptoms including fever or headaches.
Depending on the type of bug, symptoms may only last for 24 hours. You may be lucky enough and symptoms may pass as quickly as they came on. In other cases, the infection may be slightly more stubborn and symptoms may trouble you for up to a week or two before they eventually start to dissipate.
Sometime after – you may still be suffering from the effects!
Although on average, stomach bug symptoms tend to last for 2-5 days, what your doctor may not be telling you is that the effects of infections may be much longer lived than we might have expected. Let me explain in more detail, why this might be the case:
They could have an effect on stomach acid levels
Again, this depends on the type of infection and the underlying cause, but it’s possible that some types of bacterial infections could have an adverse effect on our stomach acid.
As much as stomach acid often gets a bad rap, we really need sufficient levels, especially when it comes to bad bacteria! These bacteria are smart little critters, they know this and they can have an influence on their local environment in order to help improve their chances of survival.
Take H. Pylori, for example. Firstly, once they’ve successfully infected you, they can burrow deep into the lining of your stomach where they lie protected by a neutral mucous layer which acts as a prefect shield against the harsh, acidic environment of your stomach. Now as is clear from this, the bacteria don’t tend to like the acidic contents of your stomach very much, and worryingly over time, they may have the ability to influence the levels of your secretions to better support their own existence.
Long-term, these infections can potentially reduce stomach secretions, which as we’re gradually learning can give rise to a whole host of everyday symptoms including acid reflux or heartburn, and in the long-term, may make you more vulnerable to subsequent infections and even affect your nutrient status.
They can have negative effects on the balance of bacteria in your gut
Naturally, we have billions of bacteria lining our digestive tract and believe it or not, we have both good and bad types that reside there – and that’s ok. What’s important is the balance in which they exist.
If our good bacteria are on the low side (and this won’t be helped by other contributing factors such as weak stomach acid), then the bad bacteria can more easily become established and start to exert their unfavourable effects. Infections will initially create an influx of bad bacteria, but over time, our stomach acid, good bacteria and immune cells should be working hard to get things back under control. So, although the acute symptoms may initially disappear, the fear is that our balance of gut bacteria doesn’t quite recover longer-term and milder symptoms may still trouble us such as a lack of appetite, nausea, acid reflux, bloating, or altered bowel habits.
Follow my advice to get you back on track
Initially, especially if you’re quite ill, we’d recommend you go to your doctor for a check up. In some cases, especially if it’s a viral infection that’s at play, your GP will advise that you rest up, keep properly hydrated and let it run its course. If a bacterial infection is at the root of the cause instead, they may prescribe you a course of antibiotics to help get things under control.
Although antibiotics may be helpful in some cases, they can have unfavourable effects on your good bacteria too, especially if they are taken consistently over some time.
So what can be done to help? If you’ve followed the doctor’s order but still don’t quite feel yourself and suspect something might still be amiss, here’s some steps I’d advise taking:
1 – Manage your diet
Firstly, proper hydration is essential at any stage of having an infection. Initially, if you’re vomiting, experiencing diarrhoea or suffering from a fever you definitely need to be taking in sufficient fluids. A sachet of Balance Mineral Drink may also be an added bonus, especially at this stage, to help replace any lost electrolytes and minerals.
But actually, even after you assume you’ve sufficiently recovered, drinking enough water daily is super important. Water helps to support the movement of waste through your digestive tract (slow moving waste is a prime target for bad bacteria to fester on), and it helps keep your urinary tract flushing through too.
In terms of diet, at the time of the infection you might not be feeling very up to food. In order to keep your energy levels up though, read more on our blog for ‘what to eat if you have a stomach bug’.
After the majority of your symptoms have passed, it’s still important to support a longer, less obvious, recovery process. Processed foods should be avoided as generally they are packed full of hidden sugars, fats and chemicals; none of which will be doing you much good. Sugar is only likely to feed the bad bacteria further and heavy fats or chemical-laden processed nasties will only put pressure on your liver, which we need to be in tip top condition during recovery from an infection.
2 – Support your stomach
It’s well known that we need good levels of stomach acid to help fend off bad bacteria. Whether it’s because you had weaker stomach secretions to start with (our stomach acid secretions deplete as we get older and also in times of stress), or you suspect the infection itself has made things worse (ever have that heavy feeling and feel your stomach isn’t emptying properly), then perhaps now’s the time to be supporting your stomach sufficiently.
The best way to do this? Digestive bitters are often the answer. Digestisan contains a helpful blend of artichoke, dandelion, boldo and peppermint. This creates a perfectly bitter, but also liver-supporting blend. Take 15-20 drops, in a small splash of water, 5-10 minutes before meals, 3 times. This, of course, should taste very bitter which is exactly what we want to introduce!
3 – Support your immune system
When any infections are at play, whether it’s affecting your digestive system or your respiratory tract, for example, your immune system needs to be in top tip condition to help fend it off. Did you know that up to 80% of your immune cells are thought to lie in your gut? Therefore, in theory, your immune system should be doing a pretty good job at detecting any pathogens that encroach on our digestive system, but in reality, if your immune system isn’t quite as fighting fit as we like, bugs can slip through the net and you can end up suffering at the hands of them.
To help give your immune system some extra support, an extract of echinacea in Echinaforce can do just the trick. Although it’s licensed for the symptomatic relief of infections, it has been traditionally used over lengthier periods of time to help support recovery.
4 – Balance your bacteria
Finally, if your balance of bacteria has been disrupted at the hands of an infection, it makes sense to work towards correcting this again.
Alongside supporting your stomach with some herbal bitters, my advice is to take a dose of a prebiotic such as Molkosan, once daily during the recovery phase. This is rich in L+ lactic acid which helps support the internal environment of the gut, working to create the correct pH which your good bacteria will love and any bad bacteria will struggle to survive in.
Then, finally, on top of this, the final step is to introduce a probiotic. Especially if antibiotics have been used throughout your treatment, a course of probiotics is advised to help get you back to your old self again.
If you’re really struggling…
If things still haven’t returned to normal despite your best efforts it’s time to return to your doctor so they can investigate this further. Stool tests may be required to help determine exactly which pathogens may be causing you trouble.
7 Ways To Tell If Your Bloating Is A Sign Of A Larger Health Issue
We all get bloated from time to time, and although it can be a nuisance, most of the time, it’s pretty harmless. However, severe and frequent bloating can be a warning sign, so you want to make sure you know how to tell if your bloating is a sign of a bigger health issue. Usually bloating is just a minor digestive issue or an indicator that you had too much salty food, but sometimes, bloating can be a symptom of a much more serious disease.
Bloating generally happens as a result of issues like water retention or intestinal gas, but hormonal and dietary changes can cause bloating as well. “Bloating in these conditions is common, but nothing to worry about if they are related to dietary choices or hormonal alterations,” Dr. Nancy Steely, ND, MBA, Arbonne Senior Director of R&D/Quality, Nutrition. “There are a few instances, however, in which frequent bloating can be a sign of a potentially more chronic or serious condition.”
There’s no need to panic every time you get bloated, but if you do experience bloating frequently and it’s paired with other warning signs, you’ll want to make sure you see a doctor. Here are seven ways to tell if your bloating is a sign of a bigger health issue, according to experts.
You’re Experiencing Other Chronic Symptoms
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
If you’re experiencing just bloating by itself, it’s probably no big deal, but if it consistently comes along with a slew of others symptoms, you’ll want to get checked out. “I recommend tracking your symptoms, including bloating, for a few weeks and then making an appointment with your doctor,” gut-health expert Robyn Youkilis tells Bustle. “The more information you have, the better able your doctor or other health care professional will be able to help you get to the root of your issue.”
You Often Feel Sick
“If your bloated stomach occurs simultaneously with other flu-like symptoms (a fever, swollen lymph nodes, etc), you may have an infection and should talk to your doctor if your symptoms do not improve within a week,” says Youkilis. A severely bloated stomach that is also accompanied by nausea and vomiting should also not be ignored.
You’re Experiencing Changes In Weight
Bloating accompanied by significant weight loss or weight gain should not be ignored. “If your weight has changed rapidly, this may be an indication that something is off hormonally or otherwise,” says Youkilis.
You’re Experiencing Brain Fog
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
Brain fog accompanied with digestive discomfort and bloating indicates that something is off with the gut-brain connection; this can include cloudy thinking, feeling easily confused, poor memory, or just feeling like you are functioning in a fog, says Dr. Frank Lipman, author of How to Be Well and founder of Be Well. “It is amazing to see how many people are relieved of brain fog by removing certain inflammatory foods from their diet and supporting the health of their gut,” he says.
You Have Skin Irritation
“The skin is a window into our internal body, and therefore, when our skin is showing signs of inflammation or irritation, it often indicates that there is some kind of systemic inflammation and/or irritation happening internally,” says Lipman. This can include acne, rosacea, eczema, hives, and/or overly sensitive skin.
You’re Always Fatigued
If you’re chronically fatigued and bloated, this can be a problem. “If your gut isn’t properly functioning, you might not be absorbing the nutrients you need from your food, which could be making you feel tired all of the time,” Dr. Mark Hyman, Director of the Cleveland Clinic Center for Functional Medicine, and author of the soon to be released FOOD: What the Heck Should I Eat?, tells Bustle.
You Have Pain In The Abdominal Area
Andrew Zaeh for Bustle
Persistent pain or pressure in the pelvic or abdominal area accompanied by bloating can possibly indicate ovarian cancer, according to Sherry Ross, MD, OB/GYN and Women’s Health Expert at Providence Saint John’s Health Center. This also might be paired with vaginal bleeding.
Bloating by itself is usually harmless and normal, but when in doubt, make an appointment with your doctor if you suspect greater health issues.
Viral Gastroenteritis | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is viral gastroenteritis?
gastroenteritis is an inflammation, swelling, and irritation of the inside lining
your gastrointestinal tract. A virus causes this illness. It can infect your stomach,
small intestine, and large intestine.
Viral gastroenteritis is very common. In most cases, it lasts only a few days and
doesn’t require treatment. The biggest danger is dehydration from loss of fluid due
to diarrhea and vomiting.
What causes viral gastroenteritis?
Several viruses can cause gastroenteritis. Viruses can be found in the vomit and the
diarrhea of infected people. It can live for a long time outside the body. People
who are infected can spread the virus to objects they touch, especially if they don’t
wash their hands after using the bathroom. Food workers with the infection can spread
it to others through food and beverages. Sewage that gets into the water supply can
also spread the illness. Although viral gastroenteritis is sometimes called “stomach
flu,” the seasonal influenza (flu) virus does not cause it.
Some of the common viruses that cause gastroenteritis include:
Rotavirus. This virus most commonly infects infants age 3 to 15 months. The illness lasts for
3 to 7 days and is most common in fall and winter.
responsible for outbreaks on cruise ships. Symptoms last from 1 to 3 days and can
occur any time of the year.
last from 5 to 12 days.
Many other viruses can also cause viral gastroenteritis.
What are the symptoms of viral gastroenteritis?
Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis usually begin about 1 to 2 days after the virus
gets into the body.
Common symptoms include:
- Watery diarrhea
Other possible symptoms are:
Signs of dehydration:
- Decreased urine output
- Dark-colored urine
- Dry skin
Signs of dehydration in young children:
- Dry diapers (from a lack of urination)
- Lack of tears
- Dry mouth
- Sunken fontanel (the soft spot on the top of an infant’s head)
How is viral gastroenteritis diagnosed?
Your healthcare provider will most likely diagnose your condition based on your history
and symptoms. You will rarely need testing. If your symptoms persist, your healthcare
provider may ask for a stool sample to look for viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
Can viral gastroenteritis be prevented?
Vaccines are available to protect children from rotavirus. Healthcare providers give
shots to babies before age 6 months. You and your children can help prevent viral
gastroenteritis by taking these steps:
- Wash hands for 20 seconds with soap and water after going to the bathroom, after changing
a diaper, and before touching any food.
- Use alcohol-based sanitizers.
- If someone in the house has gastroenteritis, wash all surfaces that might be contaminated
with a bleach-based cleaner.
eat or drink any food or water with warnings of contamination.
How is viral gastroenteritis treated?
Specific treatment is usually not needed. In most cases, you simply need to drink
plenty of fluids and rest at home until the virus leaves your system. In rare cases,
may need treatment for severe dehydration with IV (intravenous) fluids.
Helpful home care tips include:
- Drink plenty of light fluids like water, ice chips, fruit juice, and broth. Keep in
mind that sports drinks are high in sugar and are not appropriate if you are extremely
dehydrated. In this case, you will need an oral rehydration solution.
have drinks that contain milk, caffeine, or alcohol.
- Once you feel hungry again, start with mild, easy to digest foods.
- Rehydrate children with oral rehydration solutions.
- You may
take antidiarrheal medicines for a couple days. But don’t take these if you have a
fever or bloody stool. Don’t take them if you are an elderly adult. Don’t give these
to a child.
When should I call my healthcare provider?
Viral gastroenteritis is common in children and adults. In most cases, the disease
is not serious and will run its course in a few days. Call your healthcare provider
if you or a family member has vomiting or diarrhea that’s not getting better, if you
see blood or tar-like stool, or if you have any signs of dehydration.
Key points about viral
- Viral gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the inside lining of your gastrointestinal
- It can
be caused by rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and other viruses.
- Babies can be vaccinated against rotavirus.
- Symptoms of viral gastroenteritis are nausea, vomiting, and watery diarrhea.
- Dehydration is the most serious complication of this illness.
illness should run its course in a few days. But it may need medical attention if
diarrhea or vomiting persists or if there are signs of dehydration.
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and remember what your provider
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis and any new
medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it
will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have the test or
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have questions.
Medical Reviewer: Jen Lehrer MD
Medical Reviewer: Ronald Karlin MD
Medical Reviewer: Raymond Kent Turley BSN MSN RN
© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
Not what you’re looking for?
Intestinal Flu: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment
Intestinal flu is a viral infection of the gastrointestinal tract. The medical name is viral gastroenteritis, and other common names include stomach flu, or a 24-hour or 48-hour “bug.” It is the second most common illness affecting American families. Intestinal flu involves irritation and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is not actually a form of flu or influenza.
The hallmark symptoms of intestinal flu are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Similar gastrointestinal symptoms involved with intestinal flu can also result from a variety of other conditions, such as bacterial food poisoning, alcohol intoxication, and irritable bowel syndrome. Intestinal flu is often mistaken for these other conditions and vice versa.
Symptoms of true intestinal flu or viral gastroenteritis often subside within 24 to 48 hours if you refrain from eating solid foods and get plenty of fluids. If intestinal flu causes serious dehydration, hospitalization and rehydration with intravenous fluids may be necessary.
Intestinal flu is quite common and extremely contagious. It can occur in any age group or population. It tends to affect infants, children, the elderly, and people with compromised immune systems more seriously than healthy adults.
Intestinal flu can lead to serious complications, such as dehydration.
Seek prompt medical care if you have a chronic illness, a compromised immune system, or symptoms of intestinal flu that do not improve after a day or two. Contact your physician or health care provider right away if your newborn baby has symptoms of intestinal flu.
Seek immediate medical care (call 911) if you, your child, or someone you are with, have symptoms of intestinal flu accompanied by lethargy, change in alertness, inability to produce tears, major rectal bleeding, or lack of urination.
Norovirus – Chapter 4 – 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers’ Health
Cristina V. Cardemil, Aron J. Hall
Norovirus infection is caused by nonenveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses of the genus Norovirus, which have also been referred to as “Norwalk-like viruses,” Norwalk viruses, and small round-structured viruses. Norovirus is a cause of viral gastroenteritis, sometimes referred to as “stomach flu”; however, there is no biologic association with influenza or influenza viruses.
Transmission occurs primarily through the fecal–oral route, either through direct person-to-person contact or indirectly via contaminated food or water. Norovirus is also spread through aerosols of vomitus and contaminated environmental surfaces and objects.
Norovirus infections are common throughout the world, and globally most children will have experienced ≥1 infection by the age of 5 years. Norovirus infections can occur year-round, but in temperate climates, norovirus activity peaks during the winter. Noroviruses are common in both developing and developed countries. Globally, norovirus is estimated to cause 18% of acute gastroenteritis cases and may be responsible for approximately 200,000 deaths annually. In the United States, norovirus is the leading cause of medically attended gastroenteritis in young children and of outbreaks of gastroenteritis; it is estimated to cause 19–21 million illnesses a year and approximately 50% of all foodborne disease outbreaks.
Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur in settings where people live in close quarters and can easily infect each other. Although most norovirus outbreaks occur in health care, school, and food-service settings, outbreaks also occur on cruise ships, and in hotels, camps, and dormitories. Norovirus is a well-known cause of travelers’ diarrhea; prevalence in some settings is known to be greater than in others. Because coinfection and asymptomatic infection with norovirus are common, additional controlled studies are needed to determine exactly how frequently norovirus is the cause of disease.
Risk for infection is present anywhere food is prepared in an unsanitary manner and may become contaminated or where drinking water is inadequately treated. Of particular risk are “ready-to-eat” cold foods, such as sandwiches and salads. Raw shellfish, especially oysters, are also a frequent source of infection, because virus from contaminated water concentrates in the gut of these filter feeders. Contaminated ice has also been implicated in outbreaks.
Viral contamination of inanimate objects or environmental surfaces (fomites) may persist during and after outbreaks and be a source of infection. On cruise ships, for instance, environmental contamination has caused recurrent norovirus outbreaks on successive cruises with newly boarded passengers. Transmission of norovirus on airplanes has been reported during both domestic and international flights and likely results from contamination of lavatories or from symptomatic passengers in the cabin.
Infected people usually have an acute onset of vomiting with nonbloody diarrhea. The incubation period is 12–48 hours. Other symptoms include abdominal cramps, nausea, and sometimes a low-grade fever. Illness is generally self-limited, and full recovery can be expected in 1–3 days for most patients. In some cases, dehydration, especially in patients who are very young or elderly, may require medical attention.
Norovirus infection is generally diagnosed based on symptoms. Norovirus diagnostic testing is not widely performed to guide clinical management of individual patients, but laboratory testing is used during outbreak investigations by public health agencies.
PCR-based multipathogen diagnostic panels are increasingly available for clinical and research purposes; these panels have good sensitivity and specificity to detect norovirus. The most common diagnostic test used at state public health laboratories and CDC is RT-PCR, which rapidly and reliably detects the virus in stool specimens. Several commercial enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) are also available to detect the virus in stool specimens. The specificity and sensitivity of EIAs are relatively poor compared with RT-PCR. For more information on laboratory diagnostic testing and specimen collection, see www.cdc.gov/norovirus/lab-testing/index.html.
Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment of norovirus disease, especially oral or intravenous rehydration. For routine management of acute gastroenteritis in children, antidiarrheals and antiemetics are not recommended because high-quality evidence for efficacy and their potential toxicity is lacking. For adults, antimotility, antisecretory, and antiemetic agents may be useful adjuncts to rehydration. Antibiotics are not useful in treating patients with norovirus disease.
No vaccine is currently available, although vaccine development efforts are advancing. Noroviruses are common and highly contagious, but the risk for infection can be minimized by frequent and proper handwashing and avoiding possibly contaminated food and water. Washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is considered the most effective way to reduce norovirus contamination; alcohol-based hand sanitizers might be useful between handwashings but should not be considered a substitute for soap and water.
In addition to handwashing, measures to prevent transmission of noroviruses between people traveling together include carefully cleaning up fecal material or vomit and disinfecting contaminated surfaces and toilet areas. Products should be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for norovirus disinfection; alternatively, a dilute bleach solution (5–25 tablespoons bleach per gallon of water) may be used. Soiled articles of clothing should be washed at the maximum available cycle length and machine-dried at high heat.
To help prevent the spread of noroviruses, isolation may be considered for ill people on cruise ships and in institutional settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and schools.
CDC website: www.cdc.gov/norovirus
- Ahmed SM, Hall AJ, Robinson AE et al. Global prevalence of norovirus in cases of gastroenteritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(8):725–30.
- Ajami NJ, Kavanagh OV, Ramani S, Crawford SE, Atmar RL, Jiang ZD, et al. Seroepidemiology of norovirus-associated travelers’ diarrhea. J Travel Med. 2014 Jan–Feb;21(1):6–11.
- Aliabadi N, Lopman BA, Parashar UD, Hall AJ. Progress toward norovirus vaccines: considerations for further development and implementation in potential target populations. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015;14(9):1241–53.
- Cardemil CV, Parashar UD, Hall AJ. Norovirus Infection in older adults: epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention and control. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2017 Dec;31(4):839–70.
- Hall AJ, Lopman BA, Payne DC, Patel MM, Gastañaduy PA, Vinje J, et al. Norovirus disease in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013 Aug;19(8):1198–205.
- Hall AJ, Wikswo ME, Pringle K, Gould LH, Parashar UD. Vital signs: foodborne norovirus outbreaks—United States, 2009–2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Jun 6;63(22):491–5.
- Kirk MD, Pires SM, Black RE et al. World Health Organization estimates of the global and regional disease burden of 22 foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases, 2010: a data synthesis. PLoS Med. 2015;12(12):e1001921.
- Simons MP, Pike BL, Hulseberg CE, Prouty MG, Swierczewski BE. Norovirus: new developments and implications for travelers’ diarrhea. Trop Dis Travel Med Vaccines. 2016 Jan 12;2:1.
Laxative (Oral Route) Precautions – Mayo Clinic
Drug information provided by: IBM Micromedex
Do not take any type of laxative:
if you have signs of appendicitis or inflamed bowel (such as stomach or lower abdominal pain, cramping, bloating, soreness, nausea, or vomiting). Instead, check with your doctor as soon as possible.
for more than 1 week unless your doctor has prescribed or ordered a special schedule for you. This is true even when you have had no results from the laxative.
within 2 hours of taking other medicine because the desired effect of the other medicine may be reduced.
if you do not need it, as for the common cold, “to clean out your system” or as a “tonic to make you feel better.”
if you miss a bowel movement for a day or two.
if you develop a skin rash
while taking a laxative or if you had a rash the last time you took it. Instead, check with your doctor.
If you notice a sudden change in bowel habits or function that lasts longer than 2 weeks, or that keeps returning off and on, check with your doctor before using a laxative. This will allow the cause of your problem to be determined before it may become more serious.
The “laxative habit”—Laxative products are overused by many people. Such a practice often leads to dependence on the laxative action to produce a bowel movement. In severe cases, overuse of some laxatives has caused damage to the nerves, muscles, and tissues of the intestines and bowel. If you have any questions about the use of laxatives, check with your health care professional.
Many laxatives often contain large amounts of sugars, carbohydrates, and sodium. If you are on a low-sugar, low-caloric, or low-sodium diet, check with your health care professional before using a laxative.
For patients taking laxatives containing mineral oil:
Mineral oil should not be taken often or for long periods of time because:
gradual build-up in body tissues may create additional problems.
the use of mineral oil may interfere with the body’s ability to absorb certain food nutrients and vitamins A, D, E, and K.
Large doses of mineral oil may cause some leakage from the rectum. The use of absorbent pads or a decrease in dose may be necessary to prevent the soiling of clothing.
Do not take mineral oil within 2 hours of a stool softener (emollient laxative). The stool softener may increase the amount of mineral oil absorbed.
For patients taking laxatives containing a stimulant ingredient:
Stimulant laxatives are most often associated with:
overuse and the laxative habit.
intestinal cramping after dosing (especially if taken on an empty stomach).
Portions of this document last updated: Aug. 01, 2021
Copyright © 2021 IBM Watson Health. All rights reserved. Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.
90,000 🧬 Pancreatitis: causes, symptoms and treatment
In Russia, pancreatitis is one of the most popular diagnoses. It is customary to explain to them almost any pain in the abdomen, and often it is “diagnosed” by ultrasound of the pancreas in a person without any symptoms. We understand the intricacies of the disease together with Ph.D., GMS Clinic gastroenterologist Alexei Golovenko.
What is pancreatitis
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.This organ secretes enzymes into the duodenum (just behind the stomach) that help food to be digested: for example, amylase (to break down carbohydrates) and lipase (to break down fats). With severe inflammation of the pancreas – acute pancreatitis – its cells are destroyed and enzymes enter the blood. Therefore, for any severe abdominal pain, doctors determine the level of amylase in the blood.
Acute pancreatitis is a painful and very dangerous disease. Its symptoms are almost impossible to endure “on the legs”: it is the strongest persistent pain under the spoon and under the left rib, which often radiates to the back (the so-called girdle pain occurs).A person with acute pancreatitis often even takes a special position on the bed – lying on his left side, so as not to increase the pain by the movements of the ribs when breathing. Most people with acute pancreatitis experience severe nausea and vomiting, any meal increases pain: after all, the pancreas begins to secrete enzymes when eating, and this increases blood flow, and therefore pain. Many people have a rise in body temperature.
Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is not so much for gastroenterologists as for surgeons, since the intensity of pain can be the same as in appendicitis and other “surgical” pathology.
How acute pancreatitis occurs
About 70% of all cases of acute pancreatitis are due to either alcohol poisoning or gallstone disease. Excessive alcohol consumption (even without a history of alcoholism) causes inflammation of the pancreas. For the same reason, people who systematically abuse alcohol have every chance not only to end up in the hospital with severe acute pancreatitis, but also to experience pain attacks for many years.A gallbladder stone can also cause pancreatitis: the duct that carries bile from the bladder into the duodenum merges with the pancreatic duct. Such a situation – biliary pancreatitis – requires emergency intervention, for example, to dissect the large duodenal papilla: this is the place where the ducts enter the intestine.
Acute pancreatitis can also cause toxic effects of certain medications, trauma to the gland during surgery, or high blood fat levels.It is extremely rare and, as a rule, in the presence of other similar diseases, the pancreas becomes inflamed due to the excessive action of the immune system on it.
Whatever the cause of the onset of the disease, acute pancreatitis is always accompanied by abdominal pain. It is not worth assuming this diagnosis if you feel unwell from a medicine or some product.
Sorted out with acute pancreatitis. What about chronic?
If the toxic effect on the pancreas does not stop (for example, the person continues to abuse alcohol) or the organ was very badly damaged during the first (acute) episode of pancreatitis, the pain recurs again and again.
With exacerbations of chronic pancreatitis, blood tests may remain normal. But over time, external signs may appear, which doctors find by examining the pancreas using ultrasound (ultrasound), X-rays (CT, or computed tomography) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This is the narrowing of the pancreatic ducts, the appearance of seals in it – calcifications, as well as the appearance of cysts – bubbles with fluid in place of the dead tissue.Examination for suspected chronic pancreatitis is carried out with another important goal – not to miss pancreatic cancer, which may initially be accompanied by the same symptoms.
With a constantly renewed inflammation of the pancreas, over time, its function is disrupted – the secretion of enzymes that digest food. As a result, a person is worried about constant bloating, diarrhea, and the stool becomes greasy (for example, it is poorly flushed from the toilet). This condition – exocrine insufficiency – is most conveniently detected by determining the content of pancreatic elastase (pancreatic enzyme) in the stool.
How to treat chronic pancreatitis
In general, the point of treatment for chronic pancreatitis is to eliminate pain. To do this, use anti-inflammatory drugs, such as paracetamol. Enzymes are often prescribed for people with chronic pancreatitis. Alas, this does not always relieve pain. Previously, it was assumed that adding enzymes to food would reduce the load on the pancreas – it would not have to secrete its own enzymes. In fact, everything is not so simple: the secretory (excretory) activity of the gland depends entirely on other substances – hormones, for example, secretin.Their products are more influenced by the fat content of food and the regularity of its intake than the content of enzymes-drugs in the intestine. Nevertheless, enzymes in chronic pancreatitis must be prescribed (often for life) if there are signs of poor secretion of their own enzymes (bloating, loose stools). Enzymes are always drunk directly with food: “between the spoons.” For the same reason, it is illiterate to prescribe the intake of enzymes “so many times a day.” It is more correct to warn a person with a disease that the drug should be carried with you and taken with any food intake.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis facilitates the course of the disease, although it is difficult to accurately determine the list of possible foods the first time. It is definitely impossible to consume except alcohol, however, traditionally it is recommended to eat less fatty foods and snack more often, giving preference to slow carbohydrates – fruits and vegetables. Cooking exclusively with steam is not the most proven way to alleviate the course of pancreatitis, it is much more important not to overuse very spicy foods.Roughly speaking, from a chicken cutlet, even if fried without abundant addition of seasonings, most likely there will be no harm.
The main thing in the treatment of chronic pancreatitis is to remove the cause of the disease.
If a person suffers from alcoholism or smokes, refer him to a narcologist (smoking in itself does not cause pancreatitis, but increases the frequency of exacerbations). If pancreatitis is due to gallstones, remove the bladder. If the metabolism of fats is disturbed in the body, consult a cardiologist and choose a treatment with drugs that reduce the level of lipoproteins and triglycerides, choose a diet.
Most of my acquaintances have been diagnosed with pancreatitis, but they do not drink alcohol and have never been admitted to the hospital with severe pain. What’s wrong?
Most likely, like many other Russians, the diagnosis of pancreatitis in such a situation was made solely based on the results of an ultrasound scan. A competent specialist in ultrasound diagnostics will not diagnose a therapist, gastroenterologist or surgeon. He will only describe the changes and invite a colleague to interpret the changes in the pancreas himself.Often, the so-called diffuse changes in the pancreas become a reason to diagnose pancreatitis in a person without any symptoms at all. It is not right.
It is possible to reliably judge pancreatitis with ultrasound, strictly speaking, only by detecting obvious complications of the disease – narrowing and widening of the duct, calcifications, cysts.
Yes, and the ultrasound method, like any diagnostic method, the possibilities are not limitless. In true pancreatitis, magnetic resonance imaging or endoscopic cholangiopancreatography is preferred.With these methods, a very accurate image of the pancreatic ducts is obtained.
Diffuse changes in the pancreas most often turn out to be a rather harmless accumulation of adipose tissue in the gland. In the absence of the typical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis – exhausting pain after eating in a person who has already suffered from acute pancreatitis, such an ultrasound picture should only become an occasion to check cholesterol and, perhaps, more actively fight overweight.In addition, very often the most common diseases in gastroenterology – functional disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome – are mistaken for chronic pancreatitis. This is a harmless, but very unpleasant disease in which the intestine becomes too sensitive to gas and food stretching, reacting with spasms (colic). Very often, this functional pain (that is, pain not associated with inflammation or swelling) occurs in people who are under constant stress. Therefore, the treatment of functional pain is not only taking antispasmodic drugs and other gastroenterological drugs, but also working with a psychoemotional state: cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, increasing physical activity and even yoga.
Not every abdominal pain is pancreatitis. And it pleases.
90,000 Pneumonia in children: symptoms, treatment, prevention
Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) is a serious infectious disease that affects people of all ages. And children are no exception.Recently, there has been an increase in the number of acute infectious diseases of the respiratory system, and pneumonia is the most dangerous of them. Therefore, parents should understand what it is – pneumonia, how to recognize this disease, and what to do if a child develops it.
The danger of the disease is associated with the important role played by the lungs in the human body. After all, the lungs perform the function of delivering oxygen to the tissues of the body and, therefore, damage to such an important organ can have serious consequences.
Oxygen is supplied to the lungs from the upper respiratory tract during inhalation. In the special vesicles of the lungs – the alveoli, the process of enriching the blood with oxygen takes place. At the same time, carbon dioxide enters the alveoli from the blood, which is thrown out during exhalation. The inner surface of the lungs has a mucous membrane, the purpose of which is to protect the lungs from negative external influences.
Each lung consists of 10 segments, which are grouped into lobes – there are three in the right lung and two in the left.With pneumonia, the infectious process affects the internal structures of the lungs, which greatly complicates the process of breathing and gas exchange. And this can affect other organs, especially the heart.
Gas exchange by no means exhausts the functions of the lungs in the body. They also participate in the following processes:
- body temperature regulation,
- filtration of harmful substances,
- regulation of the amount of liquids and salts,
- blood cleansing,
- synthesis and neutralization of proteins and fats.
With infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, poisoning, injuries and burns, the load on the lungs increases many times, and they may not be able to cope with the elimination of toxins from the body. This can provoke an infectious process in the lungs.
Varieties of pneumonia
Unlike other respiratory diseases, the proportion of cases with a purely viral etiology is small. In about 80% of cases, we are talking about the defeat of the lungs by various strains of bacteria.In childhood, the bulk of pneumonia diseases are associated with three types of bacteria – pneumococcus, mycoplasma and pulmonary chlamydia. However, bacteria of other types can also become a source of disease.
These include staphylococci, streptococci, Klebsiella, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and some others. Much less often the lungs suffer from the effects of pathogenic fungi, even less often pneumonia caused by helminths can be observed.
Pathogens are also unevenly distributed by age groups. Pneumonia in infants and toddlers is most commonly caused by pneumococci. At primary school age, children are more likely to suffer from mycoplasma pneumonia. Teenagers most often get pneumonia caused by chlamydia.
According to the size and shape of the area of inflammation, pneumonia is divided into:
With focal pneumonia, there are only separate foci of inflammation about 1 cm in size, and with drainage, these foci merge together. In segmental pneumonia, one of the segments of the lungs is affected. With a croupous type of pneumonia, the entire lobe is covered by the pathological process.
With bronchopneumonia, not only the lung tissue is affected, but also the mucous membrane of the bronchi. Usually bronchopneumonia is a consequence of bronchitis.
Purely viral pneumonia is less common.The causative agents of this form of the disease can be influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses. Bilateral pneumonia is most often caused by pneumococci and Haemophilus influenzae. Atypical pneumonia in a child is most often caused by mycoplasmas and chlamydia. This type of pneumonia can last longer and is difficult to treat with antibiotics.
Hospital pneumonia is most often caused by staphylococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella.
Features of pneumonia in childhood
Left-sided pneumonia in a child is often more severe than right-sided.This is due to the fact that the lungs have an asymmetric structure, and on the left side the airways are narrower than on the right. This circumstance makes it difficult to remove mucus and contributes to the establishment of the infection.
It is well known that children are more prone to pneumonia than adults. There are several reasons for this fact. First of all, young children have rather weak immunity compared to adults. And the second reason is that the respiratory organs in a child are not as developed as in an adult.In addition, the narrowness of the airways in children causes stagnation of mucus in them and makes it difficult to remove it.
Also, in infants, breathing is usually carried out with the help of movements of the diaphragm, which are influenced by the state of the gastrointestinal tract. Disruption of his work, expressed, for example, in bloating, immediately affects the lungs – congestion occurs in them, leading to an increase in the number of pathogens. Infants also have relatively weak respiratory muscles, which prevents them from efficiently coughing up phlegm.
Symptoms of pneumonia in a child
How does pneumonia manifest itself? The symptoms of pneumonia in children of different ages are somewhat different. However, it is worth noting that with all types of pneumonia, there is a symptom such as respiratory failure. It is expressed, first of all, in increased breathing rate with pneumonia, which usually does not happen with infectious diseases of the upper respiratory tract. Normally, the ratio of heart rate to respiration rate is 3 to 1.However, with pneumonia, the ratio can reach 2 to 1 and 1 to 1. That is, if the child’s pulse is 100, then the breathing rate can be more than 50 breaths per minute. Despite the increased frequency of breathing, it is usually shallow, shallow.
How else can you define respiratory failure? There are a number of other signs indicating it, for example, blue discoloration of the skin surfaces, primarily in the area of the nasolabial triangle. Sometimes there may be pallor of the skin.
Secondly, with pneumonia, there is another characteristic symptom – high temperature. The level of hyperthermia in pneumonia is usually much higher than in other respiratory diseases and can reach + 39-40 ° C. However, this symptom may not be observed with all types of pneumonia. Signs of SARS in a child include low-grade fever or a temperature slightly higher than + 38 ° C. Sometimes such a scenario of the disease can also be observed, when the temperature rises to high values in the first days, and then decreases.In addition, in children under one year old, due to the imperfection of the immune system, the temperature can also remain within the subfebrile range, even with the most severe forms of pneumonia.
Signs of pneumonia in a child include other respiratory symptoms. First of all, it is a cough. As a rule, it can be observed if the infection affects not only the lungs, but also the bronchi, which most often happens in practice, and also if pneumonia is a complication of acute respiratory infections. The cough can be varied, but as a rule, it is not completely dry, but is associated with the discharge of sputum.Or, in the early days of the disease, a dry cough appears, and then it turns into a cough with expectoration of phlegm. The variety of manifestations is characterized by bilateral lobar pneumonia. In children, symptoms in this form of the disease include not only coughing, but “rusty” sputum, including red blood cells from damaged small capillaries.
With the development of pneumonia in a child, symptoms will include signs of intoxication – headaches, nausea, dizziness. For some types of pneumonia in children, symptoms may include chest pain, sometimes in the hypochondrium.
The symptoms of pneumonia in an infant may not be as severe as in older children. Often, symptoms of pneumonia in infants include only low-grade fever and cough (in some cases, it may be absent). Therefore, recognition of the disease before the age of one year is difficult. You should pay attention to indirect symptoms – low muscle tone, lethargy, breast refusal, anxiety, frequent regurgitation.
Causes of occurrence
For reasons of occurrence, pneumonia is divided into primary and secondary.Primary pneumonia refers to cases that arise directly from infection with pathogens. Secondary pneumonia includes cases of the disease that are complications of other respiratory diseases – ARVI, bronchitis, influenza, tonsillitis, etc.
In most cases, we are talking about secondary diseases. It should be noted that viral respiratory diseases very often provoke the occurrence of pneumonia and prepare the ground for them by the fact that they weaken the immune system and lower the protective properties of bactericidal sputum formed in the lungs.
Quite rarely, pneumonia is transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. As a rule, the causative agents of the disease already live in the body, long before it begins, and are just waiting in the wings to begin their attack on the lungs. A trigger that can provoke the activation of pathogenic microflora can be an infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract, influenza, weakening of the immune system, for example, as a result of hypothermia of the body.
A special group of cases of pneumonia include the so-called hospital infections.They occur in hospitals, in the event that patients are treated for other diseases. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is caused by special, hospital-acquired strains of bacteria that have increased resistance to traditional antibiotics.
Thus, pneumonia can also be caused by congestion in the lungs associated with prolonged bed rest. In young children, congestion in the lungs can also be caused by intestinal infectious diseases, in which bloating appears and normal ventilation of the lungs is impaired.Also, the occurrence of pneumonia can be facilitated by the frequent regurgitation of food by the child, in which vomit with intestinal pathogenic microorganisms contained in them can partially enter the lungs.
If pneumonia occurs in newborns, then this can be for two main reasons – either the child was infected directly in the hospital, or was infected already in the womb.
Other factors contributing to the disease:
- vitamin deficiency,
- passive smoking of others.
Acute pneumonia in a child can only be diagnosed by a doctor. At the first sign of pneumonia in a child, a therapist should be called. An experienced doctor can identify the site of inflammation by listening for noises and wheezing in the lungs and tapping the chest. Also, other diagnostic signs are used to recognize the disease: respiratory failure, the nature of hyperthermia, damage to the upper respiratory tract.
However, in order to unequivocally make a diagnosis and determine the location of the focus of the disease, in most cases, radiography is required. The X-ray image clearly shows the degree of lung damage and the area of distribution of the pathological process. It is this symptom that is most important in diagnosis.
However, X-ray does not always allow identifying the causative agent of the disease. But the treatment strategy largely depends on this information.For this purpose, bacteriological tests are used – the isolation of antibodies to the pathogen or the pathogens themselves from blood and sputum droplets. True, it is far from always possible to unambiguously identify the pathogen, since several potentially pathogenic microorganisms can be contained in the sputum at once. In addition, a violation of the leukocyte formula, an increase in the level of ESR (20 mm / h or more), and a decrease in hemoglobin are taken into account. However, a significant increase in the number of leukocytes is not accompanied by all types of pneumonia.The maximum increase in the number of leukocytes is observed with chlamydial infections (30,000 per μl).
In most cases of pneumonia in children, provided that a timely visit to a doctor, the prognosis is favorable. Pneumonia in newborns and infants, especially in premature babies, is a serious life-threatening disease. Also dangerous are their severe complications of pneumonia caused by staphylococci and streptococci, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa.In most cases, with proper treatment, the likelihood of complications is low.
Inflammation of the lungs in a child aged 2 years can be severe and spread to other organs.
Among the most common complications are lung abscess, destruction of lung tissue, pleurisy, air ingress into the pleura.
Complications of pneumonia in children that affect other organs:
- heart failure,
- sepsis and septic shock,
- blood clotting disorder.
Treatment of acute pneumonia in a child can be carried out both in a hospital and at home. The choice of one or another option is made by the doctor, based on the following factors:
- child’s age,
- condition of the patient,
- presumed disease type,
- the ability of parents to provide proper child care,
- presence of smokers in the family.
If you do not cure acute pneumonia, then it can turn into chronic, lasting up to six months.
Treatment of bacterial pneumonia in a child is carried out mainly with antibiotics. Of course, during the first examination, the doctor often does not have the opportunity to accurately determine the type of pathogen. Therefore, general antibiotics are prescribed first, or an antibiotic is selected based on rough assumptions. Subsequently, as the diagnostic data accumulates, this assignment can either be canceled or confirmed.The effectiveness of the antibiotic is assessed in the first days after administration, usually after 2-3 days. How do you know if a drug has worked? If, against the background of its intake, the patient’s condition improves – a decrease in temperature, a weakening of symptoms indicating pulmonary insufficiency, then drug therapy with this drug continues. If there is no improvement, then another drug is used. By this time, the doctor may already have at his disposal data on the nature of the infection, which can help him make the right choice.
Not every antibacterial drug can be used to treat pneumonia in children. Among the drugs that are effective in pneumonia and are allowed in pediatric practice, antibiotics of the cephalosporin and macrolide groups are most common. However, the choice of other drugs is also possible – penicillins, sulfonamides, amoxicillins. Less commonly used fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines, only in the case of severe complications and ineffectiveness of other drugs. The age of the child should also be taken into account, for example, at 3 years old, some drugs may be suitable, but at 1 year old – no longer.
The choice of a drug is not an easy matter, and it should not be carried out at random, by people who do not have information about the properties of antibiotics, but by a qualified specialist who has extensive practical experience and is able to take into account all factors such as contraindications, efficacy and side effects of the drug, as well as the patient’s condition , his age, features of the disease. Otherwise, the use of antibiotics can only harm.
If the child has pneumonia, oral antibiotics are usually prescribed.However, in the case of a severe course of the disease, or in the event that taking antibiotics causes nausea or vomiting in the child, parenteral administration of drugs is prescribed.
The dosage of drugs indicated by the doctor should be strictly observed. Irregular intake can negate the entire therapeutic effect of drugs, due to the fact that there will not be a sufficient concentration of the substance in the blood. Also, if the patient shows signs of improvement, do not quit taking the drug, it is necessary to bring the course of treatment to the end.
Among the negative factors associated with taking antibiotics, it should be noted that they negatively affect the beneficial microflora of the body, primarily the intestinal. Therefore, in parallel with taking antibiotics, probiotic preparations should be taken.
Should I use antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs for pneumonia in a child? This can be done in some cases, but only with the permission of a doctor. It is not recommended to bring down the temperature with the help of antipyretics for pneumonia, for the reason that hyperthermia is a protective reaction of the body and is designed to mobilize all its forces to fight infection.Of course, a lot depends on how high the temperatures are. If it exceeds + 39 ° C, then such overheating of the body can negatively affect the patient’s condition. In young children, high fever can even lead to seizures. In such cases, it is worth giving the child an antipyretic even when the thermometer reaches +37, 5 ° C. Otherwise, if the child tolerates the temperature well, and he does not have any concomitant diseases in which a high temperature can be dangerous, then it is better not to reduce the temperature artificially.As antipyretic drugs, paracetamol and other non-steroidal drugs are most often used.
It is also necessary to give the patient as much drink as possible. With pneumonia in a child, the body loses a lot of fluid – this is primarily due to the profuse secretion of sweat. In addition, drinking plenty of fluids allows you to quickly remove toxins from the body. However, if there are signs of pulmonary edema, fluid intake is limited.
As a rule, pneumonia in a child is combined with the formation of mucus in the bronchi and a cough, in which this mucus is removed from the respiratory system.Therefore, cough relievers are an important category of remedies. They are divided into three main groups – mucolytic, expectorant, and bronchodilator. Mucolytic agents lower the viscosity of bronchial mucus, and expectorants facilitate its removal. Among the expectorant and mucolytic drugs, bromhexine, ambrohexal, acetylcysteine are most often used. Among the bronchodilator drugs designed to relieve bronchospasm, aminophylline is most often used.
Antitussives that suppress the activity of the cough center are contraindicated because they lead to stagnation of phlegm in the lungs.
Can folk remedies be used?
Is it worth using traditional medicine for pneumonia diagnosed in a child, and can they replace antibiotics? As you know, many parents are wary of antibiotics. And this concern is understandable – after all, antibiotics can have side effects, for example, dysbiosis and can cause allergic reactions. Therefore, they are trying to replace antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases with some alternative means.It should be said bluntly that such an approach in the case of bacterial pneumonia is irresponsible frivolity.
Pneumonia in a child is not a sore throat, which goes away in seven days in case of treatment, and in a week in case of no treatment. It is a serious and life-threatening illness that has no effective treatment other than antibiotics. This is due to the fact that the focus of inflammation is very deep, sometimes in the lower part of the lungs, and no rinsing of the throat with herbal infusions and even inhalations can affect it.Those wishing to treat their child with folk methods should remember that before the invention of antibiotics, the survival rate of young children in the case of pneumonia was about 30%. These statistics clearly show the effectiveness of folk remedies in comparison with modern antibiotic therapy. Of course, if a child does not tolerate an antibiotic well, then the doctor should be told about it, and he will probably be able to find a replacement.
Additional treatment measures
Massage and physiotherapy can be prescribed as auxiliary measures.They are carried out for pneumonia, when the child’s temperature began to drop.
It goes without saying that when treating at home, the patient must comply with bed rest. The air in the room where it is located should be neither too warm nor too cold. The optimum temperature is 19-20 degrees. Adequate air humidity should also be monitored, since dry air irritates the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. In addition to drinking plenty of fluids, you should also pay attention to your diet.Of course, the patient should not be force-fed if there is no appetite at a high temperature. However, it should be noted that in case of a disease, the body should receive an increased amount of proteins, vitamins and minerals, so that the diet should be complete. Food should be digestible and hypoallergenic.
In stationary conditions, in a serious condition, oxygen therapy (artificial ventilation of the lungs) is carried out.
With proper adherence to all the doctor’s prescriptions, complete recovery can occur in 10-14 days.However, even after recovery, a child attending school for several months (from 1.5 to 3) should be exempted from physical education and physical activity. Emotional and physical overwork of children who have had pneumonia should be avoided. They are put on dispensary registration for a period of up to one and a half years. At this time, additional tests and X-rays may be prescribed. During the rehabilitation period, it is recommended to use breathing exercises.
After recovery, residual symptoms of the disease may be observed for some time, for example, a dry cough associated with insufficient restoration of the mucous membrane.For the fastest restoration of lung functionality, it is recommended to use spa treatment and inhalation of sea air.
Pneumonia in a child in most cases is a disease of lowered immunity. Therefore, the prevention of the disease in children includes measures to increase immunity – hardening, a correct daily routine, physical activity, good nutrition, and taking vitamin complexes. At the same time, care should be taken to ensure that the child does not receive hypothermia, cleanliness and sufficient humidity in the apartment.And, of course, it is necessary to timely treat respiratory diseases that can become the immediate cause of pneumonia – ARVI, pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis, and, first of all, bronchitis.
Vaccination of children is an important preventive measure. There are currently no universal vaccinations against pneumonia, but vaccinations can be made against some pathogens of pneumonia, for example, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae. Vaccinations against pneumococcal infection are included in the National Calendar of Prophylactic Vaccinations and are mandatory, are carried out for children under 1 year of age twice with an interval of 2 months, vaccinations against hemophilic infection are carried out for children at risk three times simultaneously with vaccination against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus at 3, 4.5 and 6 months and a single revaccination in the second year of life.
benefits and harms to human health
Radish: a natural antioxidant against colds and cholesterol
Radish – benefits and harm to human health
Radish: natural antioxidant against colds and cholesterol
Radish is a delicious vegetable with medicinal properties. All about the benefits and harms of radish for the body of women and men, where it is used and how to eat it correctly… RIA Novosti, 26.04.2021
healthy lifestyle (healthy)
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MOSCOW, Mar 23 – RIA Novosti.Radish is a delicious vegetable with medicinal properties. All about the benefits and dangers of radish for the body of women and men, where it is used and how to eat it correctly, recipes for its preparation, as well as how to choose the right and how much to store a radish – in the material RIA Novosti. History and types Radish is an annual or perennial plant of the cabbage family … The most common type is the sowing radish, presumably for the first time in Asia, where it has been eaten since ancient times. Also, her image is on the ruins of the Karnak temple and on the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt.From there, the root crop got to Ancient Greece, where it was brought to the altar in the days of honoring the god Apollo. Radish was brought to Russia from Asia and was part of some popular dishes – turi and mazyuni. It can be margelan, black, wild, sowing, etc. Composition and calorie content The composition of the radish includes vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, B6, C, E, PP, beta-carotene, micro- and macroelements – potassium (357 mg per 100 g), calcium (35 mg), magnesium (22 mg), sodium (13 mg), phosphorus (26 mg), iron (1.2 mg). The calorie content of the product is 36 kcal per 100 grams.Nutritional value: Useful properties Radish has antibacterial properties, due to which it is especially useful in the period of infectious diseases. It saturates the human body with vitamins and minerals, strengthens the immune system. Harm and contraindications Radish should not be eaten for diseases and inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract, gout, kidney and liver problems, those who have recently had a heart attack. “Although there is a positive effect on gallstones, radish should be eaten in moderation – in large quantities, it can provoke unpleasant symptoms.Also, in diabetes, the root vegetable helps to lower blood sugar levels, but this should be taken with caution, because a large amount of radish can lead to hypoglycemia. If there is an operation in the near future, then it is worth stopping eating a radish in a couple of weeks, a daikon – because of the effect on sugar levels. ”The benefits and harms of radishes for a woman’s body mood swings during menopause.The root vegetable improves the appearance of the skin, slowing down their aging. It can be used as a mask for oily skin and hair. Radish is well suited for dietary nutrition. However, it cannot be used for colitis, gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis, besides, the vegetable can cause heartburn. During pregnancy Root crops are not recommended during pregnancy. Radish contains essential oils that can tone the uterus and lead to miscarriage. Also, the vegetable contributes to flatulence and bloating, increased nausea.In the later stages, the product can provoke premature birth. The benefits and harms of radish for men’s health The beneficial properties of radish for the male body are to increase testosterone levels, stimulate sexual activity, and relieve inflammation of the prostate. Also, the root vegetable helps with constipation, has a diuretic effect. It can be harmful for individual intolerance, colitis, gastritis, kidney disease, heart disease, heartburn, flatulence. Benefits and harms of varieties of radish Radish compensates for the lack of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and iron, serves as a powerful antioxidant, due to the high level of vitamin C is indispensable during infectious diseases, helps with cough, bronchitis.It has a low calorie content, but at the same time gives a feeling of fullness due to its high fiber content. Black radish Black radish is anti-inflammatory and contains phytoncides, which are considered natural antibiotics. In folk medicine, black radish juice is used to treat bronchitis, cough, colds. Also, the root vegetable helps to reduce the level of “bad” cholesterol, strengthen the walls of blood vessels and prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, cleanse of toxins.Radish should be discarded for those who have an increased acidity of the stomach, have pancreatitis in the acute stage or intolerance to substances in the composition of the root crop. Green Radish (Margelan) Green radish, otherwise called Margelan, is rich in vitamin A. It improves eye health and is a powerful antioxidant that fights oxidative stress. The root vegetable is useful for the nervous system, increases the regeneration of body tissues, and has a positive effect on the appearance of the skin and hair. Also has a tonic effect, reduces blood pressure, stimulates the immune system.Margelan radish is harmful for those who suffer from stomach and duodenal ulcers, inflammation of the intestines, diseases of the kidneys and liver, gastritis with high acidity. diuretic and choleretic effect, cleanses from toxins, enhances metabolism, stimulates the brain. Experts do not recommend eating white radish for people with heart problems, kidney failure, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, pregnant women, and those who have individual intolerance.Radish daikon The daikon contains potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, chlorine, sulfur, B vitamins, a lot of ascorbic acid. Due to this, the product can compensate for the deficiency of the vitamin and mineral complex in the body. It also increases resistance to viral diseases, removes excess fluid, cleanses from toxins, lowers the level of “bad” cholesterol, and fits well into the diet. The root crop cannot be eaten by those who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases, gastritis, ulcers, gout, metabolic disorders.When overeating, flatulence and abdominal pain may occur. Red radish Red radish contains vitamins A, B, C, H, potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, copper, magnesium. The root vegetable stimulates digestion, helps with constipation, colds, increases appetite, removes toxins from the body. It has a diuretic and choleretic effect, strengthens the immune system, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, removes accumulated cholesterol. Like other types of radish, red can not be eaten for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys, inflammation of the intestines, people with gastritis with high acidity, pregnant and lactating women.Radish juiceRadish juice has the same beneficial substances as a root vegetable. It can be used externally, as compresses, lotions. It has pronounced wound healing, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties, helps in the treatment of eczema. It also has a diuretic and choleretic effect, is effective in bronchitis, tracheitis, lung diseases, in folk medicine it is used as a remedy against viral diseases. Contraindications for use: diseases and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, gout, ulcers, liver and kidney problems.Application in medicine In modern medicine, radish is used in medical nutrition of patients with hypoacid gastritis, heart diseases. The juice is prescribed for diseases of the lungs, to dissolve stones in the gallbladder. In folk medicine, it is used against rheumatism, sciatica. What diseases it treats It is believed that radish helps against whooping cough, cancer, cough, gastritis, gallbladder disease, constipation, dyspepsia, arthritis, gallstone disease, has a positive effect on the digestive system. Also has strong antioxidant properties, improves symptoms of depression.Root crops can be prescribed for sore throats, colds, stomatitis, externally with some skin lesions. Radish extract is a therapeutic agent for inflammation of the small and large intestines. Radish with honey Radish with honey helps in the treatment of dry and wet coughs, flu, bronchitis, tracheitis, pneumonia. This mixture has a beneficial effect on the thyroid gland, cleanses blood vessels, lowers cholesterol, reduces puffiness, stimulates appetite, and destroys harmful microflora. Radish with honey should not be eaten in case of heart disease, gastrointestinal tract, gout, colitis, diabetes mellitus, etc.Radish for diabetes Radish can be consumed by people with type 1 and 2 diabetes, because it has a low glycemic index – 12 units. The root vegetable improves metabolism, promotes the slow flow of glucose into the blood, helps to cleanse it, removes toxins, cholesterol plaques, increases hemoglobin, and normalizes blood pressure. You should consult your doctor before use. Radish in Cooking Radish is most often used for preparing salads, seasoning them with lemon juice, olive oil or sour cream – this way the dish will be most useful.It is also added to appetizers, okroshka, hot meat dishes. To give a brighter taste, it is better to mix the radish with spices – pepper, cumin, dried herbs, etc. lemon juice and butter.Radish salad with applesIngredients: Method of preparation: Peel and grate the radish, cut the apples without peel into cubes, then stir, adding sour cream, salt or sugar to taste.How to Eat a Radish You can eat a radish raw, but you need to peel it. It is best to add the root vegetable to salads to increase the levels of beneficial vitamins and minerals in the body. You should not consume more than 200 grams of the product per day. How to choose the right one It is better to buy a medium-sized radish, its peel should be free of mechanical damage, cracks, irregularities, mold. A high-quality root crop – smooth, aromatic, juicy, firm, and not sluggish – this indicates its staleness.How and how much to store Radish is best stored in the cellar, if it is not there, then a glazed balcony will do. The ideal temperature is 1-3 degrees. To keep the product longer, it should be placed in wooden boxes or plastic bags. You can also keep root vegetables in the refrigerator in the fruit and vegetable compartment.
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food, plants, cooking, vitamins, healthy lifestyle (healthy lifestyle)
MOSCOW, 23 Mar – RIA Novosti. Radish is a delicious vegetable with medicinal properties. All about the benefits and dangers of radish for the body of women and men, where it is used and how to eat it correctly, recipes for its preparation, as well as how to choose the right and how much to store the radish – in the material of RIA Novosti.
History and species
Radish is an annual or perennial plant of the cabbage family. The most common type is the sowing radish, presumably for the first time in Asia, where it has been eaten since ancient times. Also, her image is on the ruins of the Karnak temple and on the pyramid of Cheops in Egypt. From there, the root crop got to Ancient Greece, where it was brought to the altar in the days of honoring the god Apollo. Radish was brought to Russia from Asia and was part of some popular dishes – turi and mazyuni.It can be margelan, black, wild, sowing, etc.
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Composition and calorie content
The radish contains vitamins A, B1, B2, B5, B6, C, E, PP, beta-carotene, micro – and macronutrients – potassium (357 mg per 100 g), calcium (35 mg), magnesium (22 mg), sodium (13 mg), phosphorus (26 mg), iron (1.2 mg). The calorie content of the product is 36 kcal per 100 grams.
proteins – 1.9 g;
fat – 0.2 g;
carbohydrates – 6.7 g;
dietary fiber – 2.1 g;
water – 88 g.
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Radish has antibacterial properties, which makes it especially useful in the period of infectious diseases. It saturates the human body with vitamins and minerals, strengthens the immune system.
“The vegetable is often used for stomach and intestinal disorders, problems with bile ducts, stones, as well as for loss of appetite, bronchitis, colds, coughs and fever.A positive effect on high cholesterol has been noticed, ”nutritionist Veronika Khovanskaya told RIA Novosti.
Harm and contraindications
Radish should not be eaten for diseases and inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract, gout, kidney and liver problems, those who have recently had a heart attack. “Although there is a positive effect on gallstones, radish should be eaten in moderation – in large quantities, it can provoke unpleasant symptoms. Also, in diabetes, the root vegetable helps to lower blood sugar levels, but this should be taken with caution, because a large amount of radish can lead to hypoglycemia.If there is an operation in the near future, then it is worth stopping eating radishes in a couple of weeks, or daikon – because of the effect on the sugar level ”.
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The benefits and harms of radish for a woman’s body
It is believed that radish helps to normalize hormonal levels, reduces pain during menstruation, and also neutralizes mood swings during menopause. The root vegetable improves the appearance of the skin, slowing down their aging.It can be used as a mask for oily skin and hair. Radish is well suited for dietary nutrition. However, it cannot be used for colitis, gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis, besides, the vegetable can cause heartburn.
Root crops are not recommended during pregnancy. Radish contains essential oils that can tone the uterus and lead to miscarriage. Also, the vegetable contributes to flatulence and bloating, increased nausea. In the later stages, the product can provoke premature birth.
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The benefits and harms of radish for men’s health
inflammation of the prostate. Also, the root vegetable helps with constipation, has a diuretic effect. It can be harmful for individual intolerance, colitis, gastritis, kidney disease, heart disease, heartburn, flatulence.
Benefits and harms of radish varieties
Radish replenishes the lack of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and iron, serves as a powerful antioxidant, due to the high level of vitamin C it is indispensable during infectious diseases, helps with cough, bronchitis. It has a low calorie content, but at the same time gives a feeling of fullness due to its high fiber content.
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Black radish has an anti-inflammatory effect and contains phytoncides, which are considered natural antibiotics.In folk medicine, black radish juice is used to treat bronchitis, cough, colds. Also, the root vegetable helps to reduce the level of “bad” cholesterol, strengthen the walls of blood vessels and prevent the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, cleanse of toxins. Radish should be discarded for those who have an increased acidity of the stomach, have pancreatitis in the acute stage or intolerance to substances in the composition of the root crop.
Green radish (Margelan)
Green radish, which is also called Margelan, contains a lot of vitamin A.It improves eye health and is a powerful antioxidant against oxidative stress. The root vegetable is useful for the nervous system, increases the regeneration of body tissues, and has a positive effect on the appearance of the skin and hair. Also has a tonic effect, reduces blood pressure, stimulates the immune system. Margelan radish is harmful for those who suffer from stomach and duodenal ulcers, inflammation of the intestines, kidney and liver diseases, gastritis with high acidity.
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Thanks to valuable biologically active components in the composition of the white radish, it increases immunity, strengthens the body, destroys harmful bacteria and viruses , has a diuretic and choleretic effect, cleanses from toxins, enhances metabolism, stimulates the brain.Experts do not recommend eating white radish for people with heart problems, kidney failure, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, pregnant women, and those who have individual intolerance.
Daikon contains potassium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, copper, iron, zinc, manganese, chlorine, sulfur, B vitamins, a lot of ascorbic acid. Due to this, the product can compensate for the deficiency of the vitamin and mineral complex in the body.It also increases resistance to viral diseases, removes excess fluid, cleanses from toxins, lowers the level of “bad” cholesterol, and fits well into the diet. The root crop cannot be eaten by those who suffer from gastrointestinal diseases, gastritis, ulcers, gout, metabolic disorders. Overeating can cause flatulence and abdominal pain.
Red radish contains vitamins A, B, C, H, potassium, calcium, sodium, iron, phosphorus, copper, magnesium.The root vegetable stimulates digestion, helps with constipation, colds, increases appetite, removes toxins from the body. It has a diuretic and choleretic effect, strengthens the immune system, prevents the development of atherosclerosis, removes accumulated cholesterol. Like other types of radish, red can not be eaten for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys, inflammation of the intestines, people with gastritis with high acidity, pregnant and lactating women.
Radish juice has the same useful substances as a root vegetable.It can be used externally, as compresses, lotions. It has pronounced wound healing, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties, helps in the treatment of eczema. It also has a diuretic and choleretic effect, is effective in bronchitis, tracheitis, lung diseases, in folk medicine it is used as a remedy against viral diseases. Contraindications for use: diseases and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, gout, ulcers, liver and kidney problems.
Application in medicine
In modern medicine, radish is used in the medical nutrition of patients with hypoacid gastritis and heart diseases.The juice is prescribed for diseases of the lungs, to dissolve stones in the gallbladder. In folk medicine, it is used against rheumatism, radiculitis.
gallstone disease, has a positive effect on the digestive system. Also has strong antioxidant properties, improves symptoms of depression.Root crops can be prescribed for sore throats, colds, stomatitis, externally with some skin lesions. Radish extract is a therapeutic agent for inflammation of the small and large intestines.
Radish with honey
Radish with honey helps in the treatment of dry and wet coughs, flu, bronchitis, tracheitis, pneumonia. This mixture has a beneficial effect on the thyroid gland, cleanses blood vessels, lowers cholesterol, reduces puffiness, stimulates appetite, and destroys harmful microflora.Radish with honey should not be eaten in case of heart disease, gastrointestinal tract, gout, colitis, diabetes mellitus, etc.
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Radish for diabetes
Radish can be consumed by people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, because it has a low glycemic index – 12 units. The root vegetable improves metabolism, promotes the slow flow of glucose into the blood, helps to cleanse it, removes toxins, cholesterol plaques, increases hemoglobin, and normalizes blood pressure.Consult a physician before use.
Radish in cooking
Radish is most often used for preparing salads, seasoning them with lemon juice, olive oil or sour cream – this way the dish will be most useful. It is also added to appetizers, okroshka, hot meat dishes. To give a brighter taste, it is better to mix radish with spices – pepper, cumin, dried herbs, etc.
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Simple vitamin radish salad with onions
1 large black radish;
1 small onion;
1 pinch of salt;
1 tablespoon olive oil;
1 tablespoon lemon juice.
Method of preparation:
Cut the radish into small pieces, and the onion into half rings, the mixed vegetables should be salted, add lemon juice and oil.
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Radish salad with apples
1 medium-sized radish;
2-3 pcs. sweet and sour apples;
50 g sour cream;
salt to taste;
sugar to taste.
Method of preparation:
Peel and grate the radish, cut the apples without peel into cubes, then stir, adding sour cream, salt or sugar to taste.
How to eat radish correctly
You can eat radish raw, but you need to peel it. It is best to add the root vegetable to salads to increase the levels of beneficial vitamins and minerals in the body. You should not consume more than 200 grams of the product per day.
How to choose the right one
It is better to buy a medium-sized radish, its skin should be free of mechanical damage, cracks, irregularities, mold.A high-quality root crop – smooth, aromatic, juicy, firm, and not sluggish – this indicates its staleness.
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How and how much to store
Radish is best stored in the cellar, if not, then a glazed balcony will do. The ideal temperature is 1-3 degrees. To keep the product longer, it should be placed in wooden boxes or plastic bags. You can also keep root vegetables in the refrigerator in the fruit and vegetable compartment.
Abdominal pain in children
Abdominal pain in a child is a pathology that all parents face.
The cause of pain can be the widest range of diseases and pathological conditions, such as overeating, flatulence, constipation, food intolerance, intestinal infections
, food poisoning, urinary tract infections, appendicitis, intestinal intussusception and many others.
In some cases, abdominal pain does not have a distinct physiological cause.As a rule, abdominal pain disappears after two to three hours. In some cases, however, the pain may persist for much longer.
When should I see a doctor? When a child develops acute pain, first of all, it is necessary to exclude a number of diseases, united by the concept of “acute abdomen”. Such diseases include acute pathology of the abdominal organs, in which emergency surgical care is vital: acute appendicitis, perforated stomach or intestinal ulcer, peritonitis, intestinal intussusception, etc.
Along with intense pain for the “acute abdomen” is characterized by a sharp deterioration in health, dry mouth, tachycardia, possibly an increase in body temperature.
The following symptoms may serve as a reason for seeking emergency medical help:
- Acute pain sensations continue for more than two hours in the child.
- The pains are cramping in nature and last more than 12 hours.
- The child started vomiting, including blood or bile.
- Blood in stool.
In all these cases, you should immediately contact your pediatrician.
If your child has abdominal pain, have him lie down for 10-15 minutes. After a short rest, he will surely feel better. Sometimes a warm heating pad can help relieve unpleasant symptoms. Give your child plenty of fluids and avoid rough, tough foods. Laxatives or enemas can only be prescribed to a child by the attending physician.
When the cause of pain is acute appendicitis (inflammation of the appendix), the pain is usually localized in the navel and then moves down and to the right.Sometimes the pain extends to the lower abdomen as well. As a rule, in such cases, the child’s temperature rises, vomiting begins. If your child develops symptoms of appendicitis, contact your pediatrician immediately. In such a situation, delay can result in serious complications.
In young children, the equivalent of abdominal pain is screaming, crying, anxiety, refusal to eat, a twisted posture with legs brought to the stomach, impulsive leg movements (“legs twisting”).Severe paroxysmal anxiety of a child under 1 year of age, accompanied by vomiting, bloating, blood in the feces, can be caused by a formidable disease – intestinal intussusception. This disease requires urgent medical attention. In advanced cases, surgical interventions may be required, sometimes repeated.
Acute abdominal pain sometimes occurs in children with acute respiratory viral infection. It is necessary to take into account the epidemiological situation in the children’s team and at home.When examining a child, you should pay attention to the moderate severity of catarrhal phenomena in the nasopharynx, high body temperature, intoxication, and sometimes arthralgia.
Emotional stress associated with an unfavorable psychological climate at home or at school can sometimes cause abdominal pain. For a school-age child, such stresses are common. The cause of stress can be divorce or other family troubles, problems in relationships with peers, with teachers.Some children have abdominal pain in the morning, and this is most often due to the nervous tension before the start of the school day. Such pains, as a rule, disappear within 24 hours; if necessary, allow the child to stay at home. Try to identify the root cause of your emotional stress and address the problem as soon as possible.
In all cases, if the child suffers from recurrent abdominal pain, not related to the “acute abdomen”, an examination by your pediatrician is required in a planned manner to determine the causes and prescribe the correct treatment.
Nikulenkov Alexander Vladimirovich,
surgeon (head) of the surgical department for children
(contact phone 268-31-40)
Radiation treatment of malignant neoplasms
Radiation treatment of malignant neoplasms
Radiation treatment of malignant neoplasms
What is radiation therapy?
Radiation therapy is the targeted use of radiation to treat neoplasms and a number of non-neoplastic diseases.This radiation is created with the help of special devices or arises from the decay of radioactive substances.
When irradiated, the death of diseased cells occurs, which stops the development of the disease.
If left untreated, diseased cells can grow continuously, destroying healthy cells and spreading throughout the body.
Radiation is used to treat various types of tumors and is the only treatment for many patients.But most often, radiation therapy is used in combination with other methods (surgery, chemotherapy).
In addition, radiation therapy can reduce pain, symptoms of compression of healthy organs by the tumor.
What is the risk of radiation therapy?
Radiation, killing diseased cells, can also damage the adjacent normal tissue, which leads to the development of side effects. However, the risk of negative effects is much less than the consequences of an incurable disease.
How is radiation treatment performed?
The radiation source can be brought to the diseased area in several ways:
the source is located at a distance from the patient’s body, the irradiation is called remote;
the source is placed in any cavity – the radiation is called intracavitary;
the source is injected directly into the diseased area in the form of needles, grains, etc.- this type of radiation is called interstitial.
What to expect when receiving external beam radiation therapy?
Before starting radiation therapy, the radiologist will examine all your documents (medical history, images, tests, etc.) and select the desired radiation treatment method. You will be given information about the method of radiation, side effects, risk and prognosis of treatment results.
On your next visit, you will undergo a special marking procedure called marking.You will have a CT scan of the area to be irradiated. These images will be used by your physician in deciding how to direct the radiation to target the disease and preserve healthy tissue.
Your skin will be marked with paint (magenta) or a marker, which must be maintained for the entire period of treatment. If necessary, special devices will be made (individual thermoplastic masks, vacuum mattresses, blocks), which will allow you to maintain the exact position of the body during each irradiation session.The number of treatment sessions is determined by the doctor.
What happens during each radiation session?
In the treatment room, the doctor and nurse will help you take the treatment position that was selected during the staking out. You will be reminded once again to keep the marks on your skin carefully throughout the course of your radiation therapy.
The treatment is carried out daily for several minutes (from 5 to 20 minutes) with extinguished light, the marks are specified before each irradiation session.After medical personnel leave, it is important to remain stationary so that only the area where it is needed is irradiated. The patient should breathe calmly during the treatment session. A doctor and a nurse operate the device in a special room and observe the patient using a monitor. They see and hear you. You will most likely not feel anything during the treatment, but you may hear noises caused by the operation of the device. Don’t be alarmed, big cars make a lot of noise.
Side effects (reactions)
During treatment, you may develop side effects ( radiation reactions ), which are caused by radiation. All people tolerate radiation therapy differently. Most often, reactions develop 2-3 weeks after the end of radiation therapy.
Your doctor will advise on drug treatment and prevention during the entire course of radiation therapy. Patients also receive dietary advice , which may help reduce side effects.
Reactions of normal tissues and organs are possible, which may appear during radiation treatment and as soon as possible after its completion:
- Skin reactions: dryness, peeling, itching, redness, blistering. To prevent and treat these reactions, various types of ointments are used, Vitaon oil, Panthenol
- Reactions arising from the treatment of the head (skull): hair loss, hearing impairment due to edema of the auditory canal, a feeling of heaviness in the head.
- Reactions that can be observed in the treatment of the face, mouth and neck: dry mouth, sore throat, pain in the mouth when eating or persistent, manifestations of stomatitis (inflammation of the oral mucosa), spasm, hoarseness, loss appetite.
- Side effects that can occur with radiation therapy on the chest organs : difficulty, pain when swallowing saliva, fluids, food; dry cough, shortness of breath, muscle soreness.
- Side effects that may occur in the treatment of breast : muscle soreness, swelling and soreness of the breast, skin reactions in the irradiated areas, inflammation of the throat, rarely cough. Measures for the treatment of reactions are the same as in points 1, 3.
- Side effects that can occur with irradiation of the abdominal organs: loss of appetite, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain.
- Reactions developing in the treatment of pelvic organs: nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, urination disorder (often, involuntary) with a burning sensation, rectal pain, vaginal dryness, discharge from it.
- Side effects that can occur with irradiation of the bones of extremities, spine, pelvic bones and other areas of the skeleton: fragility (fragility) of the bone (mainly for the bones of the extremities), decreased blood counts, muscle soreness. There are reactions of the mucous membranes of the esophagus, intestines, depending on which part of the body the bones are irradiated.Skin reactions are possible in the irradiated areas.
Everything should be told to the attending physician. A gentle diet is required ( to exclude all spicy, strong, salty, sour, coarse foods). Alcoholic drinks, smoking are strictly prohibited.Use food that has been steamed, boiled, well chopped. Eat more often, in small portions, and use vegetable or butter with your meals. Eat more liquid, rosehip decoction, non-acidic cranberry juice, etc. To reduce dryness, sore throat, pain in the mouth, use rinsing with decoctions of herbs (chamomile, calendula, mint), oil applications. Tantum-verde, Oral-sept, Stomatofit-fresh, Vitaon and Metrogyl-denta balms have proven themselves well.
When irradiating the abdominal cavity or pelvic zone, it is necessary to switch to dietary food during the first week.Take food more often, in small portions, up to 4-5 times a day. It should be boiled or steamed and mashed. It is necessary to exclude fried, salty, spicy, sour. If bloating, diarrhea occurs, exclude dairy products. You can take vegetarian soups on a weak meat or fish broth, mashed porridge, jelly, steamed dishes from low-fat meats in the form of dumplings, soufflés, meatballs, cutlets, mashed potatoes, low-fat boiled fish, freshly cooked cottage cheese.
Decoctions of blueberries, bird cherry, rose hips, ripe pears, pomegranates, non-acidic apples, strong tea, cocoa in water, black coffee are allowed.Most patients tolerate 2-3 soft-boiled eggs well and in the form of steamed omelets. It is recommended to limit sugar intake to , and put butter in ready-made meals.
Depending on the severity of the radiation reactions, there may be breaks in the radiation treatment.
Ways to make your life easier during radiation therapy
All patients receiving radiation therapy must take care of themselves to protect their health and help the doctor achieve treatment success. With the help of certain activities, you can do this. Get more rest. Sleep as much as you need.Your body will need extra energy during the course of treatment and you may feel tired. Ask for help when you need it. Eat good food. Your body needs to successfully undergo treatment. A balanced diet will prevent weight loss.
Avoid wearing tight-fitting clothing, especially in the radiation area. Underwear should be soft, linen or cotton. Use mildly warm bathing water. Protect the exposed area from the sun or hypothermia by covering it with clothing, a hat, or a scarf.
Try to be calm. Remember that radiation therapy helps you fight your illness.