Blood pressure 103: Blood Pressure 103: Hypotension – Eldorado Family Health
|Your body is in essence a machine, a system of wires and plumbing that work together to provide a functioning body what it needs to operate; much like a car or a house. If the wiring malfunctions, the system does not receive the instruction and feedback it needs to continue. If the plumbing is not provided with water and pressure from the well, the machines that depend on the system (the boiler, washers, toilets, showers) will run dry, and they will fail.
So it is with your circulatory system. If there is too much pressure, as we reviewed in our last two newsletters, it can cause harm to the pipes causing heart failure, stroke, and kidney damage. If there is too little pressure, damage may occur due to decreased blood flow to the vital organs as they depend on blood to bring them nutrients and oxygen. This can lead to organ damage and death. We call this hypotension.
Hypotension is generally defined as a blood pressure reading of 90/65 or less. The most immediate concern for a patient who is hypotensive is a stroke. If the pressure is too low the brain is not receiving enough blood flow and therefore not supplied with enough oxygen. The causes of hypertension are varied but we find that dehydration is one the biggest culprits and can be caused by poor intake of fluids, illness, medication, or a traumatic injury.
In short, a low blood pressure is just as dangerous as a high blood pressure and needs to be monitored and addressed right away. The best way to do this is to have your blood pressure checked on a regular basis and to report any suspicious symptoms that may indicate hypotension to your Primary Care Provider. Symptoms may include any or a combination of the following: dizziness, dry mouth, generalized weakness, confusion, diarrhea, and vomiting.
At Eldorado Family Health we will assist you with any blood pressure concerns or other health care needs before they become an emergency. Please call to make an appointment at 505-216-7772.
What Is High Blood Pressure? Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention
The following can increase your chances of developing high blood pressure.
Older age The risk of high blood pressure increases as you age.
According to the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 70 percent of adults age 65 or older have hypertension. (2)
The risk of prehypertension and high blood pressure has been increasing in recent years in young people, too, including children and teens, possibly because of the rise of obesity in these populations. (3)
Race High blood pressure is more common in Black American adults than in white or Hispanic American adults.
Family history Having a family history of high blood pressure increases your risk, as the condition tends to run in families.
Being overweight The more you weigh, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the volume of blood circulating through your blood vessels increases, so does the pressure on your artery walls. Obesity — especially abdominal obesity — also increases stiffness in arteries, which raises blood pressure. (4)
Lack of physical activity People who are inactive tend to have a higher heart rate and higher blood pressure than those who are physically active. Not exercising also increases the risk of being overweight.
Tobacco use When you smoke or chew tobacco, your blood pressure rises temporarily. Moreover, chemicals in tobacco can damage the lining of your artery walls, which can cause your arteries to narrow, increasing your blood pressure. Being exposed to secondhand smoke may also increase your blood pressure.
Dietary choices What you choose to eat (and not to eat) can increase your risk for hypertension, including in the following ways:
- Too much sodium can cause your body to retain fluid, which increases blood pressure.
- Since potassium helps balance the amount of sodium in your cells, not getting enough of it can raise blood pressure.
- While studies are limited, it’s thought that vitamin D may affect an enzyme produced by your kidneys that in turns affects your blood pressure, so having too little D may be harmful.
Alcohol consumption Drinking more than two drinks a day for men and more than one drink a day for women may raise your blood pressure.
Stress Being under intense stress can lead to a temporary increase in blood pressure. Moreover, if you try to cope with stress by overeating, using tobacco, or drinking alcohol, all these can contribute to your high blood pressure.
Chronic conditions Having kidney disease, sleep apnea, or diabetes can affect blood pressure.
Pregnancy Being pregnant can cause an increase in blood pressure. (5)
Birth control Women who take birth control pills are at greater risk of developing high blood pressure. It’s more likely to occur when women are overweight, have had high blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of blood pressure, smoke, or have mild kidney disease. (6)
Causes of Secondary Hypertension
When high blood pressure arises suddenly due to an identifiable condition, it’s called secondary hypertension.
Some conditions and drugs can lead to secondary hypertension, including the following:
- Kidney problems
- Adrenal gland tumors
- Thyroid problems
- Blood vessel defects
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Alcohol abuse or chronic alcohol use
- Illegal drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines (5)
Drugs That Can Cause High Blood Pressure
Medication that you take to control other health conditions, such as arthritis, epilepsy, or allergies, can cause your blood pressure to rise.
Such medication can also interfere with the ability of anti-hypertension drugs to keep blood pressure down.
Below are some of the drugs that may negatively affect blood pressure.
Pain medication Common pain and anti-inflammatory medicines can lead to the retention of water, which can create problems with the kidneys and higher blood pressure.
Antidepressants These drugs work by changing the body’s response to chemicals that affect mood. This can also lead to an increase in blood pressure.
Examples of antidepressants that may elevate blood pressure include:
Decongestants These medicines, which include common cough, cold, and allergy drugs, are known to raise blood pressure and to alter the effectiveness of high blood pressure medication.
Examples include pseudoephedrine (Sudafed, Contac) and phenylephrine (Sudafed PE).
Hormones Birth control pills can also affect blood pressure. Women who take birth control pills usually experience a small rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (the top and bottom numbers that are determined when you get your blood pressure checked).
Hormone therapy used to relieve symptoms of menopause can also cause a small rise in systolic blood pressure.
If you know you have high blood pressure, but are considering hormone therapy, talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of undergoing hormone therapy, as well as the best ways to control your blood pressure.
Additionally, some recreational and illegal drugs, such as cocaine, ecstasy (MDMA), and amphetamines, are also known to increase blood pressure. (6,7)
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Changes in Arterial Pressure during Mechanical Ventilation | Anesthesiology
The respiratory variation in arterial pressure induced by mechanical ventilation, initially described as a “reversed pulsus paradoxus,”2has recently been revisited in several clinical studies demonstrating that this physical sign is neither an indicator of blood volume nor an accurate indicator of cardiac preload but a predictor of fluid responsiveness. These studies have demonstrated the value of this sign in answering one of the most common clinical questions, Can we use fluid to improve hemodynamics?, while static indicators of cardiac preload (cardiac filling pressures but also cardiac dimensions) are frequently unable to correctly answer this crucial question. The reliable analysis of the respiratory variation in arterial pressure is possible in most patients undergoing surgery and in critically ill patients who are sedated and mechanically ventilated with conventional100tidal volumes (fig. 9). Whether a goal-directed therapy taking into account the assessment of the respiratory variation in arterial pressure may improve the outcome of mechanically ventilated patients with shock remains an exciting but unsettled question.
The author thanks Jean-Louis Teboul, M.D., Ph.D. (Professor, Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Paris XI, Paris, France), Denis Chemla, M.D., Ph.D. (Professor, Department of Physiology, University Paris XI), and Azriel Perel, M.D. (Professor and Chairman, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel), for insightful discussions about heart–lung interactions over the past few years; Luca M. Bigatello, M.D. (Associate Professor, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts), and Thomas Stelfox, M.D., Ph.D. (Fellow, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Harvard Medical School), for their comments on the manuscript; Rae Allain, M.D. (Instructor, Anesthesia and Critical Care, Harvard Medical School), for English editing; and Maria De Amorim, R. N. (Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Paris XII), for her continuous support.
Blood Pressure Numbers: When to Get Help
If you check your blood pressure, you may wonder when an abnormal reading means you should call your doctor. This information can help you understand what your blood pressure numbers mean and when you need to call for help.
What do blood pressure numbers mean?
Your blood pressure consists of two numbers: systolic and diastolic. Someone with a systolic pressure of 117 and a diastolic pressure of 78 has a blood pressure of 117/78, or “117 over 78.”
It’s normal for blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day. But if it stays up, you have high blood pressure. Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension.
High blood pressure increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, and other problems. You and your doctor will talk about your risks of these problems based on your blood pressure.
Your doctor will give you a goal for your blood pressure. Your goal will be based on your health and your age.
In general, the lower your blood pressure, the better. For example, a blood pressure reading of less than 90/60 is healthy as long as you feel okay.
What can cause a short-term change in blood pressure?
Things like exercise, stress, and sleeping can affect your blood pressure. Some medicines can cause a spike in blood pressure, including certain asthma medicines and cold remedies.
A low blood pressure reading can be caused by many things, including some medicines, a severe allergic reaction, or an infection. Another cause is dehydration, which is when your body loses too much fluid.
When should you get help for an abnormal blood pressure reading?
One high or low blood pressure reading by itself may not mean you need to call for help. If you take your blood pressure and it is out of the normal range, wait a few minutes and take it again. If it’s still high or low, use the following guidance.
Call 911 anytime you think you may need emergency care. For example, call if:
- You passed out (lost consciousness).
Call your doctor now or seek immediate medical care if:
- Your blood pressure is much higher than normal (such as 180/120 or higher).
- You think high blood pressure is causing symptoms such as:
- Severe headache.
- Blurry vision.
Watch closely for changes in your health, and be sure to contact your doctor if:
- Your blood pressure measures higher than your doctor recommends at least 2 times. That means the top number is higher or the bottom number is higher, or both.
- You think you may be having side effects from your blood pressure medicine.
The Warning Signs of a Heart Attack
According to the American Heart Association (AHA), men and women often experience different heart attack symptoms. Men and women also may have different heart attack triggers. Most often, men experience physical exhaustion before a heart attack. Meanwhile, women most often report having emotional stress prior to a heart attack.
Find a Doctor for Cardiovascular Care
For more information about the Cardiovascular Institute of Carolina, call 803-641-5551. To make an appointment with a cardiologist, please contact our free physician referral line at 800-322-8322.
Heart Attack Symptoms for Men
Men often (but not always) experience what are known as “classic” signs of a heart attack:
- Discomfort in the center of the chest that may feel like pressure, squeezing or fullness that goes away and comes back
- Chest discomfort accompanied by fainting, lightheadedness, shortness of breath or nausea
- Pain that spreads to the neck, shoulders or arms
Heart Attack Symptoms in Women
In addition to a milder form of the “classic” symptoms, women may also experience:
- Shortness of breath or breathing difficulty
- Back or jaw pain
- Nausea, vomiting or dizziness
- Palpitations, paleness or cold sweats
- Mild, flu-like symptoms
- Unexplained anxiety, fatigue or weakness
Not a Minute Too Soon
When you are experiencing a heart attack, every second counts. As more time passes, the more your heart muscle dies.
If you or someone you know experiences these symptoms, call 9-1-1 immediately or get to an emergency room.
The Cardiovascular Institute of Carolina at Aiken Regional Medical Centers is always at the ready to treat heart attack patients 24/7.
Questions to Ask Your Doctor
Getting answers to these questions will give you vital information about your heart health and what you can do to improve it. You may want to bring this list to your doctor’s office.
- What is my risk for heart disease?
- What is my blood pressure? What does it mean for me, and what do I need to do about it?
- What are my cholesterol numbers? (These include total cholesterol, LDL or “bad” cholesterol, HDL or “good” cholesterol, and triglycerides.) What do they mean for me, and what do I need to do about them?
- What are my body mass index and waist measurement? Do they indicate that I need to lose weight for my health?
- What is my blood sugar level, and does it mean I’m at risk for diabetes?
- What other screening tests for heart disease do I need? How often should I return for checkups for my heart health?
- What can you do to help me quit smoking?
- How much physical activity do I need to help protect my heart?
- What is a heart-healthy eating plan for me? Should I see a registered dietitian or qualified nutritionist to learn more about healthy eating?
- How can I tell if I’m having a heart attack?
What’s Your Risk?
- Here is a quick quiz to find out your risk of a heart attack. If you don’t know some of the answers, check with your health care provider.
- Do you smoke?
- Is your blood pressure 140/90 mmHg or higher, OR have you been told by your doctor that your blood pressure is too high?
- Has your doctor told you that your total cholesterol level is 200 mg/dL or higher, OR your HDL (good cholesterol) is less than 40 mg/dL?
- Has your father or brother had a heart attack before age 55, OR has your mother or sister had one before age 65?
- Do you have diabetes OR a fasting blood sugar of 126 mg/dL or higher, OR do you need medicine to control your blood sugar?
- Are you over 55 years old?
- Do you have a body mass index (BMI) score of 25 or more?
- Do you get less than a total of 30 minutes of physical activity on most days?
- Has a doctor told you that you have angina (chest pains), OR have you had a heart attack?
If you answered “yes” to any of these questions, you’re at an increased risk of having a heart attack.
Source: The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (2007).
Take Charge of Your Heart Health. Know Your Numbers.
The American Heart Association and the Cardiovascular Institute of Carolina at Aiken Regional believe that it is crucial to get regular preventive screenings for blood pressure, cholesterol, blood glucose and BMI. Keeping these numbers in check can help reduce your risk for cardiovascular disease.
- Normal: Less than 120/80
- Prehypertension: 120/80 to 139/89
- Hypertension: 140/90 or higher
- Desirable: Less than 200 mg/dL
- Borderline: 200-239 mg/dL
- High: 240 mg/dL and above
Blood Glucose (Fasting)
- Normal: Under 99 mg/dL and below
- Prediabetes: 100-125 mg/dL
- Diabetes: 126 mg/dL and above
Less than 40 mg/dL is a major risk factor for heart disease
- Optimal: Less than 100 mg/dL
- Near Optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
- Borderline: 130-159 mg/dL High: 160-189 mg/dL
- Very High: 190 mg/dL and above
What to take under reduced pressure: 7 products
Hypotension is considered to be a pressure below 100/60 mm Hg. pillar for men and 95/60 for women.
articleContent Hypotension can be encountered much less frequently than hypertension, but this disease brings just as many problems. A drop in blood pressure can lead to heart attack or stroke.
A sharp drop in pressure can be recognized by the following symptoms: dizziness, blurred vision, decreased concentration, fainting, rapid shallow breathing, nausea, cold clammy sweat, pale skin, drowsiness, thirst.
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Usually all hypotensives are coffee lovers, because with the help of coffee they raise their blood pressure. However, many people use other methods that also help to normalize blood pressure.
1. Pomegranate juice
One glass of pomegranate juice should be drunk every day. Within a few days, there will be a noticeable positive effect. A little honey can be added to the juice to improve the taste.
2. Grape juice
articleContent Grape juice helps with reduced pressure very well. It is best to cook it yourself, choosing for this a variety of dark and tart grapes. The drink is recommended to be prepared in the morning and consumed before bedtime. You need to drink such a drink for 14 days, half a glass every evening, then you need to take a break for a week. Later, if necessary, you can continue to consume grape juice. This will help normalize the functioning of the heart and blood vessels, as well as increase blood pressure.
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3. Black tea
A good option in the fight against low blood pressure is black tea. It needs to be brewed for 5 minutes. It is better to add sugar to the tea. This drink is an excellent alternative to coffee, because it also contains caffeine.
4. Dark chocolate
The cocoa found in chocolate helps to cope with low blood pressure. Choose dark bitter chocolate with a high cocoa content. Regular consumption of such chocolate will help keep blood vessels in good shape.
5. Red Wine
If we talk about alcohol, then it is better to choose red wine to increase blood pressure. After all, it normalizes blood pressure, in addition, it contains many useful substances and is saturated with antioxidants. Wine can be drunk by glass several times a week.
READ ALSO: How and when to eat fruit: 5 dietitian tips
Ordinary salt can also raise the reduced pressure. Alternatively, you can eat something salty (nuts, bacon, cucumbers) or just put half a teaspoon of salt on your tongue and wait until it dissolves.
7. Cinnamon and honey
articleContent This method, as they write on women’s forums, can help quickly and for a long time. Brew half a teaspoon of cinnamon in a glass of hot water and add a tablespoon of honey there. Let it brew and cool for at least half an hour.If you don’t like cinnamon-flavored water, you can eat a sandwich: anoint a slice of white bread with honey and sprinkle with cinnamon on top.
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We advise you to solve all health problems in a complex and be sure to consult a doctor.
Consultations of a neurologist at the Medical Center “Medical Service”
Why do doctors of many specialties, when carrying out diagnostics, strongly recommend the patient to consult a neurologist?
The most common complaint not only in neurological but also in general medical practice is headache.Periodically, 70% of the world’s population experiences it, while most people take pain medications without even finding out the cause. Chronic and recurrent headaches can be caused by stress, anxiety, depression, hormonal imbalances, and musculoskeletal problems. Headache can be the leading and sometimes the only symptom of about 50 different diseases, which is why it is so important to know the causes of its occurrence.
An equally common problem is increased, excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis).The body’s reaction to emotions is the release of adrenaline, an increase in blood pressure, an increase in muscle tone – this is a variant of the norm. Hyperhidrosis is inherently a pathological condition. Excessive sweating can occur even with mild excitement. Many patients cannot cope with this condition on their own, which in turn leads to the formation of neurosis and depression.
Autonomic disorders are an urgent problem in modern medicine.As shown by epidemiological studies in a modern metropolis, vegetative disorders of varying severity occur in 80% of cases. They manifest themselves with symptoms such as:
- Arterial pressure instability.
- Cardiac arrhythmias.
- Pain in the left side of the chest.
- Low blood pressure.
- Intolerance to exertion.
- Chronic fatigue.
- Decreased concentration of attention.
- Frequent headache.
- Sleep disorders, anxiety.
- Decreased mood, irritability.
- Sweating disorders (hyperhidrosis).
- Fainting and lightheadedness, dizziness, tinnitus, noise in the head.
- Hyperventilation disorders (intolerance to stuffiness).
The earlier a disease is detected, the easier it is to diagnose and cure it!
Professor David Nebieridze on the treatment of arterial hypertension
In Russia, approximately 40% of the adult population has high blood pressure.Many, unfortunately, do not attach importance to high blood pressure. Meanwhile, it is arterial hypertension that ranks first among the risk factors affecting mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Head of the Department of Prevention of Metabolic Disorders, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the State Research Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health of Russia David Nebieridze will talk about how to reduce existing risks and normalize blood pressure.
– What is the cause of high blood pressure?
– When it comes to primary hypertension, it can be extremely difficult to identify a specific cause of the increase in pressure.Doctors can tell exactly about the causes of the so-called secondary hypertension. In particular, high blood pressure can be a consequence of the development of an adrenal tumor or kidney disease. But this only happens in 5-10% of cases. However, it is important that regardless of the cause of arterial hypertension, patients often develop such formidable complications as myocardial infarction or cerebral strokes. If we compare the various factors affecting mortality from cardiovascular complications, then high blood pressure ranks first, smoking second, and high cholesterol third.The saddest thing is that sometimes myocardial infarction or cerebral strokes are often the first manifestations of this disease.
– Not all hypertensive patients know about their illness. What is the reason for this?
– Quite right. It is no coincidence that arterial hypertension is often called the “silent killer”, because at first this disease does not manifest itself in any way. The person feels normal, he is physically active. But if at this moment a survey is carried out, a discrepancy will be revealed between the relatively well-being and the changes that are already in the body.
– What irreversible processes occur in hypertension?
– Due to vasoconstriction caused by arterial hypertension, the heart has to work with increased stress. And it increases over time. This compensatory increase can subsequently lead to a weakening of the contractile ability and the development of heart failure. But in this case, the deterioration of the condition cannot be overlooked. However, before that, a person may not feel anything for 5-6 years, although high blood pressure during this time will have time to cause irreparable harm.During the examination, it will most likely be revealed that the changes have affected not only the heart, but also the vessels, in which atherosclerotic plaques may appear, the kidneys and other organs also suffer. That is why, when blood pressure rises, you need to go to the doctor right away. There seems to be no motivation, but we need to look into the future.
– What blood pressure do doctors consider high?
– In national and international guidelines, high blood pressure or arterial hypertension is considered to be 140/90 mm Hg.Art.
– Is high blood pressure more common in men or women?
– In general, according to the latest data, in Russia the prevalence of high blood pressure in men is higher, although after a certain age (after menopause) women “catch up” with men.
– With age, the risk of developing hypertension increases. What is the reason for this?
– Age-related changes lead to the fact that the vessels lose their elasticity, become more “stiff”. This applies to both persons with normal and high blood pressure.However, in people with arterial hypertension, these processes are faster, which in itself provokes changes in the body.
– Everything is interconnected in the body, and it is logical to assume that pressure surges affect the vessels. Is there a connection between hypertension and, for example, the formation of atherosclerotic plaques?
– Hypertension and atherosclerosis usually develop in parallel. Since the vasoconstriction already contributes to the deposition of plaque on the vessels. From this point of view, it is important for the person to keep the pressure under control.We conducted a study according to which atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels were often found in patients with hypertension who first visited a polyclinic to see a doctor. At the same time, the patients did not complain of feeling unwell.
– Does this mean that blood pressure measurement should become as mandatory as, for example, brushing your teeth?
– This should be an integral part of a healthy lifestyle. Moreover, it is necessary to measure the pressure several times a day, starting in the morning hours.At this time, hypertensive patients experience a sharp jump in pressure, and it is very important to catch this moment. There is such a term “sympathetic activity”. When a person falls asleep, brain activity drops, but when he wakes up, a violent surge is observed, which entails an increase in blood pressure. So morning measurements are very important. And after work it is also good to carry out a control measurement. In general, any person needs to keep a diary, which will allow assessing pressure indicators over time.And in cases of its increase, it makes sense to consult a doctor. In this case, the diary will help the doctor in making a diagnosis. It is noticed that measuring blood pressure in general disciplines the patient, he becomes a partner of the doctor. And this interaction is very important, because the doctor and the patient must work together in order to fight together such an insidious disease as hypertension.
– What should be done to normalize the condition?
– Non-drug methods are fundamental in the treatment of hypertension.I am convinced that it is necessary to use the natural resources of the body as much as possible and not resort to pills for as long as possible, unless, of course, there are indications for their prescription. However, due to the fact that patients with high blood pressure may not feel it, it can be quite difficult to motivate them to use non-drug methods (quitting smoking, increasing physical activity, losing weight, limiting salt intake). Moreover, you can always take a pill, and the pressure will decrease, the headache will pass.And a healthy lifestyle is already work. In this case, it is strategically important to get rid of bad habits, first of all, from smoking and alcohol abuse. It is necessary to reduce salt intake to 5 grams per day, increase physical activity, and reduce weight. By the way, these recommendations are prescribed even if the doctor has prescribed medications for you. Moreover, non-drug methods increase the effectiveness of drugs. For example, in smokers and obese individuals, medications are less effective than in non-smokers or those of normal weight.Therefore, it can be considered the golden rule of hypertension treatment – it is a combination of modern drug therapy with recommendations for a healthy lifestyle.
Health centers are gaining popularity in Russia now, where anyone can turn. And there he will be told what to do to reduce risk factors. They will conduct an examination, consult, if necessary, give a referral to a specialist, and also help to develop an individual program for a healthy lifestyle.
In Ryazan, such a health center is located on the first floor of the polyclinic GBU RO “OKB”, at st.Internatsionalnaya, house 3 A. Registration by phone +7 (4912) 36-95-00 from 8:00 to 17:00, office number 103.
Reference to the original source
Comparative characteristics of blood pressure in arterial hypertension in patients with carotid artery stenosis before and after surgery | Kosacheva
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