Bloodwork hct: Hematocrit Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test
Hematocrit is a blood test that measures how much of a person’s blood is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of and size of the red blood cells.
How the Test is Performed
A blood sample is needed.
How to Prepare for the Test
No special preparation is necessary for this test.
How the Test will Feel
When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.
Why the Test is Performed
The hematocrit is almost always done as part of a complete blood count (CBC).
Your health care provider may recommend this test if you have signs of or are at risk for anemia. These include having:
- Grumpiness or tiredness
- Problems concentrating
- Poor nutrition
- Heavy menstrual periods
- Blood in your stools, or vomit (if you throw up)
- Treatment for cancer
- Leukemia or other problems in the bone marrow
- Chronic medical problems, such as kidney disease or certain types of arthritis
Normal results vary, but in general they are:
- Male: 40.7% to 50.3%
- Female: 36.1% to 44.3%
For babies, normal results are:
- Newborn: 45% to 61%
- Infant: 32% to 42%
The examples above are common measurements for results of these tests. Normal value ranges vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.
What Abnormal Results Mean
Low hematocrit may be due to:
- Destruction of red blood cells
- Too little iron, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 in the diet
- Too much water in the body
High hematocrit may be due to:
- Congenital heart disease
- Failure of the right side of the heart
- Too little water in the body (dehydration)
- Low levels of oxygen in the blood
- Scarring or thickening of the lungs
- Bone marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in red blood cells
There is little risk involved with having your blood taken.Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.
Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight but may include:
- Excessive bleeding
- Fainting or feeling lightheaded
- Multiple punctures to locate veins
- Hematoma (blood buildup under the skin)
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. H. Hematocrit (Hct) – blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:620-621.
Maheshwari A, Carlo WA. Blood disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 103.
Vajpayee N, Graham SS, Bem S. Basic examination of blood and bone marrow. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry’s Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 30.
Hematocrit (HCT) Blood Test– Types, Procedure, Results, Analysis
Hematocrit (HCT) is the proportion, by volume (expressed in percentage), of the blood that consists of red blood cells. For example, a hematocrit of 35% means that there are 35 milliliters of red blood cells in 100 milliliters of blood.
Blood is a specialized body fluid with a diversity of functions including transporting oxygen and nutrients to different organs and tissues of the body. It has four main components:
- Red blood cells (RBCs).
- White blood cells (WBCs).
Red blood cells are vital to your health. They bind the oxygen in your body system and transport it to various locations in your body, via your bloodstream. For you to stay healthy, your body must have the correct proportion of red blood cells. This is because a low or high proportion of RBCs in your body will result in an abnormal health condition.
An HCT blood test is used to determine if hematocrit levels are of the low, high, or normal range.
A hematocrit can help your doctor diagnose a particular health condition in your body, or it can determine how well your body is responding to a particular treatment. Apart from various other reasons, doctors most often use hematocrit tests for:
- Anemia (lack of blood).
- Leukemia (cancer of the blood).
- Dietary deficiency.
Alternatively, your doctor can order a complete blood count (CBC) test. CBCs include hematocrit test, as well as:
- Hemoglobin test.
- Reticulocyte count.
Looking at your overall blood test results, the doctor will have an understanding of your red blood cell count. CBC is a common test that screens your blood for certain disorders that can affect your health. It also determines if there are any increases or decreases in your blood cell count.
Normal values vary, based on your age and gender. Your lab report will reveal the normal value range for your age and gender. With CBC, we can diagnose a broad range of conditions, ranging from anemia and other infections to cancer. Typical hematocrit levels are as follows:
- Adult men 38.8% to 50.2%
- Adult women 34.9% to 44.5%
Children aged 15 and under have a separate set of ranges since their hematocrit levels change rapidly with time. The hematocrit range for a child of a certain age will be determined by the specific lab responsible for the analysis of the results.
HEMATOCRIT TEST PROCEDURES
- A small sample of your blood will be needed for your hematocrit test.
- The blood will be taken from a vein in your arm, or drawn from a pin piercing on your finger.
If the hematocrit test is to be obtained a complete blood count (CBC):
- A lab technician will draw blood from your vein, either from the inside of your elbow or the back of your hand.
- A portion of your skin where the blood is to be drawn will be cleaned with an antiseptic.
- An elastic band or tourniquet will be tied around your upper arm to help the vein swell with blood.
- The technician will insert a needle in the vein and collect a blood sample in one or more vials.
- He will remove the elastic band and cover the punctured area with a bandage, to stop the bleeding.
- You may experience minor bruising, which will clear up within a few days.
- Your sample is then sent to a lab for analysis.
Your HCT range is evaluated using a centrifuge (a machine that spins at a high frequency).
- An anticoagulant is added to the blood sample, to keep your blood from clotting.
- The blood sample in a test tube is pinned in at a high rate in a centrifuge (which causes the contents of your blood to separate).
- The test tube is brought out of the centrifuge and the sample will separate into 3 parts (red blood cells, plasma (the fluid in your blood), and anticoagulants). The RBCs will occupy the lower bottom of the tube.
- The red blood cells (RBCs) are then compared to a guide that reveals what proportions of your blood they make up.
Hematocrit Normal Range:
Some laboratories have their special ranges for hematocrit. The generally accepted ranges (a standard) for hematocrit depend on your gender and age. Normal hematocrit levels are determined by ages and are as follows:
|Adult males||42% to 54%|
|Adult women||38% to 46%|
|Newborns||55% to 68%|
|One week old||47% to 65%|
|One month old||37% to 49%|
|Three months old||30% to 36%|
|One year old||29% to 41%|
|Ten years old||36% to 40%|
These values may vary slightly among different laboratories.
Low Hematocrit Result:
Low hematocrit indicates the anemic condition. There are many causes of anemia. Some common reasons are:
- Loss of blood (via traumatic injury, bleeding, surgery, and colon cancer).
- Bone marrow problems (eg: replacement of bone marrow by cancer).
- Suppression by chemotherapy drugs.
- Abnormal hemoglobin (sickle cell anemia).
- Nutritional deficiency in nutrients such as iron, folate, vitamin B12, etc.
High Hematocrit Result:
High hematocrit indicates abnormally elevated red blood cell (RBC) counts. This is typical of:
- People living at high altitudes, such as hills or mountains.
- Chronic smokers, such as chain-smokers.
Abnormally elevated RBC levels are also proofs of abnormal health conditions like:
- Dehydration (which can be restored when the body is normally hydrated).
- Lung disease.
- Certain tumors.
- Bone marrow disorder (medically known as polycythemia Rubia vera).
- Erythropoietin (Epogen) drug abuse; common among athletes.
SYMPTOMS OF A LOW RBC COUNT
- Fatigue or tiredness.
- Shortened breath.
- Increased heart rate.
- Dizziness or sleepiness.
- General weakness.
SYMPTOMS OF A HIGH RBC COUNT
- Joint pain.
- Shortened breath.
- Itchy skin, especially after a shower.
- Disturbance of sleep (also known as insomnia).
- Tenderness in the palms of the hands or soles of the feet.
RISKS OF A HEMATOCRIT TEST
A hematocrit test is not associated with any major risks. Patients return to their normal working life, after the procedure.
You may have pricking, some bleeding, and/or throbbing at the site where the blood is drawn. Bleeding and swelling at the puncture site will stop within a few minutes after the test.
If you experience persistent swelling or bleeding that doesn’t stop within some minutes of pressure being applied to the puncture site, feel free to report to the doctor, with immediate effect.
CONDITIONS THAT AFFECT ACCURATE HEMATOCRIT RESULTS
Several factors can an accurate outcome of a hematocrit test. These are as follows:
- Severe dehydration.
- Recent blood transfusion.
- The significant recent loss of blood.
- Living at high altitudes, such as mountains, plateau, or hills.
- What do hematocrit levels indicate?
A hematocrit test measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells (RBCs). These RBCs contain a protein called hemoglobin which is responsible for carrying oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. Too high or too low hematocrit levels can indicate a blood disorder, dehydration, or other medical conditions.
- What is a good hematocrit level?
The normal levels of hematocrit for adult women range from 38% to 46%, while that of men is from 42% to 54%. These values may however be slightly varied among different labs.
- Why is hematocrit important?
Hematocrit is a simple blood test done to measure the percentage of red blood cells in a person’s blood. Erythrocytes (red blood cells) are important because they carry oxygen through your body. A low or high red blood cell (RBC) count can indicate a medical condition.
- Which is more important: hemoglobin or hematocrit?
The important message for nephrologists is that hemoglobin is always superior to hematocrit for monitoring anemia of renal disease because it can be measured with greater accuracy, both within and between labs. Hb (hemoglobin) and HCT (hematocrit) are both excellent correlates of anemia and correlate well with one another.
- What causes low hematocrit in blood tests?
The causes of low hematocrit may likely be or include ulcers, traumatic bleeding, colon cancer, internal bleeding, sickle cell anemia, enlarged spleen, bone marrow suppression, cancer, drugs, and decreased production, as well as the destruction of red blood cells.
Hematocrit | Spectrum Health Lakeland
Does this test have other names?
HCT, packed cell volume, PCV
What is this test?
This test measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells.
Normal blood contains white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, and the fluid portion called plasma. The word hematocrit means to separate blood. In this test, your red blood cells are separated from the rest of your blood so they can be measured.
Your hematocrit (HCT) shows whether you have a normal amount of red blood cells, too many, or too few. To measure your HCT, your blood sample is spun at a high speed to separate the red blood cells.
Why do I need this test?
You may need this test if it is part of routine blood testing. You may also need your HCT checked before having surgery or if your healthcare provider suspects you have a red blood cell disorder. Too many red blood cells is called polycythemia. Too few red blood cells is called anemia.
Polycythemia may cause:
Anemia can be caused by blood loss, your body making fewer red blood cells, or increased destruction of red blood cells. Symptoms may include:
Shortness of breath
Cold, pale skin
What other tests might I have along with this test?
Your healthcare provider may also order a complete blood count (CBC), which is a blood test that counts all the different types of cells in your blood.
Your healthcare provider may also order a test that measures your hemoglobin to find out how much oxygen your red blood cells are carrying.
What do my test results mean?
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.
Results are given as a percentage. Normal HCT values are different for men, women, and children. Normal values are:
If your HCT is high, it may mean your body is making too many red blood cells. Your HCT may also be high if your plasma or blood volume is too low. This can happen when you are dehydrated or in shock.
If your HCT is low, it means you may have:
How is this test done?
The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand.
Does this test pose any risks?
Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore.
What might affect my test results?
Living at a high altitude may cause your HCT to be higher than normal. Being pregnant or being older than age 60 can cause your HCT to be lower than normal.
Certain medicines can also affect your results.
How do I get ready for this test?
You don’t need to prepare for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don’t need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.
Understanding Your Blood Test Results – HDL and LDL and More
What, exactly, is the difference between HDL and LDL cholesterol (which one’s good)? And what are triglycerides?
Why should you care about how many white or red blood cells you have circulating?
Because your blood can tell you a lot about how healthy you are. There is so much information pumping through your veins. Doctors can see whether you’re diabetic, anemic or fighting an infection. They can gather clues to how well your liver, heart or thyroid is working.
Blood tests are often part of a routine check-up, as doctors analyze how your body is working. Unless you’re a medical professional, however, the results can be hard to decipher.
Let’s run down common lab tests. When you go to your primary care physician for a check-up, your doctor may want to do a blood draw to check your cholesterol, your blood count (how many red and white blood cells and platelets you have circulating), and a basic metabolic or chemistry panel.
- Lipid panel = cholesterol. Your doctor will order a lipid panel to get a picture of your cholesterol. Cholesterol is broken up into “good” (HDL) and “bad” (LDL). When LDL or “bad” cholesterol builds up in your arteries it can slow your blood flow, potentially leading to a heart attack or stroke. High cholesterol has no symptoms, so the blood test is vital. Triglycerides are a type of fat in your blood that’s different from cholesterol. If your triglycerides are high, they could contribute to hardening of your arteries the way high LDL cholesterol can. You want your HDL cholesterol to be higher than 45 milligrams (mg) of cholesterol per deciliter (dL) of blood. You want your LDL to be less than 130 mg/dL. Triglycerides should be less than 150 mg/dL, and your total cholesterol shouldn’t break 200 mg/dL. As Mayo Clinic reports, if you’re at an average risk of developing heart disease, it’s a good idea to get your cholesterol checked every five years starting at age 18.
- Complete blood count (CBC). This is a routine test to evaluate your general health. It can also detect a range of diseases, so doctors order this test to shed light on symptoms like fatigue or bruises. The CBC checks your levels of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. White blood cells help fight infection, so you’d have a higher number if that’s the case. A high or low number of red blood cells could indicate different diseases. Platelets, which help your blood clot, outside a normal range could also indicate disease.
- Basic vs. complete/comprehensive metabolic panel. The basic metabolic panel tests your blood glucose (blood sugar), kidney function, and levels of calcium, sodium and potassium. The complete metabolic panel includes all those tests plus liver function tests. These tests could be ordered as part of a routine check-up or if your doctor wants to check for specific diseases.
- Thyroid function. This test checks the level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. A high count could signify hypothyroidism; a low count, hyperthyroidism. Both conditions come with a host of symptoms, and this test can help your doctor rule out other diseases.
It’s important to find a physician you feel comfortable with and confident in, who partners with you in your personal health goals. Find the right Healthy Driven doctor for you.
Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada
A blood test and sometimes a bone marrow test are used to diagnose polycythemia vera (PV).
A diagnosis of PV is considered if the patient’s red cell count is elevated. Three measures of the concentration of red cells in the blood can be used to diagnose PV: the hematocrit, the hemoglobin concentration and the red cell count. These measurements are included in a standard blood test called a “complete blood count” (CBC). Blood counts are usually measured in a machine that simultaneously measures the hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and red cell count, and these three measurements closely parallel each other.
- Hemoglobin is the iron-containing protein in red cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues. In healthy individuals, hemoglobin concentration ranges from about 120 to 150 grams per liter (g/L) of blood in women and about 140 to 180 g/L in men.
- Hematocrit is the proportion of red cells in blood volume, usually expressed as a percentage. Hematocrit concentration ranges from about 36 percent to 46 percent in healthy women and 42 percent to 52 percent in healthy men.
For example, if a PV patient’s previously normal hematocrit concentration of 45 percent increases by one-third to 60 percent, the corresponding normal hemoglobin concentration of 150 g/L of blood would also increase by one-third to 200 g/L of blood. The corresponding red cell count would increase by one-third as well. Thus, for diagnostic purposes, any of the three measurements can be used to diagnose PV.
Other Markers in Blood
Your doctor looks for other markers in your blood to confirm a PV diagnosis:
- An elevated white cell count, especially the neutrophil count, a type of white cell. The increased white cell count is mild in most PV patients and usually doesn’t progress.
- An elevated platelet count, which occurs in at least half of all patients.
- The presence of the JAK2 gene mutation.
- An elevated red cell mass (usually only measured if the elevated hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration can’t confirm a diagnosis).
- Normal or near-normal oxygen saturation in the arteries.
- A low erythropoietin (EPO). Blood levels of the hormone EPO are usually low in PV but normal or high in secondary polycythemia.
Bone Marrow Tests
Your doctor may examine your bone marrow even though the test isn’t needed to diagnose PV. If you have PV, your marrow contains more than the normal number of cells and your blood lacks iron because it was used to make additional red cells.
Your doctor can also use your marrow cells to analyze your chromosomes and measure the ability of red cell precursors to grow without added EPO.
Bone marrow testing involves two steps usually performed at the same time in a doctor’s office or a hospital:
- A bone marrow aspiration to remove a liquid marrow sample
- A bone marrow biopsy to remove a small amount of bone filled with marrow
Test Abbreviations and Acronyms » Laboratory Alliance of Central New York, LLC
|ABG||Arterial Blood Gas|
|ABRH||ABO Group and Rh Type|
|ACE||Angiotensin Converting Enzyme|
|ACID PHOS||Acid Phosphatase|
|ACT||Activated Clotting Time|
|Alk Phos||Alkaline Phosphatase|
|Anti-HBc||Hepatitis B Core Antibody|
|Anti-HBe||Hepatitis Be Antibody|
|Anti-HBs||Hepatitis B Surface Antibody|
|Anti-HCV||Hepatitis C Antibody|
|APT||Stool for Fetal Hemoglobin|
|aPTT||Activated Partial Thrombin Time|
|AT III||Antithrombin-III Activity|
|BMP||Basic Metabolic Panel|
|BNP||Brain Natriuretic Peptide|
|BUN||Blood Urea Nitrogen|
|C1||Complement C1, Functional|
|C1Q||C1Q Binding Assay|
|CBC||Complete Blood Count|
|CBCD||Complete Blood Count with Differential|
|CH50||Complement Immunoassay, Total|
|CMP||Comprehensive Metabolic Panel|
|CMV Ag||CMV Antigenemia|
|CPK||Creatine Phosphokinase (Creatine Kinase)|
|CRCL, CrCl||Creatinine Clearance|
|CRD||Cord Type and DAT|
|D Bil||Direct Bilirubin|
|DAT||Direct Antiglobulin (Coombs) Test|
|DCAS||DAT and AB Screen|
|ERA||Estrogen Receptor Assay|
|ESR||Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate|
|FBS||Fasting Blood Sugar (Glucose)|
|FEP||Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin|
|G2PP||2 Hour Postprandial Glucose|
|Gamma GT||Gamma Glutamyl Transferase|
|GCT||Glucose Challenge Test|
|GDS||Gestational Diabetes Screen|
|GGT||Gamma Glutamyl Transferase|
|H&H (or H/H)||Hemoglobin and Hematocrit|
|HBeAb||Hepatitis Be Virus Antibody|
|HBeAg||Hepatitis Be Virus Antigen|
|HBsAb||Hepatitis B Surface Antibody|
|HBsAg||Hepatitis B Surface Antigen|
|hCG||Human Chorionic Gonadotropin|
|hCG (urine)||Urine Pregnancy Test|
|HDL||High Density Lipoprotein|
|HFP||Hepatic Function Panel|
|HGH||Human Growth Hormone|
|HIV||Human Immunodeficiency Virus|
|HPV||Human Papilloma Virus|
|HSV||Herpes Simplex Virus|
|IGF||Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I|
|LFT||Liver Function Tests|
|Li+ or Li||Lithium|
|MIC||Minimum Inhibitory Concentration|
|NEOTY||Neonate Type and DAT|
|NEOXM||Neonate Type and XM|
|NTR||Newborn Type and Rh|
|PAP||Pap Smear OR|
|Pap Smear & HPV DNA Test OR|
|Prostatic Acid Phosphatase|
|PLT or PLT Ct||Platelet Count|
|PSA||Prostate Specific Antigen|
|PTT||Partial Thromboplastin Time|
|RBC||Red Blood Cell|
|RFP||Renal Function Panel|
|RhIG (Eval)||RhIG Evaluation|
|RPR||Rapid Plasma Reagin|
|RSV||Respiratory Syncytial Virus|
|SHBG||Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin|
|SIFE||Serum Immunofixation Electrophoresis|
|SPEP||Serum Protein Electrophoresis|
|SSA||Sjögren’s Syndrome A Antibody|
|SSB||Sjögren’s Syndrome B Antibody|
|SSDNA||Single Stranded DNA|
|T Bil||Total Bilirubin|
|TBG||Thyroxine Binding Globulin|
|TIBC||Total Iron Binding Capacity|
|Trep Ab||Treponemal Antibodies|
|TRH||Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone|
|TRXN||Transfusion Reaction Evaluation|
|TSH||Thyroid Stimulating Hormone|
|TSI||Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin|
|TYSC||Type and Screen|
|UIFE||Urine Immunofixation Electrophoresis|
|UPE, UPEP or|
|Ur Prot Elect||Urine Protein Electrophoresis|
|VCA||Viral Capsid Antigen|
|VDRL||Venereal Disease Reference Lab (Syphilis Test, CSF)|
|Vit A||Vitamin A (Retinol)|
|Vit B1||Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)|
|Vit B12||Vitamin B12|
|Vit B2||Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)|
|Vit B6||Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)|
|Vit C||Vitamin C|
|Vit D||25-Hydroxy Vitamin D|
|VLDL||Very Low Density Lipoprotein|
|VZG||Varicella zoster IgG|
|WBC||White Blood Cell Count|
|XM||Type and Crossmatch|
Blood Work | Greyhound Gang
Greyhound Health Initiative has a bloodwork card to keep and give to your vet.
There are two articles here from Dr. Suzanne Stack. One is Reading Blood Work. The other details the differences in a greyhound’s blood work from other dogs.
Reading Blood Work
When that “basic profile” comes back from the lab, what can it tell you? The highlights in greyhounds are:
The CBC (complete blood count) tells how many of each kind of blood cell is circulating. RBCs (red blood cells) contribute to the HCT or PCV (hematocrit or packed cell volume = the concentration of red blood cells in the sample). Hgb is the amount of hemoglobin in the RBCs. These numbers are normally high in greyhounds, low in anemia. MCV, MCH, and MCHC are calculations derived from RBC, PCV, and Hgb.
The WBC (white blood cell) count is a total of the different kinds of WBCs in the sample – segmented neutrophils, bands, lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. The breakdown of WBCs is called the differential (diff) and by its makeup can indicate a normal dog or possible infection/inflammation. The “diff” gives the doctor clues to what process or disease might be causing an abnormal WBC. WBCs can normally run low in greyhounds.
Platelets are the last component of the CBC. Platelets are the blood cells that form a “platelet plug” to stop the bleeding when you cut your finger. Greyhounds can run under or on the low end of normal platelet counts.
The Chem Panel
The lab uses serum (what is left of whole blood once the cells are removed) to determine approximately 20 “blood chemistries.” There are many other tests that can be run on serum. Most “chem panels” include:
Total Protein = the sum total of Albumin + Globulin
– a protein made in the liver
– can be lost through damaged kidneys or intestines
– a protein produced in response to antigenic stimulation
– increased in chronic infections and some cancers
BUN – blood urea nitrogen
– increased in dehydration or kidney disease
– decreased in liver disease
Creatinine – also increased in kidney disease
– another measure of kidney function less affected by dehydration than BUN
– normally higher in greyhounds than other dogs
ALT (SGPT) – alanine transferase
– released from damaged liver cells
AST (SGOT) – aspartate transferase
– increased in liver damage, muscle damage (including intramuscular injections), or hemolysis (breakdown of RBCs). The hemolysis can be as simple as from a difficult blood draw.
ALKP (SAP) – serum alkaline phosphatase
– increased with liver disease, Cushings, steroids, some cancers & infections. Normally high in young, growing dogs.
T. Bili – total bilirubin
– pigment increased in liver disease or hemolysis which causes dog, serum, and/or urine to turn yellow (jaundice = icterus)
CPK – creatine phosphokinase
– enzyme released from damaged skeletal & heart muscle
– digestive enzyme increased in pancreatitis, intestinal disease, or kidney failure
– digestive enzyme which is more specific for pancreatitis
– rises after eating or from pancreatitis, diabetes, hypothyroidism, or glomerulonephritis.
– doesn’t clog arteries in dogs.
Glucose – “blood sugar”
– rises in diabetes, pancreatitis, seizures, or severe near-death type stress
– decreased in sepsis, insulinoma tumor, baby pups who don’t eat often enough, but most often from sample sitting around too long before centrifuging
– increased in lymphoma & other cancers
– decreased in kidney failure, post-whelping seizures, & hypoparathyroidism
– increased in kidney failure
The electrolytes TCO2, Cl-, K+, & Na+ show a wide variety of derangements in different diseases.
TCO2 – total carbon dioxide
Cl – chloride
K+ – potassium
Na+ – sodium
Lastly are 4 calculations:
A/G ratio – albumin/globulin ratio
– albumin should predominate over globulin in the normal dog
B/C ratio – BUN/creatinine ratio
– helps distinguish dehydration from true kidney failure
Na/K ratio – sodium/potassium ratio
– screens for Addison’s disease
Anion gap = (Na + K) – (Cl + bicarbonate)
– reflects acid/base status
There are many other less important or more obscure possibilities for elevations and decreases in these parameters that were omitted for space and clarity. Many values are only something to worry about if they’re either elevated or decreased, but not necessarily both. These are the basics.
Differences with Greyhound’s Blood Work
Greyhound blood work has enough differences from “other dog” blood work to sometimes make it deceivingly “normal” or “abnormal” if one isn’t familiar with these differences. The salient differences are discussed below.
CBC = Complete Blood Count
RBC = Red Blood Cells
Hgb = Hemoglobin
PCV / HCT = Packed Cell Volume / Hematocrit
WBC = White Blood Cells
NORMAL VALUES FOR:
Greyhounds Other Dogs
RBC: 7.4 – 9.0 5.5 – 8.5
Hgb: 19.0 – 21.5 12.0 – 18.0
PCV: 55 – 65 37 – 55
Greyhounds have significantly more red blood cells than other breeds. This elevates parameters for RBC, hemoglobin, and PCV / HCT, and is the reason greyhounds are so desirable as blood donors. Most veterinarians are aware of this difference. Never accept a diagnosis of polycythemia – a once-in-a-lifetime-rare diagnosis of pathologic red cell overproduction – in a greyhound.
Conversely, never interpret a greyhound PCV in the 30’s – low 40’s as being normal just because it is for other dogs. A greyhound with a PCV in the 30’s – low 40’s is an anemic greyhound. Here in Arizona, a greyhound PCV < 50 is a red flag to check for Ehrlichia.
Greyhound: 3.5 – 6.5 Other dog: 6.0 – 17.0
Other greyhound CBC changes are less well known. The greyhound’s normally low WBC has caused more than one healthy greyhound to undergo a bone marrow biopsy in search of “cancer” or some other cause of the “low WBC.”
Greyhound: 80,000 – 200,000 Other dog: 150,000 – 400,000
Likewise, greyhound platelet numbers are lower on average than other breeds, which might be mistakenly interpreted as a problem. It is thought that greyhound WBCs, platelets, and total protein may be lower to physiologically “make room” in the bloodstream for the increased red cell load.
Confounding these normally low WBC and platelet numbers is the fact that Ehrlichia, a common blood parasite of greyhounds, can lower WBC and platelet counts. So if there is any doubt as to whether the WBC / platelet counts are normal, an Ehrlichia titer is always in order. The other classic changes with Ehrlichia are lowered PCV and elevated globulin and total protein. But bear in mind that every greyhound will not have every change, and Ehrlichia greyhounds can have normal CBCs.
T.P. = Total Protein
NORMAL VALUES FOR:
Greyhound: 4.5 – 6.2 Greyhound: 2.1 – 3.2
Other dog: 5.4 – 7.8 Other dog: 2.8 – 4.2
Greyhound total proteins tend to run on the low end of normal – T.P.s in the 5.0’s and 6.0’s are the norm. While the albumin fraction of T.P. is the same as other dogs, the globulin component is lower.
Greyhounds: .8 – 1.6 Other dogs: . 0 – 1.0
Greyhound creatinines run higher than other breeds as a function of their large lean muscle mass. A study at the Auburn University College of Veterinary Medicine found that 80% of retired greyhounds they sampled had creatinine values up to 1.6 times as high as the top of the standard reference range for “other dogs.” As a lone finding, an “elevated creatinine” is not indicative of impending kidney failure. If the BUN and urinalysis are normal, so is the “elevated” creatinine.
Greyhounds: .5 – 3.6 (mean 1.47+/- .63) Other dogs: 1.52 – 3.60
These figures are from a University of Florida study of thyroid function in 221 greyhounds – 97 racers, 99 broods, and 25 studs – so it included both racers and “retired.” While greyhound thyroid levels are a whole chapter unto themselves, a good rule of thumb is that greyhound T4s run about half that of other breeds.
And lastly, the good news – greyhound urinalysis is the same as other breeds. It is normal for males to have small to moderate amounts of bilirubin in the urine.
Clinical blood test (norm and deviations) in children and adults
Clinical blood test (norm and deviations) in children and adults
Clinical blood test (hematological blood test, complete blood count) – a medical test that allows you to assess the hemoglobin content in system of red blood, the number of erythrocytes, color index, the number of leukocytes, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
Clinical blood test (hematological blood test, general blood test) – a medical test that allows you to assess the hemoglobin content in the red blood system, the number of red blood cells, the color index, the number of leukocytes, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
With the help of this analysis, it is possible to identify anemias, inflammatory processes, the state of the vascular wall, suspicion of helminthic invasions, malignant processes in the body.
Clinical blood analysis is widely used in radiobiology in the diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness.
Let’s start with: “How and when to take a blood test?”
Here are some rules for donating blood:
- For this examination, capillary blood is used, which is taken from a finger.Less commonly, according to the doctor’s instructions, blood from a vein can be used.
- Analysis performed in the morning. The patient is forbidden to eat food, water 4 hours before taking a blood sample.
- The main medical accessories used for taking blood are scarifier, cotton wool, alcohol.
Rules for collecting blood in honey. institutions:
- The finger from which the blood sampling is planned is treated with alcohol. For better blood sampling, it is helpful to pre-rub your finger to ensure better blood flow to it.
- A scarifier is used to pierce the skin on the finger.
- Blood collection is performed using a fine pipette. The sample is placed in a sterile tubular vessel.
Deciphering the main indicators of the general (clinical) blood test
Everyone in his life went through such a painless procedure as donating blood from a finger. But for the majority, the result obtained remains only a set of numbers written down on paper. Explanations of the specified analysis will enable each patient to navigate in the deviations that are detected in the blood, the reasons that caused them.
This blood component is a protein, with the help of which oxygen is supplied to all internal organs / systems. The amount of the specified component is calculated in grams, which is in 1 liter of blood.
The norm of hemoglobin in the blood in children and adults.
This indicator will depend on the patient’s age, gender:
- On the 1st day after birth: from 180 to 240.
- In the first month of life: 115-175.
- In the first six months: not higher than 140, not lower than 110.
- Up to 1 year: from 110 to 135.
- From 1 to 6 years: not higher than 140, not lower than 110.
- In the age range of 7-12 years: not higher than 145.
- In the range of 13-15 years: 115-150.
- From 16 years old (men): from 130 to 160.
- After 16 years old (women): from 120 to 140.
- Diagnosing heart disease.
- Kidney disease.
- Heart / pulmonary failure.
- The patient has pathologies associated with hematopoiesis.
Decrease in hemoglobin:
- Vitamin / iron deficiency.
- Significant blood loss.
- Blood cancer.
- Severe diet, resulting in exhaustion.
The components under consideration contain hemoglobin. The main purpose of red blood cells is to carry oxygen to the internal organs.Often in the table, instead of the unit of measurement of red blood cells, you can see the abbreviation RBC.
The norm of the content of erythrocytes in the blood in children and adults.
The given indicator must be multiplied by 1012. The result will be equal to the number of erythrocytes that are present in 1 liter. blood:
- In newborns on the 1st day of life: not less than 4.3, not more than 7.6.
- In infants up to a month, this indicator decreases: 3.8-5.6.
- 1-6 months: 3.5 to 4.8.
- Up to 1 year: not higher than 4.9, not lower than 3.6.
- 1 to 6 years: 3.5 to 4.5.
- In the age range of 7-12 years, the lower limit of the permissible norm increases to 4.7.
- In adolescence (up to the age of 15): 3.6-5.1.
- From 16 years of age (men): not higher than 5.1, not less than 4.
- From 16 years old (women): from 3.7 to 4.7.
Causes of increased and decreased levels of red blood cells in children and adults.
The factors that provoke an increase / decrease in the number of red blood cells in the blood are similar to those that cause an increase / decrease in hemoglobin.
Width of distribution of erythrocytes in the general blood test.
This parameter directly depends on the size of erythrocytes: when a large number of erythrocytes of different sizes are detected in a blood sample taken, we can talk about a high distribution width of erythrocytes.
The norm of the width of distribution of erythrocytes in the blood in children and adults.
This indicator is identical for children, adults, and can vary from 11.5 to 14.5%.
Causes of increased and decreased levels of the width of distribution of erythrocytes in children and adults.
A deviation from the norm of the indicator under consideration may occur against the background of malnutrition, anemia, and dehydration.
Average volume of erythrocytes in the general blood test.
This blood parameter helps to obtain information about the size of red blood cells. Measured in femtoliters / micrometers cubed. This volume is calculated using a simple formula, for which you need to know the percentage of hematocrit, the number of erythrocytes.
The width of distribution of erythrocytes is the norm in children and adults.
Regardless of the age, sex of the patient, normally the considered blood parameter (MCV) should not be higher than 95 fl, not lower than 80 fl.
Causes of increased and decreased indicators of the width of distribution of erythrocytes.
A decrease in – often occurs due to a lack of iron.
An increase in MCV indicates a deficiency of certain micronutrients.
Average hemoglobin content in an erythrocyte
The resulting indicator (MCH) displays the amount of hemoglobin that is contained within 1 erythrocyte.It is calculated according to a certain formula for which you need to know the amount of hemoglobin + erythrocytes. The specified parameter is measured in picograms. The MCH rate is the same for men, women, children: 24-33 pg.
Decrease – often occurs due to iron deficiency anemia.
An increase in MCH is the result of a folate / vitamin B12 deficiency.
Average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocyte
The parameter under consideration (MCHC) is obtained by mathematical calculations using hemoglobin + hematocrit.The unit of measurement is%. The norm of the hemoglobin content in the erythrocyte varies within 30-38%.
- Blood diseases.
- Iron deficiency.
The probability of an increase in the indicator under consideration is small.
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a general blood test (ESR)
This indicator (ESR) is obtained by settling a taken blood sample. Determined by the number, shape of erythrocytes, measured in mm / h.The process under consideration is also influenced by the amount of proteins in the plasma.
The rate of erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the blood in children and adults.
This parameter does not undergo any significant changes with age, but there are differences:
- 1st day of life: 2-4.
- In babies up to a month: from 4 to 8.
- In the period up to 6 months. ESR rate is 4-10.
- From 1 to 12 years: not higher than 12, not lower than 4.
- From 13 to 15 years, the lower limit of the norm increases to 15.
- From 16 years old (men): 1-10.
- From 16 years old (women): 2-15.
Causes of increased and decreased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in children and adults.
- Infection of the body.
Decreased ESR – the result of blood diseases.
These are living cells of the body that are produced in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, perform a controlling function.There are several types of blood components under consideration: neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, basophils .
Norm of leukocytes children (adults):
The result will correspond to the percentage of leukocytes that are normally present in 1 liter of blood:
- On the 1st day of life: from 8.5 to 24.5 …
- In babies up to 1 month: from 6.6 to 13.8.
- In the first six months, the norm should not exceed 12.5, cannot be less than 5.5.
- In the age range from 1 month. up to 1 year: 6 to 12% per liter of blood.
- From 1 to 6 years: not higher than 12, not lower than 5.
- At the age of 7-12 years: from 4.4 to 10.
- In adolescence (after 15 years of age): not higher than 9.5 , not lower than 4.4.
- From 16 years (men / women): from 4 to 9.
Increase from the norm:
- Inflammatory phenomena in the body. This includes the postoperative period, ENT diseases, diseases of the lower respiratory tract, damage to the skin as a result of injury / burn.In cancer, general blood testing will also show an overestimated level of leukocytes.
Decrease in leukocytes:
- Vitamin B12 deficiency.
- Diseases of the blood.
- A specific group of infectious diseases: malaria, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever.
- Effect of radiation.
- Systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Taking certain medications.
- Conditions in which immunodeficiency occurs.
Platelets in a general blood test
These are small non-nuclear cells containing trace elements that ensure blood clotting.
The norm of platelets in the blood children (adults):
The given indicator must be multiplied by 109 .. The result will correspond to the number of cells that are normally present in 1 liter of blood:
- 1st day after birth : 180-490.
- In children from 1 month. up to 1 year: not higher than 400, not lower than 180.
- From 1 to 6 years: 160-390.
- In the age range of 7-12 years: not higher than 380, not lower than 160.
- In adolescence (up to 15 years old inclusive): from 160 to 360.
- From 16 years old (men / women): from 180 to 320
- Causes of high and low platelet counts in children and adults.
Increased platelets, causes:
- Inflammatory reactions (incl.hours postoperative period).
- Significant blood loss.
- Diseases of the blood.
Decrease in platelets, causes:
- Defects in the functioning of the bone marrow.
- Cirrhosis of the liver.
- Blood transfusion.
- Disorders associated with the functioning of the immune system.
- Diseases of the blood.
This parameter is used to compare the volume of red blood cells with the volume of blood.The unit of measure for hematocrit is percent.
Hematocrit, norm, children (adults)
With age, this parameter undergoes certain changes:
- On the 1st day after birth: 40-66%.
- For babies under one month old: from 34 to 55%.
- In infants in the age range of 1-6 months: 32-43%.
- From 1 to 9 years old: 34-41%.
- From 9 to 15 years old: 34-45%.
- From the age of 16 (women): not more than 45%, not less than 35%.90,027 90,026 From the age of 16 (men): 39-49%.
- Heart / pulmonary failure.
- Certain blood diseases.
- III-IV trimester of pregnancy.
- Renal failure.
The indicated blood parameter is represented by several groups of cells: basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils.These little bodies-granules are irreplaceable participants in the fight against infections and microbes.
Absolute value. Will be referred to as GRA # on blood test results tables. In this context, the rate of granulocytes can vary from 1.2 to 6.8 * 109 cells per liter.
Percentage ratio of granulocytes to leukocytes. Has the designation GRA%. The rate should not be more than 72%, less than 47%.
The reasons for the increase in granulocytes:
In case of inflammation in the body, there is an increase in granulocytes in the blood.
The reasons for the decrease in granulocytes:
- Disruptions in the work of the bone marrow, which are associated with the production of blood cells.
- The patient is diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus.
- Taking certain medications.
Important components of the immune system. Their duties include the recognition of microorganisms dangerous to the body, the fight against inflammatory foci. Their number is limited.
The norm of monocytes in the blood in children and adults.
The given indicator (MON%) shows the percentage of monocytes in the total number of leukocytes:
- Babies up to 1 year old inclusive: 2-12%.
- From 1 to 15 years: not more than 10%, not less than 2%.
- From 16 years old (women / men): 2 to 9%.
- Reasons for the increase and decrease in blood monocytes in children and adults.
- Blood diseases.
- Systemic ailments.
- Infection of the body due to the effects of fungi, viruses, parasites.
- Chemical poisoning.
- Postoperative rehabilitation.
- Taking antineoplastic drugs.
- Inflammatory and purulent phenomena.
These cells help the body to cope with infections, eliminate its own extinct microparticles.According to their structure, they are divided into two groups: mature, immature.
The norm of neutrophils in the blood in children and adults.
The considered indicator shows the percentage of stab, segmented neutrophils in the total number of leukocytes. Consider the rate of stabs in the blood of children and adults:
- On the 1st day after birth: 1-17%.
- Children from 1 month. up to 1 year: from 0.5 to 4%.
- Age group 1-12 years old: 0.5-5%.
- From 13 to 15 years old: no more than 6%, no less than 0.5.
- From 16 years old (women / men): 1-6%.
Indicators of the norm of segmented in the blood:
- In newborns in 1-3 days of life: not higher than 75-80%, not lower than 45%.
- Umalyshey from 1 month up to 1 year: from 15 to 45%.
- Age Group 1-6: 25-60%.
- From 7 to 12 years old: no more than 66%, no less than 34%.
- In adolescence (up to 15 years old inclusive.): 40-65%. 90,027 90,026 16 years (female / male): 47-72%.
Increase in the number of neutrophils:
- Infection of the organism.
Decrease in neutrophils:
- Treatment aimed at eliminating cancer: chemotherapy, medication. Taking other drugs that inhibit the body’s defenses.
- Errors in the work of the bone marrow.
- “Children’s” infectious diseases (rubella, measles, etc.).
- An excess of hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland.
The next representatives of leukocytes. It is these cells that actively fight cancer cells, and help cleanse the body of toxins and parasites.
The rate of eosinophils in the blood in children and adults.
The given indicator shows the percentage of eosinophils in the total number of leukocytes:
- On the 1st day of a baby’s life: 0.5-6%.
- In the age range from 1 month to 12 years: not more than 7%, not less than 0.5%.
- Age group 13-15 years old: no more than 6%, no less than 0.5%.
- From 16 years old (women / men): 0 to 5%.
- The reasons for the increase and decrease in eosinophils in children and adults.
Increase in eosinophils:
- Pathologies of the hematopoietic system.
- Cancer diseases.
- Allergic conditions.
- Parasitic invasions.
Decrease in eosinophils:
- Infection of the body (including the postoperative period).
- Chemical poisoning.
When testing blood, the indicated cells may not be detected: the very few elements of the immune system. They consist of microparticles that provoke the onset of inflammation in the tissues.
The rate of basophils in the blood in children and adults.
Displays the percentage of eosinophils in the total leukocyte count.For children of any age, male / female patients, the number of eosinophils should be 0-1%.
- Allergic conditions.
- Lack of hormones: errors in the thyroid gland, taking hormonal drugs.
- Pathologies of the lymphatic system.
- Pregnancy / ovulation.
- An increase in the number of hormones.
All norms of general blood analysis of children and adults in tables
Table 1: Norms of clinical analysis of blood of children of different ages
Table 2: Norms of general blood analysis of adults (men and women)
Table 3: Normal blood counts in comparison between non-pregnant and pregnant women in the 1st trimester
Table 4: Rates of the general blood count of pregnant women in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy
Critical parameters for diagnostic tests in the provision of emergency care
pH – Hydrogen Potential
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of any liquid (including blood) is a function of its hydrogen ion concentration ([H + ], and pH is simply a way of expressing the activity of hydrogen ions. The relationship between pH and hydrogen ion concentration is described as follows :
pH = -log aH +
where aH + is the activity of hydrogen ions.
Low pH is associated with acidosis and high pH is associated with alkalosis.
The pH value is available in the following products:
p CO 2 – Partial pressure of carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is an acid gas. The amount of CO 2 in the blood is largely controlled by the rate and depth of breathing or ventilation. p CO 2 is the partial pressure of CO 2 in the blood. This is a measure of the pressure created by a small fraction (~ 5%) of the total CO 2 , which remains in the gaseous state, dissolved in the blood plasma . p CO 2 is the respiratory component of acid-base balance, reflecting the adequacy of ventilation. The degree of damage, as well as the chronic nature can be assessed by concomitant changes in the acid-base state
Parameter p CO 2 is available in the following products:
p O 2 – Oxygen partial pressure
The amount of oxygen in the blood is controlled by many variables such as ventilation / perfusion. p O 2 is the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase in equilibrium with blood. p O 2 reflects only a small fraction (1–2%) of the total oxygen in the blood, dissolved in the blood plasma . The remaining 98–99% of the oxygen present in the blood is associated with hemoglobin in red blood cells. p O 2 primarily reflects the absorption of oxygen by the lungs.
Parameter p O 2 is available in the following products:
c Na + – Sodium
Sodium (Na + ) is the dominant cation in the extracellular fluid, where its concentration is 14 times higher (∼140 mmol / L) than in the intracellular fluid (∼10 mmol / L).Na + contributes greatly to the osmolality of the extracellular fluid, and its main function is to a large extent to control and regulate water balance, as well as maintain blood pressure. Na + is also important for the transmission of nerve impulses and the activation of muscle contraction.
Parameter c Na + is available in the following products:
c K + – Potassium
Potassium (K + ) is the main cation in the intracellular fluid, where it has a concentration 25–37 times higher (∼150 mmol / L in tissue cells, ∼105 mmol / L in erythrocytes) than in the extracellular fluid (∼4 mmol / L) [4, 5].K + has several vital functions in the body, for example, regulation of neuromuscular excitability, heart rate, intracellular and extracellular volume, and acid-base state.
Parameter c K + is available in the following products:
c Ca 2+ – Calcium
Calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) is one of the most predominant cations in the body, where approximately 1% is present in the extracellular fluid of the blood.Ca 2+ plays a key role in bone mineralization and a variety of cellular processes such as heart and skeletal muscle contractility, neuromuscular transmission and hormonal secretion, and also acts in various enzymatic reactions such as blood coagulation.
Parameter c Ca 2+ is available in the following products:
c Cl – – Chloride
Chloride (Cl – ) is the main anion in the extracellular fluid and one of the most important anions in the blood.The main function of Cl – is to maintain osmotic pressure, fluid balance, muscle activity, ionic neutrality in plasma. It also helps to establish the cause of acid-base disorders.
Parameter c Cl – is available in the following products:
c Glu – Glucose
Glucose, the most abundant carbohydrate in human metabolism, serves as a major source of intracellular energy (see.lactate). Glucose is predominantly produced from dietary carbohydrates, but also – mainly in the liver and kidneys – through the anabolic process gluconeogenesis and the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis). This endogenous glucose helps keep blood glucose levels within normal limits when dietary glucose is not available, such as between meals or during fasting periods.
Parameter c Glu is available in the following products:
c Lac – Lactate
Lactate, an anion resulting from the dissociation of lactic acid, is an intracellular metabolite of glucose.It is produced by skeletal muscle cells, red blood cells (erythrocytes), the brain, and other tissues during anaerobic energy production (glycolysis). Lactate is formed in the intracellular fluid from pyruvate. The reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) .
Parameter c Lac is available in the following products:
c Crea – Creatinine
Creatinine is an endogenous product of muscle metabolism, produced from creatine, an extremely important molecule for energy production within cells.Creatinine is excreted in the urine, and its concentration in the blood reflects glomerular filtration and, consequently, renal function.
Parameter c Crea is available in the following products:
c tHb – Total hemoglobin
The concentration of total hemoglobin ( c tHb) in the blood includes oxyhemoglobin ( c O 2 Hb), deoxyhemoglobin ( c HHb), as well as dysfunctional types of hemoglobin that are not able to bind oxygen ( c COHb) ( from m.COHb), methemoglobin ( c MetHb) (see MetHb) and sulfhemoglobin cSulfHb).
c tHb = c O 2 Hb + c HHb + c COHb + c MetHb + c SulfHb 9000Hb to
is not included in the report c tHb in most oximeters.
Parameter c tHb is available in the following products:
MetHb – Methemoglobin
F MetHb is the proportion of total hemoglobin ( c tHb) present as methemoglobin (MetHb).As a rule, this share is expressed as a percentage (%) .
Most medical texts refer to MetHb (a) simply as MetHb.
The MetHb parameter is available in the following products:
COHb – Carboxyhemoglobin
F COHb – this is the proportion of total hemoglobin (ctHb) present as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). As a rule, this share is expressed as a percentage (%). 
In the range of 0-60% COHb in arterial (COHb (a)) and venous blood (COHb (v)) are similar, i.e.That is, both venous and arterial blood can be analyzed . Most medical texts refer to FCOHb (a) simply as COHb.
Parameter COHb is available in the following products:
s O 2 – Oxygen saturation
Oxygen saturation ( s O 2 ) is the ratio of the concentration of oxyhemoglobin to the concentration of functional hemoglobin (for example, oxyhemoglobin (O 2 Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (Hhb), capable of carrying oxygen .
The value s O 2 reflects the utilization of the ability to transport the currently available oxygen.
In arterial blood, 98–99% of oxygen is transported in erythrocytes associated with hemoglobin. The remaining 1–2% of oxygen transported in the blood is dissolved in the blood plasma. This part is indicated as the partial pressure of oxygen ( p O 2 ) .
Parameter s O 2 Available in the following products:
F O 2 Hb – Fraction of oxyhemoglobin
F O 2 Hb in total blood hemoglobin.
Parameter F O 2 Hb is available in the following products:
F HHb – Fraction of deoxyhemoglobin
F HHb in total blood hemoglobin.
Parameter F HHb is available in the following products:
F HbF – Fraction of fetal hemoglobin
F HHb in total blood hemoglobin.
Parameter F HbF is available in the following products:
c tBil – Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a yellow decay product of the heme of the hemoglobin group.It is transported in the blood from the place of production, i.e., the reticuloendothelial system, to the liver, where it is biotransformed before being excreted into bile. Jaundice, an abnormal yellow skin color, is caused by a disturbance in the accumulation of bilirubin in tissues and is always associated with an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia).
Parameter c tBil is available in the following products:
Hct – Hematocrit
Hematocrit, the ratio of the volume of erythrocytes to the volume of all blood.
The Hct parameter is available in the following products:
- CLSI. Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; Approved Guidelines. CLSI document CA46-A2, 29, 8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.
- Higgins C. Parameters that reflect the carbon dioxide content of blood. www.acutecaretesting.org Oct 2008.
- Wettstein R, Wilkins R.Interpretation of blood gases. In: Clinical assessment in respiratory care, 6th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2010.
- Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. 5th ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier, 2012.
- Engquist A. Fluids / Electrolytes / Nutrition. 1st ed. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1985.
- Robergs RA, Ghiasvand F, Parker D. Biochemistry of exercise-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004; 287: R502-16.
- Lopez DM, Weingarten-Arams JS, Singer LP, Conway EE Jr. Relationship between arterial, mixed venous and internal jugular carboxyhemoglobin concentrations at low, medium and high concentrations in a piglet model of carbon monoxide toxicity. Crit Care Med 2000; 28: 1998-2001.
- Higgins C. Why measure blood gases? A three-part introduction for the novice. Part 1. www.acutecaretesting.org Jan 2012.
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Complete blood count
Complete blood count is one of the most frequent laboratory tests.It helps doctors diagnose various health disorders such as anemia (anemia), various infections and blood cancers, and draw conclusions about the general health of a person. A general blood test is prescribed not only for the purpose of diagnosing various diseases, but also for assessing the effectiveness of treatment, monitoring changes in health status after the diagnosis of certain diseases.
Indicators to pay attention to
Leukocytes, or white blood cells, are the response of the body’s immune system to a possible disease.An increase in their concentration suggests that an inflammatory process has begun in the body, for example, a bacterial infection, which the immune system fights against. In some cases, a change in the concentration of leukocytes, usually a significant increase, makes it possible to suspect a cancer of the blood.
Red blood cells (RBC)
Red blood cells, or red blood cells, carry oxygen and other gases dissolved in the blood. When the number of red blood cells in the blood increases, this indicates that the internal organs are not sufficiently supplied with oxygen.The reason for this can be various diseases of the heart, lungs, kidneys, imbalance or dehydration of the hormonal system, therefore, a more detailed examination is necessary. A decrease in the number of red blood cells is inherent in anemia, the reasons for which can also be different – a lack of iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid, various other chronic or parasitic diseases, therefore, in this case, a more detailed examination and clarification of the real reason for the decrease in the number of red blood cells is necessary.
Hemoglobin is closely associated with red blood cells – it is a protein that transports oxygen to the tissues of the body. Usually, it is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin that is the first sign that allows one to suspect anemia, most often a lack of iron, since the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood decreases much faster than erythrocytes, and one of its most important constituents is iron.
Platelets are the smallest blood particles responsible for blood clotting.The increase in their concentration can be due to various factors – from stress and increased physical activity to chronic infections and cancer. Often, a decrease in the number of these blood particles causes the intake of medications and hormonal drugs, as well as viral or oncological diseases.
Neutrophils are the largest concentration of the constituent cells of leukocytes, the main function of which is to fight infection. Usually, an increase in the number of neutrophils causes infectious diseases, but an increase in the concentration of these particles can also be observed in connective tissue diseases or malignant neoplasms, myocardial infarction, and lead poisoning.A decrease in the number of neutrophils in adults is rare – most often it is caused by viral infections, lack of vitamin B12, folic acid, radiation or malignant neoplasms.
Lymphocytes – extremely important, up to 30% constituent cells, the main function of which is the formation of the body’s immune system. An increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood is usually caused by viral infections as well as chronic infections such as tuberculosis, syphilis or brucellosis.However, some viral infections, such as HIV, hepatitis, or influenza, can cause a decrease in lymphocyte counts. The reason for the decrease in the number of lymphocytes can also be zinc deficiency, loss of proteins, radioactive radiation, chemotherapy, drugs that suppress the immune system.
An increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood raises a suspicion of a possible allergic reaction, especially drug, as well as parasitic infection, some diseases of the skin and connective tissue, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, adrenal insufficiency.
These blood cells are involved in rapid allergic reactions, in which the concentration of basophils is significantly increased. This raises the suspicion of allergy to medicines, food, or other household irritants. Conversely, the concentration of basophils decreases with rheumatoid arthritis, high stress, in women – during ovulation.
In addition to these indicators, a blood test allows you to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ENG), the percentage of erythrocytes in total blood volume (HCT), the average volume of erythrocytes (MCV) and platelets (MPV), the average erythrocyte hemoglobin (MCH), the average concentration hemoglobin in the erythrocyte (MCHC) and other indicators that allow a comprehensive assessment of the analysis results.Accelerated sedimentation rate An increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ENG) suggests a possible infection, joint disease, cancer, or other pathology.
It is important to know that the results of the analysis are evaluated only as a complex, only a doctor can correctly interpret them. The deviation of this or that indicator allows one to suspect certain diseases, but more detailed studies are usually required to confirm them.
A general blood test should be carried out prophylactically for each person at least once a year in order to timely identify possible diseases, assess the general state of health and timely determine the possibilities for its improvement.
No pre-registration is required for this analysis.
How to prepare for a blood test?
Taking into account the fact that blood counts can change even during the day, experts recommend a blood test in the morning, preferably before 10 o’clock. Before donating blood, you should avoid physical activity, stress, do not smoke or drink alcohol.
Also, before some blood tests are performed, your doctor may instruct you to temporarily stop taking certain medications or perform an analysis at the end of a course of prescribed medications.For women, blood tests are not recommended during menstruation.
90,000 Complete blood count (without leukocyte count and ESR): research in the laboratory KDLmed
Complete blood count – a set of tests aimed at determining the number of various blood cells, their parameters (size, etc.) and indicators reflecting their ratio and functioning.
Complete blood count, CBC.12 / l (10 in st. 12 / l), g / l (gram per liter),% (percentage), fl (femtoliter), pg (picograms).
What biomaterial can be used for research ?
Venous, capillary blood.
How to properly prepare for the study?
- Eliminate alcohol and drugs from the diet (as agreed with the doctor) one day before donating blood.
- Do not eat for 8 hours before the test, you can drink clean non-carbonated water.
- Eliminate physical and emotional stress and do not smoke for 30 minutes before the study.
General information about the study
A general blood test, as a rule, includes from 8 to 30 items: counting the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets in 1 microliter or liter of blood, as well as a number of other indicators describing the shape, volume and other characteristics of these cells.
Usually, in addition to this, a leukocyte formula (the percentage of various forms of leukocytes) and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are prescribed.
The main indicators that are included in the general blood test:
- white blood cells (WBC) count,
- the number of erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC),
- hemoglobin content (Hb),
- hematocrit (rematocrit, Hct),
- mean erythrocyte volume (MCV),
- mean erythrocyte hemoglobin (MCH),
- mean concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes (MCHC),
90,026 platelets (platelet count, PC).
Blood consists of cells (shaped elements) and a liquid part – plasma. These cells – red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets – are produced and matured in the bone marrow and must enter the systemic circulation as needed.
When studying a blood smear under a microscope, a drop of blood is placed on a glass, smeared with a spatula, and then stained with a special dye and dried. After that, the laboratory doctor can examine it in detail under a microscope.
The ratio of the volume of formed elements to plasma is called hematocrit.The change in this indicator characterizes the degree of “thinning” or “thickening” of the blood.
Leukocytes are cells that help the body fight infection. They are able to identify foreign agents (bacteria, viruses) in the body and destroy them.
There are 5 different types of leukocytes: eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. The counting of the number of leukocytes, included in the general blood test, allows you to find out the total number of all types of cells, the leukocyte formula – of each type separately.
The total number of leukocytes, as a rule, is increased in an acute infectious process caused by bacteria. If there are too few leukocytes, then the body becomes more susceptible to various infections.
Erythrocytes are donut-shaped cells with a thinner part in the center instead of a hole. They contain hemoglobin – a protein containing iron, which has the ability to transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues and organs, and carbon dioxide – from tissues and organs to the lungs, from which it is exhaled.A complete blood count allows you to determine whether there is a sufficient number of red blood cells in the blood, what is their shape, size and hemoglobin content (MCV, MCH, MCHC). The red blood cells should be the same, however, in conditions such as B 12 – or iron deficiency anemia, the shape of the red blood cells and their size may change. If the number of red blood cells is reduced, it means that the patient has anemia, which can be manifested by weakness, fatigue and shortness of breath. Less common is an increase in the total number of red blood cells (erythrocytosis, or polycythemia).
Platelets are cells that play a significant role in blood clotting. If a person has a low platelet count, they are at increased risk of bleeding and bruising.
What is the research used for?
This test is used for general health assessment, diagnostics of anemia, infections and many other diseases. In fact, this is a collection of tests that evaluate various blood parameters.
- Leukocyte counting determines the number of leukocytes in a unit of blood (liter or microliter).Its increase or decrease can be important in the diagnosis of infections or, for example, diseases of the bone marrow.
- Accordingly, the number of red blood cells in a unit of blood (liter or microliter) determines the number of red blood cells. It is necessary for the diagnosis of anemia or polycythemia and the differential diagnosis of various types of anemia.
- Hemoglobin levels are important in assessing the severity of anemia or polycythemia and in monitoring the effectiveness of therapy for these conditions.
- Hematocrit – the percentage of blood cells (formed elements) to its liquid part.It is used in the complex assessment of anemia and polycythemia, for making a decision on blood transfusion and evaluating the results of this procedure.
- The platelet count determines the number of platelets in a unit of blood (liter or microliter). Used to detect clotting disorders or bone marrow diseases.
- Average erythrocyte volume (MCV) is an average indicator that reflects the size of red blood cells. It is necessary for the differential diagnosis of various types of anemia.So, with B 12 -deficient anemia, the size of erythrocytes increases, with iron deficiency it decreases.
- Average hemoglobin content in a red blood cell (MCH) is an indicator of how much hemoglobin is on average in one red blood cell. With B 12 deficiency anemia in the enlarged erythrocytes, the amount of hemoglobin is increased, and with iron deficiency anemia, it is reduced.
- The mean erythrocyte hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reflects the saturation of the erythrocyte with hemoglobin.It is a more sensitive parameter for detecting violations of hemoglobin formation than MCH, since it does not depend on the average volume of erythrocytes.
- The distribution of red blood cells by volume (RDW) is an indicator that determines the degree of difference in red blood cells in size. It is important in the diagnosis of anemia.
- Average platelet volume (MPV) is a characteristic of platelets that may indirectly indicate their increased activity or the presence of an excessive number of young platelets.
When is the study scheduled?
Complete blood count is the most common laboratory test used to assess general health. It is performed during routine medical examinations, in preparation for surgery, is included in the medical board when applying for a job.
If a person complains of fatigue, weakness, or has signs of an infectious disease, inflammation, fever, then, as a rule, a general blood test is prescribed.
A significant increase in white blood cell count usually confirms inflammation. A decrease in red blood cells and hemoglobin indicates anemia and requires additional examinations to clarify its cause.
Many different pathological conditions can lead to changes in the number of basic cell populations in the blood. A complete blood count is prescribed to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for anemia or an infectious disease, as well as to assess the negative effect of certain drugs on blood cells.9 / l
Increase in the indicator – in case of infection, inflammatory processes, cancer and bone marrow diseases.
Decrease – due to certain medications (for example, methotrexate), with a number of autoimmune diseases, with severe infections, disruption of the bone marrow. 12 / l
RDW-SD (distribution of erythrocytes by volume, standard deviation): 37 – 54.
RDW-CV (distribution of erythrocytes by volume, coefficient of variation): 11.5 – 14.5.
Less than 2 weeks
134 – 198 g / l
2 weeks – 2 months
124 – 166 g / l
110 – 131 g / l
110 – 132 g / l
111 – 133 g / l
112 – 134 g / l
114 – 134 g / l
113 – 135 g / l
115 – 135 g / l
116 – 138 g / l
115 – 137 g / l
118 – 138 g / l
114 – 140 g / l
118 – 142 g / l
12-13 years old
117 – 143 g / l
13-14 years old
121 – 145 g / l
120 – 144 g / l
15-16 years old
130 – 168 g / l
16-17 years old
130 – 168 g / l
17-18 years old
120 – 148 g / l
18-45 years old
132 – 173 g / l
117 – 155 g / l
131 – 172 g / l
|Female||117 – 160 g / l|
Over 65 years
|Male||126 – 174 g / l|
|Female||117 – 161 g / l|
Less than 1 year
33 – 41%
32 – 40%
32 – 42%
33 – 41%
|91 398 34 – 43%|
34 – 44%
34 – 44%
18-45 years old
35 – 45%
|91 398 35 – 47%|
Over 65 years
|91 398 35 – 47%|
35 – 45%
37 – 48%
18-45 years old
39 – 49%
39 – 50%
Over 65 years
39 – 50%
Decrease in indicators is noted with iron deficiency, B 12 and other anemias, acute and chronic bleeding.
Increase – with polycythemia vera, dehydration, oxygen starvation.
Average erythrocyte volume (MCV)
Less than 1 year
71 – 112 fl
73 – 85 fl
75 – 87 fl.
76 – 94 fl
73 – 95 fl
78 – 98 fl
18-45 years old
81 – 100 fl.
81 – 101 fl
Over 65 years
81 – 102 fl
77 – 94 fl
79 – 95 fl
18-45 years old
80 – 99 fl
81 – 101 fl
Over 65 years
81 – 102 fl
Mean erythrocyte hemoglobin (MCH)
Less than 1 year
31 – 37 pg
24 – 33 pg
25 – 33 pg
13-19 years old
26 – 32 pg
Over 19 years
27 – 31 pg
An increase in the indicator is noted with B 12 – and folate deficiency anemia.
Decrease – with iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia.
Average concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocyte (MCHC)
Less than 1 year
290 – 370 g / l
280 – 380 g / l
280 – 360 g / l
13-19 years old
330 – 340 g / l
Over 19 years
300 – 380 g / l
A decrease in the indicator is noted with anemia.9 / l
Decrease – with immune thrombocytopenic purpura, bone marrow cancer, sepsis. An increase in the indicator is noted with polycythemia vera, cancer, tuberculosis, removal of the spleen.
What can influence the result?
Different factors can be influenced by different factors, respectively: pregnancy, smoking, taking certain medications, intense physical activity.
Who orders the study?
Therapist, surgeon, infectious disease specialist, hematologist, nephrologist.
Get tested for allergies and immunity in the Vyborgsky district of St. Petersburg
How is allergy detected?
Allergy diagnostics is carried out by specialist in this field – doctor allergist-immunologist.
To establish a causal allergen, a thorough and often in-depth specific allergological examination of the patient is required.
The essence of the development of allergies comes down to the production of special substances in the body, which are called immunoglobulins E (IgE) , circulating in the blood and located in various organs. When an allergen enters the body (by inhalation, with food, injection), these immunoglobulins E bind to this allergen and a whole cascade of reactions is triggered, leading to the appearance of symptoms of the disease.
In the A-Media clinic, after consulting an allergist-immunologist, it is possible to donate blood for the presence of total IgE , reflecting the “allergic mood” of the body, as well as for the presence of specific IgE to a wide range of allergens:
How are immunity pathologies determined?
Peculiarities of the climatic conditions of St. Petersburg, the rhythm of the metropolis, stress, modern lifestyle, bad habits – all this will certainly affect the state of immunity – the human defense system. To find out which link of immunity “broke”, a specific immunological examination is needed – an immunogram.
The work experience of an allergist-immunologist at the A-Mediya clinic at the fundamental department of immunology, experience in scientific and clinical work, as well as work in the flow cytometry laboratory allow you to be fluent in modern methods of diagnosing the pathology of the immune system, prescribe the necessary complex of examinations and carry out their detailed interpretation.
In the A-Media clinic you can donate blood for a comprehensive study of the immune status (or in simple terms – to take a blood test for immunity ).
Who is the immune status test indicated for?
The study is prescribed for adults and children in the following conditions:
- frequent ARVI, especially with complications
- frequent or long-term infectious diseases of ENT organs, which do not respond to standard treatment regimens
- persistent “thrush”
- infectious diseases caused by atypical (uncharacteristic) pathogens
- recurrent pustular skin rashes and other bacterial skin infections
- recurrent herpes
- fever of unknown origin
- allergic diseases
- autoimmune diseases
- control of therapy with immunosuppressants, immunosuppressants.
What does an immunogram include?
- clinical blood test, with the calculation of the leukocyte formula (leukocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes)
- determination of the subpopulation composition of peripheral blood lymphocytes
- CEC in serum
- IgE, IgA, IgM.
First, blood is donated for laboratory diagnostics, and based on the test results, you will receive a detailed interpretation of each indicator and, if necessary, immunocorrective therapy will be offered.
See also : PCR blood test.
The i-STAT System analyzer is a portable critical care rapid diagnostic analyzer that provides results for a wide range of tests right at the patient’s bedside.
Express laboratory at the patient’s bedside.
Rapid analysis of homeostasis is important both during surgical interventions and in the treatment of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit.
The easy-to-use i-STAT System analyzer works with advanced disposable cartridge technology and offers an extensive menu of laboratory-quality tests, optimizing department performance from diagnosis to therapy.
Key benefits of using the i-STAT System:
Convenient testing process in 4 easy steps
- Provides rapid sample collection, examination and results reporting, thereby enabling diagnosis and treatment at the patient’s bedside.
Timeliness of choice of treatment tactics
- Portable system that delivers laboratory-quality results in minutes;
- Alignment of the laboratory process with the recommended time interval from diagnosis to therapy (TAT).
The widest and growing range of tests on one
- Tests for cardiomarkers, blood gases, electrolytes and clotting, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters;
- Advanced biosensor technology provides precision and laboratory quality analysis results.
High performance comprehensive diagnostic solution
- Ease of staff training and analyzer use, as well as high compliance with treatment standards;
- Replacement of multiple systems and protocols with a single diagnostic platform.
i-Stat System Analyzer – There are 4 easy steps to get your analysis results.
Step 1: Add two or three drops of blood to cartridge
Step 2: Insert the Cartridge into the Handheld Analyzer
Step 3: Check the analysis results on the screen of the handheld analyzer
Step 4: Print the result on the portable printer
Cardiomarkers – CTnI, CK-MB, BNP.
Electrolytes – Na, K, Cl, iCa.
Blood gases – pH, PCO2, PO2, Lactate
Coagulation – ACT Kaolin, ACT Celite, PT / INR.
Biochemistry – Creatinine, Lactate, Haematocrit, BUN / Urea.
hemoglobin, TCO2, HCO3, BE, oxygen saturation (SO2), anionic interval.
The minimum sample volume , depending on the test, is 16-95 µL.
In 2009, on the basis of the hospital for war veterans, a new building was built, which houses the department of clinical laboratory diagnostics that meets modern requirements, sanitary norms and rules.
The department of clinical laboratory diagnostics employs 4 doctors, 6 medical assistants, 3 medical laboratory technicians, 3 nurses.
Research by the laboratory:
Study of duodenal contents
Investigation of urogenital discharge
Hematological examinations (blood)
Research of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid)
Cytological examination of urine, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, gynecological smears, synovial fluid, sputum, ascitic fluid and other biological material.
Other clinical trials
Determination of tumor markers
The study is being carried out: venous blood sampling in the morning on an empty stomach.In the evening of the preceding day, it is recommended to have an abundant dinner, to exclude alcohol and smoking. Intense physical work is contraindicated, stressful situations should be avoided.
Indicators of hemostasis state
Recommendations for preparing for the delivery of tests:
Collection of faeces (feces)