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Bloating and discharge: Bloating Or Fullness, Vaginal Discharge And Vaginal Odor


Ten gynecologic cancer symptoms women shouldn’t ignore — ScienceDaily

Pelvic pain and abnormal bleeding aren’t the only signs of gynecologic cancer. As part of Cervical Health Awareness Month in January, experts at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center share other symptoms that often are overlooked.

More than 80,000 women in the United States are diagnosed each year with a gynecologic cancer, such as cervical, endometrial (also known as uterine) or ovarian cancer.

“Unfortunately, because symptoms for these cancers are often vague, many women mistake them for other less serious conditions,” said Therese Bevers, M.D., medical director of MD Anderson’s Cancer Prevention Center. “So, it’s important to know exactly what to look for because gynecologic cancers are usually most treatable when found early.”

Below are 10 symptoms of cervical and other gynecologic cancers that every woman should watch for. “Alert your doctor if these symptoms appear, especially if you’ve already gone through menopause,” Bevers said.

1. Swollen leg. Does one leg look or feel swollen for no reason? This may be a sign of cervical cancer. Typically, though, a swollen leg isn’t a sign of cancer unless there’s also pain, discharge or other cervical cancer symptoms.

2. Abnormal vaginal bleeding. More than 90% of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer experience irregular bleeding. Women who’ve already undergone menopause should have any bleeding — including spotting — evaluated. Women who haven’t gone through menopause should see a doctor about bleeding between periods, heavy bleeding or bleeding during sex.

3. Unexplained weight loss. Women who suddenly lose more than 10 pounds without changing diet or exercise habits should see their doctor.

4. Vaginal discharge colored with blood. Bloody, dark or smelly discharge usually signals infection. But sometimes, it’s a sign of cervical or endometrial cancer.

5. Constantly needing bathroom breaks. Constantly need to use the bathroom or feel continuous bladder pressure? This may be a sign of cancer. “Take note especially if you also feel full, have abdominal pain and experience bloating,” Bevers said.

6. Loss of appetite or constant feeling full. Never hungry anymore? Or constantly full? These appetite changes may be symptoms of ovarian cancer.

7. Pain in the pelvis or abdominal area. Ongoing abdominal pain or discomfort — including gas, indigestion, pressure, bloating and cramps — can signal ovarian cancer. And, constant pelvic pain or pressure can be a sign of endometrial cancer.

8. Belly bloat. Women often feel bloated after eating or drinking a lot, especially during their menstrual cycles. But a woman may have ovarian cancer if she continues feeling bloated for more than two weeks or after her period ends.

9. Constant fatigue. A little rest should typically cure fatigue. But women should see a doctor if fatigue constantly interferes with work or leisure activities.

10. Persistent indigestion or nausea. Feeling queasy for an extended period of time? Occasionally, persistent indigestion or nausea can signal gynecologic cancers, so play it safe and see a doctor.

“Remember, having one or more of these symptoms doesn’t mean you have cancer,” Bevers said. “But if they last two weeks or longer, see your doctor. After all, it’s better to be safe than sorry.”

Symptoms of Gonorrhea | Stanford Health Care

What are the symptoms of gonorrhea?

It’s common for gonorrhea to cause no symptoms, especially in women. The incubation period—the time from exposure to the bacteria until symptoms develop—is usually 2 to 5 days. But sometimes symptoms may not develop for up to 30 days.

Gonorrhea may not cause symptoms until the infection has spread to other areas of the body.

You can spread gonorrhea even if you don’t have symptoms. You are contagious until you have been treated.

Symptoms in women

In women, the early symptoms are sometimes so mild that they are mistaken for a bladder infection or vaginal infection. Symptoms may include:

  • Painful or frequent urination.
  • Anal itching, discomfort, bleeding, or discharge.
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge.
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding during or after sex or between periods.
  • Genital itching.
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Pain in the lower belly.
  • Fever and general tiredness.
  • Swollen and painful glands at the opening of the vagina (Bartholin glands).
  • Painful sexual intercourse.
  • Sore throat. (This symptom is rare.)
  • Pinkeye (conjunctivitis). (This symptom is rare.)
Symptoms in men

In men, symptoms are usually more obvious. Most men get treated before other problems occur. But some men have mild or no symptoms. This means that they can infect their sex partners and not know it. Symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal discharge from the penis. At first, the discharge is clear or milky. Then it can become yellow, creamy, or a little bloody.
  • Painful or frequent urination or urethritis.
  • Anal itching, discomfort, bleeding, or discharge.
  • Sore throat. (This symptom is rare.)
  • Pinkeye (conjunctivitis). (This symptom is rare.)
Other symptoms

Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) occurs when the gonorrhea infection spreads to other parts of the body. This includes the joints, skin, heart, or blood. Symptoms of DGI include:

  • A rash.
  • Joint pain or arthritis.
  • Inflamed tendons.

Irritable bowel syndrome: Overview – InformedHealth.org


The typical symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) include abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea.

IBS isn’t dangerous. Most people who have it have a mild form which they can cope with quite well without getting any treatment.

But in some people the symptoms are so bad that it significantly affects their everyday lives and becomes a real problem.

There is no cure for IBS. But over time, many people find out what helps and what makes things worse. And there are a number of different ways to relieve the symptoms.


The typical symptoms of IBS include persistent upper or lower abdominal pain, cramps, and changes in the consistency of stool. It tends to cause constipation in women and diarrhea in men, although some people may have both. Other signs of IBS may include feeling very full, flatulence (gas) or mucous discharge.


Although the causes of IBS aren’t fully understood, there are many theories. For example, oversensitive nerves in the intestine, intestinal muscle disorders and inflammations of the intestinal wall are believed to all play a role. It has also been observed that IBS is more common in people who have had an intestinal infection with fever and severe diarrhea. IBS may be inherited as well. Psychological stress, eating habits and food intolerances are thought to be possible triggers too. But it’s often not clear whether these things are causing the IBS or caused by the IBS.

Position of the bowel in the digestive system


It is estimated that about 10 to 20 out of 100 people have IBS. Most people first get it between the ages of 20 and 30. It is twice as common in women as it is in men.

IBS is usually a chronic condition. In other words, many people have it all the time. It often comes and goes in episodes. Phases with mild symptoms or no symptoms are then followed by phases with more severe symptoms.


Someone is considered to have IBS if

  • symptoms such as abdominal pain or flatulence (gas) last for more than three months and their bowel movements have changed – for instance, if they have to go to the toilet more often or less often, or if they have diarrhea or constipation.

  • the symptoms have a noticeable impact on your quality of life.

  • there is no reason to believe that the symptoms are being caused by another disease.

That’s because these kinds of symptoms may have other causes, such as lactose intolerance.

Blood tests and other tests can be used to find out whether the symptoms are being caused by a food intolerance. But some people have both irritable bowel syndrome and a food intolerance at the same time.

Other symptoms such as losing a lot of weight, blood in the stool, fever or pale skin could be signs of something else, like an inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease. Another possible cause is diverticulitis – an inflammation caused by stool getting stuck in pockets in the bowel wall. Sudden and severe abdominal pain could also be a sign of gallstones.

If digestive problems are accompanied by signs such as blood in the stool, bowel cancer may be a possible cause. But it is very rare in people under the age of 50. If you discover blood in your stool it’s important to see a doctor about it.


A balanced diet and enough exercise in everyday life are considered to be essential for a healthy digestion. There are a lot of other tips when it comes to IBS. For instance, people who suspect that a particular type of food makes their symptoms worse can try to avoid eating it for a while. Some people have fewer problems if they eat their meals in smaller portions throughout the day. Keeping a food diary can help you find out how different foods affect the symptoms.

There are also a number of treatment options. It’s best to talk to your doctor about what could help and then try a few things out. If you ask different people who have IBS, it becomes clear that something that helps one person may end up making someone else’s symptoms worse. There is also a lack of good research on most of the treatments. But a number of approaches have been shown to at least help some people or for a short while. These include:

  • Peppermint oil

  • Probiotics

  • Anti-cramping medications

  • Medications for constipation

  • Antibiotics

  • Antidepressants

  • Psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnosis

Medication in particular can have side effects too, so it’s worth carefully considering the pros and cons of the various options.

Everyday life

Most people who have a milder form of IBS cope quite well with it. Yet for some the symptoms are so strong that it has a big impact on their quality of life. Some people may suddenly feel an urgent need to go to the toilet. This can make everyday life very difficult because meals and appointments have to be carefully coordinated to get the timing right. As a result, it’s nearly impossible to be spontaneous.

People often feel ashamed too, because they have to go to the toilet so much or pass a lot of gas (fart). What’s more, IBS isn’t always taken seriously by other people – even by some doctors. This can be very hurtful for those affected.

But most people find ways to live with IBS without it affecting their lives too much. It is sometimes the little things that make day-to-day life easier and help you to stop worrying all the time. For instance, bringing along your own food to a party, finding out right away where the bathroom is, or taking an aisle seat at the movies.

Further information

When people are ill or need medical advice, they usually go to their family doctor first. Read about how to find the right doctor, how to prepare for the appointment and what to remember.

There are many places people who have IBS can go to find help, including support groups and information centers. But there are often regional differences in how these services are organized, and they aren’t always easy to find. You can use our list to help you find and make use of local services in Germany.


  • IQWiG health information is written with the aim of helping
    people understand the advantages and disadvantages of the main treatment options and health
    care services.

    Because IQWiG is a German institute, some of the information provided here is specific to the
    German health care system. The suitability of any of the described options in an individual
    case can be determined by talking to a doctor. We do not offer individual consultations.

    Our information is based on the results of good-quality studies. It is written by a
    team of
    health care professionals, scientists and editors, and reviewed by external experts. You can
    find a detailed description of how our health information is produced and updated in
    our methods.

​5 Signs Your Bloating Isn’t Normal

Over 30% of us complain of frequent bloating, according to a recent Dartmouth study. While PMS or dietary boo-boos (eating a few too many gassy veggies or drinking carbonated beverages) are often to blame, sometimes it can indicate a more serious health problem, says Sherry Ross, MD, ob-gyn and Women’s Health Expert at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, CA. See your doctor ASAP if you notice any of the following along with chronic bloating:

(Discover the ONE simple, natural solution that can help you reverse chronic inflammation and heal more than 45 diseases. Try The Whole Body Cure today!)

Pelvic pain

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Although rare, it could indicate ovarian cancer, especially if it’s accompanied by other symptoms such as feeling full quickly while eating and suddenly having to pee or poop a lot. “This is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the abdomen, a condition called ascites, and/or pressure from an ovarian mass against your abdomen or pelvis,” explains Steve Vasilev, MD, gynecologic oncologist and medical director of Integrative Gynecologic Oncology at John Wayne Cancer Institute in Santa Monica, CA. But only about a third of all women are aware that any of these symptoms are a sign of ovarian cancer, according to a study published this past April in the journal Clinical Nursing Research. (These are the eight things every woman needs to know about ovarian cancer.) 

What to do: Don’t panic, since most of the time these symptoms point to a more benign condition, such as fibroids. But you should see your doctor ASAP to get checked out. The two tests used most often to screen for ovarian cancer are transvaginal ultrasound (a test that uses sound waves to look for masses on your ovaries) and the CA-125 blood test (if you have ovarian cancer, levels of the protein CA-125 are high).

MORE: 5 Major Risk Factors For Fibroids, And Your Best Treatment Options

Weight loss

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About 1% of the population has celiac disease, a condition in which your body has an autoimmune reaction to gluten that damages your intestinal lining. But it’s estimated that up to 83% of Americans with celiac are either undiagnosed or misdiagnosed, according to the advocacy group Beyond Celiac. While the most common signs are diarrhea and weight loss, about half of all adults with celiac have some signs not related to their GI tract, including anemia, skin rashes, headaches, and early stage osteoporosis, says Deevya Narayanan, MD, a family medicine physician at the Medical Offices of Manhattan.

What to do: See a gastroenterologist, who can order a blood test that looks for certain antibodies in your blood that indicate celiac disease. If it’s positive, you’ll need an endoscopy so your doctor can take a small tissue sample from your small intestine to analyze it for damage. If you do have celiac, treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. But don’t try to go cold turkey on gluten before doing this test and talking to your doctor, or you could end up with a false negative. (If you’re eating gluten-free and don’t have celiac disease, here’s what you could be doing to your heart.) 

Mega abdominal cramps

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It’s easy to dismiss these pains as part of your time of the month or even a stomach bug, but if they’re on the lower left side of your tummy you may have diverticulitis, a condition in which small pouches develop in the lining of the lower part of your colon and become inflamed, says Ross. While it’s traditionally been thought of as a disease for old folk, there’s been a rise in cases among people under the age of 40, according to a review published in the Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. (Researchers aren’t sure why, but one theory is it’s due to obesity and a low-fiber Western diet.)

What to do: Terrible cramping, especially if it’s accompanied by fever, warrants an immediate trip to your doctor’s office. You’ll likely need blood, urine, and stool tests to rule out other sources of infection, and if diverticulitis is still the most likely culprit you’ll probably get a CT scan. Treatment is antibiotics; you’ll also be put on a liquid diet for a few days while your bowel heals.

After you recover, you can prevent recurrences by eating more fiber. (Here’s how you can sneak more fiber into your diet.) You may also want to consider something called the low-FODMAP diet, which stands for fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharides and polyols, suggests Stephen Hanauer, MD, Medical Director of the Digestive Health Center at Northwestern Medical Center in Chicago. That means eating foods low in the carbohydrates fructose (found in fruit and honey), lactose (in dairy), fructans (in wheat, garlic, and onions), galactans (in legumes), and polyols (sugar-free sweeteners), and stone fruit, such as apricots, cherries, and nectarines.

MORE: 7 Reasons You Have Cramps That Have Nothing To Do With Your Period

Funky-smelling vaginal discharge

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Almost 5% of all reproductive-aged women (ages 18-44) have experienced pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) according to the CDC, a condition in which an untreated STD such as chlamydia or gonorrhea travels from the vagina into the fallopian tubes or uterus where it causes fever, chills, and–if left untreated–infertility. But in the early stages, symptoms can be subtler, such as mild pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, or trouble peeing, notes Ross. (Keep your vagina happy and healthy with these tips.

What to do: See your gynecologist, pronto. Your doctor will do a pelvic exam, test you for chlamydia and gonorrhea, and run urine and blood tests to check for infection. Sometimes they will also need to do ultrasounds or even a laparoscopy (inserting a tiny camera through a cut in your belly button to check your interior lady parts) to determine how far the infection has spread. Treatment is antibiotics, and, in very rare cases, surgery.

Here are seven reasons your period is late other than pregnancy:

Bloody diarrhea

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Bloating accompanied by frequent tummy pain and the runs can often be a sign of an inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, both of which cause inflammation of your digestive tract, notes Narayanan. Up to 40% of the time patients also have non-GI symptoms such as vision problems (usually eye pain and blurred vision), skin rashes, and fatigue. (This is what it’s like to live with Crohn’s disease.) 

What to do: Your primary care physician can refer you to a GI specialist, who will run a battery of tests, including blood tests, to look for inflammation; stool tests for bacteria or parasitic infections; and an endoscopy to examine and biopsy parts of your digestive tract. The good news is there are a host of new, effective treatments out there, such as anti-inflammatory drugs like sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) and immune-system suppressing drugs like Infliximab (Remicade) or adalimumab (Humira).

In addition to Rx fixes, you may want to consider adding some tofu or tempeh into your diet: Soy protein seems to reduce the severity of inflammatory bowel disease, according to a study published this past April in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry.

Hallie Levine
Hallie Levine is a freelance writer who has written about health and fitness for more than 20 national publications, including Glamour, Newsweek, and the New York Post.

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Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-term

  • Diagnosis

    This will depend on the intensity and location of pain. RADIATION ENTERITIS is a possibility due to exposure to radiation.

    Self Care

    See you doctor.

  • Diagnosis

    In pregnant women, lower abdominal or pelvic pain along with vaginal bleeding may be a sign of a serious condition, such as ECTOPIC PREGNANCY or MISCARRIAGE.

    Self Care

    Call your doctor right away or go to the emergency room if you are less than 20 weeks pregnant. Go to the labor and delivery department if you are over 20 weeks pregnant.

  • Diagnosis

    These may be signs of a serious problem, such as:

    Self Care

    Call your doctor right away or go the hospital.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have GALLSTONES, an INFECTION, or INFLAMMATION of the gallbladder.

    Self Care

    See your doctor right away.

  • Diagnosis

    Your pain may be from a KIDNEY STONE or KIDNEY TUMOR. If you have a fever, you may have a KIDNEY or BLADDER INFECTION.

    Self Care

    Call your doctor right away or go the hospital.

  • Diagnosis

    These may be signs of ULCERATIVE COLITIS or CROHN’S DISEASE. These are inflammatory diseases of the colon or large intestine.

    Self Care

    See your doctor.

  • Diagnosis


    Self Care

    Keep a food diary to evaluate for patterns or triggers. Take over-the-counter antacids. See your doctor if you are taking antacids more days than not in an average week.

  • Diagnosis

    You may have GASTROENTERITIS, commonly called the stomach flu. Severe cases of gastroenteritis can lead to dehydration in infants and young children.

    Self Care

    Take over-the-counter fever-reducing medicines. (Don’t give children aspirin.) Drink water throughout the day/night. Call your doctor if vomiting and diarrhea persist for more than 2 days, or if you see any blood or mucus in the diarrhea. Call your doctor if you experience DEHYDRATION with such symptoms as lethargy, dry mouth, and/or decreased urination.

  • Diagnosis

    CONSTIPATION may be the source of your discomfort. Occasionally a child will hold a bowel movement because of pain from a HEMORRHOID, an ANAL FISSURE, or during potty training.

    Self Care

    Be sure to include lots of FIBER in your diet and drink enough fluids. Bulk-forming laxatives can also help. Many laxatives are available to treat constipation in children. Your doctor can recommend one that is appropriate for your child. See your doctor if the pain or constipation continues.

  • Diagnosis

    This may be from GASTRITIS, an irritation of the stomach, or from an ULCER.

    Self Care

    Try taking an over-the-counter antacid on a regular basis. See your doctor if an antacid doesn’t help, if the pain comes back quickly after taking one, or if you are taking an antacid most days of an average week.

  • Diagnosis

    A dull, constant pain accompanied by a vaginal discharge may be a sign of PELVIC INFLAMATORY DISEASE (PID), an infection around your ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes.

    Self Care

    This condition requires an antibiotic. See your doctor.

  • Diagnosis

    CYSTITIS, an infection of the urinary tract, can be painful and cause abdominal discomfort.

    Self Care

    See your doctor promptly.

  • Self Care

    If the pain doesn’t stop within a few hours, call your doctor. For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think your problem is serious, call right away.

  • Stages of Pregnancy – Saint Francis Healthcare System Southeast Missouri / St. Francis Hospital in Cape Girardeau

    Every newborn is a blessing, and every birth is unique. Part of our goal at the Family BirthPlace is to encourage your family members to participate throughout your entire pregnancy. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery are part of a major life change, and the process can be filled with anticipation, questions, and concerns. We’re here to offer pregnancy advice and support along the way.

    Here’s what you can expect during each stage of pregnancy, labor, and delivery.

    First Trimester (1–14 Weeks)

    During the first three months of pregnancy (or the first trimester), your body goes through many changes as it adjusts to your growing baby.

    Physical Symptoms:

    • Absence of menstrual period
    • Feeling tired and sleepy
    • Frequent urination
    • Heartburn, indigestion
    • Food aversions and cravings
    • Constipation
    • Nausea with or without vomiting
    • Gas, bloating
    • Breast changes

    Emotional Symptoms:

    • Mood swings
    • Weepiness
    • Irritability
    • Misgivings and fear
    • Joy

    First Trimester Care and Changes

    Vitamin Intake: Taking the vitamins ordered by your doctor is extremely important. The vitamins may cause your stool to be darker, and you may have problems with constipation. If you experience these problems, talk to your doctor. Do not take any medications (including over-the-counter medications) without asking your doctor.

    Exercise: Continue your usual physical and household activities. Walking is great exercise that requires no training or equipment. We also suggest swimming in shallow water (that is neither hot nor cold), riding a stationary bike, (at a comfortable speed and tension) and performing exercises especially designed for pregnant women. You should now begin pelvic toning (Kegel exercises) and relaxation exercises daily.

    Diet: During the first trimester, you need to consume an extra 300 calories each day.

    Sexual Relations: Most experts agree sex and orgasm during a low-risk pregnancy are safe. Sexual relations are important to a marriage or relationship, so here are our recommendations:

    • Emphasize love rather than love making
    • Frequency is less important than quality
    • Stay rested; get your sleep
    • Try new positions if you are uncomfortable

    If you have a history of miscarriage or signs of a threatened miscarriage, your doctor may recommend some restrictions.

    Common Concerns

    Fatigue: Take care of yourself and let others help you. Try to get more sleep and eat a proper diet. Check your work and home environment for poor ventilation, poor lighting, or excessive noise that add to fatigue.

    Mood Swings: Avoid sugar, chocolate, and caffeine. Proper diet, rest, sleep and exercise may help.

    Morning Sickness: Eat a high-complex-carbohydrate diet; drink plenty of fluids; take your vitamins; and try to avoid the sight, smell, and taste of foods that make you queasy. Try eating crackers 20 minutes before rising in the morning, and get up slowly. Brush your teeth or rinse after each bout of vomiting. Minimize stress and practice relaxation techniques. Sea-Bands (bands worn on the wrist for motion sickness) are available at drug stores and may offer some relief.

    Excessive Saliva: Also called ptyalism, an excessive flow of saliva is common and harmless. Frequent brushing and rinsing with a mint-flavored toothpaste or mouthwash and chewing sugarless gum may help.

    Frequent Urination: This condition is caused by an increase in body fluid and pressure from your growing uterus. Lean forward when you empty your bladder.

    Headaches: Your increasing hormone levels may lead to headaches. Try to relax, seek quiet places, get enough rest, eat regularly, don’t get overheated, and stay away from unventilated areas. Alternately apply hot and cold compresses to the aching area every 30 seconds. And stand tall: slouching and looking down causes headaches.

    Breast Changes: Your breasts will enlarge and become very tender due to your increased hormone levels. The areola (dark area around nipple) will darken, and you may notice little bumps, which are tiny glands. The veins become more visible. Increased weight from your enlarged breasts may cause some back discomfort that a well-fitted support bra can help alleviate.

    Gas and constipation: Constipation, which is common during pregnancy, can cause gas and bloating, so eat less and more often. You can cut down on constipation by drinking warm liquids in the morning, developing a regular bathroom schedule, drinking more fluids, and eating more fruits and vegetables. It is important to avoid gas-producing foods.

    Warning Signs

    Warning signs of a potential problem or miscarriage during the first trimester may include mild cramps or spotting. Lie down and rest if this occurs. Spotting is common during pregnancy—especially around the time you would normally expect your period. If pain increases and bleeding is similar to your period, contact your healthcare provider.

    If you experience any of the following signs, go to the Level III Emergency and Trauma Center at Saint Francis Medical Center:

    • Heavy vaginal bleeding with cramps or pain in the center or one-side of your lower abdomen
    • Pain that continues for more than a day, even if there is no bleeding
    • Passing clots or grayish-pink material
    • A temperature more than 100 F and no flu symptoms, or a temperature that lasts more than one day

    Second Trimester (15–27 Weeks)

    During your second trimester of pregnancy, you will feel better and your growing baby will not cause you discomfort. Every three weeks, you should meet with your doctor to test your weight, blood pressure, and urine; measure the height of your uterus; check your baby’s heart rate; and check for signs of swelling.

    Your doctor may order special tests (such as a sonogram) to determine the size, age, and growth of your baby. A sonogram is a painless test used to locate the placenta (afterbirth) and is not harmful to your baby. A fetal activity test (FAT) monitors your baby’s heart rate and movements. We will perform your FAT and sonograms at Saint Francis Medical Center.

    Physical Symptoms:

    • End of or decrease in nausea and vomiting, and a decrease in urinary frequency
    • Fatigue, constipation, heartburn, indigestion, and gas
    • Breast enlargement, though they will be less tender
    • Slight whitish vaginal discharge
    • Occasional lightheadedness, dizziness, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, bleeding gums, increase in appetite, mild swelling of ankles and feet, swelling of the hands and face, varicose veins, and hemorrhoids
    • Fetal movement, backache, skin pigmentation changes, and increased pulse rate
    • Dropping things

    Emotional Symptoms:

    • Mood swings (less severe)
    • Joy and/or fear as you become more aware of your pregnancy
    • Frustration and boredom
    • Forgetfulness or having problems concentrating

    Second Trimester Care and Changes

    Exercise: Exercise is still important, but do not exhaust yourself. Walking is one of the best choices, so take a daily walk at a comfortable rate if weather permits. Keep up your Kegel exercises as well as pelvic rocking. Maintain correct posture.

    Diet: Eat smaller but more frequent meals. Fresh fruits and vegetables should help you maintain regular bowel movements. Increase your fluids.

    Common Concerns

    Breathlessness: This is due to an increased level of hormones in your body. As your pregnancy advances, your uterus pushes up against your diaphragm.

    Forgetfulness: Forgetting an appointment, losing things and having problems concentrating are normal and temporary. Recognize these problems as a normal part of pregnancy and try to reduce your stress. Keep a good sense of humor—and checklists.

    Hair Dyes and Perms: It is best to avoid hair dyes and/or perms during your pregnancy. If you are concerned about gray hair, try a pure vegetable coloring.

    Nasal Stuffiness: Nasal stuffiness often occurs with pregnancy. If pollen affects you, drink more fluids and stay indoors with a filtered air conditioner. Avoid animals and dust. Nosebleeds may occur. Try applying Vaseline in each nostril, squeeze your nose for a few seconds, and apply a cold cloth. Use a vaporizer or humidifier.

    Vaginal Discharge: A thick, milky, mild-smelling discharge is normal throughout pregnancy. Do not douche unless prescribed by your doctor. If the discharge is yellowish, greenish, or thick and cheesy; has a foul odor; or is accompanied by burning, itching or soreness, you likely have an infection. Notify your doctor for treatment. Good hygiene habits, a good diet, and avoiding refined sugar can hasten your recovery.

    Fetal Movement: Fetal movement indicates your baby is healthy and active. The first time your baby moves can be very exciting and usually occurs between 14 and 22 weeks. By 23 or 24 weeks of pregnancy, fetal movement is well established. Your doctor will ask you about your baby’s activity at your appointments. As your pregnancy progresses, try to be very aware of your baby’s movements.

    Appearance: You will obviously look pregnant and may find loose clothing or maternity clothes are more comfortable.

    Advice: Everyone has advice for an expecting mother, including your mother, mother-in-law, family, and friends. Your doctor, childbirth educator, and nurse are your best resources.

    Fatigue: Your body is working harder. Slow things down but do not stop. Make sure to monitor your activities and exercise. Try sleeping on your left side with a pillow between your legs. A good night of sleep and an afternoon nap are the best medicine for fatigue.

    Backache: Your growing uterus is placing more pressure on your lower back, so good body mechanics are important—and watch your weight gain. Also, do not wear high heel shoes and avoid heavy lifting. Try to relax, and have your partner massage your back.

    Sore feet: As your pregnancy advances, your feet may become slightly larger. Wear comfortable shoes with low heels. Foot massages will also help.

    Travel: Check with your doctor before making plans, and make sure to carry a copy of your obstetrical history if you travel. Don’t sit for a long time. Eat a good diet and drink plenty of fluids. If you must travel outside the country, drink bottled water and avoid uncooked foods.

    Dental Problems: Your gums may be swollen and bleed. Floss and brush regularly, and attend to any other dental problems.

    Itchy Abdomen: Pregnant bellies become itchier as the months progress. Try not to scratch. Ask your doctor to prescribe a lotion that may help.

    Overheating: During pregnancy your metabolic rate is higher, so you feel warmer. Bathe often, use a good antiperspirant, and dress in layers so you can remove some clothing if you feel warm.

    Premature labor: Premature labor is when labor starts before week 36 of your pregnancy. If premature labor is not stopped, it will result in the birth of a baby who is too small and may have difficulty breathing. There are many factors that can increase the risk of premature labor:

    • Smoking: Stop now.
    • Alcohol and Drugs: Avoid completely. Do not take any medications, including over-the-counter medicines, without the approval of your doctor.
    • Infection: Reduce your risk of infection by staying away from crowds. Don’t hold your urine, as it may increase your risk of infection.
    • Incompetent Cervix: This is when the cervix opens prematurely. If undiagnosed, it can lead to a late miscarriage or early labor. If diagnosed, you can avoid premature labor by having your cervix sutured closed around week 14.
    • Heavy Physical Work: Premature labor may be caused by heavy work and standing too long. Avoid these activities.
    • Poor Diet and Poor Weight Gain: Women who do not eat well and do not have an adequate weight gain are at risk for premature labor.
    • Previous Premature Labor: If you have a history of premature delivery, abstain from sex during the last two to three months of pregnancy.  If you think you are having premature labor, contact your doctor immediately. After 20 weeks of pregnancy, all emergency care is provided at the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace. Go there immediately.

    Premature Rupture of Membranes: When the bag of water surrounding your baby breaks or starts to leak before 37 weeks, it is referred to as premature rupture of membranes. The membranes serve as protection against infection for your baby. Signs of premature rupture include any leakage, a sudden rush of fluid, a small tickle or if you feel wet. Do not wait for labor or hope it will stop. Come to the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace immediately. Infection can happen quickly, harming you and your baby.

    Urinary Tract Infections: If you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor immediately:

    • A feeling you have to urinate all the time
    • A burning sensation when you pass urine
    • Only passing a drop or two of urine
    • Sharp lower abdominal pain
    • Elevated temperature

    To prevent urinary tract infections:

    • Drink lots of water, unsweetened citrus or cranberry juice
    • Avoid coffee, tea (even decaffeinated) and alcohol
    • Do not hold your urine
    • Take your time, lean forward to help empty your bladder
    • Wear cotton or cotton-lined panties
    • Don’t wear tight pants or pantyhose under your pants
    • Sleep without panties
    • Avoid perfumed soaps, sprays or powders
    • Wipe from front to back
    • When taking antibiotics, eat unsweetened yogurt or frozen yogurt, which contain active cultures that help protect against getting a urinary tract infection
    • Get plenty of rest and sleep
    • Do your relaxation exercises and avoid stress

    Warning Signs

    Warning signs of a potential problem during the second trimester of pregnancy may include:

    • A gush or steady leaking of fluid from the vagina
    • Pain or burning when urinating and/or fever more than 101 F
    • Vision problems, blurring
    • Severe headache for more than 2 to 3 hours
    • Swelling or puffiness of hands and face, especially with a headache
    • Sudden weight gain if you haven’t overeaten
    • Coughing up blood

    If you experience any of these signs before your 20th week, go to the Level III Emergency and Trauma Center at Saint Francis Medical Center. After 20 weeks, go directly to the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace.

    Third Trimester (28–40 Weeks)

    During the third trimester of pregnancy, you will visit the doctor every two weeks and then once a week beginning at week 36. Visits will include weight, blood pressure, and urine testing; measuring the height of the uterus, the size/position of your baby, and the baby’s heart rate. We will also be checking for signs of swelling and asking about Braxton Hicks contractions. At 36 weeks your doctor will perform blood work, an internal examination and repeat cultures.

    Physical Symptoms:

    • Fatigue (report extreme fatigue to your doctor, as it may be a sign of anemia)
    • Changes in fetal movement; more squirming due to less room
    • Increase in whitish discharge
    • Lower abdominal ache
    • Constipation
    • Occasional headaches and nasal congestion
    • Occasional nosebleeds and bleeding gums
    • Leg cramps and backache
    • Discomfort and achiness in the buttocks and pelvic area
    • Mild swelling of the ankles and feet
    • Varicose veins and hemorrhoids
    • Shortness of breath
    • Difficulty sleeping
    • Braxton Hicks contractions
    • Clumsiness
    • Colostrum
    • Loss or gain of appetite

    Emotional Symptoms:

    • Increased apprehension and irritation
    • Absentmindedness
    • Increased dreaming, fantasizing and boredom
    • Feeling tired may or may not increase as you carry more weight
    • Trouble sleeping (try sleeping on your left side with a pillow between your legs)

    Third Trimester Care and Changes

    Exercise: There are several exercise programs for expecting and post delivery mothers. Your doctor can suggest some, but you’ll need to know your own limitations. This is not the time to start an exercise program if you have never exercised before. Try walking.

    Diet: A balanced diet is still key. Frequent, smaller meals will make you feel more comfortable. After your baby drops, you will experience less stomach discomfort. Before labor begins, many mothers actually lose weight or stop gaining.

    Sexual relations: If you have a normal pregnancy you can have sex, but you may have to look for a more comfortable position. It’s normal to lose temporary interest in sex. If you have risk factors for premature labor, have any bleeding or are carrying multiples, sex may be restricted. Check with your doctor.

    Regular activities: Continue with your activities of daily living, as long you do not tire. Take rest periods throughout the day. Get off your feet, raise your legs, listen to relaxing music or take a nap. Slowly decrease the amount of bending, lifting, stooping and pushing you do as your pregnancy advances. Avoid carrying heavy laundry baskets and groceries, especially in your last trimester. Keep yourself hydrated by drinking lots of fluids, especially in warmer weather. By taking care of yourself you are taking good care of your baby.

    Common Concerns

    Swelling (Edema): Swelling is very common late in your pregnancy, especially in the evenings, during warm weather and after standing or sitting for a long time. Most swelling disappears overnight or if you lie down for a long time. Prevent swelling by wearing comfortable shoes, avoiding elastic-top socks and stockings, and wearing support hose. Fluids to help flush out wastes and avoiding excessive salt should help control swelling. If swelling lasts more than 24 hours with a rapid weight gain, headaches, or vision problems, see your doctor.

    Safety: Your balance is poor because your center of gravity keeps shifting and your joints are less stable. Daydreaming may cause accidents. Be careful and report any falls to your doctor. If you notice vaginal bleeding, leaking fluid, abdominal tenderness or uterine contractions, come directly to the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace.

    Hiccups: Believe it or not, your baby can get hiccups while in the womb. Don’t panic. This will not hurt your baby.

    Backache: The pressure of your growing uterus can affect the sciatic nerve, causing low back, buttock and leg pain. Get off your feet, lie down, rest and relax. Warm compresses may reduce pain.

    Dreams and Fantasies: Dreams give clues into your feelings that can help you with your transition to motherhood. You can expect them during your last trimester. They can be both horrifying and pleasant and occur during the day and night. Each dream and fantasy may express one or more of these concerns:

    • Being unprepared, losing things, forgetting things
    • Being attacked or hurt by intruders/animals or falling
    • Gaining too much weight, forgetting to drink milk
    • Losing appeal, not being attractive
    • Sexual encounters, both positive and negative, pleasure or guilt provoking
    • Death, loss, resurrection
    • What your baby will be like

    Stress Incontinence: The pressure of your growing uterus on your bladder can cause stress incontinence (leaking urine when you laugh, cough or sneeze). Kegel exercises may help prevent incontinence.

    Braxton Hicks Contractions: These contractions are usually painless but may be uncomfortable because of the tightening of your uterus. They become more frequent as you get closer to delivering. Changing your position may stop them completely. Try lying down and relaxing or getting up and walking. Report these contractions to your doctor if they are very frequent, are accompanied by pain or unusual vaginal discharge, or if you are at high risk for premature labor.

    Bathing: Tub bathing is safe in normal pregnancies until your membranes rupture or the mucous plug is expelled. Safety is most important. Make sure someone is available to help you in and out of the bathtub. When showering, make sure there is a nonslip surface to help prevent falls.

    Lightening (engagement): This is when your baby drops into the pelvis. With a first pregnancy, this usually happens two to four weeks before delivery. In women who already have had children, it rarely occurs until they go into labor. Your belly seems lower and tilted forward and you can breathe easier. There is less discomfort when you eat but more pressure on your bladder. Your center of gravity shifts again, and you may feel off balance, so be cautious.

    Urinary Tract Infections: If you have any of these symptoms, see your doctor immediately.

    • A feeling you have to urinate all the time
    • A burning sensation when you pass your urine
    • A small amount or only drops of urine
    • Sharp lower abdominal pain
    • Elevated temperature
    • Blood in your urine

    Prelabor Symptoms:

    • Lightening (engagement)
    • Sensation of increased pressure in the pelvic and rectum area
    • Loss of weight or cessation of weight gain
    • Change in energy level (energy spurts, nesting instinct)
    • Change in vaginal discharge, loss of mucous plug, pink or bloody show
    • Braxton Hicks contractions increase
    • Diarrhea

    False Labor Symptoms:

    • Contractions are not regular and do not get longer or stronger
    • Pain is in your lower abdomen rather than your lower back
    • Contractions stop if you walk around or change positions
    • Fetal movements increase briefly with contractions (A lot of activity or movement could mean your baby is in distress and you should see your doctor. )

    Real Labor Symptoms:

    • Contractions get longer, stronger and closer together and get stronger when you change positions or activity
    • Pain begins in the lower back and spreads to the lower abdomen and may radiate to your legs
    • Pinkish or blood-stained show is present
    • Before labor begins, membranes may rupture in a gush or a trickle.

    Warning Signs

    Warning signs of a potential problem during the third trimester of pregnancy include bleeding and spotting. The answers to “Is it time to have my baby?” and “Is something wrong?” depend upon the type of bleeding. Pinkish-stained or red-streaked mucous appearing soon after sex or vagina examination or brownish spotting 48 hours later is normal and not a warning sign, but you should report it to your doctor. Bright red bleeding or persistent spotting needs immediate attention. Come to the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace. Pinkish or brownish tint or bloody mucous along with contractions could mean labor is starting.

    Signs of premature labor (labor pains before 37 weeks) include:

    • Menstrual-like cramps with or without diarrhea, nausea or indigestion
    • Lower back pain or pressure
    • An achiness or pressure in the pelvis, thighs or groin
    • A watery or brownish discharge or passage of a thick gelatin-like plug (mucous plug)
    • A trickle or gush of fluid (rupture of membranes)

    If you think your membranes have ruptured, go to the Saint Francis Family BirthPlace immediately. If you have leakage, trickles, a sudden gush or feel very wet, you must see your doctor. Infection can happen quickly and can harm you and your baby.

    Warning signs during late pregnancy include:

    • Heavy vaginal bleeding
    • A gush or steady leaking of fluid
    • Painful burning when urinating and/or temperature more than 100.4 F
    • Blurred vision
    • Severe headache for more than 2 or 3 hours
    • Swelling or puffiness of hands and face, especially with a headache
    • Sudden weight gain
    • Coughing up blood


    To learn more about how the Family BirthPlace at Saint Francis Medical Center supports mother and baby through all pregnancy stages, call 877–231-BABY (2229).

    Early Signs Of Pregnancy – 9 Signs You May Be Pregnant

    When you first suspect (or hope!) you might be pregnant, all of a sudden you become hyper vigilant for any early signs of pregnancy. If it’s too soon to take a pregnancy test, the waiting can be unbearable!

    Yet, some women may experience a range of pregnancy symptoms, before it’s time to take a pregnancy test.

    Other women might cruise through their pregnancy with nothing more than a missed period and a few aches and pains. If this happens to be you, don’t tell other pregnant women you don’t even have morning sickness, or they might get insanely jealous and not talk to you!

    But on a more serious note, if you think you might be pregnant, read on to find out if you might be right!

    Early signs of pregnancy

    Many women first realise they’re pregnant after they’ve had a missed period or taken a pregnancy test.

    But by the time a woman has had a missed period, she’s already in week 4 of pregnancy, even though it’s just two weeks after conception. Find out more about calculating your estimated due date and why it’s not often accurate.

    Morning sickness, food cravings, frequent urination and food aversions are well known early pregnancy symptoms, but they don’t usually appear until 4 weeks of pregnancy or soon after.

    What does the research say about pregnancy symptoms?

    According to a study, 50% of participants began experiencing pregnancy symptoms by 36 days after their last period. By the end of the eighth week, this figure increased to 89%.

    The study also reported women who smoked were more likely to have a delayed onset of pregnancy symptoms.

    Early pregnancy symptoms in the first 2 weeks after you conceive can definitely be noticed by some women.

    Conception is assumed to have occurred on day 14 (which is based on an average), and is considered to be the end of the second week of pregnancy. This is because day one of your last period is considered to be day one of pregnancy.

    Symptoms of pregnancy just one week after conception are possible, but usually only women who have been pregnant previously are able notice them.

    What are the earliest signs of pregnancy?

    You might be surprised to know there are at least 70 early symptoms of pregnancy, although only a handful are common and easy to identify.

    Below are the most common early symptoms of pregnancy you might notice, before you experience a missed period or take a pregnancy test.

    #1: Mood swings

    Ah, mood swings… one of those pregnancy symptoms that seem to come out of nowhere and take you by surprise!

    Significant hormonal changes are going on. These changes affect the chemicals in your brain which are responsible for regulating your moods.

    This means the things you’d normally handle with ease now seem more difficult because you can be more easily triggered.

    But unfortunately, mood changes are part of the deal while your hormone levels are going crazy!

    #2: Spotting (implantation bleeding)

    Many women wonder, is spotting an early sign of pregnancy? Around 6 to 12 days after conception, pregnant women may experience spotting, which is the result of implantation bleeding.

    When the fertilized egg embeds into the uterine lining, it can cause a little spotting. You might notice a little blood when you wipe with toilet paper, or you may get some discharge on your underwear.

    Implantation bleeding is usually a brown or light pink colour. It might be mistaken for your expected period if you have light bleeding. Find out more information about implantation bleeding.

    After implantation, the pregnancy hormone, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin), will start to be produced. So there’s no point in taking a heap of home pregnancy tests until after this time!

    #3: Fatigue

    In the first trimester of pregnancy, you’re likely to feel much more fatigued than normal.

    Some women experience overwhelming fatigue, which seems to have started before their positive pregnancy test.

    That’s because there is lots of effort going on inside you! Even though it’s super early and your baby is at its earliest stages of development, the building blocks of growing a baby take an enormous amount of effort (and lots of hormones!). So if you need to rest at any time of the day, do it! The relentless fatigue may also cause you to feel more sensitive mood-wise.

    #4: Breast changes/nipple changes

    This early sign of pregnancy can be sneaky because it’s also something some women experience before they get their period.

    However, breast changes are one of the most commonly reported pregnancy symptoms. According to a BellyBelly poll, breast tenderness was the most popular earliest sign of pregnancy.

    Aside from tender breasts, your breasts may feel swollen and full in early pregnancy, and you may notice the blood vessels in your chest more than normal. This is due to hormonal changes and increased blood volume in the area.

    Your nipples may feel ultra-sensitive – even the sensation of brushing against clothing can be irritating.

    There are many breasts changes you might notice in the first trimester of pregnancy – read about 7 of them in our article, breast changes during pregnancy.

    #5: Increased white vaginal discharge

    Increased progesterone levels are responsible for many pregnancy side effects and symptoms.

    In fact, increased white vaginal discharge could be the first pregnancy symptom you might notice. This discharge helps to protect the vagina and cervix from infection.

    You may notice a sticky, white, or pale-yellow mucus when you wipe and may feel more comfortable wearing a panty liner. This discharge should have a mild odour that isn’t offensive, and should not be yellow, green or grey in colour.

    Find out more about early pregnancy discharge.

    #6: Cramping

    Another common early sign is cramping. Pregnancy cramps should feel like mild period pain – only, you won’t get your period!

    Cramping during pregnancy occurs because your uterus is already growing and stretching to make room for a fast-growing baby. Find out more about cramps during pregnancy.

    If cramping is accompanied by blood loss, see your health care provider as soon as possible.

    You may feel concerned about miscarriage – if so, see our article, early signs of miscarriage.

    #7: Diarrhea

    Hormonal changes are going to influence your life for a while now! Changes in hormones cause many digestive issues during early pregnancy. Constipation can be a sign of early pregnancy, but the opposite can be true too.

    Some women find their digestive system overreacts to fluctuating levels of pregnancy hormones and will experience bouts of loose stools. As long as there are no signs of infection (fever, cramping, vomiting), you don’t need to worry – but speak to your health care provider if you’re concerned. Some electrolytes will help keep you hydrated.

    Read more about diarrhea during pregnancy.

    #8: Heartburn

    Heartburn is one of those early symptoms many women don’t expect. Again, because of hormone changes, food moves slower through your digestive system during pregnancy. This may also cause constipation.

    #9: Bloating and gas

    Bloating and gas are two more not-so-glamorous symptoms that may occur. Again, increased levels of progesterone and oestrogen are the cause, making you feel bloated and needing to pass gas or burp more frequently.

    Want to know 7 more early pregnancy signs?

    If six early signs of pregnancy aren’t enough, you can discover even more in our pregnancy symptoms article.

    90,000 Signs of candidiasis: itching, discharge, bloating – INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Delicate problems: itching and discharge

    Approximately 75% of women of childbearing age are familiar with the symptoms of a genital yeast infection. It is manifested by irritation and redness of the skin of the perineum, severe itching and copious cheesy discharge. Such manifestations occur at least once in a lifetime. And in about 20% of women, itching and periodic changes in discharge occur quite often, the infection has a recurrent course.The official medical term for a yeast infection is candidiasis. He indicates the nature of the pathogen. In this case, itching and unpleasant symptoms are provoked by the yeast Candida. Adult women are not the only patients susceptible to this disease, in addition, not only itching in the genital area, but also damage to other areas of the body is possible.

    Candidiasis: features of pathology

    Candidiasis is a pathological growth of the yeast Candida albicans, belonging to the group of opportunistic pathogens.In healthy people, Candida is present on the skin, mucous membranes, in the intestinal lumen, it is harmless and coexists peacefully along with trillions of other bacteria. But in the case of overgrowth of fungi, candidiasis develops, it can lead to significant health problems in men, women and even children. Genital yeast infections usually affect adults, while children are more likely to develop oral thrush. The defeat and inflammation of the intestine, increased permeability of its walls is a more serious consequence of candidiasis.It happens when Candida disrupts the permeability of the intestinal wall and allows partially broken down proteins and other toxins to enter the body. In severe cases known as candidal sepsis, Candida can negatively affect vital parts of the body, including the blood, heart, and brain, ultimately leading to hospitalization and long-term treatment.

    Signs of infection

    It is important at the earliest symptoms of candidiasis to take appropriate steps to treat the fungal infection in order to avoid all of the aforementioned conditions.There are several symptoms of Candida overgrowth that patients may initially not even notice. For example, mood disorders.

    Scientists are still figuring out how the brain and the digestive system are connected, but it is already known that if something in the gut does not work properly (for example, there is an overgrowth of harmful bacteria), it can certainly affect the nervous system. Therefore, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, mood swings, and irritability can indicate Candida overgrowth.

    Chronic fatigue can also manifest as infection. Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterized by severe exhaustion that cannot be overcome. In particular, it is defined as fatigue lasting at least six months, which is accompanied by additional symptoms such as joint pain, blurred consciousness and headaches, apathy, weakness. For those with Candida activity, one of the symptoms is chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Digestive problems: bloating, pain, constipation

    If symptoms such as bloating, flatulence, intestinal cramps, diarrhea or constipation are present, this is a clear signal that there is a problem in the digestive tract.One of the reasons for bloating and discomfort may be insufficient levels of healthy bacteria, which is triggered by overgrowth of Candida.

    Often, bloating is not associated with a particular type of food, it occurs periodically, has varying degrees of severity. Symptoms worsen with respiratory infections or stress.

    Additional features

    An overgrowth of Candida can cause sinus infections, causing sore throat, congestion, swelling, postnasal drip syndrome, and other sinus symptoms.

    Recurrent infections of the genitals and urinary tract are also possible. As discussed earlier, Candida overgrowth in the vagina can cause a vaginal yeast infection that women seek to see a doctor with. But urinary tract infections can also be caused by Candida, especially against the background of recurrent thrush, when itchy skin and typical discharge appear.

    Common causes of candidiasis

    Often, candidiasis is a concomitant problem that arises as a secondary complication of various diseases or infections.For example, fungal infections often develop when carbohydrate metabolism is impaired. Yeast uses sugar as a source of energy for life. Therefore, the more sugar there is in the body, the more yeast will grow, which can lead to candidiasis. In the modern Western diet, refined sugars and carbohydrates are found in excess, and pathologies such as prediabetes and diabetes contribute to the disruption of their metabolism.

    Alcohol intake also has a negative effect. Many types of alcohol containing sugar fuel the growth of candida.Just as a high sugar diet stimulates Candida overgrowth, the same is true for excess alcohol consumption.

    The growth of fungi is affected by the intake of antibiotics – drugs to fight any bacterial infection. And because these drugs kill bacteria, good and bad, they pose a threat to antibiotic resistance and Candida overgrowth by killing the good bacteria along with the bad ones. It is they who maintain the natural levels of Candida in the body, preventing them from multiplying.

    Source: https://medaboutme.ru

    Chlamydia in women – Institute of Health

    Urogenital chlamydia is a highly contagious (contagious) sexually transmitted infection. More than 1.5 million people fall ill in Russia every year. Most often sexually active men and women aged 20-40 years get sick. Now this disease has increased among adolescents 13-17 years old. The source of infection is individuals with overt and latent disease. The infection is transmitted sexually and asexually (household), in utero and at birth.


    The causative agent of urogenital chlamydia is Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes D-K). This parasite, incapable of living outside the body, is a gram-negative bacterium containing DNA and RNA. Chlamydiae are capable of binary division during reproduction and are sensitive to antibiotics. The incubation period is from 5-7 days to 3-6 weeks. The asymptomatic course is observed in 60-80% of cases.


    The clinical manifestations of chlamydia infection are diverse.The symptoms of the disease depend on the state of the immune system, the localization of the lesion, the virulence of chlamydia. However, even with an asymptomatic course of the disease, an ascending infection of the uterus and appendages is not excluded.

    1. Salpingitis and salpingo-oophoritis (often with a worn-out long course without a tendency to deteriorate): severe pain in the lower abdomen, fever sometimes up to 38 degrees, sometimes urination disorder, bloating, dyspepsia.
    2. Endometritis: fever, pain in the lower abdomen, serous-pus-like discharge.
    3. Infertility (sometimes this is the patient’s only complaint)


    To identify an infection, a set of diagnostic measures is required.

    • Bacteriological examination
    • PCR
    • Serological blood tests

    Modern diagnostic techniques:

    • Test for the detection of chlamydia using PCR (polymerase chain reaction).Accuracy – 100%.
    • Sowing for bacteria. Accuracy – 70%.
    • Enzyme immunoassay. Accuracy – 50%.
    • Vaginal swab. Accuracy – 15%.

    Finally, modern diagnostics actively uses ultrasound. The procedure most accurately detects the pathology of the genital tissues, typical for chlamydia.

    In any case, the earlier it is started, the more accurate the diagnostics are.


    Treatment of urogenital chlamydia is carried out with antibacterial drugs, treatment must be prescribed for both the woman and her partner. In order to prevent candidiasis against the background of antibacterial treatment, antimycotic drugs are prescribed. In chronic recurrent chlamydia, immunomodulators must be selected. Control studies are carried out 3-4 weeks after treatment and then during three menstrual cycles.

    Pay attention! Self-medication is unacceptable! The wrong choice of the drug can translate the disease into a chronic stage.

    We repeat once again that the asymptomatic course of urogenital chlamydia is observed in 60-80% of cases.But undiagnosed and untreated chlamydia gives rise to the most serious complications, such as:

    • Ectopic pregnancy;
    • Complete or partial obstruction of the fallopian tubes;
    • Adhesion process in the small pelvis;
    • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome;
    • Miscarriage;
    • Reiter’s disease (cervicitis, arthritis, conjunctivitis).

    Read also

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    90,000 Why does bloating occur and what to do about it

    Knowing and observing a few simple rules for the prevention of flatulence, you can exclude the possibility of this deviation in health.

    Key recommendations on how to prevent excessive flatulence in the intestines:

    • Eliminate foods that cause excessive gas formation from the diet;
    • take food in a relaxed atmosphere;
    • chew food thoroughly;
    • avoid stressful situations and do not overeat during them;
    • to play sports and walk in the fresh air;
    • Sleep every night for at least 8 hours and exclude the influence of all objects that interfere with the night’s rest.

    Take care of yourself and remember that deviations in the work of the gastrointestinal tract directly depend on the diet. Try to eat healthy foods and not get nervous.

    How to properly prepare for Easter to meet it without bloating, heartburn and diarrhea? Read about the top 5 remedies to have on hand during the Easter holidays.

    Bloating can also occur due to missing teeth or poor quality dentures.Therefore, we bring to your attention a new article on how to care for dentures and which fixing cream to choose for them .

    Learn more about health at apteka24.ua .

    This editorial material has been verified for accuracy by therapist of the Medical Plaza – Ekaterina Yurievna Krasnova .


    Functional anatomy and physiology of gastric secretion / PubMed

    The Role of Enzyme Supplementation in Digestive Disorders / ResearchGate

    Recent advances on lactose intolerance: Tolerance thresholds and currently available answers / NIH

    Peppermint oil for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis / ClinicalTrials.gov

    Increasing Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Symptoms With Ingestion of Galacto-Oligosaccharides Are Mitigated by α-Galactosidase Treatment / AJG

    Effect of Repeated Consumption of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum on Fecal Characteristics and Gut Microbiota: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, and Parallel-Group Clinical Trial / ResearchGate

    A Randomized Clinical Trial of Berberine Hydrochloride in Patients with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome / PubMeD

    Probiotics in human health and disease: from nutribiotics to pharmabiotics / EuropePMC

    Digestive Enzyme Supplementation in Gastrointestinal Diseases / NCBI


    apteka24.ua provides comprehensive and reliable information on medicine, health and well-being, however, only your doctor can make a diagnosis and choose a treatment method! Self-medication can be unsafe for your health. apteka24.ua is not responsible for possible negative consequences arising from the use of information posted on the site by users of apteka24.ua.

    90,000 Bloating: what to do, how to treat

    Bloating is caused by excess gas production in the intestines and may indicate the presence of the following gastrointestinal diseases:

    Chronic cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder).Bloating is often combined with severe pain in the right hypochondrium (biliary colic), which is associated with a violation of the outflow of bile into the duodenum. Untimely treatment can lead to the formation of gallstones and lead to the need to remove the gallbladder.

    Biliary dyskinesia. Violation of a functional nature, however, with a prolonged course, it significantly reduces performance and can cause a number of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Chronic hepatitis (inflammatory liver diseases). Particularly dangerous are infectious hepatitis B and C, which are manifested by rather meager symptoms, but have dire consequences: liver cirrhosis, cancer.

    Chronic gastritis. May cause gastric and duodenal ulcers.

    Chronic pancreatitis (inflammatory changes in the pancreas). It impairs the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract due to a violation of the digestive process in the duodenum, due to a decrease in the release of digestive enzymes.

    Irritable bowel syndrome . Has a functional nature, significantly reduces the quality of life, efficiency. It is very difficult to give in to drug treatment.

    Gallstone disease. The danger arises if a stone closes the gallbladder duct or common bile duct, jaundice, perforation of the gallbladder wall is possible. Therefore, in the future, removal of the gallbladder is often performed (cholecystectomy).

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    Proctology (from the Greek.proktos – ‘anus’, logos – ‘teaching’) is a branch of medical science that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of the perineum, rectum and other parts of the large intestine.

    Modern proctology combines all the latest achievements of medical science in the field of diagnosis and treatment of various diseases. Unfortunately, according to statistics, the number of people facing similar problems is increasing every day. Around the world, millions of patients seek medical help with such ailments as:

    • hemorrhoids
    • anal fissure
    • colitis
    • paroproctitis
    • constipation
    • diarrhea
    • dysbiosis
    • rectal polyps
    • cochinocytes anal opening
    • rectal cancer

    Only a highly qualified proctologist can solve these problems in a modern medical institution.Among the diagnostic techniques used in modern proctology, it should be noted such as: anoscopy, rectoscopy, sphincterometry, colonoscopy, ultrasonography, irrigoscopy, fistulography, biopsy, laboratory blood tests and stool analysis, as well as DNA diagnostics.

    Screening (“screening” examination) of diseases of the colon is based on fecal occult blood samples and digital rectal examination. The best method for detecting early forms of colon tumors is primary colonoscopy, which is required for all people over 40 years of age.

    Proctological diseases during screening are detected in every fourth adult who considers himself practically healthy. In most cases, these are asymptomatic colon polyps.

    Who needs to visit a coloproctologist

    • Patients complaining of pain in the abdomen and rectal area, constipation, unstable stools, blood and mucus in the feces
    • people over 40 years old
    • women before childbirth and pregnancy
    • people with a burdened family history (tumors and polyps, inflammatory diseases of the colon in relatives)
    • patients with previous coloproctological diseases
    • people having anal sex
    • people exposed to harmful factors: a sedentary lifestyle, occupational hazards (drivers , people working with hazardous substances and conditions of increased dustiness)
    • with injuries of the perianal region and rectum (foreign objects)
    • with frequent temperatures to low numbers (subfebrile) 37.1 – 37.5
    • when changing blood tests: new a decrease in the level of leukocytes, an increase in ESR, anemia.


    Clinical manifestations of diseases of the colon are diverse and not always clearly expressed. In most of them, a period of latent (asymptomatic) course is noted, then weak signs of the disease appear, which are almost not recorded by the patient himself and most often expressed by “intestinal discomfort”: there is a periodic increase in stool frequency or delay, unpleasant sensations in the lower abdomen or a feeling of swelling, sensation foreign body in the rectum, etc.n. These initial manifestations of diseases of the colon become intense and constant over time and are accompanied by acute pain, severe constipation or diarrhea, mucus and blood, itching in the perineum, fever, exhaustion, intoxication, etc.

    • Pain in abdomen is a fairly characteristic symptom of diseases of the colon and ampullar rectum, but they cannot be considered an early manifestation. Pain can be constant or cramping. Cramping pains usually indicate a limited narrowing of the intestine as a result of various pathological processes. Less often, they are noted with intestinal dyskinesia with a predominance of the spastic component.Persistent abdominal pain is more characteristic of progressive inflammatory lesions; they are observed in granulomatous and nonspecific ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, bowel tumor with perifocal inflammation, diverticulosis with diverticulitis and the formation of an inflammatory infiltrate or the development of peritonitis.
    • Pain in the anus and perineum is often constant, bursting, or twitching and burning. With an acute anal fissure, acute thrombosis of hemorrhoids, acute paraproctitis after an act of defecation, they can become unbearable.A number of rectal diseases (benign tumors, chronic fistulas, cancer, etc.) can proceed for a long time without pain. With the most common disease of the rectum – uncomplicated hemorrhoids – pain usually does not occur or they are mild (a feeling of swelling).
    • The discharge of mucus and pus from the anus can be noted only during bowel movements or be permanent (with rectal fistulas and anus sphincter insufficiency). In the latter case, maceration of the perianal skin often occurs, multiple erosions and poorly healing deep cracks occur, which is accompanied by itching, burning and sharp pain.An admixture of mucus and pus to feces is usually observed in chronic and acute proctitis, proctosigmoiditis, ulcerative and granulomatous colitis, as well as in villous tumors and cancer of the rectum and sigmoid colon. The secretion of mucus and pus in these cases is often combined with an admixture of blood.
    • Bleeding or blood in the stool is one of the most common and serious symptoms of diseases of the rectum and colon. Admixture of blood during bowel movements can be a symptom of a malignant tumor! Discharge of drops of scarlet blood or even jet bleeding, more often at the end of the act of defecation, is characteristic of hemorrhoids and anal fissures.Sometimes such hemorrhage leads to a loss of 100-200 ml of blood per day and, with frequent repetitions, causes the development of anemia. Blood streaks and blood clots, which are macroscopically determined in feces, are usually observed in inflammatory processes (colitis), diverticulosis and tumors. The more proximal is the source of bleeding in the colon, the more homogeneous the admixture of blood to the feces and the darker their color. With bleeding from the cecum and ascending intestine, the blood can change so much under the influence of intestinal enzymes that the feces take on a typical tarry appearance, as with bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract.
    • Slightly altered blood in a liquid state or in the form of clots can be released during bowel movements in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease of the colon, with diverticulosis, as well as with disintegrating and ulcerated villous and cancerous tumors. Profuse bleeding is rarely observed in diseases of the colon. They can occur with diverticulosis of the colon, less often with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease of the colon.
    • Anemia in diseases of the colon develops more often as a result of chronic or acute blood loss.In cancer localized in the right sections of the colon, anemia is often observed and is caused by both chronic blood loss and impaired hematopoiesis due to intoxication, which develops early and rapidly at this localization of the tumor.
    • Constipation – difficulty in the act of defecation and stool retention up to the absence of it for several days and weeks – is a common symptom of both functional and organic diseases of the colon. Functional constipation can be atonic and spastic and, depending on this, proceed with less or more severe pain syndrome.With organic narrowing of the colon (cicatricial strictures, tumors, external compression, etc.), constipation usually precedes or is one of the symptoms of partial intestinal obstruction, often progressing to complete obstruction. The alternation of constipation and diarrhea is often a symptom of irritable bowel syndrome.
    • Colon obstruction is a syndrome of violation of the passage of contents through the colon, manifested in the absence or delay of stool, difficulty in passing gas, bloating and distension of the abdomen, persistent and cramping pains, an increase in other dyskinetic phenomena (impaired appetite, nausea, vomiting, etc.).NS.). Obstruction can be partial or complete and is more often observed in tumor lesions of the colon, but it also occurs in functional (atonic and spastic constipation, coprostasis, etc.). With the progression of large intestinal obstruction, it grows as local (bloating, signs of inflammation of the peritoneum ) and general (symptoms of intoxication and metabolic disorders) disorders. Partial obstruction of the colon is characterized by periodic but incomplete passage of stool and gas, sometimes a change of constipation with diarrhea, temporary cessation of pain and bloating, short or long periods of remission with an improvement in general condition, especially under the influence of therapeutic measures (enemas, light laxatives).
    • Bloating can occur not only with constipation and intestinal obstruction. It is often associated with flatulence caused by alimentary disorders, congenital or acquired enzymatic insufficiency (especially in the upper gastrointestinal tract), as well as colon dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome. In modern conditions, dysbiosis occurs especially often due to the widespread use of various antibacterial and antiseptic drugs.There is also reason to believe that dysbiosis and associated bloating are largely determined by inappropriate nutrition, especially among the urban population (the predominance of high-calorie animal products with a high content of fats and proteins, a small amount of vegetable fiber).
    • Diarrhea – frequent loose stools – is a characteristic symptom of a number of non-infectious diseases of the colon (colitis, diffuse polyposis). In nonspecific ulcerative and granulomatous colitis, diarrhea is often accompanied by tenesmus.Diarrhea can be a symptom of dysbiosis, irritable bowel syndrome.
    • Tenesmus – frequent false urge to defecate (without excretion of feces or with the separation of a small amount of mucus, blood or liquid intestinal contents) – exhaust patients and may be accompanied by maceration of the perianal skin, the formation of cracks and erosions. Tenesmus is a consequence of reflex excitement of the motor activity of the distal colon, especially the rectum, as a result of inflammatory changes in the sensory zone of the mucous membrane of the anal rectum, often the main symptom of a tumor in the lower ampullar rectum.
    • Fecal and gas incontinence is observed with congenital or acquired anatomical lesions of the sphincter apparatus of the rectum or a violation of its reflex regulation of the central, including psychological, or peripheral nature. Most experts distinguish between three clinically determined degrees of insufficiency of the sphincter of the anus: I degree – incontinence of gases, II degree – incontinence of gases and liquid feces, III degree – incontinence of gases, liquid and solid feces.

    Many pronounced forms of diseases of the colon of an inflammatory and tumor nature (diffuse polyposis, cancer, malignant lymphomas, hemangiomas) occur with significant metabolic disorders, which is clinically expressed in an increase in weakness, exhaustion, slowdown in the growth and development of the patient, dysfunction of the genital organs …

    Inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs

    More than a third of all gynecological diseases are caused by inflammation of the pelvic organs.The latter are dangerous in their consequences – they increase the risk of developing an ectopic pregnancy and often lead to infertility. According to statistics, every fifth woman who has suffered an inflammation of the uterus and / or appendages has problems with conception.

    Features and types of inflammation

    An infectious inflammatory process can affect the lower (vaginitis, cervicitis) and upper (endometritis and others) parts of the reproductive system. Changes, in addition to the genitals, can also be observed in the endocrine, vascular, nervous and other systems.

    Inflammation is caused by pathogenic microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungus. Their transmission is possible sexually (these are the so-called specific inflammatory processes) or in a household way (for example, through a towel). Specific inflammations include gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia and other diseases caused by gonococci, trichomonas, chlamydia, mycoplasma, viruses. The causative agents of nonspecific inflammation are usually staphylococci, streptococci, Escherichia coli.

    The list of gynecological inflammatory diseases is quite wide, because the process can capture different organs of the reproductive system: external genitalia (vulvitis), vagina (colpitis), uterus (cervicitis), ovaries (oophoritis).The inflammation can be acute, and if treatment is not carried out, a transition to a chronic form is possible.


    Complications after abortion, chronic diseases, lack of personal hygiene, promiscuous sex life, prolonged use of antibiotics that kill microflora, hypothermia, decreased immunity – most often these factors are the cause of the development of inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs.

    Signs of illness

    The main symptoms of inflammatory processes are:

    • Atypical vaginal discharge (suspicion should be caused by cloudy, bloody and purulent discharge with an unpleasant odor).
    • Menstrual irregularities.
    • Pain in the pelvis and lower back.
    • Urinary disorders.
    • Sexual disorders.
    • Bloating, constipation.

    As the disease progresses, fever, nausea and vomiting may develop.


    The first thing to do at the first suspicion is to make an appointment with a doctor (gynecologist) at the Vash Doctor diagnostic and treatment center in Kremenchug.An experienced specialist will listen to complaints, conduct a personal examination, give a referral for analyzes and instrumental examination. The list of standard diagnostic measures includes a gynecological examination on a chair, a smear (from the vagina, cervix), ultrasound of the pelvic organs, and bacteriological culture.

    Treatment of diseases of the pelvic organs in Kremenchug

    Depending on the characteristics of the disease, the patient may be shown inpatient or outpatient treatment.The course is selected in each case individually, taking into account the causative agent of the inflammatory process. The attending physician prescribes medications (antibiotics), local treatment (meaning vaginal treatment, the use of suppositories) and physiotherapy procedures may also be indicated. In some cases, it is necessary to provide simultaneous treatment with a permanent sexual partner.

    Make an appointment

    Bloated lower abdomen, white discharge – Question to the gynecologist

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