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What is the color of normal stool: Mucus in stool: A concern?


Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

What Is Clostridium Difficile (C. diff)?

Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a type of bacteria that can cause colitis, a serious inflammation of the colon. Infections from C. diff often start after you’ve been taking antibiotics. It can sometimes be life-threatening.

Clostridium Difficile (C. diff) Symptoms

When you have C. diff, the symptoms can range from mild to severe.

Mild symptoms can include problems like:

  • Watery diarrhea that happens three to four times a day for several days
  • Stomach pain, cramping, or tenderness

In more serious infections, there may be blood or pus in the stool. This can happen because C. diff can cause the colon — also called the large intestine — to get inflamed. When this happens, tissue in the colon can bleed or make pus. Other symptoms of a serious infection include:

If your C. diff infection is severe, you could get severe intestinal inflammation. Your colon could also get enlarged and you could develop an extreme response to infection called sepsis. All of these problems are serious and could send you to the hospital.

If your diarrhea from C. diff is very severe, get medical help quickly. Severe diarrhea can lead to life-threatening dehydration.

Clostridium Difficile (C. diff) Causes and Risk Factors

C. diff exists all around us. It’s in the air, water, soil, and in the feces of humans and animals.

C. diff bacteria that are outside the body turn into spores that can live on surfaces for weeks or months. These spores are not “active,” but they can turn active after you swallow them and they get into your intestines. Some people have the bacteria in their intestines and never have any symptoms. But for others, the bacteria make toxins that attack the intestines.

A new strain of C. diff bacteria makes larger amounts of toxins. These types are hard to treat with medications.

C. diff bacteria spread in health care facilities, like hospitals or nursing homes, where workers are more likely to come into contact with it and then with patients or residents.

You can also become infected if you touch clothing, sheets, or other surfaces that have come in contact with feces and then touch your mouth or nose.

Older adults in health care facilities are most at risk, especially if they’re taking antibiotics. That’s because the human body contains thousands of different types of bacteria — some good, some bad. If the antibiotics kill enough healthy bacteria, the ones that cause C. diff could grow unchecked and make you sick.

The antibiotics that are most linked to a risk of C. diff infection are:

An increasing number of younger people also develop C. diff infections, even without taking antibiotics or being in a hospital. Failure to wash your hands thoroughly after being exposed to the bacteria can lead to infection.

You also have higher odds of getting C. diff if you have:

Women have higher chances of getting C. diff than men. You’re also more at risk for the disease if you’re 65 or older. And your odds of C. diff go up the more times you’ve had the disease before.

Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) Complications

If a C. diff infection isn’t treated quickly, you could become dehydrated due to severe diarrhea. This loss of fluids might also affect your:

A C. diff infection also can lead to rare problems such as:

  • Toxic megacolon. Your colon dilates and can’t release gas or stool. This could cause it to swell and rupture. It can be life-threatening without emergency surgery.
  • Bowel perforation. This is a hole in your large intestines that allows dangerous bacteria to escape. It can lead to a dangerous infection called peritonitis.

Clostridium Difficile (C.

Diff) Diagnosis

If your doctor suspects you have this infection, they’ll probably order one or more stool tests. They include:

  • Enzyme immunoassay
  • Polymerase chain reaction
  • Cell cytotoxicity assay

If your doctor suspects serious problems with your colon, they might order X-rays or a CT scan of your intestines. In rare cases, your doctor may examine your colon with procedures such as a flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.

Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) Treatment

Antibiotics may have triggered your infection, but some types of these drugs target C. diff. They include:

Talk with your doctor about the side effects of these antibiotics.

It’s important to replace fluids that you lost from diarrhea. Drink plenty of fluids that have water, salt, and sugar, such as broth and fruit juices.

If there’s been damage to your intestines, you may need surgery to remove the affected areas.

Sometimes, a C. diff infection can come back. Doctors sometimes recommend a treatment to help repopulate the colon with healthy bacteria. It’s often done by putting another person’s stool in your colon using a device called a colonoscope. The procedure is called fecal microbiota transplant (FMT).

Donors are screened carefully to make sure they’re not passing along infections or parasites.

Clostridium Difficile (C. Diff) Prevention

If you’re in a hospital or long-term health care facility, you can do several things to protect yourself from C. diff. For example:

  • Ask your health care professionals to wash their hands thoroughly before and after caring for you.
  • Request that all medical equipment be sanitized before being brought into your room.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water after using the bathroom and before eating.

Another way to help prevent C. diff is to not take unnecessary antibiotics. Talk this over with your doctor and see if there are other treatment options. And don’t take antibiotics without a doctor’s OK.

Many C. diff infections are mild and short-lived, but others can be quite serious. Take precautions, and don’t hesitate to seek medical help if you have symptoms.

Stool color: When to worry

Answer Section

Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color indicate a potentially serious intestinal condition.

Stool color is generally influenced by what you eat as well as by the amount of bile — a yellow-green fluid that digests fats — in your stool. As bile pigments travel through your gastrointestinal tract, they are chemically altered by enzymes, changing the pigments from green to brown.

Consult your doctor if you’re concerned about your stool color. If your stool is bright red or black — which may indicate the presence of blood — seek prompt medical attention.

Stool quality What it may mean Possible dietary causes
Green Food may be moving through the large intestine too quickly, such as due to diarrhea. As a result, bile doesn’t have time to break down completely. Green leafy vegetables, green food coloring, such as in flavored drink mixes or ice pops, iron supplements.
Light-colored, white or clay-colored A lack of bile in stool. This may indicate a bile duct obstruction. Certain medications, such as large doses of bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol) and other anti-diarrheal drugs.
Yellow, greasy, foul-smelling Excess fat in the stool, such as due to a malabsorption disorder, for example, celiac disease. Sometimes the protein gluten, such as in breads and cereals. See a doctor for evaluation.
Black Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach. Iron supplements, bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol), black licorice.
Bright red Bleeding in the lower intestinal tract, such as the large intestine or rectum, often from hemorrhoids. Red food coloring, beets, cranberries, tomato juice or soup, red gelatin or drink mixes.

Last Updated: October 10th, 2020

Poop Colors: What Green, Yellow and Other Stool Colors Mean

Poop color changes are usually caused by the foods you eat but can sometimes indicate a more serious issue.

Image Credit: Chakrapong Worathat / EyeEm/EyeEm/GettyImages

Don’t forget to look before you flush: The hue of your stool can tell you a lot about your health and even alert you to warning signs that you may need to get checked out.

Here, gastroenterologists break down what to know about the color of your poop.

First, though, let’s back up and talk about why your poop is usually, well, that brown-ish color.

“Stool color is typically tan, or anywhere from light brown to dark brown,” says Monica Borkar, MD, a gastroenterologist with NorthShore University HelathSystem in Glenview, Illinois.

Your liver excretes a substance called bile into your gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which itself is anywhere from dark yellow to light orange. “As it interacts with the contents of your digestive system (what you eat), it changes color,” Dr. Borkar explains. And out comes brown.

What Other Stool Colors Might Mean

But what if you look back and see a strange color in the toilet? Should you laugh? Put it on IG? (Don’t put it on IG.) Panic? Call your doctor?

“In general, changes in the color of your stool are influenced by what you eat and usually nothing to worry about,” says Dr. Borkar. However, there are some that warrant that call.

Here’s what seven stool colors might mean and when you should worry:

Green poop is likely caused by your diet. Spinach, green Jell-O, blue-green colored ice creams (or anything that contains dye), black licorice and black jelly beans are all culprits, Dr. Borkar says.

Your poop color should return to normal once the food has passed through your system.

If you have diarrhea, your stool may appear yellow-colored or greenish, says Jacqueline Wolf, MD, a gastroenterologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. Diarrhea means things are speeding through your system too quicky for stool to properly form. That also means there’s less time for your stool to convert into a darker color.

Check out five common causes of diarrhea (and when to call your doctor), along with the best and worst foods for diarrhea.

Yellow poop might also be a result of excess fat in your diet and could be a digestive side effect of a low-carb diet like keto.

Again, it’s going to be something you ate. Blueberries are the main culprit of a dark blue stool that can almost look black, says Dr. Wolf.

This is where things get tricky. The culprit can be totally benign, like beets, red Jell-O or red sports drinks, says Dr. Wolf. (Side note: If you are preparing for a colonoscopy, skip the red-dyed stuff, as it can be confused with blood. ) Blood from hemorrhoids or a cut on the anus — if, say, you were constipated — are also potential culprits.

However, red poop can also have more concerning causes, like bleeding from lower down in your colon. Blood in your stool is also a red flag symptom for colorectal cancer; additional symptoms include a change in bowel habits (like diarrhea or constipation) that lasts for more than a few days, cramping or abdominal pain and unintended weight loss, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS).

If you think you’re too young for that cancer, think again: Rates of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease are slowly rising in people under age 50, accounting to 2020 statistics published in the ACS journal CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. Because young people don’t routinely get colonoscopies to check for this cancer, it’s even more important to act when you see blood in your stool (meaning: call your doctor).

A darker red color may also stem from bleeding in the GI tract, particularly where the colon joins the small bowel, says Dr. Wolf. Colon cancer, diverticulosis, colitis and inflammation in the colon can contribute to this maroon shade. Call your doctor if you see this hue in the bowl.

This is another color you generally don’t want to see. Black poop can sometimes be benign: Taking Pepto-Bismol can turn the stool a very dark color, as can iron supplementation or eating a lot of blueberries, says Dr. Wolf. These are things you should tell your doctor about so he or she can properly evaluate you.

“Black stool can also mean bleeding from the esophagus, the stomach or the small intestine,” Dr. Borkar says. That can be caused by a stomach ulcer or (rarely) a tumor in the upper GI tract. “The stool becomes black because the blood goes through the GI tract and is broken down by digestive enzymes,” she explains.

Kaopectate (an anti-diarrhea medication) can turn stools lighter. That said, clay-colored stools can also be indicative of an obstruction in the liver or bile ducts, says Dr. Borkar.

Gallstones or a tumor in your pancreas can all block these ducts. Call your doctor right away for unusually light-colored stools, especially if you have pain that would indicate something like a blocked bile duct.

Poop that’s red, black or clay/white definitely warrants a call to your physician. And if you’re concerned about any other funky stool shade, it’s not a bad idea to hop on the phone. Dr. Wolf recommends asking yourself these three questions before you do, so you can give your doc the full picture:

  1. Did you add something new to your diet? Did you
    eat spinach or beets? Did you eat anything heavy in food dyes?
  2. Have you taken any new medications, whether prescription,
    over-the-counter or a supplement?
  3. Do you have any other physical symptoms? A major
    change in bowel habits, unintentional weight loss, localized pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue are all symptoms to let your doctor know about.

You might be an expert in your own body, but it can be tough to properly evaluate poop color changes on your own. So if you have any questions, don’t hesitate to ask. Trust us, your doctor has heard it all.

Stool Color – Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Stool is naturally brown due to the digestion of bile salts produced by the liver and blood pigments such as bilirubin. Dietary supplements including iron, medications, and some foods, such as blueberries, beets, or black licorice, can darken the stool or even turn it black. Dark stool, when not associated with diet, supplements or medications, can be a worrisome symptom, as it can be due to bleeding in the digestive tract.

The color of bloody stool depends on the site of the bleeding and how quickly food moves through the digestive system. Blood from the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine may have time to be digested, resulting in dark, tarry stool. Red blood in the stool frequently comes from the lower portion of the digestive tract, specifically the colon or anus. However, bleeding from a higher portion of the digestive tract can speed digestive transit, also leading to red stool. Red striping of the stool is often related to bleeding of the rectum or anus and may be seen in stool of people who have hemorrhoids (inflamed veins in lower rectum or anus).

Pale stool can occur if bile salt production is reduced or its transport is blocked due to serious liver infections or a bile duct obstruction that is caused by stones, scarring, abnormal development, or external compression. Liver disease and bile duct obstruction can also cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes that may be accompanied by itching.

Changes in stool color can be related to diet, supplements or medications; however, stool that is persistently dark or light can be an indication of a serious medical problem. Seek immediate medical care (call 911) for bloody stool, which may be red or black or tarry in consistency, and may be accompanied by severe pain, profuse sweating, alterations in level of consciousness, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), vomiting blood, or chest pain.

If your stool color changes are persistent or cause you concern, seek prompt medical care.

The curious colors of poop – Your Health Today

“Why is my poop green?”

It’s a question we’ve all likely asked ourselves at one time or another.

The porcelain throne holds few mysteries, but gazing into its depths can certainly trigger revulsion, curiosity, even horror.

Because that color—it can’t be normal, can it?

Actually, yes, it can.

“Stool can be a rainbow,” said Dr. Satish Rao, a gastroenterologist at Augusta University Digestive Health Center. “While brown is the predominant and normal color, stool can be green, pale, yellow/green, black, even red, and there are a wide range of reasons why.”

First, let’s talk about what stool texture means

When it comes to normal stool, consistency is just as important as color, said Rao.

Physicians categorize stools according to the Bristol Stool Chart, which covers seven different consistencies, all with oh-so-appealing descriptions:

  • Types 1 and 2 (constipation):

    Hard, nut-like lumps or sausage-shaped but lumpy;

  • Types 3 to 5 (normal):

    Sausage-shaped stools with cracks, smooth and soft snake-like stools or soft blobs with clear-cut edges;

  • Types 6 and 7 (diarrhea):

    Mushy stool that appears fluffy or watery, entirely liquid stools.

All of us will go through periods of constipation or diarrhea throughout our lifetimes, but what you want to watch out for is a trend: Can more than 50 percent of your poops be categorized as Type 1/2 or Type 6/7? And are they causing symptoms that are interfering with your quality of life?

“Then it might be cause to see a physician,” Rao said.

The color question

So back to color: If you could peek into your torso, you’d realize that the “normal” color of your stool as it goes through the digestive tract is actually a bright greenish-yellow, thanks to bile delivered from the liver to help us digest food. Stool becomes a more accustomed brown the longer it remains in the colon.

“If your stool is green or yellow, it usually means that it is moving very rapidly through the colon,” Rao said.

Oftentimes, that’s due to some type of diarrheal disease, whether that’s food poisoning or a viral illness.

But if your normal-shaped stool is bright green, think about what you may have eaten. High-chlorophyll plants like spinach or even the green food coloring in birthday cake can all end up tinting your stool.

In fact, any kind of food coloring (Berry Blue Kool-Aid, anyone?) along with color-rich foods like beets can brighten up your stool. White stools can be due to bismuth subsalicylate (otherwise known as Pepto-Bismol) or antacids. On the other end of the color spectrum, black stools can be the result if you drink a dark beer like Guinness or ingest iron supplements, and Pepto-Bismol, strangely enough, can also cause your stools to be black.

Other times, certain illnesses can turn your stool a different color

For example:

  • Clay or pale-colored stools:

    This can indicate that you have little to no bile in your stool, due to jaundice or a bile duct obstruction. Stools that are white and contain mucus can mean some type of bowel irritation. And pale stools that float and are smelly can be a sign of malabsorption due to an enzyme deficiency or celiac disease.

  • Black stools:

    A tarry, black stool with a strong smell can be the result of bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, anywhere from the esophagus down to the beginning of the colon.

  • Maroon or red stools:

    These stools indicate bleeding in the colon, which could be due to a hemorrhoid or fissure at the anus or a problem deeper within the colon.

While one stool that’s a strange color may not be a cause for concern, a pattern—especially if you know the color is not related to eating too much of a certain color of food—may mean you need to visit a doctor. Persistent black stools (two days or more) or more than one maroon or bright red stool mean you need to see a physician immediately.

“It’s an old saying: What goes in must come out,” Rao said. “In most cases, the color of your stool is simply related to something you’ve eaten. But certain colors like black and red can be alarm signs that you shouldn’t ignore, particularly if you are also experiencing other symptoms such as pain or dizziness.

The Augusta University Digestive Health Center partners the latest technology with a multidisciplinary team under one roof so patients and families can benefit from a single, convenient location dedicated to their ongoing digestive health. Schedule an online appointment or call 706-446-GUTS (4887) to speak to a member of our digestive health team.

Stool color: When to worry

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Stool color is usually a result of diet and is only rarely a concern.

Question: Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned?

Answer Section

Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color indicate a potentially serious intestinal condition.

Stool color is generally influenced by what you eat as well as by the amount of bile — a yellow-green fluid that digests fats — in your stool. As bile pigments travel through your gastrointestinal tract, they are chemically altered by enzymes, changing the pigments from green to brown.

Consult your doctor if you’re concerned about your stool color. If your stool is bright red or black — which may indicate the presence of blood — seek prompt medical attention.

Stool quality What it may mean Possible dietary causes
Green Food may be moving through the large intestine too quickly, such as due to diarrhea. As a result, bile doesn’t have time to break down completely. Green leafy vegetables, green food coloring, such as in flavored drink mixes or ice pops, iron supplements.
Light-colored, white or clay-colored A lack of bile in stool. This may indicate a bile duct obstruction. Certain medications, such as large doses of bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol) and other anti-diarrheal drugs.
Yellow, greasy, foul-smelling Excess fat in the stool, such as due to a malabsorption disorder, for example, celiac disease. Sometimes the protein gluten, such as in breads and cereals. See a doctor for evaluation.
Black Bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach. Iron supplements, bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate, Pepto-Bismol), black licorice.
Bright red Bleeding in the lower intestinal tract, such as the large intestine or rectum, often from hemorrhoids. Red food coloring, beets, cranberries, tomato juice or soup, red gelatin or drink mixes.

The Scoop on Poop Part 1: Color

Parents spend the first few years of their child’s life immersed in a world of poop. You learn what’s “normal” and what’s “abnormal” for your child. But, as they graduate from potty training, you may miss out on a very important measure of your child’s health: the color of their poop.

As part one of a two-part series, let’s delve into the world of poop.

So, what is poop in the first place? About 75% of poop is water, and the remaining 25% is made up of a variety of waste that is being eliminated from your body: undigested food pieces, bacteria (both dead and live), fiber, mucous, proteins and salts.

What is normal when it comes to color? The typical color is brown. This brown color occurs because of bilirubin, which is formed when red blood cells break down in the liver. Bilirubin is green as it is secreted into bile and turns brown after it enters the large intestine.

But there are a number of other factors that influence the color of your child’s poop, the most common of which is diet. Below are some reasons for color changes. If the change in color occurs in more than one stool, it’s important to see your pediatrician because it may signal the presence of a medical condition.

Red or Black

Red or black coloring in your child’s stool can be alarming to see as a parent because it may be because of bleeding, which may come from the upper gastrointestinal tract, an ulcer, hemorrhoids or often straining because of constipation. Because bleeding is a possible cause, red or black stool should prompt a visit to your child’s pediatrician, but don’t panic; there are also several dietary causes for these colors. Eating a significant amount of food with red coloration, such as beets, cherries, red gelatin, red Kool-Aid and tomato soup, can cause reddish stools. Black stools may occur in response to certain medications, such as iron pills or bismuth (found in Pepto Bismol), or foods such as licorice, grape juice or blueberries.


Green poop may be caused by excess iron in your child’s diet. If they don’t digest all the iron, it actually stains the poop green. Green, leafy vegetables contain chlorophyll that could be coloring the stool green, as could green gelatin.

Sometimes green stool occurs when the child has diarrhea. If stool passes through the large intestine too fast to change in color, it may result in green poop.


When poop is yellowish, it’s sometimes because of antacids or excessive milk consumption. However, it may also indicate problems with the gallbladder or liver. If stool is also shiny or greasy, floats and has a strong odor, it may be caused by undigested fat.

Remember, if your child experiences a prolonged change in the color of his or her stool (more than a couple of stools), it’s important to talk to your pediatrician. Click here for a downloadable chart that you can use to help track your child’s bowel movements.

90,000 What should a normal stool look like?

“At my appointments, I concluded that patients sometimes have no idea about normal stool at all. For some, daily diarrhea or going to the toilet once a week is the norm. Let’s figure out how many times and how a person should walk “in a big way,” Olga Lyannaya, a gastroenterologist at the Medlux clinic, began our conversation.

Norm and pathology

At the disposal of any gastroenterologist is this picture, called the Bristol scale.

It shows variants of bowel movements that humans have. The scale is especially convenient for interviewing children, because they do not always know how to clearly explain how they went to the toilet. This scale is easier for them to understand. And for adults, looking at the picture, it will be easier: no need to get confused in words, just poke your finger at the picture.

“Pay attention to the third and fourth types. This is what we call the norm. This is how a good, healthy stool should look: shaped, soft, in other words, in the shape of a sausage.Defecation should be easy and pain-free. And after a normal bowel movement, there should be a feeling of lightness and complete emptying, ”the doctor explains.

Looking at pictures 1 and 2, you understand exactly what the chair shouldn’t be. These are very dense stools, which, when passing through the rectum, cause severe pain, and can even cause ruptures with cracks. It is so dry that it is sometimes peeled off by hand. “It also happens,” Olga Lyannaya nods.

Another option is not the norm – the so-called sheep feces.Simply, a person “walks in balls”.

Both of these options indicate constipation and require consultation with a gastroenterologist. “It is clear that in modern conditions, when any information and medicines are available in pharmacies, the first thing people start to do is self-medicate. I often use bran. But I am categorically against, often this can only aggravate the situation, ”warns Olga Anatolyevna.

She also does not recommend getting carried away with senna-based laxatives. The intestine, constantly receiving help from the outside, begins to be lazy, its motor skills are impaired, so it becomes more and more difficult to defecate without medication.You should not lead your body to such an addiction.

In general, if you go to the toilet only three times a week, but this does not cause you discomfort, then it is too early to talk about constipation, this is a variant of the norm.

Does diarrhea always indicate problems?

A radically different case when a person sees in the toilet separate fragments of a soft consistency or even liquid, watery stools. Often it really does signal problems, and very serious ones. For example, about milk protein intolerance.As a rule, in this case, in addition to diarrhea, flatulence, bloating and rumbling in the abdomen are observed.

Also, loose stools occur with dysbiosis, that is, bacterial growth of unhealthy intestinal microflora. And, of course, infectious diseases cannot be discounted. Therefore, diarrhea, coupled with an increase in temperature, a deterioration in general well-being and abdominal pain, is a reason to immediately consult a doctor.

But diarrhea is not always a reason to panic. Most often it is a functional disorder associated with dietary errors or dietary changes.For example, in the summer, when the diet is high in fiber in the form of fruits and vegetables, temporary stool thinning is normal.

Olga Lyannaya especially focuses on a sharp change in stool quality after 45-50 years: “If you have always had regular, normal stools, and suddenly there are constipation or diarrhea, this is a reason to urgently go to a gastroenterologist. Such changes can be symptoms of very serious diseases, including bowel cancer. ”

You can make an appointment with a gastroenterologist by calling the clinic: 200-300.

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90,000 “Black feces in an adult: reasons” – Yandex.Q


The consistency, color and even smell of feces can tell a lot about a person’s health. This fact was taken into account by ancient healers. Therefore, if suddenly a chair in an adult suddenly turns black, this is an occasion to seriously think about the reasons for such changes.Perhaps everything is explained by quite ordinary and harmless things – for example, eating certain foods. But sometimes black feces indicate serious illnesses that require immediate medical attention. In addition, there are a number of chronic ailments and conditions in which blackened stools are in any case a dangerous and highly suspicious symptom.

Normal color of feces in an adult

The normal shade of stool varies from yellowish brown to dark brown and may vary slightly depending on the person’s diet and personal characteristics of his body.This color is provided by the presence in the structure of feces of bile processed by the intestines and undigested food particles that have made up the diet of a particular individual for the last few days. At the same time, healthy stools should be decorated.

As a rule, everyone himself knows what color of feces is normal for him, and therefore when it becomes unusual, it is almost impossible not to notice it.

Harmless reasons

Often, the stool turns black after eating certain foods that give it such an unusual color.Red beets, pomegranates, prunes, black currants, red grapes, blueberries – all these and many other fruits, vegetables and berries can change the color of the feces. Eating, for example, blood-fried sausage has the same effect.

If, after analyzing his diet after the discovery of black feces, a person comes to the conclusion that the cause of everything is separate foods, and at the same time he feels healthy, and the stool is decorated, then there is nothing to worry about. It is enough to stop eating these fruits and berries, and in a maximum of a couple of days, the feces will acquire its normal habitual shade.

Do not worry if there is a usual color of black blotches in the feces – these are just undigested food particles that have changed their color in the digestive tract.

A common cause of serious concern is the presence of inclusions in the feces, which outwardly very much resemble small black worms. They are usually mistaken for worms and are consulted by doctors for tests and treatment. However, most likely, these are nothing more than the fibers of the banana eaten the day before.And real pinworms and helminths, like most other parasites, have a completely different color: white or yellowish.

The effect of drugs on stool color

Stool may suddenly turn black after taking certain pharmaceuticals. For example, agents used to treat and prevent anemia contain iron, which gives the stool this color. Many vitamin complexes, medicines containing bismuth, as well as activated carbon can have the same effect.

If a person who has found darkening of feces took any medications the day before, it is necessary to carefully study the instructions for them. Making sure that it’s all about the drugs, you can calm down – there is no harm to the body in this case.

It is worth noting that medicines containing acetylsalicylic acid (the same Aspirin), as well as some anti-inflammatory drugs (Ibuprofen, Diclofinac, Indomethacin, etc.) and drugs that reduce blood clotting, cannot stain feces by themselves.However, taking them sometimes causes internal bleeding. Therefore, if the patient finds black stools (especially in the form of diarrhea) during treatment with the indicated means, it is necessary to immediately seek medical help.

Disease symptoms

Sudden blackened stool in adults is quite often a clinical symptom of internal bleeding. In most cases, everything is explained by the erosion of a blood vessel at the site of the ulcer (most often a stomach ulcer is “to blame”, much less often a duodenal ulcer).That is why people suffering from peptic ulcer disease need to carefully monitor the color and consistency of their feces. And if they suddenly become liquid and black, this is a reason for an immediate visit to a doctor.

Along with blackening of the stool in patients suffering from internal bleeding, other manifestations of a life-threatening condition are observed: vomiting of coffee or scarlet color and symptoms of blood loss, the intensity of which depends on its massiveness (dizziness, pallor, weakness, increased heart rate, decreased hemoglobin level, etc. blood pressure).

In addition to bleeding ulcers, various bowel diseases, tumors in the stomach, and varicose veins of the esophagus can cause black stools. It happens that other dangerous diseases are also to blame:

  • acute form of lymphoblastic leukemia;

  • esophagitis;
  • gastritis;
  • Crohn’s disease;
  • hookworm disease;
  • 90,081 plague;

  • histoplasmosis.

Black feces in children

Fortunately, in children, the causes of black feces in the vast majority of cases are quite harmless.It is extremely rare for them to have those serious and life-threatening conditions that blacken the stools of adults.

New parents are often frightened by the color and consistency of the crumbs’ feces, which are released during the first days of the baby’s life. The almost completely black and viscous stool in newborns is called meconium and is the norm. The color of the so-called original feces is explained by its structure: it consists of bile, hair, digested epithelial cells, mucus, amniotic fluid and water.It will take very little time, and the child’s stool will acquire a light yellow or mustard color, natural for such babies.

If the feces have turned black in older children, this is a reason for their parents to analyze the composition of all food and medicine that the child took the day before. If he ate blueberries, bananas, blackberries and some other fruits, vegetables and berries, a new mixture was introduced into his diet, the child was treated with some drugs (in this case, you must carefully read their instructions) or the baby was given activated charcoal, then rather just don’t sound the alarm.Especially if the child feels healthy and, as usual, is cheerful and active.

In the case when the appearance of black feces is accompanied by a general deterioration of the child’s condition and there are alarming symptoms (abdominal pain, nausea, weakness, dizziness, constipation or diarrhea, vomiting, etc.), it is necessary to urgently call a doctor. In children, especially very young children, all dangerous conditions can develop at a much higher rate than in adults.

Symptom in pregnant women

Black feces in pregnant women are quite common.At the same time, pregnancy and childbirth are not in themselves the cause of darkening of the stool. As a rule, such changes are very frightening for expectant mothers. Indeed, while carrying a child, it is so undesirable to endure any illnesses and take unnecessary medications – after all, all this can adversely affect the condition of the fetus.

Do not panic – usually, the reason for black feces in pregnant women lies in the fact that they take vitamin complexes fortified with iron. In addition, women expecting a baby try to eat as many fruits, berries and vegetables as possible, which also contain iron.Oxidized by gastric juice, this element stains the stool black.

Therefore, if the appearance of black stools is not accompanied by a general deterioration in well-being and alarming symptoms, there is nothing to worry about. But if you have a history of a pregnant peptic ulcer or any chronic gastrointestinal disease, you should be alert and undergo additional examination.

What should I do?

Every person who discovers black feces, one way or another, begins to worry about what is causing such changes.In any case, you should not panic ahead of time and, moreover, let everything take its course. The following actions need to be taken:

  1. Thoroughly examine your diet over the past few days. If it contained food products, which were discussed above (beets, currants, blood sausage, pomegranate, etc.), then, most likely, it was they who painted the stool in an unusual black color. The reason may also be the intake of certain medications (they were also mentioned earlier).In the case when a person recently ate regular food and did not take any medication, a sudden blackening of the stool may indicate the development of life-threatening conditions. And in this case, the visit to the doctor should not be postponed in any case.

  1. Observe the consistency and color of the stool over several days. If the reasons are harmless and harmless (eating certain foods and taking medications), then the stool will normalize at most a couple of days after they are eliminated.In the case when the feces turn black due to serious diseases, this will not happen. The recurring black diarrhea should be especially alarming.
  2. Pay close attention to the well-being of the person whose stool suddenly turns black. Does he look sick? What was his state of health in the last weeks and months preceding the sharp blackening of the stool? Does he suffer from chronic diseases?

If the reasons for the change in the color of feces are harmless, then the person’s well-being remains unchanged: he feels healthy and full of energy.In cases where the appearance of black stools is accompanied by constipation, bloating, anemia, vomiting, heartburn, nausea, abdominal pain and other alarming painful symptoms, the intensity of which also increases over time, we are most likely talking about serious diseases or their complications.

When should you sound the alarm?

There are situations when, with the appearance of black feces, postponing a visit to the doctor is in any case life-threatening. For people suffering from certain diseases (or having a hereditary predisposition to them), as well as in the presence of certain suspicious symptoms, black stool is an indication for immediate hospitalization for a thorough examination, identifying the causes of changes and their elimination.

So, blackened feces should immediately alert a person with intestinal cancer. In any case, it is worth asking for help even to those whose relatives suffered from this cancer.

A history of cirrhosis of the liver or chronic hepatitis is also a reason for an immediate visit to the doctor if black stools are found. The same applies to patients with peptic ulcer disease.

If a blood test of a particular person regularly shows anemia, and suddenly his stool has acquired a black color, he should immediately inform the attending physician about this, who will draw up a plan for further action.

In case of sudden blackening of feces, you should immediately seek qualified help and if you have the following symptoms:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • 90,081 temperature rise;

  • Massive vomiting on the eve of the discovery of black stools, especially with the use of alcohol.

So, by itself, black feces are not dangerous. But it can signal serious problems in the body, up to conditions that, in the absence of timely assistance, can lead to death.On the other hand, everything is often explained by the banal intake of certain foods, which color the feces in an unusual color. In any case, one should not “disdain” to study the state of one’s own chair, and even more so, one cannot ignore its changes. Nature is wise – it has provided for a whole system of signals and markers that should make a person think about whether everything is all right with him.

Material provided


norm and deviations.When to worry. Feces in babies

When a child has a fever, a runny nose and a cough, the parents understand that it is most likely a cold. If your cheeks turn red or a rash starts, an allergy is possible. Well, and about the state of the baby’s digestive system, his stool will best tell. It’s just not so easy to answer unequivocally the question of what should be a chair in a newborn.

At birth, the intestines of the newborn are cleared of meconium.These are sticky odorless clusters of black and green color, which indicate the normal functioning of the baby’s intestines. After his stool depends on food. What is the normal stool in a baby, why it is of different colors and what “secrets” are hidden in a baby diaper, we will tell in the article.

Effect of eating on baby stool

Mother’s milk changes color from dark green to golden green. This is a transitional feces, which is formed on the 3-5th day, until milk replaces colostrum.After that, the stool is more uniform, becomes yellow, may have whitish lumps, a faint smell of sour milk. It happens quite often. But we hasten to reassure the parents: if the baby is gaining weight, then the bowel movements after each feeding should not cause alarm. As the baby grows up, the stool will take shape, become denser and more regular.

Normal breastfeeding stool:

  • yellow, slightly greenish;
  • mushy consistency;
  • sour smell;
  • up to 6-10 bowel movements per day from birth, 1-2 times – closer to the year.
  • The norm of the color of the baby’s chair: shades of yellow, brown, green.

    On formula , the stool is thicker, of a dark yellow or green hue, its pungent odor is possible. The less mixture in the supplement, the more yellow the stool. Infants who are bottle-fed have less bowel movements. And if there is no restless behavior, this indicates a high degree of absorption of nutrition. Month after month, children’s stools will become more and more like an adult’s feces.

    Normal stool for formula and mixed feeding:

    • greenish, yellowish brownish;
    • smear consistency;
    • more pronounced odor;
    • stools once every three days is also a variant of the norm.

    From solid food , the stool changes even more towards the adult, it thickens and turns yellow-brown, but can take on the colors of the food that the child eats while the body is tuned in to digest new foods.Do not be afraid of the introduction of complementary foods, for a cheerful and active baby this is the norm. But let us note the following: accumulations of white lumps of undigested food can “scream” about the introduction of complementary foods in too large quantities, with which children’s digestion cannot completely cope. But a frothy odorous stool with mucus already indicates a too early start of complementary feeding or that these products did not fit.

    How complementary foods affect a child’s stool:

    • depending on the color of the food, the stool takes on different shades;
    • semi-liquid gruel becomes denser;
    • may increase colic, flatulence;
    • Vegetables usually cause loosening of the stool, and porridge will fix.

    An important point – deviations from the usual frequency and appearance of the stool do not always signal illness. And many parents have this experience. However, if the changes increase and new symptoms appear, please see your doctor.

    Colorless, black, blood-streaked feces, a lot of mucus and foam in the baby’s stool – it is best to call an ambulance without waiting for a pediatrician’s visit.

    Reasons for changing the stool of a small child:

    • insufficient maturity of the digestive system, lack of enzymes;
    • food composition of a nursing woman;
    • lack of breast milk;
    • intolerance to infant formula, complementary foods;
    • intake of certain drugs by a mother, a child;
    • physiological jaundice of the newborn;
    • imbalance of the intestinal microbiota;
    • intestinal inflammation;
    • viral, bacterial infections;
    • food allergy.

    At the age of one year, green and yellow, thinner or thicker stools can be both normal and pathological. One condition from another helps to distinguish the frequency and impurities, which should not be in the stool of a healthy baby.

    When to worry and figure out what went wrong:

    • white-gray or black color of the chair;
    • slime mixed with mucus, blood;
    • green, watery stools with foam;
    • emptying more than 12-15 times a day;
    • rare stools: once every 3-5 days or less;
    • Completely liquid yellow stools, free of particulate matter;
    • vomiting combined with diarrhea, fever;
    • the child does not eat well, does not gain or lose weight;
    • in the area of ​​the diaper on the skin severe irritation, diaper rash;
    • the child is non-contact, restless, whiny.

    Green stool for a newborn

    Why the baby has green stools, it is impossible to answer unequivocally. Unnaturally green bowel movements against the background of increased gas production, a bodily rash can signal violations of the intestinal microflora and dysbiosis. Green frothy stools in infants are often associated with lactose intolerance. Stools with staphylococci and streptococci will also be green and foaming. With an infection, the baby usually vomits, has a fever, he is tormented by intestinal colic, and the first aid in this case will be an urgent medical examination.Healing mixtures, iron supplements also give the stool a greenish tint.

    Causes of diarrhea in infants

    Loose stools are uncommon for healthy children, with the exception of newborns and infants of the second or third months. If at this age the child is calm, eats and sleeps well, his weight gain is normal, then loose stools are not a cause for concern. Antibiotics, infectious diseases, early or excessive introduction of juices into the diet can provoke diarrhea.

    If diarrhea occurs against the background of the introduction of a new product, then the product is canceled, and breastfeeding or artificial feeding is retained.Alarming symptoms – apathy and drowsiness from dehydration, quiet and weak crying of the baby – are outside the normal range and should be discussed with your doctor.

    Causes of constipation in a newborn

    Constipation in a newborn is often physiological, it occurs due to the immaturity of the digestive system, unformed reflex defecation. And it doesn’t need to be treated. But if there is no independent stool for three days or more, the tummy is tense, the child is pushing hard and crying, has lost his appetite, then this is constipation, which is no longer the norm.

    According to the observations of doctors, constipation from breast milk is rare, for example, when the baby is malnourished. It is also a typical condition on artificial feeding, especially in the first ten days of the introduction of the mixture, while the body adapts to the foreign milk protein. Nevertheless, due to the improvement of production technologies and the approximation of the contents of infant formula to the composition of breast milk, the stool of infants on IV can be the same as in children who are breastfed.

    How to normalize a baby’s stool

    In case of diarrhea, severe constipation, pathological inclusions in the stool, redness and microcracks around the anus of the baby, it is important to go to a medical facility or call a doctor at home.It is not worth buying medicines on your own to solve the problem. Even an ordinary enema, a gas tube and suppositories for constipation are prescribed for medical purposes.

    You should also not try to change the mixture yourself – you may need medical nutrition. When proposing a mixture, the doctor expects a specific effect from it, takes into account the composition of the formula: micronutrients in forms absorbed by babies, the presence of ingredients that improve intestinal microbiota and digestion, such as milk fat, prebiotics and probiotics.These expectations are met by MAMAKO ® baby food with goat milk. It is not suitable for children with a confirmed allergy to milk protein, but in general, with goat milk, the digestion process is easier, which contributes to the formation of soft stools – the baby is in a good mood, is interested in toys, actively communicates, sleeps peacefully.

    On the MAMAKO ® website, pediatricians talk about how newborn digestion works. There you can also download the memo “What’s in the baby’s diaper”.

    90,000 yellow feces – causes, diagnosis and treatment

    Yellow feces is a discharge of yellowish stools, the consistency of which is often changed. Normally, the symptom occurs in infants, in adults – after eating certain foods. Common pathological causes of yellowing of the stool are diseases of the hepatobiliary zone, dysbiosis, intestinal infections, hormonal fluctuations in women. To find out the etiology, a coprogram, ultrasound and X-ray of the intestine, RCPG are done.To eliminate the symptom, a diet, intake of sorbents, probiotics and enzyme preparations is required.

    Causes of yellow feces

    Power supply features

    Eating large quantities of carrots and sweet potatoes will cause discoloration of the stool, as these foods contain natural colorants. Bright yellow stools appear after eating turmeric dishes. The symptom is observed with adherence to a dairy diet, the predominance of fermented milk products in the diet.Natural causes only provoke a discoloration of feces, the consistency and frequency of bowel movements remain normal.

    Child age

    In newborns, feces are yellow due to the consumption of breast milk alone. Feces normally have a mushy consistency. After a few months, the color changes to mustard or yellowish green, which is also a variant of the norm. In children of the first year of life who are artificially fed, the feces are light brown or light yellow with a pungent odor.

    Intestinal infections

    Light color of feces is detected during infectious processes that affect the small intestine and interfere with the normal digestion of food. Escherichiosis is characterized by liquid feces of a golden yellow color. The frequency of bowel movements increases up to 10-15 times a day. Greenish-yellow bowel movements are excreted in gastrointestinal salmonellosis.

    Frequent, light yellow stools occur with rotavirus infection. The feces are very liquid, with a specific pungent odor.The disease is usually determined in children of preschool and primary school age who have not yet learned how to practice hygiene. Other reasons provoke yellow feces: enterovirus infection, food poisoning.

    Pancreatic enzyme deficiency

    If there is a lack of digestive enzymes in the small intestine, part of the food is not digested, but is excreted from the body with feces, which becomes light or pale yellow in color. In chronic pancreatitis, the symptom is noted periodically: if you follow a special diet, the feces have a normal color, when the gastrointestinal tract is overloaded with fatty foods, it brightens and acquires a mushy consistency.

    Yellow coloration of feces is preceded by heaviness and soreness in the epigastrium, patients complain of rumbling and flatulence. In acute pancreatitis, stool changes to light yellow or grayish suddenly. At the same time, a person is worried about the strongest girdle pain in the upper abdomen, repeated vomiting, which does not bring relief.

    Diseases of the hepatobiliary system

    The typical brown color of stool is due to bile acids and stercobilin, which enter the intestines in the bile.Periodic light yellow stools of a mushy consistency are characteristic of chronic cholecystitis or cholelithiasis in the acute stage, when the secretion of bile is impaired. Similar symptoms are observed in functional disorders of the gallbladder.

    Clarification of feces is caused by causes of the liver: viral or toxic hepatitis of mild to moderate severity, in which the biliary function is partially preserved. The appearance of yellow stools is accompanied by heaviness in the right hypochondrium, constant nausea and decreased appetite.Symptoms are aggravated by eating fatty foods. With the complete cessation of bile secretion, the yellow color of the stool is replaced by a grayish-white.


    Giardia multiply in the gallbladder, interfere with the outflow of bile and contribute to the clarification of feces. The frequency of bowel movements with giardiasis increases up to 5-7 times a day, the feces are bright yellow and liquid, with a sharp fetid odor. In addition, a person complains of dull pain in the right hypochondrium, flatulence, nausea and vomiting mixed with bile.The normalization of the color of feces occurs on the 5-7th day of the disease.

    Celiac disease

    Symptoms occur with high consumption of cereals – barley, wheat, rye. Light yellow mushy stools with a pungent unpleasant odor can appear periodically, and then constantly already in childhood and adolescence, which is combined with weight loss, growth retardation and physical development. Newly diagnosed yellow feces in an adult indicates a mild form of celiac disease, which is well controlled with diet.

    Complications of pharmacotherapy

    Many drugs provoke disorders of digestion and absorption of food, which is manifested by yellowing of feces and an increase in the frequency of bowel movements. The person notes seething and rumbling in the intestines, soreness throughout the abdomen, lack of appetite. When taking antibiotics, the color of the stool is greenish-yellow, which is associated with intestinal dysbiosis. Yellow coloration of feces is caused by the following drug causes:

    • Anti-TB drugs : isoniazid, ethambutol, streptomycin.
    • Estrogen derivatives .
    • Cytostatics : methotrexate, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin.
    • Certain NSAIDs : Aspirin, Paracetamol, Diclofenac.

    Rare causes


    If the stool color changes to yellow, consult a gastroenterologist. To find out the reason for the yellowing of stool, an instrumental examination of the organs of the digestive system is carried out.To clarify the diagnosis and reveal hidden metabolic disorders, highly specific laboratory methods are prescribed. In terms of diagnostics, the most informative:

    • Coprogram . Macroscopically study the consistency, color and smell of feces. With microscopic analysis, attention is paid to the presence of undigested muscle fibers and starch grains, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes. Be sure to examine feces for helminth eggs, to assess the work of the pancreas, fecal elastase is determined.
    • Sonography . A survey ultrasound of the abdominal cavity reveals inflammatory or fibrotic changes in the liver and pancreas, signs of intestinal damage. To clarify the cause of the disease, elastometry is informative, which allows you to quickly and painlessly establish the degree of liver fibrosis.
    • X-ray imaging . To study the motor function of the intestine and detect local inflammation, a barium x-ray of the abdominal cavity is recommended.A plain X-ray of the abdomen helps visualize masses, liver or pancreatic cysts. If necessary, an irrigoscopy is performed.
    • Retrograde cholecystopancreatography . Endoscopic examination of the bile and pancreatic ducts is an invasive examination that is used to diagnose cholangitis, gallstone disease, and reactive pancreatitis. The method is therapeutic and diagnostic, since during RCPH it is possible to remove small calculi that clog the bile ducts.
    • Blood tests . A blood test for the level of pancreatic lipase and amylase is aimed at studying the enzymatic activity of the pancreas. Liver tests are also being studied. Serological tests (ELISA, RIF) detect specific antibodies when viral or bacterial intestinal infections are suspected.


    Help before diagnosis

    The yellow color of feces, caused by eating habits and observed against the background of normal well-being, disappears on its own after 2-3 days.In order not to overload the intestines during this period, it is advised to give up fatty and fried foods, alcohol. If a change in stool color occurs against the background of diarrhea, abdominal pain, you should visit a specialist. To improve the condition, you can drink sorbents. The use of antidiarrheal drugs is undesirable.

    Conservative therapy

    The yellowish color of feces is caused by various reasons, therefore the list of treatment measures is selected individually. An important stage of treatment is adherence to a special diet, which is based on stewed vegetables, lean meat and fish, cereals and soups.In chronic pathologies of the pancreas and liver, such a diet must be adhered to constantly. To treat diseases in which the feces are yellow, the following drugs are prescribed:

    • Sorbents . Preparations of activated carbon, smectite are designed to bind and remove toxins from the intestines. Medicines accelerate recovery from toxic infections, help to cope with diarrhea, and improve digestive functions.
    • Probiotics .With dysbiosis, bacterial overgrowth syndrome and side effects of pharmacotherapy, beneficial bacteria are taken that colonize the large intestine and aid digestion. For a lasting effect, they are used in courses of at least 10 days.
    • Enzyme . When the exocrine function of the pancreas is suppressed, preparations containing pancreatic enzymes are used. They eliminate the causes of yellow stools, stimulate the processes of cavity digestion in the small intestine.
    • Choleretic preparations . Shown in hepatobiliary pathology. They improve the chemical composition of bile and ensure its entry into the duodenum, which is required for the breakdown of fats. Stool color returns to normal a couple of days after starting treatment.
    • Rehydration therapy products . All intestinal infections are accompanied by large fluid losses, for which oral solutions are available to replace. They contain an optimal amount of salts and glucose, restore acid-base balance and electrolyte composition.

    what is the normal color of feces in a child – 25 recommendations on Babyblog.ru

    Fecal examination

    Feces of a healthy person consist of about 1/3 of food debris, 1/3 of the determined digestive organs and 1/3 of from microbes, 95% of which are dead. Fecal examination (macroscopic, microscopic, chemical) is an important part of the examination of a patient with diseases of the digestive system. If an infectious intestinal disease is suspected, a bacteriol is performed, a study of feces.

    Feces for research are collected in a dry clean dish, feces intended for bacteriol, research – in a sterile test tube. The study of feces is carried out no more than 8-12 hours after its excretion. During this time, the feces are kept cold. For the presence of protozoa, the still warm feces are examined immediately after a bowel movement. When analyzing feces for the presence of blood, 3-4 days before the study, meat and fish products, all types of green vegetables, as well as tomatoes and spring eggs are excluded from the patient’s food.When studying the quality of food digestion, the patient is assigned a common table (No. 15), from which meat is excluded. More accurate information about the assimilation of food and the state of metabolism is obtained when prescribing a trial diet. Before collecting feces, the patient is not given medications that change the nature or color of feces for 2-3 days.

    Macroscopic examination of feces includes the determination of its quantity, consistency, shape, color, odor, identification of visible food residues, patol, impurities, parasites.

    The amount of feces per day (normally 100-200 g) depends on the water content in it, the nature of the food and the degree of its assimilation. In diseases accompanied by impaired absorption of food (damage to the pancreas, intestinal amyloidosis, sprue, celiac disease, etc.), the weight of feces reaches 1 kg or more.

    The shape of the stool largely depends on its consistency. Normal feces have a sausage-like shape, soft consistency.

    With constipation, K. consists of dense lumps, with dyskinesia of the large intestine, it is small dense balls – the so-called sheep feces .

    With accelerated intestinal evacuation, feces are unformed, liquid or mushy.

    The color of normal stool is due to the stercobilin present in it.

    In case of violation of bile secretion, feces acquire a light gray or sandy color.

    Stool color changes with bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract.
    With profuse bleeding in the stomach or duodenum, it turns black, the lower the source of bleeding is, the more distinct the red color of the stool.
    Some drugs (carbolene, bismuth, iron preparations, etc.) and
    plant food pigments also affect the color of feces.

    The smell of feces depends on the presence in it of decay products of food residues, mainly of a protein nature.
    With pronounced putrefactive processes in the intestine (putrefactive dyspepsia, decay of a tumor), the feces become fetid, with the predominance of fermentation processes, it acquires an acidic odor.

    To detect food debris, feces are ground in water (1 tsp.feces for 10 hours of water) and examined in a Petri dish on a black background.
    The fat in this emulsion floats on the surface as a cloudy coating. With an abundance of fat (steatorrhea), the stool becomes ointment and becomes lighter in color.
    Of the pathological, constituent elements in the feces, you can see mucus, blood, pus, appearing during inflammatory and ulcerative processes in the colon, as well as calculi (biliary, pancreatic and intestinal).
    Macroscopically, round worms, segments of tapeworms can be found in feces.

    Microscopic examination of feces is carried out in order to determine the degree of digestion of food components, to identify cellular elements, parasites – protozoa and helminths. For research, wet preparations prepared in four versions are usually used. A lump K. the size of a match head is rubbed on a glass slide with tap water (first option), Lugol’s solution of double concentration (second option), acetic acid solution of Sudan III (third option) and glycerin (fourth option).In the first preparation, most of the elements of K are differentiated: undigested plant fiber in the form of individual cells of various sizes and shapes with a thick membrane or groups of them, digested fiber with a thinner membrane, yellow muscle fibers, cylindrical in shape with longitudinal or transverse striation (unchanged) or without striation (not completely changed), erythrocytes, leukocytes, intestinal epithelial cells, mucus in the form of light cords with vague outlines, fatty acids in the form of thin needle-like crystals, pointed at both ends, and soap in the form of small diamond-shaped crystals and lumps.A preparation with Lugol’s solution is prepared to detect starch grains, staining blue or purple, and iodophilic flora. With the help of Sudan III acetic acid, bright, orange-red drops of neutral fat are found. A preparation with glycerin is used to detect helminth eggs.

    Normal feces contain undigested fiber, single scraps of muscle fibers without cross-striation, individual drops of fat and a small amount of soaps.
    The presence of starch (amilorrhea) indicates insufficient absorption of carbohydrates, an increase in the number of muscle fibers (creatorrhea) and the appearance of cross-striation in them – about poor absorption of proteins.
    With insufficient assimilation of fats (steatorrhea) in the feces, along with a large amount of neutral fat, a lot of fatty acids and soaps are determined (with a lack of bile).
    A large amount of mucus in the feces is observed with proctitis, dysentery, etc.
    Microscopic examination in the feces can detect protozoa – amoeba, balantidia, lamblia, Trichomonas, etc., as well as worms and their eggs.

    To identify mobile vegetative forms of protozoa, feces are diluted with isotonic sodium chloride solution on a slightly warmed glass slide, a cover glass is placed on top.To detect cysts, feces are ground with 1-2 drops of Lugol’s solution. Smears are examined first at low magnification, then at high magnification.
    In case of difficulties in differentiating the species of protozoa, dry stained smears are examined.

    Chemical examination of feces includes, first of all, the determination of the reaction of the medium, which is carried out using litmus paper.
    It is normally neutral or slightly alkaline. With the intensification of fermentation processes, as well as with a significant content of fat in K., the reaction is acidic; with the predominance of putrefactive processes, it becomes alkaline.With a light color, K. make a test for stercobilin: a lump of K. the size of a hazelnut is ground with a few milliliters of a 7% solution of mercuric chloride and left for a day. In the presence of stercobilin, a pink coloration is noted.

    To detect occult blood, when diagnosing an ulcerative or tumor process in the gastrointestinal tract, use a benzidine test, a guaiac test.

    Feces in children.

    In newborns, in the first three days, bowel movements differ from normal feces, which appear by the 4th-5th day of life.When breastfeeding, K. has a golden-yellow color due to the presence of bilirubin in it (from the 4th month, bilirubin is gradually replaced by stercobilin). When artificially fed with milk mixtures, K. acquires a thicker consistency, a whitish color, a sharper odor, and an alkaline reaction; its flora is diverse, E. coli predominates.

    Depending on the age of the child, the nature of feeding, the functional state of the intestine, K. has its own characteristics.So, when feeding with breast milk, which contains a lot of water and few nutrients, the feces are yellow, watery, odorless. When feeding with insufficiently diluted cow’s milk, feces are silvery, glossy (soapy feces), soft, contains small lumps of mucus on the surface. With predominantly protein feeding, feces are dirty gray in color, mushy, with a pungent unpleasant odor (putrid feces). When eating an excessive amount of fatty foods or impaired absorption of fat, the feces are whitish (fatty feces), with a sour odor, a small amount of mucus.When constipated, the stool is hard, gray in color, with a putrid odor. With increased peristalsis and insufficient absorption of fat, feces contain lumps of soap and an admixture of mucus (clotted feces). During fasting or insufficient nutrition of a breastfed baby, “hungry feces” of a dark color, sometimes liquid, with an unpleasant odor and an alkaline reaction, appear.

    Changes in feces in children are observed in various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    When overfeeding, nutritional errors, feeding, not age-appropriate,
    dyspeptic stools appear, frequent, abundant, with mushy or watery foamy
    stools of a yellow-green color containing white lumps of soap and fatty acids, mucus.
    In congenital atresia of the biliary tract, viral hepatitis, feces are discolored, oily, clayey (acholic feces).
    In dysentery, the stool is thin, watery, contains mucus and blood. In celiac disease, feces are light yellow or grayish, shiny, frothy, mushy, extremely abundant. In cystic fibrosis, feces are abundant, light, offensive, and contain a lot of neutral fat.
    Newborn melena is characterized by liquid, dark, raspberry-tinged feces.

    Color of normal stool

    Stool (feces, faeces) is usually brown in color, many are alarmed if the color of the stool has changed.
    Most of the changes in the stool are of little importance, however, if there are changes not only in the color of the stool, but in the whole body, then this is a reason to think.

    Stool color is usually determined by bile, in particular by the substance bilirubin in bile. Bilirubin is formed from hemoglobin, after the latter is produced from red blood cells during their breakdown, this is part of the normal process of replacing some cells with others.
    Released hemoglobin is chemically altered and removed from the body by liver function.
    In the liver, this modified hemoglobin (bilirubin) binds to other chemicals and is released as secretion from the liver as bile.
    Depending on the concentration of bilirubin, bile can range from dark to light yellow.

    How do changes in bilirubin affect stool color?

    Bile passes through the bile ducts (and the gallbladder) and into the intestines. Once bile enters the intestines, some of its constituents also undergo chemical changes and affect the color of the stool.These changes mainly depend on the rate at which the contents of the intestine pass through the intestines.

    If the speed is normal, the color of the stool is light or dark brown.
    If the contents of the intestine go at a higher rate, then chemical changes in bilirubin and / or a lack of
    of this substance can give the feces a green color. But this is not only important in itself – a change in the color of the stool.
    If bilirubin (bile) is not observed in the stool, the stool will be gray, like clay, indicating that the flow of bile into the intestine is blocked.The most common causes of this blockage are tumors in the bile ducts or pancreas.

    How does intestinal bleeding affect stool color?

    One serious process in the body can significantly change the color of the stool – bleeding in the intestines.
    Stool may turn black due to blood in the intestines.
    Bleeding, especially severe if there is a large amount of hemoglobin in the intestine,
    is reflected in the color of the stool. The color of the stool turns black due to bleeding that occurs in the upper intestine.

    Stool is black, bleeding, viscous and smells bad.
    Using the latter characteristics, black stools caused by bleeding can be distinguished from black stools,
    in which there is a lot of iron and / or bismuth-containing drugs (for example, bismuth subsalicylate (Peptobismol).

    On the other hand, bleeding can occur in the lower part intestines, especially in the lower parts of the large intestine, and then the color of the stool will be red or reddish-brown, because there is not enough time for hemoglobin oxidation to occur, and the stool will turn black.

    Other causes of stool discoloration

    Another less common internal process can cause stool discoloration – pancreatic disease.
    The pancreas releases special enzymes that help metabolize fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    When pancreatic enzymes are not present in the intestines, fat is not completely processed.
    The stool then becomes “greasy” and smells bad.
    The most common pancreatic diseases that affect stool color are pancreatic tumors, which block the pancreatic duct through which enzymes enter the intestines.In chronic pancreatitis caused by alcoholism, the amount of enzymes is significantly reduced.

    Certain substances can also cause discoloration of the stool.

    Iron and bismuth-containing drugs (Peptobismol) can make stools black.
    Beets and possibly other vegetables and fruits can cause redness in the stools. Food colors
    can also affect stool color.

    Why can feces be green?

    There are many reasons for feces of this color, the main ones are as follows:

    – if the feces are green with an unpleasant putrid odor, then this symptom is characteristic of lesions of the small intestine, dysbiosis is possible.
    – green feces with mucus and pus – a sign of acute intestinal inflammation, green color appears due to dead leukocytes.

    – this color can also be due to bleeding in the distal intestine.

    Feces acquire a green color due to oxidized iron, which leaves the destroyed blood cells, these manifestations may be the result of a complication of peptic ulcer disease. In this case, there will be signs of anemia.

    – also green feces in adults can be due to the high consumption of green food colors that can be found in soda, alcoholic drinks or other products.

    Impurities in feces and discoloration are symptoms that infectious disease doctors and gastroenterologists have to deal with quite often.

    On this basis alone, sometimes it is even possible to make a preliminary diagnosis. Consider what a violation such as the acquisition of a green color by feces may indicate.

    Quite a common situation, including in childhood, when the feces are green and smells very unpleasant, something putrid.
    This can continue for a long time after an intestinal infection, treatment with large doses of antibiotics.
    Dysbacteriosis develops – digestion of food is disturbed in the small intestine, as a result of which putrefaction and fermentation increase in the intestine
    , products are formed that give the feces a green color.

    The most striking example of green and blood in the stool is dysentery.

    Also, green feces in adults can occur during intestinal infection.

    At the same time, mucus, pus and even streaks of blood can appear in it.

    At the same time, other signs of infection are observed: weakness, fever, abdominal pain,
    there may be nausea and vomiting. The color of feces in this case is due to the presence in it of a large number of inflammatory cells – leukocytes.

    Green stools may also indicate liver and blood problems.

    With the massive breakdown of erythrocytes in the liver, a large amount of a substance is produced from their hemoglobin – the so-called bilirubin, which then enters the intestines and can give feces a green or darker,
    up to dark brown color.

    Another, more rare cause of green stool in adults is bleeding from the stomach or upper intestines.
    In this case, most often the blood has time to completely oxidize and the stool becomes black (the so-called melena),
    if this process has not occurred to the end, then it is quite possible that a greenish color may appear.

    The stool can become greenish even if any pathology is completely absent.

    This occurs especially often in the summer, when a very large amount of greens is eaten.

    This is not a cause for concern, but feces should still be examined to accurately rule out disease.

    In general, when greens appear in the stool or complete staining of feces, it is necessary to consult a doctor for examination and conduct a special laboratory test – a coprogram.

    What will the baby’s chair tell about?

    Young parents with interest and trepidation examine the contents of the baby diaper … a familiar picture? The chair often causes anxiety in the mother and is really able to tell about the health and ill health of the baby – you just need to be able to “read between the lines”, that is, to understand the signs of the body.

    Meet the standard

    While the baby lives and develops in the mother’s womb, meconium accumulates in its intestines. It is a homogeneous tarry mass of dark olive, almost black, almost odorless. It consists of desquamated cells of the intestinal mucosa, amniotic fluid swallowed by the baby, etc. Normally, meconium begins to be released from the intestines of the crumbs after birth and therefore is also called original feces (sometimes meconium is excreted in utero: with an unfavorable course of childbirth or at the very end of pregnancy, oxygen starvation fetus is the cause of premature bowel movement, in which case meconium enters the amniotic fluid and stains it green).The baby’s stool is usually represented by meconium in the first two or three days, that is, until the moment when a large amount of milk arrives at the mother. Sometimes it happens that after the bulk of the meconium has passed, say, during the first day, before the mother’s milk, the baby may not have any stool at all. This is due to the fact that the colostrum, which the baby feeds on in the first few days, is absorbed by the body almost completely, so that no toxins remain in the intestines – therefore, there is simply nothing to be released outside.

    After the mother has established active lactation, the baby’s stool gradually becomes mature, as a rule, passing through a transitional stage. A transitional stool is called a stool that combines the features of original feces and mature stools; it has a mushy consistency, a yellow-green color and a sour smell. Mature stools are distinguished by a pure yellow color, a homogeneous mushy consistency (it is often compared to thin sour cream), and the smell of sour milk. Its frequency is the higher, the younger the child: in the first weeks after birth, bowel emptying can occur almost after every feeding, that is, reach 5-8, and sometimes even ten times per day.Gradually, the stool is reduced to about 1-3 times a day, however, there is a rare variant of the norm, when mother’s milk is so fully absorbed by the baby’s body that almost no undigested residue accumulates in his intestines. In this case, bowel movements can occur once every few days, sometimes even once a week. This is due to the fact that only sufficient filling of the large intestine with waste (undigested food debris) is a signal for contractions of the intestinal walls, leading to emptying.That is why the intestines must first “accumulate” the residues in order to then throw them out. As a rule, such a feature of the assimilation of mother’s milk becomes obvious in babies no earlier than 1.5-3 months. Let’s make a reservation: the frequency of stool 1 time in several days can be considered the norm only if three conditions are met: with completely natural feeding (that is, the baby does not receive anything except mother’s milk), the age of at least 1.5 months and the absence of any signs of ill health – pain and bloating in the abdomen, discomfort and difficulty in emptying the intestines, that is, when the baby eats well, gains weight correctly and does not bother him.

    Artificial or mixed-fed stools may be no different from normal mature breastfeeding stools, or may have a more “mature”, putrid odor, thicker consistency, and a darker, brownish color. Bowel emptying with mixed or artificial feeding should occur at least 1 time per day, everything else is considered constipation.

    Now that we are familiar with the “ideal” course of the process, it is necessary to get acquainted with the possible deviations from it.

    Greens in the stool

    It often happens that the “correct” type of stool is not established for a long time, and even against the background of active lactation, the mother retains its transitional features for a long time, that is, it has a clear greenish tint, sometimes mucus is also found in it. There are several reasons for this:

    • Malnutrition (so called “hungry” stool). This is often due to a lack of milk in the mother. Flat and inverted nipples, tight breasts, especially after the first birth, can also make it difficult for a baby to “get” milk from the breast.

    • The predominance of fruits and vegetables in the diet of a nursing woman in comparison with other products, as well as the mother’s use of products containing synthetic additives: sausages, smoked meats, all types of canned food, industrial juices, dairy products with fruit and other aromatic fillings.

    • Inflammation of the intestinal mucosa in a baby. A very common reason for this is the hypoxia (oxygen starvation) of the fetus transferred during pregnancy and / or childbirth.This pathological condition affects many tissues in the body, including the intestinal mucosa, which then takes a long time to recover. In addition, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa can be caused by the influence of synthetic substances – flavors, dyes and preservatives and any artificial compounds present in the mother’s diet, penetrating into breast milk and directly affecting the intestinal mucosa. Finally, a very common cause of intestinal inflammation is a violation of the normal intestinal microflora – in other words, intestinal dysbiosis (or dysbiosis), when there are few representatives of normal microflora, they are partially replaced by the so-called opportunistic microbes, that is, pathogens that, under adverse conditions, can cause inflammation in the intestines.In this case, the mucous membrane suffers as a result of the influence of pathogens and their metabolic products. The risk of developing dysbiosis increases significantly if the mother and / or baby were prescribed antibacterial drugs.

    What to do? In the presence of greenery in the stool, malnutrition of the baby should be excluded first. Of course, in addition to stool disturbances, other symptoms will also be noted: the baby may show dissatisfaction at the breast, if milk is poorly released from the nipple, he does not fall asleep after feeding and / or never withstands more than 1-1.5 hours between feedings, he has reduced rate of weight gain and growth.If the child is severely malnourished, the amount of urination may decrease (normally it is at least 6-8 per day), the urine may be more concentrated (normally it is almost colorless and has only a slight odor). Next, you should act according to the situation: in case of insufficient lactation, switch to feeding “on demand”, or “at the first cry”, more often apply the baby to the breast, allow him to stay at the breast as much as he wants, give both breasts in one feeding, be sure breastfeeding during the night, taking medications that stimulate lactation.If the cause of malnutrition lies in the wrong shape of the nipples, it may be worth using special nipple covers during feeding. In any case, if you suspect insufficient nutrition of the crumbs, it is better to contact a pediatrician, as well as a breastfeeding consultant.

    Next, you should carefully check your mother’s diet. All products containing synthetic additives are subject to an unconditional exclusion. It should not be forgotten that often synthetic vitamin preparations taken by the mother (including for pregnant women and lactating women) can also become the cause of intestinal inflammation in infants, so it is necessary to exclude their intake.You should also make sure that the amount of fruits and vegetables in the diet does not prevail over other foods (these “gifts of the earth” contain a large amount of acids, an excess of which in breast milk can cause inflammation of the mucous membrane in the baby’s intestines).

    Now that we have created all the possible prerequisites for proper nutrition of the crumbs, it is worth being guided by his well-being. If the baby is gaining good height and weight, he is not worried about abdominal pain and allergic reactions, he is generally healthy and cheerful, is interested in the world around him according to his age, then the only symptom – the green color of the stool – can be ignored: most likely, he will reflect the consequences of hypoxia or the presence of intestinal dysbiosis in a baby.In the human body, especially the recently born, everything goes according to its own laws and at an individual speed. The colonization of the intestines with the “right” microbes is a process of more than one day and not even one week, therefore, even in perfectly healthy children, transitional stools can persist for up to a month or even more. If this does not prevent the baby from developing normally, you can not interfere with this process. All the same, a drug for dysbiosis has not yet been created better than mother’s milk. The only thing that does not interfere with doing with prolonged signs of dysbiosis is to donate mother’s milk for inoculation to make sure that it does not contain pathogenic microbes (if any are found, their sensitivity to antibacterial drugs is determined, then the mother is treated with the most effective antibiotics for this case – breastfeeding is usually stopped for this period).

    If, however, the baby is not feeling well (for example, he is tormented by intestinal colic, or skin allergic reactions are noted, or he is gaining insufficient weight and height), then some tests should be passed – a coprogram and analysis of feces for flora (or, as say, on dysbiosis). The coprogram will show how the digestion processes are going on in the intestine, and can confirm the presence of inflammation of the mucous membrane (an increase in the number of leukocytes in the feces, a sharply acidic reaction, the presence of occult blood will testify to it).In the analysis of flora, the main attention should be paid to the presence and / or the number of pathogenic microorganisms – those that normally should not be found in the intestine or the number of which should not exceed certain limits. The number of “friendly” microbes may be completely non-indicative if the feces are analyzed later than two hours after collection. Since this is exactly what happens in the overwhelming majority of cases, then the number of normal microbes in this analysis can be ignored.The detection of pathogenic (pathogenic) microbes (provided that the mother’s milk has been analyzed, and the mother, if necessary, treated) is the reason for prescribing special drugs for the baby. As a rule, treatment is carried out with phages – special viruses that destroy a certain type of pathogenic microbes and do not affect the flora as a whole. In some cases, antibacterial drugs may be prescribed, taking into account the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria to them. The treatment is completed with drugs that help restore normal microflora.

    White lumps in the stool Sometimes you can see white lumps in the baby’s feces, as if someone had mixed some grainy cottage cheese there. If this symptom is noted against the background of the normal physical development of the child (he is gaining weight and growing well), then it is evidence of some overeating: the body receives more nutrients than it needs to meet real needs (when the breast is offered not only to satisfy hunger , but also any reassurance).There is absolutely nothing wrong with this, since the baby’s body is perfectly adapted to such a “bust”: it simply throws out excess in the form of such undigested white lumps. At the present time, when the course is set on feeding “at the first cry”, the majority of healthy children at least from time to time have such a stool feature. If this symptom is accompanied by a lack of weight or height, especially if this lag is aggravated, most likely, there is an enzymatic insufficiency of the digestive glands, which does not allow the correct digestion of the incoming nutrients.In this case, a pediatrician or gastroenterologist may prescribe enzyme replacement therapy.

    Lactase deficiency

    Quite often, parents may be faced with the fact that the baby’s stool is thin, watery, sometimes foaming, has a sharper sour smell, and in some cases a changed color – mustard or greenish. On a cotton diaper, such feces leave a watering zone around it. Often, stools are excreted in small portions, even when gas passes.The acidic reaction of feces often causes stubborn diaper rash. Such a picture is observed when the digestion of lactose – milk sugar is disturbed, when for some reason the amount of lactose entering the intestine with mother’s milk exceeds the amount of the lactase enzyme necessary for its digestion. This can be either with an excess of lactose in milk (hereditary predisposition of the mother, an excess of fresh milk and dairy products in her diet), or with a reduced production of lactase by the digestive glands of the crumbs.Undigested carbohydrates “pull” a large amount of water into the intestinal lumen, which is why feces have a thin, watery character.

    Often, lactase deficiency is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis: the acidic reaction of the intestinal contents prevents the colonization of the intestine with the correct flora, and the lack of the required amount of beneficial microorganisms, in turn, reduces the ability to digest carbohydrates. If this does not interfere with the development of the baby (as we have already said, its signs are a normal increase in height and weight, the absence of intestinal colic and persistent diaper rash), this condition may well be left without treatment.In the overwhelming majority of cases, lactase deficiency is a transient problem and disappears without a trace with age (by about 9-12 months, the activity of the digestive glands increases so much that the baby’s body can easily cope not only with fermented milk products, but also with fresh milk). Severe and lifelong disturbances in lactase production are almost always genetically determined: this variant of a hereditary disease should be considered if the closest relatives in the family suffer from lactase deficiency in adulthood.

    To confirm the diagnosis, in addition to coprological research, an analysis of feces for carbohydrates is carried out. In case of confirmed lactase deficiency, the mother first of all should adjust her diet: exclude fresh milk, if this step is ineffective, significantly reduce the amount of fermented milk products (the exception is cheese, in which there is practically no milk sugar). If all of these measures are unsuccessful, the doctor may prescribe lactase replacement therapy.


    Constipation is considered to be the absence of independent stool for more than a day (of course, except in cases of complete assimilation of milk), as well as cases when emptying the intestines is difficult and accompanied by significant discomfort.

    When breastfeeding, constipation is quite rare, and there are two main reasons for them: malnutrition of the mother and disorders of intestinal motility, including spasm of the anal sphincter.

    Malnutrition of the mother is expressed by a tendency to foods rich in proteins and easily digestible carbohydrates, a lack of dietary fiber.Therefore, in case of manifestations of constipation in the baby, the mother should first of all normalize her nutrition: give preference to cereals (especially buckwheat, brown rice, oatmeal), whole grain bread, include boiled vegetables in the diet. Some products (peaches, apricots, prunes, dried apricots, figs, boiled beets, fresh kefir) have pronounced laxative properties. In many cases, they will allow you to normalize not only your own stool, but also the baby’s stool.

    If such measures do not lead to anything, most likely there is a violation of intestinal motility (hypotension or, conversely, spasm) and / or spasm of the sphincter of the anus.With a spasm of the sphincter, the passage of gases from the intestines is also difficult, therefore, constipation is often accompanied by severe intestinal colic. Unfortunately, it is almost impossible to deal with these conditions with home methods, since they are associated with a violation of the nervous regulation of smooth muscle tone and are the consequences of a birth injury or an unfavorable course of pregnancy. If they are accompanied by other symptoms that force you to consult a neurologist (excitability or, conversely, lethargy of the baby, sleep disturbances, meteorological dependence, muscle tone disorders, etc.)), then the treatment prescribed by him for the dysfunction of the central nervous system often helps to improve the situation with constipation. If, in the absence of a stool, the baby is worried about pain and / or bloating in the abdomen, you can try to put a gas tube, which will gently stimulate the anus. With artificial feeding, constipation, unfortunately, is much more common, since the digestion of milk formulas is a great difficulty for the infant’s digestive system. In many cases, the situation can be normalized by replacing half of the baby’s daily diet with a fermented milk mixture (you can gradually introduce acidic mixtures after 3 weeks of life).After 4-6 months of life, you can introduce a decoction and puree of prunes into the baby’s diet, which help to cope with constipation in most cases.

    norm and deviations, specific features, advice

    With the birth of a child, parents have significantly more exciting questions. They are associated with inexperience, and therefore moms and dads often come up with a problem where there is none. One of these questions is what should be the color of feces in newborns. The rate differs depending on the type of feeding.

    How does a newborn’s intestines work?

    When a baby is born, his intestines are sterile, but after a few hours he begins to fill with various bacteria. At this stage, it is important that the baby is close to the mother, it is also advisable to attach it to the breast immediately after birth. These actions will help form a positive microflora in the child and populate the intestines with mother’s microorganisms.

    The intestine of a newborn is longer in relation to body size than that of an adult, but it is not yet fully formed, has high mobility and frequent volvulus.The final formation of this organ and adaptation to new conditions are the cause of colic.

    The intestinal protective barrier in babies still has little protection, through it harmful substances can enter the bloodstream, which is why eating disorders so often occur in babies.

    The original feces

    The baby, being in the womb, swallows amniotic fluid for 9 months. Within two days of birth, his stomach and intestines are emptied and meconium is excreted.This is the name of the baby’s first feces. During this period, green is the main color of feces in a newborn. Defecation with original feces can occur several times.

    Meconium is odorless, and its texture is similar to resin – sticky and thick. In rare cases, it happens that the original feces do not come out, this indicates an obstruction of the rectum. This problem requires immediate medical attention, as it is necessary to remove the formed “plug”.

    Contrary to popular belief, meconium is not sterile, it contains gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli.These bacteria help the formation of immunity during the stage of intrauterine development.

    From the 3-4th day, the color of feces in a newborn begins to turn yellow, and the consistency also changes. This is a transitional stage. At this time, intestinal upset is often observed.

    The color of feces in a newborn during breastfeeding

    A newborn is considered the first 28 days of his life. During this time, he usually manages to take shape and become a regular chair.

    Fully breastfed babies go to the toilet less often because their mother’s milk is absorbed by their bodies to a greater extent.Therefore, it is difficult to name the daily rate of bowel movements of the baby. The average indicator is from 4 to 12. But even if the child poops less often than 4 times, but does it abundantly, there is nothing to worry about. Having become older, a baby on breastfeeding may not empty the intestines for 4 days. And this will also be the norm.

    If a newborn’s stool is liquid and more often 12 times a day, it is worth contacting a specialist. He will examine the child, taking into account such additional factors as the color of the stool in the newborn, the smell, as well as the behavior of the patient himself.

    Parents need to be concerned about the health of their child if the feces are green, yellow or dark brown. But if a child has recently been ill with something or has consumed large quantities of iron, then this can be considered the norm.

    With frothy feces and a specific fermented milk smell, a lack of hind milk is likely. Weight loss and restless behavior of the baby can be considered additional symptoms.

    Tips for eliminating stool problems during breastfeeding

    The quality of a fully breastfed baby’s stool depends in most cases on correct feeding technique.It is necessary to feed the baby in a position that is comfortable for both, as in the photo.

    The color of feces in a newborn depends on what kind of milk he receives: front or back. The mother should hold the baby to her breast until it is empty. Only then will her child be able to get to the rear milk, it is it that is nutritious, it contains the enzymes necessary for the breakdown of milk sugars. Foremilk has been said to induce green, runny feces and flatulence in the abdomen.

    Breastfeeding mothers should remember that she eats for two.Food that she will not react to in any way will become a big problem for her child. They are wary of taking fatty, salty, smoked and fried foods. These food categories can easily cause dysbiosis.

    Feces with artificial feeding

    Formula feeding differs from breastfeeding in many ways.

    1. Frequency. Even the best formula cannot be compared to breast milk in terms of digestibility. If the baby does not “do things” at least 1-2 times a day, he may develop constipation.To reduce the likelihood of its occurrence, a child on IV must be given baby water.

    2. The color of feces in a newborn with artificial and mixed nutrition differs from the stool of a naturally fed baby. It has a darker shade, from yellow to brown, but if the feces are almost black, this indicates the presence of blood in the feces. In this case, it is necessary to urgently look for the cause of the problem.

    If the stool is green, this is a direct indication of dysbiosis in the baby.

    When feeding with formula, this can occur even if the product is not suitable for the child and is not absorbed.

    3. Consistency. The stool of artificial people always has a denser and thicker texture, but too hard stool is a sign of an improperly prepared mixture. The result of normal bowel movements has a homogeneous, mushy consistency. If there are white cheesy blotches in the feces, you should be more careful about the proportions of the diluted food. Also, in some cases, this may indicate overfeeding of the child, he does not have time to digest food to the end.

    4. The smell, like the color of feces in a newborn baby on artificial feeding, is different, it has a higher odor and is closer to the usual smell of adult feces. On the contrary, baby feces do not have an unpleasant odor, and many people note that they smell like milk.

    Recommendations for eliminating stool problems with artificial feeding

    Unlike babies, artificial people do not depend on what their mother dared to eat.

    But their stool is influenced by the frequency of meals, the proportions and the quality of the milk substitute product.An improperly selected mixture can cause health problems. To prevent this, you need to see your doctor so that he selects the most suitable mixture.

    It is best to feed the artificial baby on a set schedule and regularly in equal portions. When diluting, the proportions recommended by the manufacturer are strictly observed.

    Causes of stool disorders in children

    Newborns are the time when immunity is just being established and even small changes in nutrition are enough to disrupt the normal functioning of the intestines, not to mention serious illnesses.

    What color should the feces of a newborn be normal was discussed above, the options for deviations and their possible causes are also indicated here.

    1. Very loose, watery stools accompanied by unpleasant amber indicate food allergy, infection, or poisoning. Usually, these diseases are also accompanied by loss of appetite and weight loss. This is extremely dangerous for newborn babies.
    2. Hard feces in a baby is indicative of constipation. The child is constantly pushing, crying, and defecation occurs little by little and several times.Sometimes the cause of constipation can be the wrong diet of the mother, when she eats fortifying foods and is being treated with iron-containing drugs.
    3. If stools have a green tint and a foaming structure, and also occur more often than normal, this may be a sign of both degrees of lactase deficiency and dysbiosis. It is also accompanied by symptoms such as weight loss, constant anxiety of the child, irritation and redness around the anus. But green-colored stools become normal if your baby has recently had a cold or starts to cut his teeth.
    4. Dark bloody feces may be due to bowel problems such as fissures in the rectum or hemorrhoids. Blood is also seen in the stool of a toddler when he is allergic to milk protein. If blood streaks were found in particularly liquid excrement, it is possible that the newborn has contracted a bacterial infection.

    What the feces look like after the introduction of complementary foods

    From the age of 5-6 months, complementary foods begin, then the child’s stool can undergo constant changes, in contrast to the color of feces in newborns with breastfeeding without supplements.Each time you change the type of complementary food, the shade of the stool may also change. There is nothing to worry about, you just need to remember what the child ate the day before.

    Therefore, do not be surprised if, after introducing zucchini or cauliflower into the diet, the baby’s excrement turns green.

    • Green – squash, broccoli, cauliflower.
    • Red, orange – carrots.
    • Burgundy – beets.
    • Black – prunes.

    But if pieces of undigested food are constantly found in the feces, it is likely that it is time to see a doctor.Usually this is a symptom of dysbiosis and gastrointestinal diseases. If these problems were not found, then the parents are overfeeding the child, and his stomach does not have time to cope with the tasks.

    It is important to remember that mashed potatoes from some products can weaken or strengthen, this must be taken into account if constipation or diarrhea occurs.

    Which specialist to contact

    If the baby has a regular stool disorder, then the parents need to see a doctor.