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Body systems endocrine: Endocrine System (for Teens) – Nemours KidsHealth


Neuroscience Resources for Kids – Body System Interaction


The skeletal system makes up the
framework of the body and allows us to move when our muscles contract.
It stores minerals (e.g. calcium, phosphorous) and
releases them into the body when they are needed. The skeletal system
also protects internal organs and produces blood cells.
Bones (e.g., skull, vertebrae)
  • Bones provide calcium that is essential for the proper
    functioning of the nervous system.
  • The skull protects the brain from injury.
  • The vertebrae protect the spinal cord from
  • Sensory receptors in joints between bones send signals about body
    position to the brain.
  • The brain regulates the position of bones by controlling muscles.
Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system delivers oxygen, hormones,
nutrients and white blood cells around the body by pumping blood, and it
removes waste products.
Heart, blood vessels
  • Endothelial cells maintain the blood-brain
  • Baroreceptors send information to the brain about blood pressure.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid drains into the venous
    blood supply.
  • The brain regulates heart rate and blood pressure.

Different types of muscles enable motion, generate heat to
maintain body temperature, move food through digestive tract and
contract the heart.
Muscles (smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscles)
  • Receptors in
    muscles provide the brain with information about body position and
  • The brain controls the contraction of skeletal muscle.
  • The nervous system regulates the speed at which food moves through the

The endocrine system secretes hormones into blood and other
body fluids. These chemicals are important for metabolism,
growth, water and mineral balance, and the response to stress.
Pineal body, pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid,
parathyroid, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, pancreas, stomach, intestines,
  • Hormones provide feedback to the brain to affect
    neural processing.
  • Reproductive hormones affect the development of the nervous system.
  • The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and other endocrine

The lymphatic system protects the body from infection.Adenoid, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen
  • The brain can stimulate defense mechanisms against
Respiratory System

The respiratory system supplies oxygen to the blood and
removes carbon dioxide.
Lungs, larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchi
  • The brain monitors respiratory volume and blood gas levels.
  • The brain regulates respiratory rate.

The digestive system stores and digests foods, transfers
nutrients to the body, eliminates waste and absorbs water.
Stomach, esophagus, salivary glands, liver,
gallbladder, pancreas, intestines
  • Digestive processes provide the building blocks for some
  • The autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the digestive tract.
  • The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior.
  • The brain controls muscles for eating and elimination.
  • The digestive system sends sensory information to the brain.
Reproductive System

The reproductive system is responsible for producing
new life.
Testes, vas deferens, prostate gland, ovary, fallopian
tubes, uterus, cervix
  • Reproductive hormones affect brain development and
    sexual behavior.
  • The brain controls mating behavior.

The urinary system eliminates waste products and maintains
water balance and chemical balance.
Bladder, urethra, kidney
  • The bladder sends sensory information to the brain.
  • The brain controls urination.
Integumentary System

The integumentary system reduces water loss, contains
receptors that respond to touch, regulates body temperature, and protects
the inside of the body from damage.
Skin, hair
  • Receptors in skin send sensory information to the
  • The autonomic nervous system regulates peripheral blood flow and
    sweat glands.
  • Nerves control muscles connected to hair follicles.

10.6: Interaction of Organ Systems


Every player on a softball team has a special job to perform. Each of the orange team’s players in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) has his part of the infield or outfield covered if the ball comes his way. Other players on the orange team cover other parts of the field or pitch or catch the ball. Playing softball clearly requires teamwork. The human body is like a softball team in that regard. All the organ systems of the human body must work together as a team to keep the body alive and well. Teamwork within the body begins with communication.

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Softball

Communication among Organ Systems

Communication among organ systems is vital if they are to work together as a team. They must be able to respond to each other and change their responses as needed to keep the body in balance. Communication among organ systems is controlled mainly by the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system.

The autonomic nervous system is the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions. For example, the autonomic nervous system controls heart rate, blood flow, and digestion. You don’t have to tell your heart to beat faster or to consciously squeeze muscles to push food through the digestive system. In fact, you don’t have to even think about these functions at all. The autonomic nervous system orchestrates all the signals needed to control them. It sends messages between parts of the nervous system and between the nervous system and other organ systems via chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.

Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\): The figure illustrates the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain stem, spinal cord, cerebellum, pineal gland, and cerebrum.

The endocrine system is the system of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Once in the blood, endocrine hormones circulate to cells everywhere in the body. The endocrine system is under the control of the hypothalamus, a part of the brain. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that travel directly to cells of the pituitary gland, which is located beneath it. The pituitary gland is the master gland of the endocrine system. Most of its hormones either turn on or turn off other endocrine glands. For example, if the pituitary gland secretes thyroid stimulating hormone, the hormone travels through the circulation to the thyroid gland, which is stimulated to secrete thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone then travels to cells throughout the body, where it increases their metabolism.

Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\): The image shows a concept map of how the fight-or-flight response occurs. A treat (an attack, harmful event, or threat to survive) leads to the brain processing the signals – beginning in the amygdala, and then the hypothalamus. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) is released by the pituitary gland. This causes cortisol and adrenaline to be released. The physical effects include heart rate increase, bladder relaxation, tunnel vision, shaking, dilated pupils, flushed face, dry mouth, slowed digestion, and hearing loss.

Examples of Organ System Interactions

An increase in cellular metabolism requires more cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is a good example of organ system interactions because it is a basic life process that occurs in all living cells.

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is the intracellular process that breaks down glucose with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP molecules. It is the process by which cells obtain usable energy to power other cellular processes. Which organ systems are involved in cellular respiration? The glucose needed for cellular respiration comes from the digestive system via the cardiovascular system. The oxygen needed for cellular respiration comes from the respiratory system also via the cardiovascular system. The carbon dioxide produced in cellular respiration leaves the body by the opposite route. In short, cellular respiration requires at a minimum the digestive, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems.

Fight-or-Flight Response

The well-known fight-or-flight response is a good example of how the nervous and endocrine systems control other organ system responses. The fight-or-flight response begins when the nervous system perceives sudden danger, as shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\). The brain sends a message to the endocrine system (via the pituitary gland) for the adrenal glands to secrete their hormones cortisol and adrenaline. These hormones flood the circulation and affect other organ systems throughout the body, including the cardiovascular, urinary, sensory, and digestive systems. Specific responses include increased heart rate, bladder relaxation, tunnel vision, and a shunting of blood away from the digestive system and toward the muscles, brain, and other vital organs needed to fight or flee.

Digesting Food

Digesting food requires teamwork between the digestive system and several other organ systems, including the nervous, cardiovascular, and muscular systems. When you eat a meal, the organs of the digestive system need more blood to perform their digestive functions. Food entering the digestive systems causes nerve impulses to be sent to the brain; in response, the brain sends messages to the cardiovascular system to increase heart rate and dilate blood vessels in the digestive organs. Food passes through the organs of the digestive tract by rhythmic contractions of smooth muscles in the walls of the organs, so the muscular system is also needed for digestion. After food is digested, nutrients from the food are absorbed into the blood of the vessels lining the small intestine. Any remaining food waste is excreted through the large intestine.

Playing Softball

The men playing softball in Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\) are using multiple organ systems in this voluntary activity. Their nervous systems are focused on observing and preparing to respond to the next play. Their other systems are being controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Organ systems they are using include the muscular, skeletal, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Can you explain how each of these organ systems is involved in playing softball?

Feature: Reliable Sources

Teamwork among organ systems allows the human organism to work like a finely tuned machine. Or at least it does until one of the organ systems fails. When that happens, other organ systems interacting in the same overall process will also be affected. This is especially likely if the system affected plays a controlling role in the process. An example is type 1 diabetes. This disorder occurs when the pancreas does not secrete the endocrine hormone insulin. Insulin normally is secreted in response to an increasing level of glucose in the blood, and it brings the level of glucose back to normal by stimulating body cells to take up insulin from the blood.

Learn more about type 1 diabetes. Use several reliable Internet sources to answer the following questions:

  1. What causes the endocrine system to fail to produce insulin in type 1 diabetes?
  2. Which organ systems are affected by high blood glucose levels if type 1 diabetes is not controlled? What are some of the specific effects?
  3. How can blood glucose levels be controlled in patients with type 1 diabetes?


  1. What is the autonomic nervous system?
  2. How do the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system communicate with other organ systems so the systems can interact?
  3. Explain how the brain communicates with the endocrine system.
  4. What is the role of the pituitary gland in the endocrine system?
  5. Identify organ systems that play a role in cellular respiration.
  6. How does the hormone adrenaline prepare the body to fight or flee? What specific physiological changes does it bring about?
  7. Explain the role of the muscular system in the digestion of food.
  8. Describe how three different organ systems are involved when a player makes a particular play in softball, such as catching a fly ball.
  9. True or False. The autonomic nervous system controls conscious movements.
  10. True or False. Hormones travel throughout the body.
  11. True or False. The pituitary gland directly secretes thyroid hormone.
  12. What are two types of molecules that the body uses to communicate between organ systems?
  13. Explain why hormones can have such a wide variety of effects on the body.
  14. Heart rate can be affected by:
    1. Hormones
    2. Neurotransmitters
    3. The fight-or-flight response
    4. All of the above
  15. Which gland secretes the hormone cortisol?

Explore More

Without the muscles lining the GI tract, you would be unable to digest food. Watch this short animation of food moving through the GI tract. It illustrates very clearly the necessary interaction of the muscular and digestive systems in the digestive process.


Body system communication

This focus idea is explored through:

Contrasting student and scientific views

Student everyday experiences

Students will be aware that their body responds to changes in the environment (for example, through heat regulation), but may be confused about what causes these responses and how they occur. They may not be aware of the human body’s two important
communication systems, the nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system.

Students may focus on nerves with particular attention to their feelings, but may not consider them in relation to how the body responds to the environment (internal and external). They do realise the speed with which nerves operate with respect to their feelings, for example the speed with which happiness can change to sadness or anger. Students are also often unaware or confused about the nervous system as a whole and the relationship that exists between the different parts of the nervous system (the brain, spinal cord and nerves).

Research: Driver (1994)

The human body responds to hormones in a sustained, widespread way. Students will have heard about hormones (especially in relation to pimples and the contraceptive pill), but they are likely to be confused about how they function. Their everyday experiences may mean that some students are more familiar with certain hormone functions (such as diabetics), than others (such as happiness as a result of the actions of endorphins).

Students often hear about hormones in the media. For example, they may have heard that chickens are fed hormones and that when humans eat these chickens they are affected in different ways, such as faster maturation of children. However, students have little knowledge of how this may occur. They may also have heard about the use of growth hormone by athletes, though they are likely to be confused about its source or the details of its role.

Research: Driver (1994)

Scientific view

Humans have two types of communication systems. These are the nervous system and the endocrine (hormone) system. These systems regulate body processes through chemical and electrical signals that pass between cells. The pathways for this communication are different for each system.

Research: Evans, Ladiges, McKenzie, Batterham & Sanders (2007)

Responses triggered by hormones are generally slower and more sustained than the responses of the nervous system which are targeted and short lived. Responses of the hormone system affect cells that are likely to be widely distributed throughout the body, such as the hormones involved in sexual maturation, whereas the actions of nerves are likely to be more targeted.

Further information may be sourced from the 
University of Washington: Neuroscience for Kids.

Critical teaching ideas

  • The nervous and endocrine systems are two forms of communication system in the human body that integrate, coordinate and respond to sensory information which is received by the human body from its surroundings.
  • In both the nervous and the endocrine system signals are passed from one cell to another by chemical communication.
  • In the nervous system, nerve cells send messages electrochemically: this means that chemicals cause an electrical impulse from one cell to another. This response is targeted and short lived. In the endocrine system, glands secrete hormones into the blood that travel to the target organs to effect a more widespread and sustained response.

Explore the relationships between ideas about body system communication in the
Concept Development Maps – (Cell Functions, Cells and Organs)

Teaching activities

Clarify and consolidate ideas for/by communication to others

Students compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems with each other and other everyday communication systems that they are used to dealing with.

a) Students write a research report comparing and contrasting wireless technology (computer systems) with the hormone and nervous system.  They should look specifically at the speed of response and the information carried.

b) Students relate the human communication systems (nervous and hormone) to communication systems in society and the technology that is used (such as mobile phones and landline telephones) and make comparisons between them.

Promote reflection on and clarification of existing ideas

Teachers should allow students to experience and build their knowledge by experimenting, researching and modelling.

a) Students work in pairs to test reflexes (nerve responses). It is best to test rapid nerve responses (which are particularly needed in case of danger).  These responses include reflex responses in the knee and of the eye pupil to light. To extend this part of the activity students can investigate whether these responses can be prevented.

Research: Lewis (1999)

b) Endocrine (hormonal) responses are much slower and sustained for longer.  To explore the endocrine system students can produce a large display of the hormone system.  Using a large piece of paper, they should draw an outline of a student and fix it to the wall. Students then research information on different gla​nds and the role of the hormones they produce. They draw pictures of the glands, stick each picture to the body outline and attach information about the hormone that is produced. This activity could be extended by researching information on conditions created by too low or too high levels of hormones.

Research: Lewis​ (1999)

Further resources

Science related interactive learning objects can be found on the
FUSE Teacher Resources page.

To access the interactive learning object below, teachers must login to FUSE and search by Learning Resource ID:

  • Body Parts: endocrine system – students look closely at the human endocrine system. They learn what hormones are and which glands release them. They find out which glands regulate bodily functions such as energy levels, digestion, calcium levels, growth and puberty.
    Learning Resource ID: NZGVA3

How Does the Endocrine System Interact with the Environment?

The endocrine system consists of glands or parts of glands which produce hormones that are released and distributed in the human body by means of the bloodstream. The major organs of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the islets of the pancreas, the adrenal glands, the testes, and the ovaries.

Humans have two systems of internal communication: the nervous system and the endocrine system. The endocrine system controls the delivery of messages through the release of chemicals known as hormones. Hormones are secreted directly into the blood by endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are found throughout the body and are responsible for releasing more than 50 hormones that control a number of essential functions in the body, including growth and development.

The Brain


The Hypothalamus contains vital centers for controlling the automatic nervous system, body temperature and water and food intake, and is the center for primitive physical and emotional behavior.


The pituitary gland is the master gland of the body. Compared with other endocrine glands, it produces the largest number of hormones, including some that control the other endocrine glands of the body.


The Thyroid & Parathyroid

The first organ recognized as an endocrine gland was the thyroid. It consists of two bodies like small walnuts: they are connected by an isthmus beside the larynx (voice box).
The parathyroids are four small glands attached to the thyroid gland, which act to maintain normal levels of calcium and phosphate in the blood and thus normal function of muscles and nerves.


The Pancreas

The islets of the pancreas produce hormones necessary for the regulation of blood sugar levels – insulin and glucagons. The alpha cells of the islets secrete glucagon, which raises blood glucose (sugar) levels by stimulating the breakdown of liver glycogen. When blood sugar levels are too high, the beta cells of the pancreas secrete insulin which stimulates the uptake of glucose.



The suprarenal or adrenal glands, each perched over one of the kidneys, are double glands. The core, or medulla, manufactures adrenalin, noradrenalin and a small amount of dopamine.



Reproductive Organs


These double organs are the sex glands. The ovaries in females produce the egg cell (ova). They also produce sex hormones that flow through the blood and give rise to such secondary traits as the breasts of the female.


These double organs are the sex glands. The testes in males produce the germinating cells, the sperm cells. They also produce sex hormones that flow through the blood and give rise to such secondary traits as the beard of the male.


Human body systems: Overview, anatomy, functions

Jana Vasković

Nicola McLaren MSc
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Last reviewed: May 31, 2021

Reading time: 22 minutes

Digestive system – anterior view.

The human body is a biological machine made of body systems; groups of organs that work together to produce and sustain life. Sometimes we get lost while studying about cells and molecules and can’t see the forest for the trees. It can be helpful to step back and look at the bigger anatomical picture.

This topic page will provide you with a quick introduction to the systems of the human body, so that every organ you learn later on will add a superstructure to the basic concept you adopt here.

Key facts about the human body systems
System of organsA group of organs that work together to perform one or more functions in the body.
Musculoskeletal system

Mechanical support, posture and locomotion

Cardiovascular systemTransportation of oxygen, nutrients and hormones throughout the body and elimination of cellular metabolic waste
Respiratory systemExchange of oxygen and carbon-dioxide between the body and air, acid-base balance regulation, phonation.
Nervous systemInitiation and regulation of vital body functions, sensation and body movements.
Digestive systemMechanical and chemical degradation of food with purpose of absorbing into the body and using as energy.
Urinary systemFiltration of blood and eliminating unnecessary compounds and waste by producing and excreting urine.
Endocrine systemProduction of hormones in order to regulate a wide variety of bodily functions (e.g. menstrual cycle, sugar levels, etc)
Lymphatic systemDraining of excess tissue fluid, immune defense of the body.
Reproductive systemProduction of reproductive cells and contribution towards the reproduction process.
Integumentary systemPhysical protection of the body surface, sensory reception, vitamin synthesis.

Skeletal system

The skeletal system is composed of bones and cartilages. There are two parts of the skeleton; axial and appendicular. The axial skeleton consists of the bones of the head and trunk. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones within the limbs, as well as supporting pectoral and pelvic girdles.

There are 206 bones in an adult human body. The place at which two bones are fitted together is called the joint or articulation. Joints are supported by cartilages and reinforced with ligaments. Functions of the skeletal system are mechanical support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation.

Elements of the skeletal system are adjusted to the function of the body part they support. Thus, the anatomy of bones, joints and ligaments is studied topographically, as the bones of the; head and neck, thorax, abdomen, upper and lower limbs.

Get started with skeletal system anatomy.

Muscular system

The muscular system consists of all the body muscles. There are three muscle types; smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscles. Smooth muscle is found within walls of blood vessels and hollow organs such as the stomach or intestines. Cardiac muscle cells form the heart muscle, also called the myocardium. Skeletal muscles attach to the bones of the body.Among these three, only skeletal muscles can be controlled consciously and enable us to produce body movement, while the function of other two muscle types is regulated by the autonomic nervous system and is absolutely unconscious. Histologically, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers are arranged in a repetitive fashion giving a striped appearance, hence are called striated muscle. Smooth muscle does not contain repetitive sarcomeres, thus is non-striated muscle.

Cardiovascular system

The cardiovascular system is comprised of the heart and the circulatory system of blood vessels. The heart is composed of four chambers; two atria and two ventricles. Blood enters the heart through the upper chambers of the left and right atria and exits via the left and right ventricles. Heart valves prevent the backflow of blood.

The heart acts as a two-way pump. The right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary circulation of the lungs, where the blood is reoxygenated again. While the left side of the heart simultaneously pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic circulation, distributing it to the peripheral tissues. The regular pumping, or heartbeat, is controlled by the conduction system of the heart.

The circulatory system, also called the vascular system, consists of arteries, veins and capillaries. They all comprise a continuous network of vessels which act to carry blood around the body. Blood leaves the heart via arteries, these progressively reduce in size to continue as smaller arterial vessels called arterioles. Arterioles end in a web of even smaller vessels called capillaries. The exchange of gases and nutrients occurs through the capillary walls.

Cardiovascular system – diagram.

Small veins, called venules, leave from capillaries and gradually increase their lumen on the way to the heart to end as veins. There is a certain histological difference between arteries and veins, but their main functional difference reflects the direction in which they conduct blood: the arteries convey blood from the heart to the periphery, whereas the veins convey blood from the periphery to the heart. 

There are three separate circuits to the circulatory system.

  • The pulmonary circulation which carries blood between the heart and the lungs;
  • The coronary circulation which supplies blood to the muscle of the heart;
  • And the systemic circulation which carries blood to the rest of the body.

Major arteries within the systemic circulatory system are the aorta and its branches, while the main representatives of the veins are the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava.

Learn everything about the heart, arteries and veins faster with our cardiovascular system diagrams, quizzes and free worksheets.

Major functions of the cardiovascular system include transportation of oxygen, nutrients and hormones throughout the body within the blood, and as well as eliminating carbon dioxide and other metabolic waste.

Learn more about the major arteries, veins and nerves of the body with Kenhub resources!

Respiratory system

The respiratory system consists of a series of organs; the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and lungs (alveoli). The nasal cavity and pharynx are together called the upper respiratory system, while the remainder of the organs comprise the lower respiratory system.

Respiratory system diagram.

Respiratory system organs, with the exception of the alveoli, function to conduct air into the lungs aided by the muscles of respiration (mainly the diaphragm and intercostal muscles).

Once air is in the lungs it enters alveoli (the site of gas exchange) and interacts with blood transported by the pulmonary circulation. Here carbon dioxide is removed from, and oxygen returned to, the blood. Thus the major respiratory system function is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. 

Fortify your knowledge about the respiratory system with this content we have prepared for you.

Nervous system

Nervous system controls how we interact with and respond to our environment, by controlling the function of the organs in our other body systems. The nervous system organs are the brain, spinal cord and sensory organs. These are connected by neurons, which act to transmit neural signals around the body. 

Nervous system – an overview.

Morphologically and topographically, the nervous system is divided into the central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Whilst functionally, the nervous system is considered as two parts; the somatic (SNS) or voluntary nervous system, and the autonomic (ANS) or involuntary nervous system.

Central nervous system

The central nervous system definition is that it receives information from the body’s environment and generates instructions, thereby controlling all the activities of the human body. This two-way information flow into, and out of, the CNS is conveyed by the peripheral nervous system. 

The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain is placed within the neurocranium, and is formed from the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem (pons and medulla oblongata). The central parts of the CNS are occupied by spaces called ventricles filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The spinal cord is placed within the vertebral column. The spinal canal extends through the central part of the spinal cord. It is also filled with CSF and it communicates with the ventricles of the brain.

The CNS is made of neurons and their processes (axons). Gray matter is made of neuron cell bodies, it is found in the cerebral cortex and the central portion of the spinal cord. White matter is made of axons, which combine and build neural pathways. The gray matter is where the instructions generate, while the white matter is the path through which the instructions travel toward the organs.

Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system definition is that it conducts information from the CNS to the target tissues, and from the target tissues to the CNS. It consists of nerves and their ganglia. Nerves that carry information from peripheral sense organs (for example eye, tongue, nasal mucosa, ear, skin) to the CNS are called the ascending, afferent or sensory nerve fibers. Fibers that carry information from the CNS to the periphery (muscles and glands) are the descending, efferent, motor or secretory nerve fibers.

A ganglion is a cluster of neural tissue outside of the CNS, made of neuronal cell bodies. Ganglia can be both sensory and autonomic. Sensory ganglia are associated with spinal nerves and some cranial nerves (V, VII, IX, X). 

Peripheral nerves emerge from the CNS. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves which arise from the brain, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves which extend from the spinal cord. Cranial nerves are named I to XII, determined by their skull exit location (anterior to posterior). Spinal nerves are divided into 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal nerve, depending on vertebral level from which they arise. In certain areas of the body peripheral nerves interconnect, creating neural networks called plexuses. Notable plexuses are the:

  • Cervical plexus (C1-C4) – innervates the back of the head, some neck muscles, pericardium and diaphragm via greater auricular, transverse cervical nerve, lesser, supraclavicular, and phrenic nerves
  • Brachial plexus (C5-T1) – innervates the upper limb with nerves such as median, ulnar, radial, musculocutaneous, axillary
  • Lumbar plexus (L1-L4) – innervates the muscles and the skin of the abdomen and pelvis, as well as thigh muscles via iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator, femoral nerves
  • Sacral plexus (S1-S4, with branches from L4, L5) – innervates the muscles and skin of parts of the pelvis, posterior thigh, lower leg and foot via the following nerves; gluteal, sciatic, posterior femoral cutaneous, pudenal, nerve to piriformis, nerve to obturator internus, and nerve to quadratus femoris. 

Somatic and autonomic nervous systems

The somatic nervous system (SNS) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) are divisions of the peripheral nervous system, with information conveyed through the cranial and spinal nerves. 

The somatic nervous system definition is that it allows voluntary control over our movements and responses. It conveys sensory and motor information between the skin, sensory organs, skeletal muscles and the CNS; establishing communication of the human body with its environment and response to outside stimuli. Major somatic peripheral nerves include the median nerve, sciatic nerve and femoral nerve. 

The autonomic nervous system definition is that it controls all the internal organs unconsciously, through the associated smooth muscle and glands. Functionally, the ANS is divided into sympathetic (SANS) and parasympathetic (PANS) autonomic nervous systems. The sympathetic nervous system definition is informally known as producing the „flight or fight“ state as it is the part of the ANS which is mostly active during stress.PANS dominates during rest, and is more active in „rest and digest“ or „feed and breed“ activities. The centers of SANS and PANS are within the brainstem and spinal cord, and they communicate with SANS and PANS ganglia located throughout the body. Note that there isn’t any pure SANS or pure PANS nerve, instead their fibers are added to the specific somatic nerves, making them mixed.

Digestive system

The digestive system function is to degrade food into smaller and smaller compounds, until they can be absorbed into the body and used as energy. It consists of a series of gastrointestinal tract organs and accessory digestive organs.

Digestive system diagram

The digestive system organs spread from the mouth to the anal canal. So it’s actually a tube consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anal canal. Accessory digestive organs assist with the mechanical and chemical food breakdown, these are the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder.

Master the digestive system anatomy starting with this study unit:

Urinary system

Urinary system is a body drainage system comprised of the group of organs that produce and excrete urine. It consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra.

Kidneys are paired bean-shaped organs placed retroperitoneally. The kidneys have a rich blood supply provided by the renal artery. Nephrons within the kidneys filter the blood that passes through their web of capillaries (glomerulus). The blood filtrate then passes through a series of tubules and collecting ducts, eventually forming the final ultrafiltrate, urine. Urine passes into the ureters, tubes of smooth muscle that convey urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. The bladder is a hollow muscular organ that collects and stores urine before disposal by urination (micturition). Functions of the urinary system include; elimination of body waste, regulation of blood volume and blood pressure, regulation of electrolyte levels and blood pH.

Get started with the urinary system with these resources:

Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a collection of specialised organs (endocrine glands) scattered throughout the body that act to produce hormones. The main organs of the endocrine system can be seen in the diagram below.

Organs of the endocrine system diagram

With regards to the endocrine system function; hormones produced by the endocrine system act to regulate a wide variety of bodily functions, such as triiodothyronine which regulates metabolism, or estrogen and progesterone which regulate the menstrual cycle. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to regulate the function of distant target organs. 

We have you covered with everything you need to know about the endocrine system here.

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is a network of lymphatic vessels that drains excess tissue fluid (lymph) from the intercellular fluid compartment, filters it through lymph nodes, exposes it to lymphocytes (white blood cells) of the immune system and returns the fluid to the circulatory system. The lymphatic system consists of lymph, lymphatic plexuses, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes and lymphoid organs. The lymphatic system function is to; convey and eliminate toxins and waste from the body; recirculate proteins; and defend the body from microorganisms.

Lymphatic system diagram

Lymph is a watery tissue fluid with a similar consistency to blood plasma. It starts as interstitial fluid which occupies the spaces between cells. Excess fluid is picked up by lymphatic capillaries and transported through lymphatic plexuses into lymphatic vessels, filtering through lymph nodes along its journey. Superficial lymphatic vessels are found in the subcutaneous tissue alongside veins. They drain into deep lymphatic vessels that follow the arteries. Lymphatic vessels empty into larger lymphatic trunks, which unite to form one of the two main collecting ducts; the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct.

The thoracic duct begins at the cisterna chyli, collecting lymph from the left side of head, neck and thorax, left upper limb, abdomen and both lower limbs and draining it into the left venous angle (junction of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins). The right lymphatic duct drains the rest of the body and empties into the right venous angle. From the venous angles, cleaned lymph is returned to the circulatory system, rejoining with the fluid of the blood. Note that the central nervous system is the only system that has no lymphatic vessels. Instead, its lymph is drained directly into the cerebrospinal fluid.Lymphatic system organs are divided into primary and secondary organs. Primary lymphatic organs produce lymphocytes and release them into lymphatic vessels. The two primary lymphoid organs are the thymus and red bone marrow. Secondary lymphatic organs include lymph nodes, tonsils, appendix and spleen. Lymph nodes are masses of lymphocyte containing lymphoid tissues, attached to lymphoid vessels. Lymph nodes function to filter cellular debris, foreign pathogens, excess tissue fluid, and leaked plasma proteins. There are aggregations of lymph nodes at key points around the body (cervical, axillary, tracheal, inguinal, femoral, and deep nodes related to the aorta).

Reproductive system

The reproductive system, or genital system, is a system of internal and external sex organs which work together to contribute towards the reproduction process. Unlike other systems of organs, the genital system has significant differences among sexes.

The external female sex organs, also known as the genitals, are the organs of the vulva (the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening). The internal sex organs are the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. The vulva provides an entry to, and protection, for the vagina and uterus, as well as the proper warmth and moisture that aids in its sexual and reproductive functions. In addition, it is important for the sexual arousal and orgasm in females.

The vagina is the canal leading from the outside of the body to the cervix (neck) of the uterus. Ovaries secrete hormones and produce egg cells, which are transported to the uterus fallopian tubes. The uterus provides protection, nutrition, and waste removal for the developing embryo and fetus. In addition, contractions in the muscular wall of the uterus contribute to pushing out the fetus at the time of birth.

The external male sex organs are the testes and penis, while the internal are the epididymis, vas deferens and accessory glands. Functionally, they can be grouped into three categories.The first category is for sperm production (the testes), and storage (epididymis). The second category organs produce ejaculatory fluid; the vas deferens and the accessory glands (seminal vesicles and prostate). The final category is those used for copulation and deposition of the sperm, these include the penis, urethra and vas deferens.

Integumentary system

The integumentary system is the set of organs that forms the external covering of the body. It includes the skin, skin appendages, sweat glands and sensory receptors.

Integumentary system diagram.

The skin is the largest organ of the body. It has three layers; epidermis, dermis and hypodermis. The epidermis is a thick keratinized epithelium made of multiple cell layers. Underneath the epidermis is the dermis, a layer of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves that supply the skin. The underlying fascia, also called the hypodermis, consists of fat, connective tissue and skin appendages (hair, nails, sebaceous and sweat glands).The integumentary system functions are various. It forms a continuous layer that protects the body from various damaging events, such as external injuries, loss of water and heat, and the carcinogenic effects of UV rays. It also excretes waste, contains sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature, and provides for vitamin D synthesis.

Go through these resources to reinforce your knowledge of the skin:

What is the Endocrine System?

Numerous processes take place throughout the body 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and one key factor in making sure all these processes work correctly is hormones. Hormones are your body’s chemical messengers that are secreted by a group of glands in the body. This is known as the endocrine system.

Using the bloodstream for transportation, the endocrine system has several functions. Here’s a look at how the endocrine system works.


The endocrine system helps control each of these processes and systems:

  1. Growth and development
  2. Homeostasis (internal balance of body systems)
  3. Metabolism (energy levels in the body)
  4. Reproduction
  5. Responses to stimuli like stress or injury


Important Parts of the Endocrine System

The endocrine system spans from the brain down to the pelvic region, with several different parts:

  • Hypothalamus: Located in the brain, this organ is responsible for telling the pituitary gland to start or stop making hormones. It connects the endocrine system and the nervous system.
  • Pituitary gland: This is the “master” gland of the endocrine system, the pituitary gland gets information from the brain and instructs other glands in the body. It’s responsible for making a few important hormones including growth hormone, prolactin (helps breastfeeding women make milk) and luteinizing hormone (helps manage estrogen in women and testosterone in men).
  • Pineal gland: The pineal gland makes melatonin, a hormone that helps the body get ready to sleep.
  • Thyroid gland: The thyroid gland makes thyroid hormone, which controls metabolism. If the gland makes too much or too little thyroid hormone, it can result in several problems in the body.
  • Parathyroid: The parathyroid is a set of four small glands located behind the thyroid. These glands control levels of calcium and phosphorous in the body, and they’re vital for bone health.
  • Thymus gland: This is the gland that makes white blood cells (called T-lymphocytes) that fight infection. The thymus is important during the development of a child’s nervous system, and it begins to shrink after puberty.
  • Adrenal glands: These glands make adrenaline, or the “fight or flight” hormone, as well as corticosteroids that affect metabolism and sexual function.
  • Pancreas: The pancreas is considered part of both the digestive and endocrine systems. It makes digestive enzymes that break down food, and it also makes insulin and glucagon, hormones that regulate sugar in the bloodstream and cells. Issues with the pancreas and insulin production are at the heart of diabetes complications.
  • Ovaries: For women, these organs make estrogen and progesterone, hormones that help develop breasts during puberty, regulate the menstrual cycle and support a pregnancy.
  • Testes: For men, the testes make testosterone, which helps with developmental processes like growing bodily hair, making the penis grow larger and creating sperm for reproduction.


To keep everything functioning, a few processes must be working properly:

  1. 1. Endocrine glands must release the proper amount of hormones.
  2. 2. The body must have a strong blood supply to transport the hormones around the body.
  3. 3. There must be enough receptors to which the hormones can attach and carry out their function.
  4. 4. The targets must be capable of responding to the hormonal signal. (In certain cases, the signal is sent properly and the bloodstream carries it as it should, but the receptors aren’t able to convert the signal into secretion of the hormone.)

If any of these steps don’t work properly, endocrine diseases could result. These include slowing metabolism, weight gain and hormonal shifts that could lead to things like heart disease, osteoporosis and Type 2 diabetes. Factors like stress, infections, chemical exposure, genetics and lifestyle habits can lead to increased risk of a disorder.

To learn more about your endocrine system or for any questions, speak to your doctor.


Our Utah County Endocrinologist is able to help diagnose and treat endocrine system disorders—even complex cases in which conventional treatments don’t work. As trained specialists, our providers know the latest treatments and technologies to treat a variety of disorders.



“What Is the Endocrine System?” WebMD. http://www.webmd.com/diabetes/endocrine-system-facts#1

“About the Endocrine System.” EndocrineWeb. https://www.endocrineweb.com/endocrinology/about-endocrine-system


Study Guide to the Systems of the Body

Last updated: December 27, 2020

Have you ever wondered how your food is digested, or how you can breathe, or even move your arms? If you think about it, it’s pretty amazing that the human body can do all of these things and more. These actions are made possible by what is called organ systems which are collections of organs, body parts, and tissues that work together for a common goal. For example, each one of your bones is part of the skeletal system; they work collectively to provide support and movement so that you can walk and run. Your bones also work together to protect your important internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, and brain. Other organ systems present in your body are the circulatory, respiratory, muscular, digestive, integumentary, endocrine, reproductive, and nervous systems. All of these systems have specific functions but they cannot function independently. They rely on all the other systems in order to work properly. Each system is very important and every person has them. Below you will find a brief overview of each body system along with helpful educational links for adults and instructional links for teachers.

Circulatory system

The circulatory system consists of the heart and blood vessels which encompass all of the arteries, veins, and capillaries. The arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart, and veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The main purpose of the circulatory system is to transport blood, oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to and from different cells and tissues throughout the body. This system works hand-in-hand with the respiratory system to facilitate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the blood per the alveoli in the lungs. It is also very important for the removal of wastes and poisons within the body via the digestive and urinary systems.

  • Project heart kids- Circulatory System: A neat animation of how the circulatory system works.
  • Your cardiovascular system: Kids who are interested in learning more about the cardiovascular system and what it is can click on this link. On this page, readers will learn more details about the heart, the bloodstream, and how blood gets its oxygen!
  • A printout sheet of the human heart: This page opens up to a printout of the human heart that can be colored. The printout has various parts of the heart labeled.
  • Introduction to the circulatory system: A series of lesson plans for learning about the circulatory system. Blood vessels and how to check one’s pulse are a part of the lesson plans provided.
  • Sail the circulatory system game: Play this game to learn more about the circulatory system.
  • All about the heart for kids: Watch a great video about the heart and the circulatory system. After the video, kids can read all about it as well.

Respiratory system

The respiratory system primarily consists of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, lungs, and diaphragm. Its primary functions are to absorb oxygen through the inhalation (inspiration) of air and to expel carbon dioxide back out into the atmosphere through exhalation (expiration). This process is commonly called ventilation, otherwise known as breathing, which facilitates the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and atmosphere. Within the lungs, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged via the alveoli, which are tiny air sacs where this action takes place. During this process, the newly oxygenated blood is pumped through the circulatory system by way of the heart to all of the cells, tissues, and organs throughout the body.

  • The Respiratory system: Educational information provided by the NIH. Includes an overview of the respiratory system, what happens when you breathe, what controls your breathing, and lung diseases and conditions.
  • Inner body: Respiratory system: Includes 2D and 3D interactive respiratory system anatomy explorer. Provides information on each section of the respiratory system and an overview of how it all works together.
  • Respiratory system elementary school lesson plan: An elementary school lesson plan regarding the respiratory system. The lesson plan includes parts from part A to part D.
  • The respiratory system: Watch a video summary of the respiratory system. The video is for kids in the fifth grade.
  • Kidz search encyclopedia: Respiratory system: Information about the respiratory system in an easy to understand format. Provides educational information on the respiratory system basics, including breathing, gas exchange, and cellular respiration.

Skeletal system

The skeletal system consists of 206 bones in total and consists of several different types of bones such as long, short, flat, irregular, and sesamoid. It also consists of all the joints, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments within the body. The primary functions of the skeletal system are locomotion, support of the body, and the protection of internal organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. Bones are also responsible for the production of red blood cells, platelets, and most white blood cells. Minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus are also stored within the bones, with 99% of the body’s calcium being stored here.

  • Human skeletal system: Learn about the skeletal system components, types of bones, and types of joints.
  • Systems: Skeletal system: Learn about the skeletal system inside and out by clicking on this link. While reading this page, people can also learn what the skeletal system does and how it works with other systems in the body.
  • Learn the skeletal system: Label the bones: An interactive game for grades 4 and 5 that allows kids to label the various bones of the skeletal system.
  • Human body: Human skeleton printout: Kids can ask their parents to print out this skeleton for coloring, or it can be colored online. Spaces are available for labeling the various parts.
  • Skeleton match activity: Learning about the common and proper names of bones can be fun. Print this PDF and connect the common names of the bones with the proper names.
  • The skeletal system: Read about the three major jobs that the skeletal system does. This link also tells how many bones there are in the human body.

Muscular system

The muscular system consists of 650 skeletal, smooth (visceral), and cardiac (myocardium) muscles. The primary functions of this system are movement, joint stabilization, heat generation, maintenance of posture, and the facilitation of blood circulation. Skeletal muscles connect to the bone and work hand-in-hand with the skeletal system to control voluntary movement such as walking and running. Smooth muscles are involuntary muscles that are responsible for the contraction of hollow muscles which include the stomach, intestines, bladder, and uterus. Cardiac muscle is an involuntary muscle found only in the heart and facilitates the circulation of blood by pumping it to the major arteries and out into the body via the circulatory system.

  • Muscular system: Facts, Functions, and Diseases: Provides an educational overview of the human muscular system. Includes brief information about diseases of the muscular system.
  • Kids health: Your muscles: Easy to understand educational overview of the muscular system.
  • Inner body: Muscular system: Provides more in-depth information about the muscular system. Includes a 2D and 3D interactive anatomy explorer.
  • Muscle activities for kids: A collection of classroom and home-school activities and lesson plans that teach kids about their muscles.

The Digestive system

The digestive system consists mainly of the gastrointestinal (digestive) tract which includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (colon). The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are also a part of this system and are responsible for contributing to the chemical breakdown of ingested food. The main functions of the digestive system are digestion, absorption, and the elimination of waste. Digestion is the breakdown of foods by mechanical and enzymatic processes into substances that can be utilized by the body. Absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine and is the process by which vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are passed on to the blood for energy. Undigested and non-useful nutrients from food pass through to the large intestine and are eliminated as waste. The large intestine is also where the majority of water and sodium is absorbed into the body for use.

  • Your digestive system and how it works: A more in-depth look at how the digestive system works, why it’s important, and what happens to your food as it passes through the digestive system.
  • Kids health: Digestive system: Click on this link for a neat video about the digestive system.
  • Science bob: The digestive system: Learn about the nine basic steps that the human digestive system goes through.
  • Help Arnold find his organs game: An online game where kids help Arnold with his digestive system. Organs are moved into the correct location on the character’s body.
  • Digestive system animation: A video that shows how the digestive system works for kids in grades 3 to 12.

Nervous system

The nervous system is made up of two major parts: the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord and acts as the main control system for the body. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all the nerves and ganglia (nerve cell clusters) found outside of the central nervous system; its role is receiving information from various stimuli and sending it to the brain. The main purpose of the nervous system is perceiving information from inside the body and/or from the external environment (PNS) and determining how the body responds to any changes (CNS). An example of this would be pricking your finger on a needle, your body will immediately pull your finger away in direct response to painful stimuli. This system also regulates basic bodily functions such as breathing, blood pressure, digestion, and the control of body temperature.

  • How does the nervous system work?: Educational overview of the nervous system from the NIH.
  • Modeling the nervous system: Make a neuron out of clay by following the instructions found on this page. The directions for the model are for kids in third grade through 12th grade.
  • Brain and nervous system: Provides easy to understand information for kids about the nervous system. Includes a slideshow on the different parts of the brain, anatomy of the nervous system, how it works, and illnesses of this system.
  • Kids’ health: The nervous system: Learn all about the nervous system by clicking on this link to the Women’s and Children’s Health Network. The article even explains how to keep the central nervous system working well!
  • The human body systems for kids: On this page, kids can learn all about the various body systems. The last system covered by this PDF document is the nervous system.

Endocrine system

The endocrine system is primarily made up of the hypothalamus, thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal body, adrenal glands, pancreas, and reproductive glands. The main function of this system is to help regulate and maintain assorted functions of the body by releasing hormones into the bloodstream to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is the condition of maintaining balance within the body in relation to its external environment and is vital for life. Hormones are chemical substances produced by a gland, or glands, to affect other parts of the body. Together these glands are responsible for growth and development, breathing and heart rate, reproduction, metabolism, mood, sleep, tissue function, digestion, the release of insulin, and much more.

  • Endocrine glands: Provides video addressing each endocrine gland within the body, how it works, and where the glands are located. It also provides an overview of the endocrine system.
  • Teens health: Endocrine system: Provides educational information for teens regarding each gland and the hormones they produce. Includes an overview of the endocrine system along with common disease conditions.
  • Activity: Endocrine system: Printable activity sheet for labeling the endocrine glands.
  • Kidz search encyclopedia: Endocrine system facts: Includes educational information on the endocrine glands, the hormones they secrete, and where they are located.
  • Hands-on activity: Endocrine excitement: Activity plan for teachers. This game teaches students about the hormone-receptor interactions within the endocrine system.

Integumentary system

The integumentary system consists of the skin, sweat and oil glands, nails, and hair. Skin is the largest organ in the body and is made up of three layers: the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. This system performs several functions that are vital to maintaining homeostasis. These functions are: protecting the body’s internal organs and tissues; protection from dehydration by helping to retain body fluids; protection from infectious organisms; maintaining a body temperature that is consistent with life; receptor site for pressure, sensation, pain, and temperature; excretion of waste materials through sweating; storing fat, water, and glucose; production of vitamin D. Hair is responsible for helping to protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation, while nails help to protect from injury and provide support for the tips of the fingers and toes.

  • Physiopedia: Integumentary system: Provides general information about this system including the structure of the skin and the different layers. An educational video about the integumentary functions and anatomy is also included.
  • Kids health: Your skin: Educational information about each layer of the skin in an easy to understand format.
  • What’s covering you? And why?: Lesson plan for teachers that encourages learning about the four functions of the skin.
  • Diagram of the human integumentary system: Infographic diagram on the human integumentary system. Also contains basic information about this system.

Urinary/excretory system

The urinary system is made up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys filter and remove extra fluid, toxins, and waste from the bloodstream in the form of urine. Every day this system produces at least 1 to 2 quarts of urine. Other primary functions of the urinary system are maintaining the body’s relative state of homeostasis by keeping the levels of electrolytes in balance, producing hormones that regulate blood pressure, producing red blood cells, and helping to keep bones healthy by maintaining the right amounts of phosphorus and calcium within the body.

  • The urinary tract and how it works: Educational information from the NIH about this system and its functions.
  • Anatomy of the urinary system: Provides anatomical information about each organ within the system.
  • Kids health: Your urinary system: Provides information about this system to kids in an easy to understand format.
  • How the urinary system works: Educational and funny video for children about the urinary system and how it works.
  • It may be yucky, but someone has to teach it…: Teacher’s lesson plan and activity on the excretory system geared toward elementary school students.

Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system consists of the lymphatic vessels, tonsils, adenoids, spleen, and thymus gland. Lymphatic vessels are similar to the circulatory system’s capillaries and veins and are connected to hundreds of lymph nodes within the body. Lymph nodes produce and store the cells that fight infection and disease. Tonsils take in bacteria and viruses that enter through the mouth and nose and are considered the first line of defense for the immune system. The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ and is responsible for producing both red and white blood cells and helps to detect dangerous microorganisms, viruses, and bacteria within the blood. As part of the immune system, the primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport a clear and colorless infection-fighting fluid called lymph, which contains white blood cells, throughout the body via the lymphatic vessels. Other functions of this system are absorbing fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system and transporting them into the bloodstream, restoring excess proteins and interstitial fluids to the blood, and helping to rid the body of toxic byproducts.

  • Your immune system: Information from the CDC about each organ in the lymphatic system, where it is found, and what they produce.
  • Teens health: Spleen and lymphatic system: Provides information about the basic anatomy of the lymphatic system, how it works, and disease conditions associated with this system.
  • Lymphatic system: Crash coourse: Educational and funny video about the lymphatic system. Provides a transcript of the video for the hearing impaired.
  • Immune system defender: Fun interactive and educational online game for children.

Reproductive system

The reproductive system in men consists of the penis, scrotum, and testicles, and in women it consists of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, breasts, and mammary glands. Together there are four main functions of the reproductive system: the production of hormones such as testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen; the production of egg and sperm cells; the sustenance and transportation of these cells; and the development and nurturing of offspring. This system is vital to the survival of the human species by creating new life.

  • Reproductive system organs: Overview of descriptions and functions of the male and female reproductive organs.
  • Teen health: Male reproductive system: Provides educational information for teen boys about the male reproductive system in an easy to understand format.
  • Teen health: Female reproductive system: Provides educational information for teen girls about the female reproductive system.

See also our heart anatomy chart for specific information on the heart. Check our 100% online and accredited ACLS course for getting certified.

90,000 The endocrine system plays a huge role in the performance of the functions of all human organs

Violation of the existing balance often becomes the cause of deviations from the cardiovascular, digestive, central nervous systems, and the genital area often suffers.

Endocrinologist – a specialist engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the endocrine glands. A consultation at the medical center “Dr.Life” will allow you to determine the presence of the disease at an early stage and begin timely treatment.Our highly qualified specialist, Kuruleva Lidia Nikolaevna , follows the latest achievements in endocrinology and successfully applies them in practice.

Endocrinologist consultation

Consultation of an endocrinologist is necessary for any disease involving dysfunction of the endocrine glands. These are common diseases such as:

  • hypothyroidism – dysfunction of the thyroid gland, leads to a slowdown in metabolism and vascular sclerosis, can cause infertility in women;
  • thyrotoxicosis – characterized by a high level of thyroid hormones in the blood, which is detrimental to the heart and destructive to the whole organism;
  • thyroiditis – inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland;
  • diabetes insipidus – a violation of the synthesis, accumulation and release of vasopressin, leading to dehydration;
  • diabetes mellitus – characterized by an increase in blood sugar levels, a violation of all types of metabolism, often leads to blindness, gangrene of the extremities, followed by their amputation, renal failure, heart attacks and strokes;
  • 90,017 obesity;

  • endocrine diseases in women – include inflammation of the mammary glands, menstrual irregularities, infertility, premature birth, menopause.

Endocrinologist’s appointment

Reception of an endocrinologist includes not only consultation, but also collection of complaints, anamnesis, examination, diagnosis and appointment. In addition, if necessary, consultations of a therapist, gynecologist, cardiologist or neurologist can be prescribed to identify the specific cause of the development of the disease. Treatment recommendations include not only medicines, but also general preventive measures aimed at strengthening the body.

Endocrine system | Men’s Health Clinic

If you are a resident of Chelyabinsk or the Chelyabinsk region, then you must definitely know where the “Male Health Clinic” is located. A huge amount of various toxic substances in the air of our city negatively affects the human body, which is why it is recommended to constantly be checked for the appearance of various diseases of the endocrine system.

What is the endocrine system, why is it so important?

In the human body, there is a system that regulates the work of internal organs with the help of hormonal effects, and it is this system that is called endocrine.With its help, it is possible to regulate the work of almost all components of the body, adapt them to changes in the external environment and keep them in a stable good condition.

But there are a number of external factors that can negatively affect this structure, which is why the Clinic of Men’s Health is needed in Chelyabinsk, because in the city such an impact can be very strong.

This system not only actively influences the activity of all existing organs, but is also responsible for the stable state of homeostasis.The endocrine system works in tandem with the immune and nervous systems, together they control the development and growth of the body, human reproductive function, mental activity, and are also responsible for emotional reactions.

What to do if you notice a disturbance in the functioning of the endocrine system?

Symptoms of a malfunction of this system can be considered poor health, emotional incontinence, difficulties with reproductive function, nervous diseases, the appearance of various rashes on the body, etc.e. If you observe any changes in your condition that bother you, immediately contact your therapist, and he will refer you after the initial examination to an endocrinologist, if he finds a reason for this.

You can, bypassing the therapist, immediately go to a narrow specialist. If you live in Chelyabinsk, the “Male Health Clinic” is the best solution, since it is here that professionals in their field work with long-term experience and practice. Do not hesitate to see a doctor, as this can lead to serious health problems in the future.

Which nervous system regulates the endocrine system

The human body is a complex mechanism. Its cells, tissues and organs must work harmoniously and harmoniously. This condition is provided due to the work of two signaling systems: endocrine and nervous. Their interconnection provides several important conditions:

  • homeostasis – the body’s ability to maintain constant characteristics;
  • adaptation – the ability to change some factors of the internal environment depending on changes in external conditions;
  • cell growth;
  • reproduction.

The nervous system is a collection of organs that provide innervation to all organs and tissues. Its central section includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral section includes nerves. The information is captured by receptors, then moves in the form of impulses along the nerve cells and reaches the brain. It provides a quick response in the form of muscle movement or other response to a stimulus. Also, the nervous system regulates the endocrine system by controlling the intensity of hormone production.

The endocrine system is a collection of glands that secrete hormones into the blood. It includes the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, as well as peripheral glands: thyroid, pancreas, genital, adrenal glands. Hormones are biologically active substances that connect with cells of various organs and can change their work, speed up or slow down biochemical processes in the body.

To understand which nervous system regulates the endocrine system, you need to track the relationship.It is called “neuroendocrine regulation” and consists in controlling the production of hormones by the endocrine glands. This process is provided due to the work of several structures: the hypothalamus, hormones, neurotransmitters, as well as the adrenal medulla.

Role of the hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a small area of ​​the diencephalon, which is considered the center of neuroendocrine regulation. It is associated with other parts of the nervous system, the brain and spinal cord. Together with the pituitary gland, it forms the hypothalamic-pituitary system and regulates the intensity of the production of its hormones.

The hypothalamus receives signals from the following structures:

  • basal nuclei (ganglia) – accumulations of gray matter in the white matter of the brain;
  • 90,017 spinal cord;

  • parts of the brain: the oblong, middle, thalamus, as well as some parts of the cerebral hemispheres.

The hypothalamus is a center that accumulates data from the whole organism, as well as from the external environment. Nerve cells of the hypothalamus are capable of producing several types of neuroendocrine transmitters – biologically active substances that affect the intensity of the synthesis of tropic hormones of the pituitary gland:

  1. Liberins are a group of compounds that stimulate hormonal synthesis.Thus, somatoliberin increases the production of somatotropic growth hormone, thyreoliberin – thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadoliberin – luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones.
  2. Statins are substances that inhibit the production of tropic hormones in the pituitary gland. There are such varieties as somatostatin, prolactostatin, melanostatin.
  3. Oxytocin and vasopressin are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus but accumulate in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The first increases during childbirth and causes contraction of the muscular wall of the uterus, but also performs other functions.Vasopressin regulates water metabolism, increases vascular tone.

Hormones of the hypothalamus enter the pituitary gland through the bloodstream and there affect its functions. Statins and Liberins are not always strictly selective. So, somatostatin can suppress the production of not only growth hormone, but also thyrotropic hormone, insulin and prolactin.

Nervous regulation of the adrenal glands

The adrenal glands are paired glands, which in humans are located in the region of the upper pole of the kidneys.In their structure, two components are distinguished: cortical and medulla. The cortex performs an endocrine function and produces hormones into the blood, and the medulla is an intermediate link between the nervous and endocrine systems.

One of the functions of the adrenal medulla is the production of catecholamines. It is a group of biologically active compounds that includes epinephrine and norepinephrine. They are maximally activated in stressful situations, when it is necessary to urgently tone the body, and trigger a number of changes:

  • heart rate acceleration;
  • increased vascular tone;
  • increase in blood pressure indicators;
  • expansion of the bronchial lumen;
  • inhibition of the digestive tract and a decrease in the secretion of its glands;
  • 90,017 pupil dilation;

  • increased activity of sweat glands.

The adrenal medulla has a similar structure to nerve tissues, since during intrauterine development it is formed from identical primordia. Histologically, the cells in this area are deformed neurons of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system, which are then transformed into endocrine cells. They are activated by sympathetic nerve fibers. As a result of their irritation, adrenaline and norepinephrine are released into the bloodstream.

Catecholamines are considered “stress hormones” because their concentration increases in uncomfortable conditions for the body. They are activated during painful sensations, exposure to cold, physical exertion and muscle fatigue. Also, their increase can be caused by stress, vivid emotions, prolonged mental stress and other factors. The work of the adrenal medulla is controlled by structures such as the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata, as well as the hypothalamus.


In the process of neuroendocrine regulation, a two-way communication is observed. The organs of the endocrine system are under the control of nerve structures that stimulate or suppress the synthesis of biologically active compounds. However, hormones also affect the central and peripheral nervous system. Thus, the thyroid gland secretes substances that act directly on the brain, bypassing the complex blood-brain barrier. They are useful for brain tissue, as they stimulate their growth and development, and improve mental functions.Epinephrine and norepinephrine can also affect neurons, thereby participating in the brain.

Specialists of the medical center “Juno” are engaged in the diagnosis of changes in the nervous and endocrine systems: a neurologist and an endocrinologist. You can make an appointment by calling 8 (831) 225-56-56.

Human endocrine system

Human endocrine system – a system of endocrine glands located in the central nervous system, various organs and tissues; one of the main systems of regulation of the body.The endocrine system exerts a regulating influence through hormones, which are characterized by high biological activity (ensuring the vital processes of the body: growth, development, reproduction, adaptation, behavior).

The central link of the endocrine system is the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Peripheral link of the endocrine system – thyroid gland, adrenal cortex, as well as ovaries and testes, glands, parathyroid glands, b-cells of the islets of the pancreas.

A special place in the endocrine system is occupied by the hypothalamic-pituitary system. The hypothalamus, in response to nerve impulses, has a stimulating or inhibitory effect on the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Through the pituitary hormones, the hypothalamus regulates the function of the peripheral endocrine glands. So, for example, stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) of the pituitary gland occurs, and the latter, in turn, stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. In this regard, it is customary to talk about uniform functional systems: hypothalamus – pituitary gland – thyroid gland, hypothalamus – pituitary gland – adrenal glands.

The loss of each of the components of hormonal regulation from the general system disrupts a single chain of regulation of body functions and leads to the development of various pathological conditions.

Pathology of the endocrine system is expressed by diseases and pathological conditions, which are based on hyperfunction, hypofunction or dysfunction of the endocrine glands.

The etiology and pathogenesis of many endocrine diseases are still insufficiently understood.The pathology of the endocrine system can be associated with genetically determined ones, incl. chromosomal abnormalities, inflammatory and neoplastic processes, disorders of the immune system, injuries, circulatory disorders, lesions of various parts of the nervous system, impaired tissue sensitivity to hormones. Among the most common endocrine diseases and pathological conditions, diabetes mellitus, diffuse toxic goiter, hypothyroidism, dysfunction of the gonads, etc. should be noted.

How do disorders of the endocrine system affect the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract?

We are used to associating such symptoms as nausea, vomiting, stool disorders (diarrhea or constipation) with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and when they appear, we turn to a gastroenterologist first. However, in some cases, in addition to the main indicators, the gastroenterologist recommends checking the work of the endocrine system or consulting an endocrinologist.Often this causes bewilderment, and sometimes even suspicion that the doctor is interested in prescribing more examinations.

In fact, more than 80% of endocrine system diseases can be hidden behind gastroenterological symptoms, making it difficult to determine the true causes of poor health. To understand why this happens, knowledge about the structure and functions of the endocrine system will help us.

How does the endocrine system work?

The endocrine system consists of a network of glands, tissues and cells located throughout the body that secrete biologically active substances (hormones), and target cells that have receptors that capture these hormones.It provides regulation of such body functions as behavior, nutrition, metabolism, immunity, and reproduction. That is, the endocrine system performs the coordinating function of most processes in the body.

If the endocrine system is not healthy, a person may have developmental problems during pregnancy, growth and puberty. Endocrine disruptions can affect the functioning of various body systems, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Hormones and their role in the body

Hormones are chemicals that the endocrine system uses to transmit “messages” to organs and tissues throughout the body. Once in the bloodstream or in the intercellular space, they are directed to certain organs or tissues that have receptor cells that recognize the hormone and respond to it.

Diseases of the thyroid gland and gastrointestinal tract

Thyroid hormones, produced by the thyroid gland, help control most bodily functions, including metabolic rate and energy levels.They affect both increased appetite, the rate of secretion of digestive juices, and the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, any deviation of the level of thyroid hormones from the norm can cause disruption of the digestive system.

Lack of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism) leads to a slowdown in gastric emptying and the passage of food through the intestines. The amplitude of the contractions of the large intestine also decreases. As a result, in some patients with hypothyroidism, stool frequency decreases less than once every 2 days, and in some patients there is constipation that cannot be treated with laxatives.

Other symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

  • Constant weakness, drowsiness;
  • weight gain, swelling;
  • Constant chilliness;
  • slowing heart rate.

The most common cause of hypothyroidism is autoimmune thyroiditis, associated with the aggression of the immune system against its own thyroid cells.

An excess of thyroid hormones (thyrotoxicosis), on the contrary, causes activation of gastrointestinal motility, and as a result, patients are often disturbed by diarrhea.

The most common symptoms of thyrotoxicosis are :

  • sudden weight loss;
  • increased heart rate, heart rhythm disturbance
  • increase in blood pressure
  • nervousness, irritability
  • increased sweating.

The development of thyrotoxicosis is most often caused by an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland – diffuse-toxic goiter (Graves’ disease).In this case, the immune cells overstimulate the production of thyroid hormones.

Therefore, in the presence of gastrointestinal disorders (diarrhea or constipation) of unexplained origin, it is necessary to exclude disruption of the thyroid gland.

How are autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland and the gastrointestinal tract related?

Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland, such as autoimmune thyroiditis and diffuse-toxic goiter (Graves’ disease), are often combined with other autoimmune diseases, including liver diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune gastric hepatitis), autoimmune diseases (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease).

Parathyroid glands, blood and gastrointestinal calcium levels

If many people know about the thyroid gland and its functions, then we are much less aware of the parathyroid glands. Few people know that behind the thyroid gland, on both sides, there are small paired parathyroid glands that produce parathyroid hormone, which is involved in maintaining normal blood calcium levels. If the amount of parathyroid hormone produced by the parathyroid glands increases, for example, in benign tumors of these glands, then the level of calcium in the blood also increases, and in the bone tissue, on the contrary, decreases.This condition is called primary hyperparathyroidism. An increased level of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract is manifested by a decrease or complete lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting. In addition, patients often have constipation, cholelithiasis, chronic pancreatitis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer may develop.

Other manifestations of hyperparathyroidism include increased blood pressure, fragility of bones (osteoporosis and fractures), and the formation of kidney stones (urolithiasis).

Influence of diabetes mellitus on the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine-metabolic diseases. With a long-term course of diabetes, more than 75% of patients are concerned about various symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract:

  • constipation,
  • nausea and vomiting,
  • abdominal pain,
  • diarrhea,
  • fecal incontinence,
  • Swallowing disorder (dysphagia).

The cause of complaints is an elevated blood sugar level and, as a consequence, the development of autonomic neuropathy – a violation of the sensitivity of nerve fibers due to damage to small blood vessels. In addition, diabetes mellitus increases the susceptibility to infections that can cause the development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Gastroenterological manifestations of tumors of the diffuse endocrine system (carcinoids)

The diffuse endocrine system is the most mysterious and currently the most studied section of the endocrine system.It includes single, or grouped together, hormonally active cells located throughout the body in the endocrine and non-endocrine organs.

Since the end of the 19th century, when the first cells of the diffuse endocrine system were described, more than 60 of their species have been studied. A significant number of these cells are found in the digestive tract, heart, thymus, in the mucous membranes of various organs and tissues. Cells produce hormones and biologically active substances that are involved in the regulation of vital processes in the body.

Benign and malignant neoplasms from cells of the diffuse endocrine system are called neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids), most often such tumors arise in the gastrointestinal tract, but they can also affect other organs. A feature of these neoplasms is that in an active state they are capable of producing a large amount of hormones, causing syndromes associated with an excess of these hormones.

The gastrointestinal tract is the largest producer of hormones, at the moment there are more than 10 different biologically active substances involved, primarily in the processes of digestion and metabolism.Tumors originating in the gastrointestinal tract can cause carcinoid syndrome, which is manifested by diarrhea, cramping abdominal pain, flushing of the face and trunk, increased heart rate, and shortness of breath.

Summing up

Most of the endocrine disorders described in this article were encountered in the clinical practice of gastroenterologists and endocrinologists of our center. Carcinoid syndrome, which occurs in neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, is the rarest endocrine disorder.But endocrine disorders leading to gastroenterological manifestations caused by diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands are widespread in the North-West region .

You can check the state of these glands using the “express diagnostics” programs:

Programs were developed by our doctors based on their diagnostic and treatment experience, as well as in accordance with Russian and international clinical guidelines.You can sign up for a survey or clarify your questions by calling +7 (812) 426-33-88 or through the form on the website.

Seven symptoms when Voronezh residents should consult an endocrinologist. Latest news from Voronezh and region

Failure of the endocrine system, which is called the main “conductor” of the body, sometimes you might not even notice. Not to notice for a long time is fraught with chronic diseases and serious health consequences.Meanwhile, according to doctors, endocrine pathologies today are quite easily diagnosed and corrected: the main thing is not to “sleep through” the disease.

Endocrinologists of the Voronezh Regional Clinical Consultative and Diagnostic Center (VOKKDC) told the reporter about the symptoms that may be signs of endocrine pathologies.

Weakness, unmotivated fatigue

The day before, I didn’t do anything like that, I slept normally, but I woke up and you feel tired, exhausted … Such fatigue “from scratch” is a reason to see a doctor.To begin with – to a therapist who will prescribe basic tests in order to understand where to go next. Weakness and unmotivated fatigue is not a specific symptom: it occurs in many diseases. Therefore, in order to exclude endocrine pathology – in particular, thyroid disease – it is advisable to consult an endocrinologist.

The endocrine system is a complex of endocrine glands that produce hormones that enter the bloodstream. These include: the pancreas, thyroid and parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, sex glands, as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary gland located in the brain.

According to Larisa Kolimbet, head of the VOKKDC diabetic center, a disease is always a complex of symptoms that only a specialist can “read”. In no case should one diagnose oneself, let alone one symptom. And yet, even one symptom is a reason to play it safe and consult a doctor.

If in a patient with unmotivated fatigue we see, for example, a low hemoglobin in a general blood test, and the rest of the indicators are in order, then we exclude the thyroid disease, which was initially suspected, and refer the person to a consultation with a hematologist.The hematologist will find out the cause of the anemia and prescribe treatment. Or we come to the conclusion that the symptom may still be associated with the pathology of the thyroid gland, then we clarify the diagnosis and begin to treat.

Larisa Kolimbet

Head of the Diabetes Center VOKKDTS

Change in heart rate and / or blood pressure

According to endocrinologist Natalia Tagintseva, we are talking about a rapid or slow heartbeat, arrhythmias and other changes in rhythm, which can also be caused by endocrine problems.

– For example, a person’s working pressure was 110/70, it became – 160/100, or jumps began in one direction and the other. Or the pulse was 70 beats per minute, but it became 90 or even worse – 120. It often happens when cardiologists with the same tachycardia refer a patient to us, because they understand that the problem is in endocrinology, ”the doctor explained.

Among the pathologies of the thyroid gland, in the first place are diffuse and nodal changes caused by iodine deficiency. In second place are chronic nonspecific inflammation of the thyroid gland.On the third – hypothyroidism: decreased function of the thyroid gland. On the fourth – thyrotoxicosis: increased thyroid function.

In the Voronezh region, the average degree of iodine deficiency. Given the widespread prevalence of thyroid gland diseases, every two to three years, its ultrasound should be done by everyone, and especially those who are over 40 years old.

If an ultrasound scan shows changes in the thyroid gland, then an analysis for hormones must be done.Although the option of a normal ultrasound and a violation of the hormonal status is not excluded: an ultrasound shows the structure, and hormones are a function. With a good structure, there may be a dysfunction, and vice versa.

Natalia Tagintseva

endocrinologist VOKKDTS

Dry mouth

Dry mouth is not only a sign of diabetes mellitus: it can also indicate a disease of the thyroid / parathyroid glands or adrenal glands.

The thyroid gland controls everything in the human body, from protein-carbohydrate-fat metabolism to mental state. But the most “sore” points of application are the nervous and cardiovascular systems: with advanced thyroid diseases, they are the first to suffer.

The parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid gland, about the size of a five kopeck coin. They produce parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium-phosphorus metabolism.
The adrenal glands are endocrine glands involved in the regulation of metabolism, as well as in the adaptation of the body to unfavorable, including stressful, conditions.

Dry mouth can occur, for example, with increased function of the thyroid gland, when its hormones suppress the natural secretion of insulin, or with pathology of the parathyroid glands, when the level of parathyroid hormone increases and calcium-phosphorus metabolism is disturbed, which can lead to osteoporosis.

Previously, in the structure of endocrine pathologies, diseases of the parathyroid gland occupied the fourth place, today it is already the third: after diabetes and diseases of the thyroid gland.Perhaps it was badly diagnosed earlier, but today with modern equipment there are completely different possibilities … When the function of the parathyroid gland is impaired, there are many diseases, but most often it is osteoporosis. At the Diabetes Center, we diagnose and treat him. Since 2017, we have a city office for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. By the way, the diagnostic center has (so far the only one in the region) an X-ray densitometer – an apparatus that determines the mineral density of bone tissue.

Larisa Kolimbet

Head of the Diabetes Center VOKKDTS

Densitometer measures bone density

Onset of edema

A person feels general edema, or he has local edema: hands, feet or (in advanced cases) legs, bags under the eyes. These are signs of developing heart failure, the cause of which can also be in diseases of the thyroid gland, adrenal glands or hypothalamic-pituitary region.

The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are the main glands that regulate the work of the entire endocrine system: hormones are released here, which give a signal to all other (except for the pancreas) endocrine glands. If, for example, the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones, then according to the principle of feedback, the signal enters the pituitary gland, where a hormone is released that stimulates the gland. However, due to the fact that the thyroid gland has developed a disease, it cannot produce hormones. A blood test for hormones helps to understand the picture of what happened.

Deterioration of skin and hair condition

Change in color, density of the skin, excessive hair growth – for example, hair growth in women according to the male pattern: on the abdomen, chin. Or, conversely, hair loss, the appearance of areas of baldness – the reason for this can also be in the endocrine system.

– Some with hair loss will go to a trichologist. But a competent specialist will see whether baldness is associated with hair itself or there is a serious internal problem – endocrine or rheumatological, – noted Natalya Tagintseva.

Problems in intimate life

Violation of the menstrual cycle and libido in women, decreased sexual activity in men – may be associated with both thyroid pathology and gonads, hypothalamus or pituitary gland.

Often, patients come to a diabetology center after having had a fair amount of treatment and spending a lot of money. Many people ask: how, without being a specialist, to understand: you are assigned the necessary minimum of research or according to the principle of “maximum from the price list”? In this situation, firstly, you can seek advice from another specialist.Secondly, for each disease, including endocrine disease, there is a standard for the provision of medical care, approved by the order of the Ministry of Health. You can ask the doctor what diagnosis he suspects, and ask to show the standard of examination. And to understand how much this standard has been exceeded.

Natalia Tagintseva

endocrinologist VOKKDTS

Vision problems

With diseases of the endocrine system, vision problems can be very different.The most common exophthalmos (popularly referred to as “Graves’ disease”): protrusion of the eyeballs caused by excessive thyroid function. Also: dryness in the eyeball, burning, decreased vision, narrowing of the visual fields – in particular, the latter can be caused by a pathology of the hypothalamic-pituitary sphere – for example, a benign tumor of the pituitary gland – especially if the tumor is large and presses on the optic nerve junction.

Neglected pathologies of the endocrine system can lead to serious consequences.In the case of the thyroid gland, these are hyper- or hypothyroid coma, heart attacks, strokes, circulatory disorders, pathological fractures. Pituitary adenomas at a late stage are fraught with damage to nearby areas of the brain, which can result in blindness.

In the diagnostic center we have the possibility of a complete clinical examination of the patient, since there are departments for laboratory, radiation diagnostics, functional diagnostics, an ultrasound department with the latest equipment.The diabetology center has 10 highly qualified endocrinologists who, if necessary, can consult with narrow specialists: the diagnostic center employs doctors of 45 specialties. If we come to the conclusion that a patient, for example, needs an operation of a nodule on the thyroid gland, we immediately consult with an endocrinological surgeon who sets the date and prepares for the operation. This is all a great time saver.

Larisa Kolimbet

Head of the Diabetes Center VOKKDTS

There are contraindications.Required

consultation of specialists.

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The endocrine system is the main regulator of all body functions

Archive: publications

Endocrine system (Greek endon – inside; krino – to allocate) consists
from many endocrine glands. These are the little organs divided between
are topographically similar to the musicians of a large orchestra, in which each of
them performs his part.But in order for their solo parts to sound
a wonderful symphony of health and harmony of our body, the orchestra needs

Pineal gland, or pineal gland plays a role in the endocrine system
conductor. It is the pineal gland that controls the body’s biological clock,
telling you when to go to bed or wake up. Scientists call the daily
cycle with circadian rhythm . Internal circadian rhythms control and
coordinate the formation of hormones, hunger and fatigue.Epiphysis,
carries out its activity with the help of the hormone melatonin, secretion
which begins at nightfall. At the same time, the temperature decreases
body, lowers blood pressure, slows breathing and heart rate
contractions, our movements slow down and, if we do not resist these natural
changes, then we very soon fall asleep. With dawn, under the influence
sunlight, the release of melatonin stops, while
reverse processes that allow us to wake up and start vigorous activity.

It is quite obvious that “if you follow the advice of deep antiquity,
when people have not yet departed from the true path, then it is also possible to extend the life span and
reach the ultimate longevity ”
To do this, you should sleep in the dark, and
have fun in the afternoon. If you have to work at night, then the rhythm of the shift follows.
dark and light periods to create artificially – to work in brightly lit
indoors, and during sleep hours during the day try to darken your room.

Hypotalomo-pituitary system – two organs are closely related and
anatomically and functionally.They act as coordinators in the endocrine
system. Their tandem is built on the principle of feedback hypothalamus
produces hormones that begin to stimulate certain
areas of the pituitary gland, which enhances the secretion of its hormones. As soon as
the required level is reached, the hypothalamus stops working, until
the moment until their level decreases, and then he resumes his
activity. The relationship of the pituitary gland with the glands is built on the same principle,
located below it on the hierarchical ladder of the endocrine system.Together with the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland controls the work of all glands.

The thyroid gland produces
two hormones: triiodothyronine and thyroxine, both of which are involved in cellular metabolism
– the process of energy production and utilization. If she doesn’t produce enough
hormones (hypothyroidism) , this leads to depression, fatigue, decreased
ability to protect against infection. If the synthesis of these hormones is increased (hyperthyroidism),
metabolic processes are accelerated: a person loses weight, he is constantly tormented
feeling of heat, sweating, hands begin to tremble, heartbeat worries him. Parathyroid glands produce
parathyroid hormone (from parathyroid hormone – a hormone of the parathyroid glands) that regulates
calcium homeostasis, providing bone density and the ability to
coordinated muscle contraction.

Thymus (thymus gland) – small gland, weighing about 14 g, located behind
sternum. Experiments have shown that if a person is deprived of the opportunity to sleep at least
for one night, his white blood cell count drops sharply
(T-lymphocytes), responsible in our body for guarding against sudden
invasion of “aliens”: bacteria and viruses.These cells are produced in the bone
the brain, and then go through school in the thymus gland – the thymus, which teaches
these gallant warriors fight with their hormones: thymosin and

Hormones of the adrenal glands – glands located at the tops of the kidneys (above
kidneys) are necessary for the mobilization of all organs and systems in stress
situations. At the same time, there is a powerful release of adrenal hormones.
Glucocorticoids – hydrocortisone, cortisone are involved in carbohydrate metabolism,
increasing glycogen levels in the liver and muscles, which allows them to shrink from
more power.After all, this is what we need when we need to run away from
danger or to fight back the offender. The adrenaline that
produced by the adrenal medulla, makes our
heart, breathing quickens, thereby providing tissues with oxygen. Invasion
viruses or bacteria is also a stressful situation for all systems and,
therefore, requires an increase in the amount of corticosteroids.

Pancreas – we remember about it only when it does not cope with its task – to process sugar.Probably everyone knows that this happens when the pancreas does not secrete its hormone, insulin, enough. In addition to the fact that insulin activates the transport of glucose into the cell, it also activates the transport of amino acids, potassium and calcium ions, the synthesis of proteins and lipids, being a kind of transport and construction company. The activity of the pancreas, like all other glands of the endocrine system, follows a circadian rhythm. We see again that in order for our endocrine system to function as a well-oiled mechanism, we first of all need a good sleep.

Gonads – sex glands, which include male testes and female ovaries. producing sex hormones determine, first of all, reproductive function (fertility) and body structure.

Regulation of the synthesis of all hormones
built on the principle of feedback – if their level is increased, the synthesis stops.
This level can be increased by the administration of hormones when dictated
the need to support other organs and systems.

A similar situation occurs when we are in a state of “chronic
stress ”.
But if hormone therapy is prescribed in the case of
of extreme necessity, often for health reasons, then into the pit of “chronic
stress ”we often fall of our own accord. Our experiences, sometimes not
adequate situations, do not change anything in this life.

Now imagine: thinking about how scary it is to live in this terrible world,
you haven’t slept all night. Epiphysis did not help thymus ,
restore the strength of the immune system; adrenal glands so they can
protect us from unexpected situations; thyroid and pancreas ,
so that they provide us with energy.And here you are, barely moving your legs (no
hormones of the pancreas and thyroid glands to provide muscles with energy)
go outside. You are tired overnight, the brain is unable to produce endorphins
are hormones of happiness, and you are not happy about a beautiful sunny morning. Passerby
sneezed next to you, and you are defenseless – the immune system is not ready to defend itself.
A car is moving towards you, but you are unable to budge – no
adrenal hormones to mobilize …

But let’s not talk about sad things.Let us remember that man was created with a huge
safety margin, and one sleepless night is not a disaster, the main thing is that it
has not become a bad habit.

We deliberately practically did not talk about diseases of the endocrine system ,
since this system, as well as all other organs, tissues and cells of the body are given
for us for life, and therefore it is much more important to know how they should function,
so you can support them
activity and thereby prevent the development of the disease.

Following the advice of the ancients, let us remember that

“The perfectly wise heals
disease when it has not yet appeared.He puts the body in order at the wrong time
troubles, and when it is not yet. If you take medicine when the illness has come,
it is very much like digging a well while thirsty; looks like making
weapons when the battle has already begun. At this stage, it is too late to take action. ”

Due to the hormones of the pineal gland, we know when to sleep, when to get up, when
to start work. For this, the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary system are included in
work all the glands of the endocrine system. The adrenal glands help us mobilize
to achieve the intended goal.Thymus provides our protection. Thyroid and
the pancreas supplies our cells with energy. Parathyroid hormone that is produced
parathyroid glands, will give the opportunity for a coordinated reduction
muscles. But each of us wants to be not only healthy, but also beautiful and loved.
This is also the task of our endocrine system . Growth hormone (somatotropin) ,
which is mainly produced in the pituitary gland, regulates the growth of tubular
bones, ensuring us become. Sex hormones determine our beauty:
estrogens and progestins for women, androgens for men.

And what about love? People’s attraction to each other will be determined by prolactin . His
especially a lot is produced in nursing mothers, since it is responsible for
lactation. Perhaps it is this hormone that is responsible for the mother’s love for
to your baby – the strongest feeling on earth. Feeling happy and full
life is provided by endorphins . As we remember, they are produced
our central commander-in-chief – the brain. Remember that
lovers practically do not get sick and are ready to move mountains for the sake of their loved ones.But
how to keep this feeling for the whole life? This is probably only possible if
if you follow the Great Commandment: “Love your neighbor as yourself
yourself! ”

So, with love for ourselves, we will think about how to maintain health for
for many years, how to live these years in harmony with yourself and the world around you?

Rule One : Follow the natural rhythms of nature.

If at times you suffer from insomnia and find it difficult to fall asleep,
remember that the effect of melatonin is manifested by the slowing down of all processes
life activity.Therefore, before going to bed, calm walks are beneficial,
unhurried conversation with loved ones. It is better to postpone the “showdown” until the morning, when we will
ready to make decisions, and “the morning is wiser than the evening.” Honey helps with
warm water, considering that carbohydrates contribute to the synthesis of serotonin –
precursor of melatonin, it is difficult to say what it is? Folk or scientific

Rule two : remember, we cannot change the world around us we
we can change our attitude towards him. Taking care of mental well-being,
you can move on to concerns about bodily health.

Herbal medicine to harmonize the activity of the endocrine system

Epiphysis. To normalize circadian rhythm and therefore work
pineal gland, it is possible to use phytopreparations in the morning with a general tonic
action: tinctures of eleutherococcus, zamanihi, leuzea root, ginseng; and before
sleep – drugs with the opposite effect: tinctures of motherwort, valerian.
The increased consumption of carbohydrates also stimulates the pineal gland. Here
why when we are depressed we want to please ourselves with something tasty.

Pituitary gland. Plants with a stimulating effect on the pituitary gland:
elecampane, seaweed.

Thyroid gland. Stimulating action on the thyroid gland
provide primarily iodine-containing products: kelp and other algae, also
oats have a similar effect. Cabbage, rutabagas, turnips, shepherd’s purse, lily of the valley
– inhibit the activity of the thyroid

Adrenal glands. Activate the activity of the adrenal glands basil, pine,
thyme, black currant, oak, eleutherococcus.To weaken his activities
use borage, hairy hawk, ylang-ylang essential oil.

Pancreas. Reduce sugar content: onions, olives,
blueberries, nettles, walnuts, knotweed, blackberries, eucalyptus.

Testicles. Stimulates testicular function and therefore androgen synthesis
elecampane, yarrow, lemon, savory.

Ovaries. The synthesis of estrogens is stimulated by green anise, angelica, cumin,
coriander, cypress, hops, ginseng. The synthesis of progesterone is enhanced by the cuff,
yarrow, elecampane and wormwood.Hormones are synthesized in certain endocrine glands, some
time circulate in the blood, coordinating all vital processes, after
which are destroyed and excreted from the body. This function is provided by our
organs responsible for detoxification: liver, intestinal tract, kidneys, lungs,

© Nadezhda Manshina

Published: HEALTH MOSCOW , 2001

Photo from open sources