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Lymphoedema – NHS

Lymphoedema is a long-term (chronic) condition that causes swelling in the body’s tissues. It can affect any part of the body, but usually develops in the arms or legs.

It develops when the lymphatic system does not work properly. The lymphatic system is a network of channels and glands throughout the body that helps fight infection and remove excess fluid.

It’s important that lymphoedema is identified and treated as soon as possible. If it is not treated, it can get worse.

Symptoms of lymphoedema

The main symptom of lymphoedema is swelling in all or part of a limb or another part of the body. It can be difficult to fit into clothes, and jewellery and watches can feel tight.

At first, the swelling may come and go. It may get worse during the day and go down overnight. Without treatment, it will usually become more severe and persistent.

Other symptoms in an affected body part can include:

  • an aching, heavy feeling
  • difficulty with movement
  • repeated skin infections
  • hard, tight skin
  • folds developing in the skin
  • wart-like growths developing on the skin
  • fluid leaking through the skin

What causes lymphoedema?

Lymphoedema is caused by a problem with the lymphatic system, a network of vessels and glands spread throughout the body. The main functions of the lymphatic system are helping fight infection and draining excess fluid from tissues.

There are 2 main types of lymphoedema:

  • primary lymphoedema – caused by faulty genes that affect the development of the lymphatic system; it can develop at any age, but usually starts during infancy, adolescence, or early adulthood
  • secondary lymphoedema – caused by damage to the lymphatic system or problems with the movement and drainage of fluid in the lymphatic system; it can be the result of a cancer treatment, an infection, injury, inflammation of the limb, or a lack of limb movement

Read more about the causes of lymphoedema

Who’s affected

Lymphoedema is thought to affect more than 200,000 people in the UK. Primary lymphoedema is rare and is thought to affect around 1 in every 6,000 people. Secondary lymphoedema is much more common.

Secondary lymphoedema affects around 2 in 10 people with breast cancer, and 5 in 10 people with vulval cancer. About 3 in every 10 people with penile cancer get lymphoedema.

People who have treatment for melanoma in the lymph nodes in the groin can also get lymphoedema.

Your treatment team will let you know if you’re at risk of getting lymphoedema from your cancer or cancer treatment. Any planned treatment you have will try to avoid causing damage to your lymph nodes.

Cancer Research UK has more information about lymphoedema and cancer.

Diagnosing lymphoedema

See a GP if you experience the typical symptoms of lymphoedema, such as swelling in your arms and legs. They may refer you to a specialist lymphoedema treatment centre for further assessment.

In many cases, lymphoedema can be diagnosed from your symptoms and medical history, and by examining the affected body part and measuring the distance around it to see if it’s enlarged.

Occasionally, further tests may be necessary to assess and monitor your condition.

Read more about diagnosing lymphoedema

Treating lymphoedema

There’s no cure for lymphoedema, but it’s usually possible to control the main symptoms using techniques to minimise fluid build-up and stimulate the flow of fluid through the lymphatic system.

These include wearing compression garments, taking good care of your skin, moving and exercising regularly, having a healthy diet and lifestyle, and using specialised massage techniques.

Read more about treating lymphoedema and preventing lymphoedema.


Cellulitis is the most common complication of lymphoedema. It can also have a significant psychological impact. It can be serious if it’s not treated quickly.


If you have lymphoedema, the build-up of fluid in your tissues makes you more vulnerable to infection.

Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the deep layer of skin (dermis) that often affects people with lymphoedema. Cellulitis can also sometimes cause lymphoedema.

Symptoms of cellulitis can include:

  • redness and a feeling of heat in the skin
  • pain and increased swelling in the affected area
  • a high temperature
  • chills

Antibiotics taken by mouth (orally) can usually be used to treat cellulitis, although severe cases may need to be treated in hospital with antibiotics given directly into a vein (intravenously).

Psychological impact

Living with a long-term condition that affects your appearance can cause a great deal of distress and lead to periods of depression.

You may be depressed if you’ve been feeling down for the past few months and no longer find pleasure in things you usually enjoy.

If this is the case, talk to a GP or a member of your lymphoedema treatment team. Effective treatments are available for depression.

Talking to other people with lymphoedema can be reassuring and decrease feelings of isolation, stress and anxiety.

The Lymphoedema Support Network provides information and advice, and can put you in touch with a support group in your area.

If you persevere with your treatment plan, your symptoms should eventually become less noticeable.

Video: lymphoedema – Philippa’s story

In this video, Philippa describes how she lives with primary lymphoedema.

Media last reviewed: 2 December 2020
Media review due: 2 December 2023

Page last reviewed: 25 November 2019
Next review due: 25 November 2022

All About Cellulitis: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Here’s a closer look at a few skin conditions that could be mistaken for cellulitis, per VisualDx: (7)

Venous Stasis Dermatitis This type of redness and swelling of the lower legs is due to poor blood circulation. It usually affects both legs at once and is associated with rough, scaly skin and itchiness.

Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis occurs when the skin comes into contact with an allergen, such as certain metals or poison ivy. The skin can become red, swollen, and blistered, but this type of reaction doesn’t usually cause a fever. Oftentimes the rash of contact dermatitis will form the shape of the allergen — for example, a rash that circles the wrist suggests that a watchband may be to blame, or a rash in a straight line across the ankle mimics the path of the poison ivy leaf that brushed against the skin.

Eczema Atopic dermatitis, or eczema, tends to cause itching, red or scaly skin, and sometimes raised bumps that leak and crust over. It can occur anywhere on the body and does not favor the legs.

Shingles Caused by the virus that causes chickenpox, shingles causes a painful rash that usually appears as a row of blisters. It can occur anywhere on the body but is usually limited to one side at a time.

Tinea Pedis Also known as athlete’s foot, this common fungal infection typically causes redness, itchiness, scaly skin, and sometimes blisters and cracking of the skin on the feet.

Gout Gout occurs when uric acid crystals form in a joint, causing pain, swelling, and stiffness. Gout can also cause the skin over the affected joint to appear red and feel warm to the touch.

Deep Vein Thrombosis A blood clot, or thrombosis, in a deep vein of the leg can cause swelling, pain, and warmth. Like cellulitis, deep vein thrombosis usually happens in only one leg at a time. You should seek medical help if you have signs or symptoms of deep vein thrombosis.

Vein Inflammation Known as phlebitis, inflammation in a vein can cause pain, swelling, redness, and warmth. Phlebitis can be caused by deep vein thrombosis and also by varicose veins. You should seek medical attention if you develop symptoms of phlebitis.

Lipodermatosclerosis Lipodermatosclerosis refers to changes in the skin of the lower legs caused by inflammation of the layer of fat underneath the skin. The skin may become reddish and harder and darker in color than usual. The leg itself may become swollen, and the condition can be painful. One or both legs may be affected. You should seek medical help if you have signs or symptoms of lipodermatosclerosis.

Learn More About Cellulitis Mimics

Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, & More

What Is Cellulitis?

Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and the soft tissues underneath. It happens when bacteria enter a break in the skin and spread. The result is infection, which may cause swelling, redness, pain, or warmth.

Cellulitis is a common infection of the skin and the soft tissues underneath. It happens when bacteria enter a break in the skin and spread. The result is infection, which may cause swelling, redness, pain, or warmth.

You’re at risk if you have:

  • Trauma to the skin
  • Diabetes
  • Circulatory problems, such as not enough blood flow to your arms and legs, poor drainage of your veins or lymphatic system, or varicose veins — twisted, enlarged veins near the surface of the skin
  • Liver disease like chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis
  • Skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis, or infectious diseases that cause sores, like chickenpox

Cellulitis Causes

Things that cause cellulitis include:

  • Injuries that tear the skin
  • Infections after surgery
  • Long-term skin conditions such as eczema or psoriasis
  • Foreign objects in the skin
  • Bone infections underneath the skin. (An example is a long-standing, open wound that is deep enough to expose the bone to bacteria.)

Cellulitis Symptoms


Cellulitis can appear on almost any part of the body. It usually shows up on damaged skin such as inflamed wounds, dirty cuts, and areas with poor circulation. It needs to be treated by a doctor. Common symptoms include:

  • Redness
  • Red streaks
  • Swelling
  • Warmth
  • Pain or tenderness
  • Leaking of yellow, clear fluid or pus

Go to the emergency room if you have any of these symptoms:

  • High fever or chills
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Enlarging or hardening of the reddened area
  • Increased pain
  • Numbness when you  touch the area
  • Other medical problems that may be affected by even a minor infection

Cellulitis Diagnosis

Your doctor will do a medical history and physical exam. Other procedures could include:

  • A blood test if they think the infection has spread to your blood
  • An X-ray if there’s a foreign object in your skin or the bone underneath is possibly infected
  • A culture. The doctor will use a needle to remove fluid from the area and send it to the lab.

Cellulitis Treatment

To care for cellulitis, you should:

  • Rest the area.
  • Elevate the area to ease swelling and discomfort.
  • Use over-the-counter pain relievers like acetaminophen or ibuprofen to ease the pain, as well as keep your fever down.

If the infection isn’t too bad, you can take antibiotics by mouth for a week to 14 days. Your doctor will schedule a follow-up appointment. They may use IV or intramuscular antibiotics if:

  • The infection is severe.
  • You have other medical problems.
  • You’re very young or very old.
  • The cellulitis covers large areas, is on your hands, or is close to body parts like your eyes.
  • The infection worsens even after taking antibiotics for 2 to 3 days.

In serious cases, you may need to stay in the hospital. You’ll get IV antibiotics until the infection is under control (2 to 3 days), and then go home with oral medicines.

Cellulitis Surgery

It’s rare, but severe cases may need surgery. For example, doctors may need to open and drain an abscess or pus that has collected in the tissue. They may also need to cut away dead tissue to allow healing.

Cellulitis Prevention

To keep from getting cellulitis:

  • Practice good personal hygiene and keep your skin clean.
  • Wear sturdy, well-fitting shoes or slippers with loose-fitting cotton socks. Don’t walk barefoot outdoors.
  • Wash injured skin with soap and water. Make sure it heals over the next few days.

Some injuries have a higher risk for cellulitis than others. Contact your doctor if you have:

  • Animal or human bites
  • Puncture wounds deeper than a half-inch, such as from stepping on a nail
  • Crushed tissue that bleeds
  • Burns that blister
  • Frostbite
  • Deep injuries with dirt in them
  • Injuries that touch seawater (making them more prone to infection), especially if you have liver disease
  • Diabetes or other significant medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease
  • Swelling in your arms and legs that does not go away

Cellulitis Outlook

Most people with cellulitis respond to the antibiotics in 2 to 3 days and begin to improve. In rare cases, the cellulitis may spread through the bloodstream and become serious. Even more rarely, surgery is required to drain an abscess or remove dead tissue.

Springing a leak: understanding and treating lymphorrhea

Back in 2011, I wrote a post on lymphorrhea that briefly explained what it is, why it happens, and what to do if it happens to you. It’s been one of the most viewed posts here on the site, so I thought it’d be a good idea to revisit the topic and take a more thorough look at lymphorrhea and lymph.

“Are you there, God? It’s me, lymphorrhea.”

My first experience with lymphorrhea happened when I was a senior in high school. I was sitting in a quiet auditorium, taking an exam with the rest of my classmates, when I noticed my right ankle felt wet.

I reached down to wipe at it absentmindedly, but a few seconds later it was wet again. Wiped it. Still wet.

To my horror, the fluid just kept coming. It was draining out of seemingly nowhere — I had no cut, no scratch that I could see, just a teeny-tiny pore-sized break that had spontaneously began to leak.

It continued until my shoe was completely soaked through with the unknown fluid, and I was praying it would stop before someone noticed. It felt like a scene out of a Judy Blume novel: what was happening to my body, and why did it have to happen at school?! I sat through the rest of the exam unable to focus, instead feeling utterly mortified and silently freaking out.

“Mortified and freaking out” is, I think, most peoples’ response when they first notice fluid leaking from their body. What is it anyway, and where’s it coming from?

Lymph fluid

The leaking fluid is a substance called lymph, although it goes through a couple transformations before it actually becomes lymph.

The fluid begins its journey as arterial blood plasma, but once it flows into the tissues it’s called extracellular fluid. Within the interstitial spaces in the tissue, the fluid delivers nutrients and oxygen to the cells and removes the debris and waste. After all that’s done, most of the extracellular fluid rejoins circulation as venous blood, and the remaining bit stays behind as lymph.

Watery and usually colorless (although sometimes it has an amber tint to it), lymph is full of waste, pathogens, and undigested proteins removed from cells. The motions of muscles and joints help pump lymph throughout the body, filtering it through lymph nodes as it journeys upward toward the base of the neck. There, the cleansed lymph is drained through the subclavian veins and returned to the circulatory system.

For visual learners, this video from the Khan Academy explains it really well:

Lymphorrhea: what’s going on?

Lymphorrhea is when lymph leaks from the surface of the skin, usually manifesting as a beading or trickling of fluid. Insect bites, abrasions, cuts, wounds, cracks — no matter how small, any break in the skin has the potential to allow lymph to weep through.

According to lymphedema specialist Carmel Phelan, “the pressure of lymph fluid inside the skin tissues is so high that the skin is unable to stretch fast enough to accommodate the fluid”; this makes the skin so tense with excess fluid that the slightest bump or knick can result in lymphorrhea.

Lymphorrhea can affect any area of the body, but it most commonly occurs in the legs and genitals.

Treating the leak

If you spring a leak, don’t worry — there are things you can do to treat it, either by yourself or with the help of a caregiver or lymphedema therapist.

First, you should clean the area where the fluid is leaking to reduce risk of infection. Then, apply a moisturizing lotion to help heal the skin and protect it from further breakdown. Dress the wound with sterile, absorbent, non-sticky bandages, and then wrap your limb with short-stretch compression bandages. With this added pressure, the leaking should stop within one or two days.

Don’t forget to change the bandages often, as the weeping lymph may make them wet and uncomfortable (not to mention it can cause further skin breakdown). When you’re at rest, elevate! Once the leakage has stopped and your skin’s condition has improved, you can don your usual garments again.

As always, double check with your lymphedema therapist or doctor on what they recommend. They may advise differently depending on your symptoms!

Complications and prevention

The earlier you address your lymphorrhea, the better.

If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications for lymphies: the protein-rich lymph fluid is considered a natural food source for bacteria, meaning the draining break in the skin provides an entry point for bacteria to enter your body. This can cause infection, such as cellulitis, lymphangitis, or erysipelas. Lymphorrhea is also highly caustic to skin tissue and can develop into a large, gaping wound. (If any of these complications occur, immediately seek medical attention.)

A good prevention tip is to be compliant in wearing your compression so your lymphedema-affected area isn’t overloaded with stagnant fluid. One of the best thing you can do to avoid lymphorrhea, though, is to take care of your skin by keeping it clean and moisturized. Also avoid cuts, bites, and scrapes on your affected area if you can — I know that’s often easier said than done, but if you’re careful, your chances of lymphorrhea will be that much less!

Have you had lymphorrhea? What was your experience like?

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Cellulitis | Sepsis Alliance

Cellulitis is a type of infection that affects the skin and the tissue underneath. The bacteria, most commonly Group A streptococcal bacteria, enter the skin through an opening, such as cut, scrape, burn, or surgical incision, or even a bug bite or sting.

Cellulitis can trigger sepsis in some people. Sometimes incorrectly called blood poisoning by members of the general public, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection or injury. Sepsis kills and disables millions and requires early suspicion and treatment for survival.

Often incorrectly called blood poisoning, sepsis is the body’s often deadly response to infection. Sepsis and septic shock can result from an infection anywhere in the body, such as pneumonia, influenza, and urinary tract infections. Worldwide, one-third of people who develop sepsis die. Many who do survive are left with life-changing effects, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic pain and fatigue, organ dysfunction (organs don’t work properly), and/or amputations.

Where does cellulitis occur?

The infection is most common on the lower legs, but it can happen anywhere on the body. The symptoms for cellulitis include:

  • Redness around the area where the bacteria entered the skin
  • Tenderness, soreness of the affected area
  • Swelling
  • Blisters
  • Fever
  • “Dimpling” of the skin

Risk factors for cellulitis

Anyone can develop cellulitis, but some people have a higher risk than others. If you fall into one of the higher risk categories, you should watch any injuries to the skin carefully:

Impaired immune system: People who have an impaired immune system are more vulnerable to contracting infections. These include people who are undergoing chemotherapy or who take corticosteroids. Visit Sepsis and Impaired Immune System to learn more.

Chronic illnesses: Illnesses like diabetes can increase your risk of developing infections. People with diabetes are particularly susceptible to getting sores on their feet and lower legs, which can become infected. You can learn more at Sepsis and Diabetes.

Skin conditions or disorders: Skin conditions and disorders can cause breaks in the skin. These include eczema, shingles, even so-called childhood illnesses like chicken pox.

Lymphedema: Lymphedema is a swelling of an arm or leg, most commonly caused by the removal of or damage to the lymph nodes as a part of cancer treatment. The swollen and stretched skin can crack.

Obesity: People who are obese have a higher risk of having cellulitis and of getting it again.

History of cellulitis: If you’ve had cellulitis before, you do have a higher risk of getting it again.


If you suspect  you have cellulitis, see your doctor or nurse practitioner. If you are given antibiotics, it is vital that you take them as prescribed, right to the end of the prescription, even if it appears the infection has gone away before the prescription bottle is empty. Ask your doctor or nurse practitioner when you should start seeing improvement. If you feel that the infection is worsening or there is no improvement despite treatment, you should have the infection checked again.

If you suspect sepsis, call 9-1-1 or go to a hospital and tell your medical professional, “I AM CONCERNED ABOUT SEPSIS.” 

The information here is also available as a Sepsis Information Guide, which is a downloadable format for easier printing.

Would you like to share your story about sepsis or read about others who have had sepsis? Please visit Faces of Sepsis, where you will find hundreds of stories from survivors and tributes to those who died from sepsis.

Updated February 25, 2021.

Lymphoedema, Oedema, Ascites | Mare Curie

Peripheral oedema

Oedema is the clinical word used to describe a build-up of fluid in the tissues of the body, which causes the affected body part to become swollen.

Depending on the cause, oedema can be localised (affects a specific area), or generalised (affects the entire body).

Oedema can happen if someone has a specific condition, like chronic heart failure, kidney failure, or liver disease. But it can happen to any patient at the end of their life as their body begins to shut down.

Causes of peripheral oedema

The way fluid is regulated in the body is complicated and it relies on lots of different factors.

Fluid is constantly being released into the body’s tissues, to feed cells with oxygen and nutrients.

At the same time, fluid is absorbed back from the tissues into the general circulatory system (the system which supplies oxygen to the body and removes waste), so that it can excrete waste products and other substances.

When something goes wrong with this system, fluid can build up in the tissues, causing oedema.

There are a number of things which can cause this mechanism to become faulty:

  • Illnesses, such as heart failure, kidney failure and liver disease.
  • Tumours, as they can increase the pressure on veins, causing changes in the pressure of the blood inside the veins. This pushes fluid out, leading to oedema.
  • Medications which cause water retention. These include steroids, non-steroidal medicines such as ibuprofen, and opioids such as morphine.
  • Treatments for cancer, like chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Blockages in the veins, such as a clot in the leg (venous thrombosis), in the lung (pulmonary embolism) or in a major blood vessel such as the superior vena cava.
  • Being immobile for long periods.
  • A very low level of protein in the blood (hypoalbuminemia).
  • At the end of life, when the systems of the body, such as the heart and kidneys, begin to shut down.

Symptoms of peripheral oedema

Peripheral oedema normally affects the legs and ankles but can also affect the torso, back, sacrum (bottom of the spine) and hands, especially in patients who spend most of their time lying down.

Peripheral oedema can cause:

  • swollen or puffy skin
  • thinning of the skin so it looks stretched or shiny
  • pain and discomfort
  • stiff joints which feel heavy or achy
  • a feeling of tightness or heaviness
  • pitting of the skin (so that when you press on your skin for around five seconds, your finger leaves a dent in the skin)
  • leaking of fluid from the skin, when the oedema is severe.

Treatments for peripheral oedema

If you think your patient has developed peripheral oedema, speak to their medical team. They will try to find out what’s causing the oedema. They will also need to rule out other things which can cause swelling, such as venous thrombosis or superior vena cava obstruction.

Read more about superior vena cava obstruction.

If they can identify the cause of the oedema, they’ll treat it directly. The way they treat it will depend on what’s causing the oedema.

Your patient may be referred to a specialist physiotherapist, occupational therapist or nurse for advice. They can recommend techniques to get relief from the symptoms. Sometimes medicines such as diuretics can help.

Supporting someone with peripheral oedema

There are things you can do to help your patient if they have oedema:

  • Keep the swollen limb raised.
  • Avoid tight or restrictive clothing, particularly around the abdomen if the oedema is in the lower limbs.
  • Help the patient to put on compression stockings or sleeves, if they’ve been prescribed. This can be tricky but there are special applicators to help.
  • Encourage the patient to do gentle exercise, if they can. This might include walking for short periods or exercises in bed – check their care plan for details of any exercise they’ve been recommended.
  • Keep the limb well moisturised to prevent the skin drying out.
  • Avoid carrying out blood pressure checks, cannulation, venepuncture or injections on the affected area.
  • Monitor for signs of redness and increased swelling, as these may show the patient has developed an infection such as cellulitis. Read more about cellulitis.

A patient with oedema can develop pressure sores, as the thin, stretched skin is more prone to breaking. You can help to prevent pressures sores:

  • Keep the patient’s skin clean and dry.
  • If skin is leaking fluid, clean the skin and keep the area that the limb is resting on dry.
  • Move the position of limb regularly.

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Lymphoedema is a chronic swelling in the tissues of the body caused by blockage or failure of the lymphatic system.

The lymphatic system plays an important role in the body. It helps to maintain fluid levels, absorb and transport fats, and it is also part of the immune system. When something goes wrong with the lymphatic system, this can cause lymphoedema.

The lymphatic system plays a key role in regulating the amount of fluid in the body’s tissues. The way it does this is outlined below.

Fluid enters the lymphatic system via capillaries.

This fluid is made up of plasma and proteins, cell debris, microorganisms, and immune cells. Once this fluid has entered the lymphatic system, it becomes known as lymph fluid.

The capillaries feed this fluid into tiny tubes called lymph vessels. These lymph vessels carry fluid away from the capillary beds in the tissues and towards the heart. Along the way, they connect with a series of lymph nodes.

The lymph nodes filter out and destroy debris and bacteria from lymph fluid.

Once the lymph nodes have cleaned the fluid, the bigger lymph vessels (known as lymphatic trunks) then carry the cleaned fluid back to the heart, where it enters the bloodstream.

If there is a problem with the lymphatic system, this fluid isn’t drained away properly and builds up under the skin.

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Causes of lymphoedema

There are two main types of lymphoedema – primary and secondary. Primary lymphoedema is caused by a faulty gene and is present at birth. Secondary lymphoedema develops when a working lymphatic system becomes damaged.

There are a number of reasons why the lymphatic system may become damaged.


Lymphoedema is often caused by cancer and treatments for cancer.

Lymph nodes can be affected by cancer as they filter cancer cells from the lymph fluid.

A tumour can also block fluid from being drained, which can cause lymphoedema. Often when a person has surgery to remove a tumour, the lymph nodes in that part of the body will be removed too. This makes sure that as many of the cancer cells as possible are removed.

Any lymph nodes which have cancer growing in them and which haven’t been removed can block the flow of lymph fluid through the system. This causes increased pressure in the lymph vessels. This increased pressure pushes lymph fluid out into the tissues, causing lymphoedema.


Radiotherapy can also damage the lymphatic system and cause lymphoedema. Sometimes lymphoedema doesn’t occur until many years after cancer treatment.

A common cause of lymphoedema is radiotherapy for breast cancer, particularly if the patient has had lymph nodes removed during surgery. People who have this treatment are advised to take special precautions with the arm on the side that has received radiotherapy. This can help to prevent lymphoedema from occurring.

Special precautions to avoid lymphoedema include not having injections or blood taken in the arm in which the patient had radiotherapy. Patients should also avoid hot baths, saunas, sunburn and other situations that can cause changes in temperature.

Lack of movement

Movement and exercise help lymph fluid to drain properly, because muscle activity surrounding the lymphatic vessels massages fluid along them. If a patient is moving less, this can lead to lymphoedema.


Medical conditions which cause the skin to become red and swollen can cause lymphoedema. For example, rheumatoid arthritis and eczema can cause lymphoedema.

Diseases of the veins

Varicose veins and deep vein thrombosis can cause lymphoedema as they can affect the flow of blood in the veins, leading to fluid overflowing in the surrounding tissues.

Symptoms of lymphoedema

Lymphoedema most commonly affects the arms or legs, but can also happen around the torso, head, neck and genitals.

Symptoms of lymphoedema are similar to peripheral oedema (above) and include:

  • swelling
  • pain or discomfort
  • a feeling of tightness or heaviness
  • difficulty moving
  • leaking of fluid from the skin (lymphorroea)
  • thickening of the skin
  • infections – lymphoedema means you have a higher risk of infection if you have a cut or scratch in your skin.

Lymphoedema can be very distressing for patients. Having a swollen part of the body can be a visible reminder of their illness. It can affect their body image and contribute to anxiety and depression.

It’s important to give your patient the opportunity to express their feelings about having lymphoedema. Being honest, asking open questions, and letting them know there is support available can help them feel reassured.

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Treatments for lymphoedema

The patient’s doctor can refer them to a specialist team for assessment, if one is available in their area.

Contact the Lymphoedema Support Network to find out about local lymphoedema services.  

Lymphoedema can’t be cured but there are things you can do to manage it. There are four main parts to treatment:

  • Compression — wearing special garments which gently squeeze the part of the body that’s affected to encourage the fluid to drain away.
  • Manual Lymphatic Drainage — a specialist massage that encourages the fluid to drain away. This can be done by the patient themselves, their carer, someone in their support network or a health professional.
  • Skin care — keeping the skin clean and moisturised. Any cuts or scratches should be cleaned with an antiseptic and covered with a plaster to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Exercise — moving the body, even a little bit, helps the lymphatic fluid to drain away.

There may be other specialist treatments available in some areas.

Supporting someone with lymphoedema

There are things you can do to help encourage the fluid to drain:

  • Help the patient to put on their compression garments — this can be tricky but there are special applicators available to help.
  • Elevate their feet when they’re sitting. They might find a footstool comfortable.
  • Help them to find the most comfortable positions to sit and lie in.
  • Encourage gentle exercise. Check the patient’s care plan for details of any exercise they’ve been recommended.
  • Massage can be helpful for managing lymphoedema. A lymphoedema specialist can teach you, family members and other caregivers, how to do it. Don’t attempt to massage the patient unless you’ve been shown how to do it.
  • Try to identify when the patient is most affected by the symptom. For example, some patients may be more affected in the afternoon or evening than the morning.
  • Look for stretched or broken skin and monitor it for redness and pain. Keep the affected areas moisturised.

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Skin care and cellulitis in patients with oedema or lymphoedema

It’s very important to keep the patient’s skin in good condition if they have oedema or lymphoedema. Cuts or scratches can allow bacteria to enter under the skin, leading to an infection called cellulitis. Cellulitis generally needs to be treated with antibiotics.

Look out for any signs of cellulitis, including if:

  • the skin looks red
  • the skin feels hot to touch
  • the swelling has increased
  • the patient feels pain around the swelling.

Speak to the patient’s medical team or your manager if you suspect cellulitis, so that antibiotics can be started quickly if required.

Check the patient’s care plan for any information about their skin routine. Skin care for people with oedema and lymphoedema can include:

  • washing the skin regularly with gentle soap and water
  • drying the skin thoroughly after washing
  • moisturising daily with emollients
  • keeping the skin dry if there is any leakage of fluid (lymphorroea).

It is very important that procedures such as cannulation, blood pressure monitoring and venepuncture are not carried out on an arm or leg affected by lymphoedema, as any break in the skin can open a route for bacteria and lead to cellulitis.


Fluid build-up in the abdomen is known as ascites. Ascites can happen when the fluid isn’t being drained from the tissues into the circulatory system properly. This could be because the circulatory system is failing, or because drainage is blocked, for example by a tumour. 

Ascites can happen in different illnesses including:

Symptoms of ascites can include:

  • pain or discomfort in the abdomen
  • a swollen abdomen
  • difficulty sitting upright
  • nausea and vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • acid reflux
  • constipation
  • breathlessness.

Treatment for ascites

If you think your patient has ascites, tell a senior healthcare professional as soon as possible. It is important that ascites is managed quickly, in order for treatment to be effective. Ascites often requires specialist care. Treatment may include:

  • inserting a tube into the abdomen to drain the fluid (paracentesis)
  • medication to reduce the fluid, like diuretics
  • medication to manage any pain, constipation, nausea or vomiting
  • reducing the amount of salt in the patient’s diet.

If the ascites happens again, and the patient is fit enough, an indwelling drain may be inserted. This allows drainage of the ascites at home, usually by the district nurses. Occasionally when a patient is fit enough, an operation can be done to insert a shunt that drains the fluid from the abdomen back into the circulatory system. This is uncommon, especially if a patient is towards the end of life.

Supporting someone with ascites

If you think your patient has ascites, it’s important to tell a senior health professional as soon as possible. There are also ways you can help someone with ascites to be more comfortable:

  • Help them find the most comfortable positions to sit and lie in. For example, being on their back with their upper body raised slightly, or on their side.
  • Prevent pressure sores by helping with skin care. Read more about how to care for a patient’s skin above.
  • Support a patient if they want to move about, as walking can be difficult and tiring. The patient may need walking aids, and periods of exercise should be short with lots of rest in between.
  • Check if they are in pain and let their doctor or specialist nurse know if they need any more pain relief to be prescribed.
  • Report any sudden swelling in any part of the body to the doctor straight away – this may be a sign of something more serious.
  • Monitor for signs of infection, as fluid in the abdomen can become infected. Signs of infection include redness around the area, a temperature, and the patient beginning to feel more unwell or in pain.
  • Monitor the patient for signs of increasing breathlessness. Breathlessness can be caused by pressure from the swollen abdomen pressing on the lungs. Or, it can be a sign that fluid is starting to enter the lung. If you notice this, tell a senior professional immediately.

Share our free booklet on managing ascites with your patient.

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Useful resources

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What’s the Scoop on the Two Common Skin Infections Called Cellulitis and Impetigo?: Dermatology Center: Dermatology

Cellulitis and Impetigo Q & A

Q. What are Cellulitis and Impetigo?
A. They are both common skin infections.  Cellulitis affects your skin and the soft tissue below it. It arises when your skin has a crack or break, allowing bacteria (most commonly streptococcus and staphylococcus) to enter and spread quickly. The resulting infection may leave you with swelling, pain and hot spots. If the infection isn’t treated with antibiotics, it can be life-threatening.

Q. How do you get Cellulitis?
A. You can contract this bacterial infection anywhere on your body if you have trauma tearing the skin open, get an infection after having surgery, or from a foreign object penetrating the skin. Cellulitis can arise from a long-term skin condition like an ulcer or dermatitis, or even from an infection of the bone beneath the skin.

Q. What are the symptoms of Cellulitis?
A. You may have redness or red streaks, swelling, warmth, tenderness or have leaking yellow or clear fluid.

Q. What is Impetigo?
A. Impetigo is a highly contagious skin infection that leaves red sores on the face and spreads by skin-to-skin contact.

Q. How do you get Impetigo?
A. Impetigo is caused by bacteria-strep, Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes that infects the skin through a break, like a cut, insect bite, or bodily injury. It can also show up in perfectly healthy skin.

Q. What are the symptoms of Impetigo?
A. You may notice red spots turning into blisters that break and feel itchy. You may have a sore that leaks fluid and appears to be crusty. The sore can increase in size as big as a coin or small like a pimple. As with Cellulitis, antibiotics can shorten an Impetigo infection and keep it from spreading to others.

Should you find yourself with any of these contagious symptoms, please contact the Dermatology Center in Orem, Utah to see one of our skilled dermatologists. Dr. Kraig K. Jenson, Byron Edwards and Dr. Devin Burr can successfully treat your skin condition. Please call 801-224-5200 to learn more about cellulitis and impetigo or to schedule an appointment with our team.

90,000 12 remedies for cellulite that you should trust

Dermopanniculosis deformans, fibrous edematous panniculopathy, liposclerosis, edematous obesity – there are many names, but not always cellulite is the only problem. Is this problem a disease and how is cellulite treated?

In 1978, scientists called cellulite an “invented disease”. A study was conducted, later published in the Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology. There are conflicting opinions as to whether cellulite is a disease.Undoubtedly, its appearance depends on many factors, incl. from hormonal. These factors cause fat to accumulate at the subcutaneous level. For this reason, the well-known “orange peel” appears. Its appearance can also be influenced by poor nutrition and bad habits.

The best pharmaceutical remedies for cellulite

In the treatment of lipodystrophy, various preparations for external and internal use are used. Some effective anti-cellulite treatments can be purchased at any pharmacy.

In the fight against cellulite, ladies often use medications designed to restore joints with a warming effect or drugs that normalize blood circulation:

  • Aminophylline (Euphyllin)
  • Capsicam;
  • Bischofite gel;
  • Dimexide;
  • caffeine-sodium benzoate and others.

Some girls prefer to buy peppers.

hot patches. They are very easy to use. You can just glue them under clothes, wear them all day.

In complex cases of cellulite, which are accompanied by serious violations of the structure of the dermis (up to the appearance of foci of necrosis), women are recommended drugs of the following pharmacological groups:

  • appetite-reducing;
  • diuretics;
  • hormonal;
  • fat burners.

Attention: All the listed medicines are intended for the treatment of serious diseases, have many contraindications, side effects.It is permissible to use them only as directed by a doctor.

You can also buy dietary supplements based on natural ingredients in a pharmacy or a specialized online store. Plant extracts, vitamins, minerals, caffeine in their composition and other active ingredients help to:

  • normalize metabolism;
  • to strengthen the vascular walls;
  • remove excess liquid, slags;
  • Accelerate the breakdown of fats;
  • Saturate the tissues with the necessary substances.

Among the most popular dietary supplements capsules:

  • Cellasene;
  • Inneov Cellus;
  • Siofor;
  • Celluherb.

You need to take dietary supplements in accordance with the attached instructions, carefully monitor the body’s response to drugs. They can provoke side effects in the form of arrhythmias, dry skin, hair, and menstrual irregularities.

Supplement the intake of dietary supplements well with the use of anti-cellulite cosmetics.It is better to opt for products from well-known manufacturers.


Cosmetics for cellulite for various procedures are produced by many companies. To choose an effective remedy, you need to carefully study the composition. It should include substances that promote the breakdown of fats, strengthen blood vessels, restoring elasticity and elasticity to the integument.

These components include:

  • caffeine;
  • algae;
  • menthol;
  • theophylline;
  • escin;
  • theobromine;
  • Various extracts of vegetable, animal origin;
  • peptides;
  • oils;
  • vitamins of groups K, P, C, E.

Well-proven products such as:

  • Defi Cellulite – lipolytic gel with black pepper;
  • Body Strategist – drainage plasters;
  • Shine Is – hot wrap mask with caffeine, theobromine, almond oil, lotus, niacinamide;
  • Celulex Body Slimming Lotion – modeling lotion;
  • Cryoform – cooling, lymphatic drainage gel;
  • Correct Body Scrub – scrub based on red pepper, blue clay.

External agents are effective for the prevention of negative changes, as well as for the treatment of the initial stages of cellulite. To cope with severe, advanced lipodystrophy, you will have to contact a beauty salon.

Salon procedures

Specialized institutions use several methods of eliminating cellulite. Including:

  • thermolipolysis, thermolifting – combines vacuum with radio frequency. Destroys fat cells, tightens the epidermis, shapes the figure;
  • vacuum massage – carried out using a special apparatus.Manipulation stimulates blood circulation, eliminates congestion, normalizes tissue oxygenation;
  • lipolytic injections – accelerate metabolic processes in fiber, help restore its structure;
  • mesotherapy – injection of individually selected cocktails of medicinal and nutritional components. Rejuvenates integuments.

Treatment is carried out in courses of 5-15 sessions, depending on the degree of development of the defect. Optimal procedures are recommended by the cosmetologist after examination, interviewing the patient.Sometimes additional diagnostics are required to exclude the risk of complications. It is good to combine salon procedures with methods of self-therapy.

Reasons for the appearance of cellulite

Thus, cellulite is structural changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, leading to impaired microcirculation and lymphatic outflow. More often occurs with hormonal changes. The pathological process in cellulite is the stagnation of the lymphatic and intercellular fluid. This leads to an increase in its viscosity and, ultimately, degeneration into fibrous tissue (the so-called nodules, which are well felt on the skin with an extreme degree of cellulite “orange peel”).

What contributes to the appearance of cellulite?

  • circulatory disorders;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • tight clothing that reduces blood flow (cells do not receive proper nutrition, skin tone and elasticity is lost).

What contributes to the accumulation of fat?

  • Insulin
  • Salicylates
  • Nicotinic acid

Two processes in the body that are responsible for the accumulation and consumption of fats:

  1. Lipogenesis (the process of synthesis, accumulation of fats).The synthesis of fats mainly occurs in the liver, from carbohydrates (there is no enzyme in adipose tissue that is responsible for converting glucose into fat). It can also occur in the fat cell, but blood lipoproteins are usually used.
  2. Lipolysis (the process of breaking down fats) In order for the cell to start breaking down triglyceride into fatty acids and glycerol, it must receive a hormonal signal from other tissues about the need for energy. The regulation of these processes occurs through the interaction of the leptin receptor, which sends signals about the state of adipose tissue to the brain.Given the importance of the function of adipose tissue, a sharp change in its amount (illness, radical diets) triggers compensatory processes designed to restore balance. As a result, after exiting the diet, recovery is followed by even more weight gain.

Effective home remedies for cellulite removal

There are many ways to remove the “orange peel” without a visit to the salon. To achieve the desired result, they must be used in combination.

Anti-cellulite cream

External remedies for lipodystrophy are produced by most of the major manufacturers of skin care cosmetics.Here are the main characteristics of several effective drugs:

  • Vitex – Belarusian multicomponent plant-based cream contains essential oils, algae, hot pepper, caffeine. Quickly removes excess fluid, smoothes integuments;
  • Anti-cellulite cream (Garnier) – with seaweed, with regular use, shapes the silhouette;
  • Perfect Slim Lifting Pro (L’Oreal) – effectively eliminates stagnation, breaks down fats, increases epidermal toughness due to the presence of elastin in the composition.The built-in roller massager enhances the effect, although some girls complained that it scratches the body;
  • Cream-active (Floresan) – affordable, good preparation with menthol, fucus, green tea, kelp, papaya. We normalize metabolism in the tissues of the dermis, stimulates blood and lymph outflow. The disadvantages include a noticeable burning sensation during use, the remaining sticky film on the body;
  • Cellu Destock Advanced Anti-cellulite Care (Vichy) – works mildly, but, judging by the reviews, not very effective.Suitable for the care of integuments with the initial stages of lipodystrophy.

If you wish, you can make a cellulite cream yourself by adding a teaspoon of red pepper or a few drops of essential oil to a tube with an ordinary baby gel. The application of creams must be combined with other wellness manipulations.

Active substances in anti-cellulite preparations

  • Substances tonic vessels: horse chestnut extract, sweet clover, ginkgo biloba, asiatica centella, ivy, menthol, rutin.
  • Local heating agents: paprika extracts, kava kava, camphor oil, nicotinic acid and its derivatives.
  • Means that prevent the deposition of fat in cells: caffeine, theophylline, theobromine (methylxanthines), xanthine derivatives contained in plants: extracts of coffee, cocoa, guarana, cola, tea, mint.
  • Means that accelerate the excretion of fat from cells (stimulants of beta-arenoreceptors): brown seaweed – fucus, kelp.
  • Means that improve microcirculation.

Reviews of those who are losing weight

Girls who are losing weight note the need for additional skin care. Otherwise, with the loss of extra pounds, the integument sags, becomes flabby, cellulite becomes more noticeable.

Hot wraps received the most positive reviews. True, some women find it difficult to withstand the time recommended for the procedure due to severe burning sensation. Cold sessions are loved by patients who spend a lot of time standing.The procedures quickly remove the feeling of heaviness and fatigue in the legs.

Various gels, creams, masks by themselves are ineffective against cellulite. They work only in conjunction with massage, diet, gymnastics. However, the dermis after their application becomes soft, pleasant to the touch, even with severe lipodystrophy.

“Orange peel” on the thighs, buttocks is an unpleasant defect, but there are many ways to remedy the situation. The main thing is not to try to find a “magic pill” that will eliminate the flaw without effort.You need to be patient, adjust your diet, daily regimen, and go in for sports. Cosmetic products will accelerate the restoration of a slim figure, beautiful, smooth skin.

Cellulite treatment

At the first alarm bells, you should start a counterattack. If you do not remove the influencing factors (smoking, fatty foods, lack of movement, etc.), then the treatment of cellulite will be more difficult in the future.

The blood supply to the tissues will deteriorate, the capillaries will become fragile. The adipose tissue will become harder and more painful, and even minor trauma can cause more severe fat leaks that alter collagen tissue and strengthen the adipose tissue, which becomes harder, more compact and sometimes painful.If this stage has come, then it is already recommended to use special treatment methods. Otherwise, cellulite can become a serious health problem.

Disruption of blood circulation causes malfunctions in the lymphatic system. In turn, the lymphatic system is also responsible for nutrition, stimulates the production of leukocytes and cleanses the body of excess fluid. Lymph congestion will lead to swelling, excess weight, and other health problems. In addition to non-radical diets, healthy daily habits, regular massage and physical activity, it is recommended to turn to modern hardware cosmetology.

Home care. How to get rid of cellulite





1.1. This public contract (hereinafter referred to as the Offer) is an official proposal of of the Individual Entrepreneur Kozlova Olga Dmitrievna (abbreviated as IE Kozlova O.D.) acting on the basis of the Certificate of OGRNIP series 31 No. 002444603 dated May 25, 2015, hereinafter referred to as “Contractor” , for the provision of educational services using software – a site in the information and telecommunications network Internet: https: / /www.marialedda.com (hereinafter referred to as the Site) to legal and / or capable individuals (hereinafter referred to as Customer ) on the conditions listed below in the form online training – a special form of training aimed at acquiring additional knowledge by the student, skills and abilities in a certain field of activity as a result of the implementation by the student of special measures, determined by him at his own discretion,

1.2. Acceptance (acceptance) of the offer means full and unconditional acceptance by the Customer of all conditions without any exceptions and / or restrictions and is equated in accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 437 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (hereinafter – the Civil Code of the Russian Federation) to the conclusion of an agreement by the parties to a bilateral written agreement on conditions that are set out below in this public offer. Face,
who made the Acceptance of this Offer, becomes the Customer (in accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 438 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation, the acceptance of the Offer is equivalent to concluding an agreement on the terms set forth in the Offer, which is unconditionally accepted by the parties).

1.3. The Contractor and the Customer provide mutual guarantees of their legal capacity and legal capacity necessary for the conclusion and execution of this Agreement for the provision of educational services.


2.1. For the purposes of this Offer, the following terms are used in the following meaning:

Offer is this public agreement for the provision of educational services.

Site is a site in the information and telecommunications network of the Internet – https://www.marialedda.com, officially used by the Contractor with the appropriate rights.

Educational services – services of the Contractor to provide the Customer with limited access to the Site in accordance with the terms of the Offer for participation in thematic training courses in the format
webinars, accompanying seminars in the format of webinars, as well as educational services of the Contractor in the form of training, through the use of free closed-source software that provides encrypted voice communication and video communication over the Internet between computers (VoIP) using peer-to-peer networking technologies (SKYPE-training) , or educational services in another form.The form and need for the provision of related educational services are determined by the Contractor independently.

Offer Acceptance – full and unconditional acceptance of the Offer by performing actions for prepayment of the Educational service.

Contractor – IE Kozloa OD, providing Educational services to the Customer on the terms of this Offer.

Customer – a person who carried out the Offer Acceptance on the conditions set forth in it.

Agreement for the provision of educational services (hereinafter referred to as the Agreement) is an agreement between the Customer and the Contractor for the provision of Educational services, which is concluded through the Acceptance of this Offer.


3.1. The subject of this Offer is the provision of educational services to the Customer by the Contractor in accordance with the terms of this Offer by organizing and conducting thematic lessons in an interactive (online) format for a fee paid by the Customer to the Contractor.

3.2. The cost of the Educational service is set on the Contractor’s Website. The contract for the provision of educational services is considered concluded from the moment the funds are received to the account of the Contractor indicated on the Site.


4.1. The Contractor provides the Customer with limited access to the EDUCATIONAL service posted on the Site (provides access to the personal account of the Site by transferring access passwords), subject to 100% payment for this service.

4.1.1. In order to protect lessons from unauthorized access, the ability to download lessons in video format is disabled in the Customer’s personal account, however, the Customer is given the opportunity to save lessons in audio format, which will in no way affect the viewing of recordings and broadcasts in the personal account itself.

4.2. The Contractor reserves the right to record all lessons that are the commercial property of the Contractor and has the full right to dispose of the recordings at his own discretion.

4.3. The types and methods of payment for the Educational service are indicated on the Site.

4.3.1. The Customer pays for Educational services according to the details specified in the email sent by the Contractor only from the Contractor’s email address, namely: [email protected] The requisites for payment of Educational services received by the Customer from any other email address – have nothing to do with the services provided by the Contractor and the Contractor is not responsible and has nothing to do with any payments made by the Customer according to the details received not from the email address specified above …

4.3.2. The Customer pays for Educational services only in accordance with the payment method and details specified in the email of the Contractor received by the Customer in the manner provided for in clause 4.3.1. of this Offer. If the Customer purchases Educational services on their own (without the help of the Contractor’s employees), the Customer pays only in accordance with the payment methods indicated on the Site.

4.3.3. In the event of a change in the cost of educational services, the Contractor reserves the right to provide the Customer with details for additional payment for services, and the Customer undertakes to pay for these services.

4.4. If desired, the Customer can use the service Payment by installments of the training course. Additional information about this service is indicated on the website https://www.marialedda.com

4.5. Participation in the training is confirmed by filling out the appropriate application for participation and making payment in one of the ways indicated on the Site. Links for participation in the webinar are provided to the Customer by sending them to the email address specified during payment.

4.6. In the event that, within 2 working days, the Customer for one reason or another did not receive access to the Educational service, he must contact the Contractor’s support service at [email protected]

4.7. The Contractor undertakes to provide the Customer with an Educational service by organizing and conducting a lesson on the date indicated on the Site, or by providing the Customer with access to the closed area of ​​the site within 5 days from the moment the funds are received to the Contractor’s account.However, if the Customer did not use this service on time, then on the day of the live lessons or their completion, the payment to the Customer is non-refundable.

4.8. This contract has the force of an act on the provision of services. Acceptance is carried out without signing the corresponding act.

4.9. The Contractor reserves the right to cancel the participation of the Customer in the lesson without refunding the paid fee in case of violation of the rules of conduct in the lesson. These violations are: incitement of interethnic, religious conflicts, insulting the participants of the lesson, the presenter, deviation from the topic of the lesson, advertising, obscene language.

4.10. The Contractor reserves the right to cancel the participation of the Customer in the lesson in case of establishing the fact of transferring the requisites for participation in the lesson to third parties, distribution by the Customer of information and materials received by him in connection with participation in the training, to third parties for a fee. The use of information and materials is allowed only for personal purposes and for personal use.

4.11. After the end of the training, the links to access the lessons are not provided again.


5.1. The provision of an Educational service to the Customer is possible subject to the creation of an appropriate account on the Site. The account must contain the last name, first name, Customer, his e-mail address, telephone, Skype, city of residence.

5.2. The customer is responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of the password. When the Customer establishes the facts of unauthorized access to his account, he undertakes to notify the Contractor’s support service as soon as possible at: feedback @ marialedda.com


6.1. The Contractor undertakes to provide the Customer with round-the-clock access to the Site using the Customer’s account.

6.2. The Contractor, in the process of providing the Educational service in the form of an online lesson, assumes the responsibility for technical support of the Customer.

6.3. The Contractor is responsible for the storage and processing of the Customer’s personal data, ensures the confidentiality of these data in the process of their processing and uses them exclusively for the high-quality provision of the Educational service to the Customer.

6.4. The Contractor guarantees the provision of complete and reliable information about the provided service to the Customer at his request.

6.5. The Contractor reserves the right to change the date of the training (lesson) at any time, the number of lessons in the training course can change up to 5% unilaterally, having previously notified the Customer no later than three days from the date of such a decision.

6.6. The Contractor has the right to change the duration of the lesson and the terms of this Offer can be changed unilaterally without prior notice to the Customer, by publishing these changes on the Site, no later than 5 days from the date of their introduction (acceptance).

6.7. The Contractor has the right to extend the terms of the lesson by notifying the Customer about this no later than three days from the date of such a decision, for a period not exceeding 30 calendar days.

6.8. The Contractor has the right to block the Customer’s account in case of violation of the lesson rules specified in clause 4.10. Offers without refund of the paid fee.


7.1. The customer is obliged to provide accurate information about himself in the process of creating an account (registration) on the Site.

7.2. The Customer undertakes not to reproduce, repeat, copy, sell, or use for any purpose the information and materials that have become available to him in connection with the provision of the Educational Service, with the exception of their personal use.

7.3. The serviceability of the Customer’s technical equipment and the stability of the Customer’s communication channels must provide him with stable access to the Site, the Customer must enter the Site under his account at the same time from only one access point (personal computer, laptop, netbook, tablet, etc.).). The Contractor is not responsible for failure to provide (low-quality provision) of the Educational service for reasons beyond the control of the Contractor.

7.4. The customer enjoys all consumer rights in accordance with the current legislation of the Russian Federation, which regulates relations for the provision of paid services.

7.5. The customer, in the event of providing him with services of inadequate quality, has the right to exercise the rights provided for by the law of the Russian Federation of February 7, 1992 No. 2300-1 “On Protection of Consumer Rights.”

7.6. All claims for the quality of the provided Educational service should be sent by the Customer to the Contractor by submitting an application to [email protected] The term for consideration of the Customer’s claim (s) by the Contractor is 10 (ten) days (including claims containing a demand for a refund) from the date of receipt of the claim to the Contractor, after which the Contractor makes one of the following decisions: 1) on disagreement with a claim and about the refusal to return the funds, or 2) about consent to the claim and about the satisfaction of the demand for the return of funds.

7.7. If the Contractor decides to return the funds, the Funds are returned to the Customer by means of their: crediting to the Customer’s account in the payment systems WebMoney, QIWI, credit card, personal account or other details agreed by the Parties. All refunds are made subject to the Customer sending an application in the form to the Contractor, which will be sent to the Customer by e-mail. The parties unconditionally accept that the final decision on the method of refunding funds remains in each specific case at the discretion of the Contractor.In the event of a refund to the Customer’s bank account or to the Customer’s account in the payment system, a completed application for a refund with the Customer’s signature in a scanned electronic form is sent by e-mail to the Contractor (the following file formats are allowed: gif, jpeg, pdf) … An application for a refund of funds must contain without fail information about the account of the Customer, the commercial organization (bank) where the account is kept, and its address. If the application does not contain the necessary information required for the return of funds, the Contractor does not guarantee the terms specified in cl.7.8.

7.8. Funds are credited to the bank account specified by the Customer within 15 (fifteen) business days from the date of receipt by the Contractor of the signed and scanned application of the Customer in the form. A financial document confirming the deposition of funds by the Contractor to the Customer’s account is evidence of the Executor’s fulfillment of the obligation to return the funds to the Customer, which is unconditionally accepted by the Parties. In the case of charging commissions, fees and other expenses by banks and / or payment system operators when returning funds to the Customer, the amount returned
funds by the Contractor will be reduced in proportion to the amount of expenses incurred by the Contractor for the return of funds to the Customer.


8.1. The Contractor and the Customer, taking into account the nature of the service provided, undertake, in the event of disputes and disagreements related to the provision of the Educational service, to apply the pre-trial procedure for resolving the dispute. If it is impossible to resolve the dispute out of court, the parties have the right to go to court.

8.2. For non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment of obligations under this Offer, the parties are liable in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.


9.1. The Customer, accepting the terms of this Offer, also assumes the risk of non-receipt of profit and the risk of possible losses associated with the use of knowledge, skills and abilities acquired by the Customer in the course of the provision of the Educational Service.

9.2. Guaranteeing the successful application of the acquired knowledge, skills and abilities, as well as the receipt by the Customer of the Educational service of a certain profit (income) with their use (implementation) in a certain or indefinite future, the Contractor is not responsible for non-receipt of profit (income), profit (income) below customer expectations, as well as for direct and indirect losses
The Customer, since the success of the Customer’s use of the knowledge, skills and abilities acquired depends on many factors known and unknown to the Contractor: dedication, industriousness, perseverance, level of intellectual development, creative abilities of the Customer, his other individual qualities and personal characteristics, which is accepted by both Parties.

9.3. During the provision of the Educational service, the Contractor has the right to demand that the Customer perform “homework” – certain actions of the Customer, planned and commissioned by the Contractor, allowing the Contractor to check and make sure that the Customer assimilates the information received during the online lesson, gains experience in solving specific problems in within the lesson topic, assessing the level of the Customer’s abilities, as well as for other purposes of the Contractor. “Homework” is sent to the Customer via electronic communication: by e-mail or in another way, negotiated separately in each case.

9.4. Non-fulfillment or improper fulfillment by the Customer of “homework” is for the Contractor the basis for refusing to return the money paid by the Customer to the Contractor, whatever the reasons for the Customer’s request, which is unconditionally accepted by the Parties.

9.5. Acceptance for consideration of the Customer’s claims with a request for a refund is terminated after 14 (fourteen) calendar days before the start of the lesson (that is, receiving passwords for access to the closed area of ​​the Site where the training records are located), which is unconditionally accepted by the Parties.For some courses and trainings, this period may be reduced by the Contractor to 2 (two) calendar days, about which the Contractor must clearly notify the Customer before purchasing this training course. Any other way to extend the guaranteed refund period is impossible and is contrary to this Agreement.

9.6. Warranty terms for training courses are available at https://www.marialedda.com

9.7. The terms of the warranty periods for courses of study become invalid when transferred from one course of study to another.

9.8. Claims requiring a refund must be sent to the Contractor no later than one day before the expiration of the warranty period. Other claims requiring a refund by the Contractor will not be considered.


10.1. The Contractor is not responsible for violation of the terms of the offer agreement if such violation is caused by force majeure circumstances, including: actions of state authorities, fire, flood, earthquake, other acts of God, lack of electricity and / or computer network failures, strikes, civil unrest , riots, any other circumstances, not limited to those listed above, that may affect the performance by the Contractor of the terms of this public offer and beyond the control of the Contractor.

10.2. Depending on force majeure circumstances, the term and date of the provision of services to the Customer may be changed in the near future after the elimination of the consequences of the force majeure.

10.3. If it is impossible to provide services due to the fault of the Contractor, the Contractor undertakes to return the money paid by the Customer.


11.1. The Customer guarantees that all the terms of the Offer are clear to him and he accepts them unconditionally and in full.

11.2. In the case that is not regulated by this Agreement, the Parties undertake to be guided by the norms established by the current legislation of the Russian Federation.


SP Kozlova O.D.

TIN 310204347125

OGRNIP 315312300008757

90,000 Cellulite. What to do? My memo. – 3 responses to Babyblog

I have IT.Uuuuuuuuu …

I decided to make for myself something like a memo about ways to fight cellulite at home. And then it appears when a minute or two is free, I would do something, but there is no clear plan of action. I climb into the Internet, look at old bookmarks. Until I look and there is no time.

So, as I understood, in general, it is necessary to take on this business in a comprehensive manner.

1. Proper nutrition. Oh, damn this is a problem for me so far, of course

2. Drink at least 2 liters of liquid a day. I drink! Honestly. There are 2 cans of 1 liter each, by the evening it is almost gone. I add a little lemon there for taste.

3. Sports loads. Began to be friends with Jillian Michaels and her “30 days” system

4. Don’t eat after 18. Don’t eat. I drink only sweet tea with lemon and my own water with lemon too :)))

5. Massage. Girls are advised to take a bath brush with natural bristles and rub the body dry. They say it helps.I decided to refuse cans. I’m afraid for the veins. And also … I really don’t know if I will persuade my faithful …. The girls write that the husband does a massage with the simplest anti-cellulite cream for them. In the photo before and after and, however, excellent results are noticeable.

6. Scrub and wraps. Here you can handle it yourself. I make a scrub from honey and coffee grounds from drunk coffee. Cool girls, the skin is very pleasant to the touch. I bought the wrap at the pharmacy + food film for it in the store.


The most effective way to get rid of cellulite was and remains the massage of problem areas.Home massage for cellulite should be done systematically for 3-4 weeks and several times a year for prevention.

In addition to the main massage, to achieve the best result, observe the following techniques: after an evening bath, rub the problem areas with a massage brush or hard mitt for 15 minutes. It is necessary to rub in a circular motion, from bottom to top. This procedure increases blood circulation and improves lymph flow.

Anti-cellulite massage.At home, do it yourself

http: / / www.mobado.ru/massazh_ot_cellyulita

Not every woman can boast of free time to visit specialized salons, it is much easier and no less effective (Me: it’s nice!) Do anti-cellulite massage at home. Self-massage is best done after water procedures. To enhance the effect, massage rollers, vacuum cups and an anti-cellulite series of creams and scrubs are used.

Self-massage techniques are easy to learn, so they are available to any user. The procedure includes: stroking, rubbing, patting and tingling with varying degrees of intensity. For anti-cellulite self-massage, a mixture of essential and vegetable oils is used, in a ratio of 1: 5.

Before proceeding with self-massage, the following rules must be observed:

  • Before the massage, warm up the muscles in a hot shower and cleanse the skin with a scrub. Then rub the problem areas with a brush or mitt until redness and a slight burning sensation.
  • Apply anti-cellulite products to damp skin from bottom to top.
  • Be careful with the intensity of the massage to avoid capillary rupture and vascular irritation. Movements should be light and smooth, with a gradually increasing pace and pressure. Avoid painful sensations.
  • Begin the massage from the bottom and gradually work your way up towards the heart. When massage, try to bypass the zones of the lymph nodes: groin, upper thighs, popliteal and armpit.
  • The abdomen is massaged with gentle light movements. If only the upper part of the thigh is affected by cellulite, the entire surface of the leg is still stretched.
  • Is skin reddening during the massage? This is a good indicator, which means that you are doing the massage correctly.
  • Massage is carried out at least 2 times a week, lasting 30-60 minutes, to obtain a lasting result.

Self-massage for cellulite. Basic techniques

You can carry out this self-massage from cellulite at home on your own.Let’s hit on body fat in seven steps.

1. Stroking. With this technique, the self-massage procedure begins and ends, and is also used as a transitional moment from one technique to another. Stroking is performed with palms along the blood and lymphatic vessels, movements are light and rhythmic. Make sure that the skin does not move relative to deep tissue, avoid strong pressure on the surface.

2. Squeezing. The next move after stroking.The hands are positioned across or along the massaged area. Pressing on the skin is done with closed fingers, the base of the palm and thumb. The pressure intensity is selected individually.

3. Rubbing. It is circular, rectilinear and spiral. The reception is performed with the tubercle of the thumb, the base of the palm or fingers as follows: the hand with pressure does not slide over the surface of the skin, but moves it. Such manipulations increase the tone of internal tissues and help reduce subcutaneous fat.

4. Pressure. Performed in measured circular movements, without jerking, along the massaged part of the body, with palms or fingers. The pressure is used to increase blood circulation by self-massage of the upper thigh and buttocks.

5. Kneading. This technique is used to knead both superficial and deep muscles. With superficial kneading, softening of surface tissues is achieved. For this, the skin is pulled by the hands and released.With deep kneading, a large area of ​​skin and internal tissues is captured, followed by kneading like a dough. Then the hands slowly move to the new site. The use of the technique leads to the complete disappearance of small foci of cellulite and an increase in muscle tone.

6. Shaking. At the end of kneading, grab the muscle with the little finger and thumb, and with the rest of the fingers lift and vigorously shake the assembled surface area in the longitudinal and transverse directions.Oscillatory movements are increasing.

7. Striking techniques. The essence of the technique is to relax the hip as much as possible after the above procedures. A series of blows of varying intensity are applied to the surface of the area with the joints of the fingers. This includes three types of strikes: tapping, patting, and chopping. Beating: rhythmic beats perpendicular to the muscle are applied with a bent edge of the palm. Patting: performed in turn with the relaxed palms of both hands. Chopping: with a relaxed hand with fingers spread apart, blows are struck with the edge of the palm.With each stroke, the fingers close.

Now you know how to do anti-cellulite massage at home on your own. Let me remind you that in order to obtain an effective result, it is necessary to use the whole range of measures to combat cellulite, which includes: proper nutrition, exercise and other anti-cellulite methods. Know that if you are aiming for success, it will certainly come to you!

BeautyLizer: hardware massage as a method of cellulite correction

The Beautilizer therapy is based on the method of vibration compression by spheres.The effect of the procedure can be compared with manual massage, but the force of the impact of the roller microspheres in the apparatus is many times greater than the capabilities of a person.

In Russia, the method was implemented in the Beautylizer apparatus, which was awarded the Design Award 2019 in the category “Modern Technology of 2019” (patent No. 2704958). Its effectiveness has been proven in clinical trials, and in 2020 the technique received a registration certificate from Roszdravnadzor.

The scope of the apparatus has expanded.Now it is available for use in treatment-and-prophylactic departments of medical institutions, rehabilitation centers, health resort organizations, cosmetology rooms.

And it can be used not only in cosmetology, but also in dermatovenerology and medical massage, it can be used by specialists with a qualification level of a massage therapist of the 3rd category.

Application of the Beautylizer


  • Reducing the appearance of cellulite
  • Volume reduction by 1-2 sizes
  • Reduction of body fat
  • Increased skin turgor
  • Elimination of edema and congestion


  • Preparation for plastic surgery
  • Rehabilitation after operations
  • Toning veins
  • Starting metabolic processes
  • Physiotherapy


  • Removal of excess lactic acid from muscles
  • Preparation for the competition
  • Relief of muscle spasms
  • Normalization of muscle tone
  • Strengthening blood circulation in the muscles

Effectiveness of the Beautilizer therapy

The Beautylizer device has a complex effect on various parts of the body and subcutaneous fat tissues using mechanical stimulation.

For the first time such a technique was developed in Europe and introduced into sports rehabilitation. With the help of a roller apparatus, lactic acid was removed from athletes after training, venous congestion was removed. What is important: pain was minimized.

It was noticed that after the sessions the quality of the skin of the athletes also improved. Together with the puffiness, the texture was leveled, the skin became smoother and more uniform.

In addition, under the influence of vibration compression, the volume of extracellular fluid decreased.According to bioimpedance analysis, body weight decreased, waist and hip circumference smoothed out.

The presence of these effects from the procedure, together with the absence of complications, guarantees high patient satisfaction.

With the help of roller massage, the skin temperature and microcirculation, blood flow to the muscles increased, the secretion of relaxation hormones was activated, and the level of stress hormones decreased.

MRI data of patients showed that vibration compression helped to remove excess fluid present in the interstitial spaces, improving fibrosis, which, according to Lucassen et al. 3 , explains the roughness of the skin. There was also a decrease in the signs of vascular changes after treatment.

Thus, we can say that mechanical stimulation can be effective for the correction of lipodystrophies. Effectiveness on the skin has been proven in several scientific papers 2 .

Design features of the Beautylizer

Beautylizer apparatus

The body of the handpiece is made from a single piece of high quality aircraft grade aluminum-magnesium alloy.Very strong, solid. Pleasantly velvety to the touch.

Increased coverage area . To reduce the time of the procedure, the coverage area of ​​the treated area of ​​the body was increased in the device – up to 140 cm2.

Silicone balls of the highest quality . It is the spheres that form vibration and pressure. But these parameters depend on the size of the spheres and the distance between them. If the spheres are too soft, vibration will not occur. If too hard, the vibration will be traumatic.The Beautylizer has only 72 spheres with a diameter of 20 mm (hardness: 70, 80 units on the Shore A scale), they resemble the contour of a honeycomb – it is this design that creates an effective vibrocompression effect and a wave with the effect of a lymphatic pump.

Intelligent load scale helps the technician to maintain the required pressure depending on the zone of influence and the required working depth.

Built-in LED-emitters red spectrum (632-635 nm) additionally stimulate collagen fibers and promote skin rejuvenation and increase elasticity.

Quiet . The operation of the device at maximum speed does not exceed 49 dB. It is imperative that both the patient and the operator are comfortable during the procedure. As we know, noise contributes to fatigue.

Clinical results

The high efficiency of Beautilizer therapy in cellulite correction is due to its effect on the key predictor of external manifestations – the orientation of the connective tissue fibers of the hypodermis.

Cellulite, or local lipodystrophy, occurs as a result of changes in adipose tissue and develops in stages.

In normal situations, a thin network of blood vessels and lymphatic channels supply the adipose tissue with the necessary nutrition and oxygen. In the initial stages of cellulite, blood and lymph circulation disorders begin. They lead to structural changes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and the surrounding matrix of collagen and proteoglycans and to a gradual visible change in skin texture 3 .

Based on the analysis of skin histology, cellulite is described in four stages 4 .

At an early stage, the walls of blood vessels become permeable, causing plasma to leak from the vessels between adipocytes. Edema occurs, which leads to swelling of the adipose tissue. Lymph malfunction makes it difficult to remove accumulated fluid.

The aggregation of fat cells and the growth of collagen fibrils connecting the adipocytes impedes blood circulation, which leads to hemostasis (stage 2).

Adipocytes pass into the state of “micronodules” surrounded by a rigid collagen framework (stage 3).The dimensions of such “micro-nodes” can be up to a millimeter.

Finally, the nodes become “macro-nodes”, reaching 2–20 mm in diameter (stage 4).

Nerve endings are compressed under such nodes, and that is why people with severe forms of cellulite often suffer from pain.

Thus, cellulite is primarily a vascular problem. Therefore, the methods of its correction are mainly aimed at stimulating and restoring microcirculation of blood and lymph and removing fluid from adipose tissue 1 .

Beautilizer therapy is especially indicated for patients with stages 0–2, whose cellulite is not yet very pronounced and can be successfully corrected.

During the procedure, a statistically significant decrease in the number of perpendicularly oriented fibers was noted with a simultaneous increase in the number of horizontally oriented fibers, which guarantees a lasting effect.

Patient 1. Age: 52 years


  • Cellulite edematous fibrous stage 4 macronodular
  • Formation of fat depots and folds
  • Overhanging of adipose tissue over the knees, increased skin laxity, loss of elasticity
  • Tenderness to palpation, swelling, coldness and pallor of the skin
  • Significant tuberosity

Performed: 15 sessions, 2-3 times a week


  • Cellulite reduction up to stage 3, volume reduction
  • Significant elimination of tuberosity and puffiness
  • Increased skin turgor
  • Significantly improved folds and distribution of adipose tissue in the area above the knee, reduced and smoothed fat depot above this area
  • In general, significant smoothing and elimination of visible manifestations of cellulite, reduction of soreness

Patient 2.Age: 30 years


  • Cellulite 2-3 degrees, fibro-edematous. A small amount of excess PZhK
  • Slight flabbiness of the skin
  • Manifestations of tuberosity, pallor of the skin
  • Slight soreness

Performed: 9 sessions, 2-3 times a week


  • Reduction of the stage of cellulite to stage 1-2
  • Volume reduction by draining excess fluid
  • Increased turgor and thickening of the skin matrix
  • Bump Smoothing
  • Adequate reduction of VFA
  • Elimination of soreness
  • Skin tone improvement

Patient 3.Age: 29 years


  • Cellulite 1-2 degrees, fibrous
  • Local manifestation of fibrosis of the upper third of the outer surface of the thigh, the formation of a subgluteal fat fold
  • Reduction of turgor and density of the skin matrix
  • Initial stage of tuberosity

Performed: 6 sessions, 2 times a week


  • Decrease in the degree of cellulite 0-1 degree
  • Improvement of the manifestation of fibrosis, due to the compaction of the dermal layer and softening of fibrous cords
  • Local reduction of PZhK
  • Increasing turgor, improving the color and quality of the skin
  • Manifestations of tuberosity eliminated


  1. Correction of fatty lipodystrophy (cellulite) using apparatus massage significantly affects the structure of the dermis and hypodermis.
  2. After the course of Beautilizer therapy, fat traps are smoothed out, the skin acquires a smooth appearance and even contours.
  3. The studies have shown that the Beautilizer therapy effectively, safely and reliably affects the skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue and allows you to reduce the appearance of cellulite and even out the skin relief.

Dynamic Anti-Cellulite Cream / and Slimming 200 ml

Cellulite is a complaint that is estimated to affect up to 95% of women after puberty.This condition affects not only obese women, but also very thin ones. In general, cellulite is an abnormal formation of adipose tissue, which is referred to by specialists as a chronic non-inflammatory disease of adipose tissue. The cellulite formation process is the result of the volume-coarsening of fat cells, which cause defects in the circulation of blood and lymph when pressed against the veins and thus ultimately cause metabolic disturbances within this tissue. As a result of ischemia, in addition to fatty adipocytes, toxins begin to accumulate too much.In addition, extracts from leaking blood from a vein cause edema, which also very negatively affects the flow of body fluids. Excessive adipocytes press on the collagen and elastin press of the tissues causing them to deform, causing the tissue to become hardened and its elasticity is lost.

There are many factors contributing to the excessive growth of adipose tissue. The first reason is the lack of a balanced diet and exercise leading to obesity, which means a very frequent accumulation of large amounts of fat.In addition, genetic factors and predispositions also play a role in this case. However, these diseases are based on hormonal defects, mainly an excess of the female sex hormone called estrogen, which is similar to both female skin and its tissue plugs. We do not have any control over some of the causes of orange skin, but with research conducted by research centers around the world, we have gained an understanding of the reactions on which this disease is based.And most of all, we received knowledge that makes it possible to effectively fight against “orange skin”. A comprehensive look at the problem that worries women, as well as an analysis of the causes of its occurrence, prompted us to search for active ingredients that provide our clients with the maximum result.

We have selected ingredients that create a formula that works in universal ways:

It stimulates lipolysis, which means it decomposes fat in fat cells, so that existing cells no longer store fat, but, on the contrary, they actively begin to decompose it.It stimulates microcirculation in order to increase tissue drainage and remove sedimentary toxins and water, and also facilitates the penetration of active substances into problem fat. Slowing down the process of adipogenesis, that means slowing down the formation of fat cells, since immature cells are not able to accumulate a reserve of fat and inhibiting lipogenesis, it means limiting the growth of fat cells to the maximum possible limit.

Our proposed solution applies the basic principles of the formation of “orange skin”.The product is constantly in question, however, it leads not only to a preliminary state to improve adipose tissue, but also prevents the formation of new adipose tissue (by reducing the likelihood of storing fat) in the first place, and helps to maintain the achieved results (preventing the origin of new fat stores) in first of all.


Regular use of our product brings tangible results in terms of:

– Reducing excess water released from the cage,

– Decrease in the circumference of the thighs and abdomen,

– Reduction of visible “orange skin”,

– Improvement of microcirculation, which manifests itself in the form of a less visible nevus


– Significant improvement in skin hydration, density and elasticity.


Apply the drug to parts of the organs affected by cellulite (thighs, arms and abdomen) and massage them. It is recommended to apply it twice a day: in the morning and in the evening. The massage is carried out in a circular motion towards the hearth. For best results, it is recommended that you wrap you in cosmetic foil for immediate measurable results.

Active Ingredients

Collagen – Liporeducil ® –

caffeine –

Aescin –

L-carnitine –

Tri peptide glycine –

iodine –

Common ivy (extract)

Asiatica Centella extract –

Gydromanil –


Vitamin E

90,000 Blood circulation.Cellulite and circulatory disorders. Women’s site InMoment

Blood circulation

I would like to stop your attention on blood circulation. This is a very serious topic. Our body is built from a myriad of blood vessels, which are divided into arteries, veins, and capillaries. And we know that blood flows through the arteries from the heart, through the veins to the heart. But we learned about capillaries only at the end of the 17th century, when the Dutch biologist Levenguk created a microscope, and the Italian physiologist, having first seen blood circulation in the capillaries under a microscope, exclaimed: “I can rightfully say: truly great I see with my own eyes!”

The capillaries were named hair vessels because they were compared in thickness to hair.In fact, their cross-sectional area is no more than 0.00008 mm2, and the radius is 0.005 mm, while the radius of a human hair is 0.15 mm. Imagine, only one blood cell can pass through the lumen of the capillary. Erythrocytes (red blood cells), passing through them, even flatten a little. The capillary length does not exceed 0.5 mm. Just think that it is here, in these short and small vessels, miracles are happening, vital processes take place: through the walls of the capillaries, the blood gives oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, takes carbon dioxide and decay products (waste substances), that is, the most important function of blood circulation is carried out , called the exchange of nutrients and waste products between tissues and circulating blood.When this vital function is disrupted, the capillaries weaken and allow more fluid into the intercellular space than necessary. This additional fluid leakage is the beginning of the formation of tissue called cellulite.

Small circle of blood circulation

The pulmonary circulation begins in the right ventricle, from which the pulmonary trunk exits, and ends in the left atrium, where the pulmonary veins flow. Venous blood flows from the heart to the lungs (pulmonary trunk), and arterial blood flows to the heart (pulmonary veins).Therefore, the pulmonary circulation is also called pulmonary.

All arteries of the systemic circulation begin from the aorta (or from its branches). Depending on the thickness (diameter), the arteries are conventionally divided into large, medium and small. The main trunk and its branches are distinguished from each artery. Violations in the work of the small circle of blood circulation lead to cellulite.

You have already learned that the arteries carrying oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood branch out into smaller and smaller vessels until they turn into capillaries.When the thinnest capillaries entwine tissue cells, the blood gives them oxygen and nutrients. This is what we call a small circle of blood circulation. If we are talking about a violation of the small circle of blood circulation, this means that oxygen and nutrients enter the tissues in quantities insufficient for normal cellular metabolism, which leads to a certain starvation of tissues and the accumulation of waste products of cells and toxins in this place. With a short-term violation of the blood supply, harmful consequences do not arise.

However, an insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and, accordingly, incomplete neutralization of toxins for a long time would lead to tissue damage. This is exactly the case with the formation of cellulite tissue. Poor blood circulation can be called one of the first reasons that create a favorable internal environment for the formation of this substance and its subsequent growth. Since cellulite tends to form in places with slow blood circulation, then, having appeared and developed, it further aggravates this problem, creating a focus of stagnation.

Cellulite tissue is poorly supplied with blood. The relative lack of oxygen and nutrients leads to the accumulation of toxic waste products of cells – the so-called metabolites, which not only harm the surrounding tissues, but also affect the formation of new tissues.

Note one more important fact that in the tissues themselves there are fiber-forming cells called fibroblasts. What is it? Fibroblasts produce the finest fibers that form a supportive network around the fat cells and thus bind the entire structure together – softly but firmly, like tissue glue.But if fibroblasts are deprived of oxygen and nutrition, then instead of thin fibers they produce thick nodes of monopolysaccharides – large fibers that surround and envelop fat cells. The accumulation of these dense, thick fibers is one of the reasons for the familiar “borderline” effect inherent in cellulite.

With old cellulite, several arteries remain among the cellulite tissue, which are not too damaged by the cellulite-forming process. They can still react to the vast amounts of metabolic toxins that have accumulated in the tissues and expand as much as possible so that the oxygenated blood can neutralize them.As a result, islands of warm tissue appear among the sea of ​​cold cellulite tissue, as can be seen from the very first touch. Anyone with cellulite will no doubt recognize some of these familiar symptoms, from early hints to obvious signs of advanced cellulite.


Damage to veins also leads to cellulite. We all know what veins are. Did you know that the transport of blood through the veins (venous blood flow) also plays an important role in ensuring the normal functioning of adipose tissue?

Blood saturated with carbon dioxide and waste products of cells is excreted from tissues through capillaries, which connect and form veins.Venous blood flow neutralizes toxic waste and carries blood to the lungs, where it gets rid of the carbon dioxide it contains. This is such a complicated process.

However, if the blood flow in the veins slows down, back pressure is created in the circulatory system, which is transmitted through the veins to the tissues. So what’s going on? Violation of venous blood flow ultimately leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites in the tissues, which damage both the tissues and the walls of the veins, as a result of which a local inflammatory process begins.Inflammation of the veins leads to a weakening of their walls and the formation of even more potent substances, including arachidonic acid, which, together with other substances, exacerbates the inflammatory process, characterized by tissue swelling and pain.

If the walls of the veins become excessively weakened, blood penetrates through them into the tissues, as a result of which the inflammation and pain intensify even more. Some of these changes are not externally visible, others are visible to the naked eye.In some cases, the veins swell very much, and everything ends with varicose veins. Sometimes the veins just swell, the smaller ones burst, and blood from them enters the surrounding tissues, causing bruising and discoloration of the skin. Therefore, watch out for bruising and bruising. And most importantly, take action on time.

Varicose veins, as well as swollen and bursting veins are the result of increased pressure in the venous system, and all this can lead to the development of cellulite.With such serious disorders, the veins can no longer fully pump blood from the tissues, and this increases the back pressure in the tissues even more. This creates a vicious circle: the increased pressure causes more damage to the veins, and the deterioration of the condition of the veins leads to a further increase in pressure and the appearance of cellulite. Any other factor affecting the rate of blood flow in tissues contributes to the development of the disease.

Read more. Intercellular space

Return to the beginning of the section Fight against cellulite
Return to the beginning of the section Beauty and Health

The information in this article is for informational purposes only, not recommendatory.Please do not self-medicate, be sure to consult a specialist.

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What is pancreatic ascites?

Pancreatic ascites refers to fluid that accumulates in the abdominal cavity that is associated with a dysfunctional pancreas. Pancreatic ascites fluid analysis usually reveals high amylase and high protein levels.The abdomen with ascites appears distended and an increase in abdominal girth is often observed. Usually, there is no severe pain, but weight loss can occur despite the appearance of a large belly. This condition is more common in men and usually appears between the ages of 20 and 50.

As a rule, pancreatitis is usually present in the past, and alcohol consumption is also common in patients with pancreatic ascites. The diagnosis, to rule out the underlying causes of pancreatic ascites, includes a comprehensive physical examination and a complete medical history.Often the physical examination reveals bloating, shifting dullness, and lateral dullness. Medical imaging tests can reveal fluid in the abdomen, pancreatic calcifications, and pseudocysts.

Treatment options for pancreatic ascites include conservative treatment or surgery. Typically, conservative options include parenteral nutrition and drainage of excess fluid. Surgery to address this problem may include repairing fluid leaks and treating pancreatic pathologies such as strictures and pseudocysts.Sometimes the use of a pancreatic stent is helpful. These stents allow secretions to drain through the system that was created for the stent, closing the leak.

It is important to note that ascites or fluid in the abdomen can be caused by other conditions than pancreatic disease. Certain types of abdominal cancers, such as ovarian cancer, can cause significant fluid buildup, as well as some liver disease. Liver cirrhosis can sometimes cause ascites, but cirrhosis of the liver usually causes other symptoms, such as jaundice, which is yellowing of the skin and eyes, nausea, and pain.

In the presence of ascites in the pancreas, it is important to treat the underlying cause of fluid accumulation. In cases where pancreatitis is present, steps should be taken to reduce the underlying symptoms such as pain, nausea, and vomiting. When symptomatic relief is achieved, the patient can better tolerate the actual treatment of pancreatic ascites. Typically, treating fluid accumulation without addressing the underlying cause can weaken the patient and weaken his or her immune system.

Individuals who begin to notice an increase in abdominal girth, along with bloating, should seek immediate medical evaluation. Failure to obtain an accurate diagnosis and follow-up treatment can delay resolution of the condition and lead to complications such as difficulty breathing. Shortness of breath and difficulty breathing can be significant as fluid builds up in the abdomen, putting pressure on other structures, including the diaphragm.