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Bone melting: Bone disease, causes, symptoms, treatment

Bone disease, causes, symptoms, treatment

The word osteomalacia means “soft bones.” The condition keeps your bones from mineralizing, or hardening, as they should. That makes them weak and more likely to bend and break.

Only adults have it. When the same thing happens in children, it’s called rickets. Osteomalacia is more common in women and often happens during pregnancy.

It’s not the same as osteoporosis. Both can cause bones to break. But while osteomalacia is a problem with bones not hardening, osteoporosis is the weakening of the bone.


Your bones rely on certain minerals to grow strong and stay solid. If your body isn’t getting enough of them, you can get osteomalacia. There are different reasons it can happen. The main ones are:

You’re not taking in enough vitamin D. You need this vitamin to absorb calcium from your diet.You can get it from sunlight or certain foods or supplements. Lack of vitamin D can take a toll on your bone health.

Your body has a hard time absorbing vitamin D. Gastric bypass or other surgeries that remove part of your stomach or intestines, celiac disease, and certain liver or kidney disorders can all affect your body’s ability to take in vitamin D or convert it to its active form.

Some seizure medications may cause it. You also can get it if your kidneys aren’t handling acids correctly. Over time, extra acid in your body fluids can slowly dissolve bone.

It’s rare, but some people have a genetic condition that causes osteomalacia.


If you have soft bones, you may have symptoms, including:

  • Easily broken bones
  • Feeling tired
  • Pain
  • Stiffness
  • Trouble getting up from sitting or walking up stairs
  • Weak muscles in your arms and thighs

People with osteomalacia may walk with a waddling, side-to-side stride.


Your doctor probably will recommend:

  • Blood tests to measure the level of vitamin D in your body
  • X-rays to look at your bone structure
  • Bone mineral density scans to test the amount of calcium and phosphate in your bones

It doesn’t happen often, but your doctor may want to do a bone biopsy. This involves taking a piece of your bone tissue to check it.


If osteomalacia comes from not getting enough vitamin D, you can treat it by getting more of it in your diet through certain foods and supplements.

Foods with vitamin D include:

  • Cereal
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Fish (tuna, salmon, swordfish, sardines)
  • Liver
  • Milk
  • Orange juice (fortified with vitamin D)
  • Yogurt

You also can get more vitamin D by spending time in the sun. But talk to your doctor about it, and be sure to wear sunscreen. Too much sun can boost your chance of skin cancer.

If your body has trouble absorbing vitamin D, your doctor will need to treat the cause, if possible. You’ll also need to take larger doses of calcium and vitamin D than the normal daily recommendation.

To treat broken or deformed bones from osteomalacia, your doctor may give you a brace to wear. If the problem is severe, you may need surgery.

Melorheostosis – Case Report of Rare Disease

J Orthop Case Rep. 2014 Apr-Jun; 4(2): 25–27.

Rakesh Kumar

1Orthopedics Department, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India

S.S. Sankhala

1Orthopedics Department, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India

Isha Bijarnia

2Anesthetic Department, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India.

1Orthopedics Department, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India

2Anesthetic Department, SMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. India.

Address of Correspondence Dr. Rakesh Kumar, 10 Prem Nagar, Purani Chungi, Ajmer Road, Jaipur 302019, Rajasthan. India. Mob. No. 09828419762. Email- [email protected] : © Indian Orthopaedic Research GroupThis is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.



Melorheostosis(synonyms: candle bone disease, melting wax syndrome, Leri disease) is a rare chronic bone disorder, first described in 1922 by Leri and Joanny. Men and women are equally affected, and no hereditary features have been discovered. Onset is insidious, and most common symptom is pain. Most common part of bone is diaphysis of the long bone of lower limb rarely the axial skeleton. Classical radiological appearance of ’flowing hyperosteosis’ resembling hardened wax that has dripped down the side of a candle.

Case Report:

A 35 years old woman presented with left leg pain with mild swelling and limitation of knee movement. On examination non tender bony heard swelling, hyperpigmented and restriction of knee movement present. Plain radiographs showed extensive, dense, undulating or irregular cortical hyperostosis, resembling candle wax, extending along the length of bone. Pamidronate as well asanalgesic were given to the patient. Physiotherepy started for the deformity.


Routine laboratory findings usually are normal. The exact cause remain unclear. There is no definite treatment available for this disease. Only symptomatic treatment improve the condition of the patients, more fruitful result obtain with pamidronate and physiotherapy.

Keywords: Melorheostosis, rare, benign, insidious, candle wax


Melorheostosis (synonyms: candle bone disease, melting wax syndrome, Leri disease), first described by Leri and Joanny in 1922 [1], is a rare benign sclerosing bone dysplasia. Melorheostosis is a rare disorder characterized by mesodermal dysplasia of bone. Melorheostosis is derives from the Greek word melos = limb and rheos = flow due to the classic radiological appearance of ‘flowing hyperosteosis’ resembling hardened wax that has dripped down the side of a candle. Men and women are equally affected, and no hereditary features have been discovered. The disorder begins in childhood. Most common symptom is pain and onset of disease is insidious [2]. Most common part of bone is diaphysis of the long bone of lower limb rarely the axial skeleton. It may also present with limb-length discrepancy, joint stiffness, progressive deformity, ossification in adjacent soft tissues[3]. The exact cause of disease still remain unclear.

Case Report

A 35-year-old woman presented with a history of left leg dull and aching pain with mild swelling and limitation of left knee movement. Her limb pain presented since last 20 years. The swelling and restriction of joint movement gradually progressed. There was no relevant family history or trauma. On physical examination, the patient had hard swelling of the left leg. The swelling was bony hard, non tender and hyperpigmented. Skin temperature was normal. In knee joint about 20 degree flexion deformity present. No other abnormality was detected in the right lower limb and upper limbs.

Plain radiographs [ and ] of left leg showed extensive, dense, undulating or irregular cortical hyperostosis, resembling candle wax, extending along the length of bone, resulting in deformity of the bone and narrowing of the medullary cavities. Plain radiographs of the bones on the right lower side was normal. Laboratory findings for CBC, serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen were within normal limits. The pathology report described nonspecific, dense cortical bone. The hyperostotic bone consisted of mature and immature bone elements. Treatment Pamidronat 30mg daily for 6 days as well as analgesic were given to the patient. Physiotherapy started for the deformity. After 3 months in follow up, the patient reported alleviation of the pain.

Full Length Leg Bone AP View X-ray.

Full Length Leg Bone Lateral View X-ray.


Melorheostosis is a rare chronic bone disorder which was first described in 1922 by Leri and Joanny[1]. Male and female are equally affected, and no hereditary features have been discovered. The onset of this rare diseases is insidious, and the first symptom is usually pain because of the sub periosteal bone formation. Range of movement limitation and joint deformities develops gradually[2]. Skin changes may be seen in about 17% of cases and that may include hyperpigmentation of overlying skin and scleroderma. Melorheostosis mainly affects, the long bones of the upper and lower limbs, and also the short bones of the hand and foot, but rarely the axial skeleton[3,4]. Melorheostosis may be associated with the tumours, including osteogenic sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and dermoid tumours[5,6].

Melorheostosis may present in a monostotic, polyostotic, or monomelic form. The monomelic variant is the most common presentation of this rare disease [7]. In this patient, left leg was affected. Melorheostosis is often thought as a benign sclerosing bone dysplasia. The several hypothesis are given but the exact aetiology remain unclear. Murray and McCredie1979[8], hypothesis was that, embryonic infection of nerve root causes neural scarring and segmental bone sclerosis responsible for melorheostosis, because they detected a good correlation between hyperostotic lesions and the sclerotomes. However, according to the hypothesis of Murray and McCredie, when infection encroaches on nerve roots, the involved nerve roots should adjoin each other.

Kim J-E demonstrated down regulation of adhesion proteins involved in osteoblastic regulation, specifically transforming growth factor β induced gene product, which may contribute to the development of hyperostosis and associated soft tissue abnormalities[9]. One possible etiology of melorheostosis is a loss of function mutation in the LEMD3 gene (12q12-12q14.3), a protein involved in bone morphogenic protein and tumor growth factor-β signaling[10,11]. These two hypothesis support the genetic involment of this rare disease so further work have to be done, to find out exact cause and role of gene therapy for this disease.

It is associated with vascular malformations, soft tissue masses adjacent to the affected bone and scleroderma of the overlying skin[12,13,14]. Routine laboratory findings usually are normal. Histologic findings are usually nonspecific and often show dense bone formation, a mixture of mature and immature bone elements[14]. Osteoclastic activity is not a prominent feature; however, osteoblastic activity along the margins of osteons is common[15]. Treatment is mainly symptomatic. Most patient receives nonoperative treatment. Operative treatment consists of tendon lengthening, excision of hyperostotic bone, osteotomies,sympathectom y and amputation[4]. Bisphosphonate are commonly use[16]. Potential causes of the bone pain in melorheostosis include increased osteoclastic bone resorption and activation of pain receptors, raised intraosseous pressure and increased vascularity secondary to hyperosteosis and soft tissue involvement around joints. Thus, bisphosphonate treatment via a number of mechanisms would be expected to reduce inflammatory bone pain and symptoms in melorheostosis bisphosphonates inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resportion by direct and indirect actions on osteoblasts and macrophages and bone vascularity. They have been shown to decrease bone pain, slow progression of bone lesion [17]. The prognosis of a patient with melorheostosis is variable and depends on the anatomical location, extension into the soft tissues, and soft tissue changes. Melorheostosis does not shorten life span, however, morbidity may be considerable. The disease exhibits a slow, chronic course, with periods of exacerbation and arrest. Recurrence usually is expected after operative excision [18].


All routine laboratory findings usually normal. It is only diagnosed by characteristic candle wax type appearance in x-ray film. There is no definite treatment available for this disease. Only symptomatic treatment improve the condition of the patients, more fruitful result obtain with pamidronat and physiotherapy.

Clinical Message

It is very rare benign disease. It is diagnosed by characteristic x-ray finding. There is no definite treatment available only symptomatic is given.


Conflict of Interest: Nil

Source of Support: None


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Melting bones: The social construction of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.033Get rights and content


The increased medicalization of different life stages, including menopause, is a subject studied mostly in the Western context. Examining medicalization in the non-Western world advances discussions of body, identity and health. In this paper, I analyze the discourses around postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey, focusing on the different constructions of risk in the medical and popular literature. The empirical basis of the paper draws on ethnographic research done in Istanbul, Turkey between June 2006 and March 2007. The research includes participant observation in gynecology clinics, interviews with clinicians and menopausal women and archival research on the representations of menopause in the Turkish media between 1999 and 2006. Referred to as kemik erimesi (melting of the bones) in colloquial Turkish, osteoporosis has been an essential component in the medicalization of menopause in Turkey. I argue that postmenopausal osteoporosis is defined as a combination of embodied risk, which is related to the definition of menopause as a risky period, and lifestyle risk, demonstrated in discussions around “traditional” vs. “modern” clothing and healthcare habits. The Turkish example emphasizes the importance of local conditions in defining medical risk and complicates the embodied vs. lifestyle risk categories.


► This article analyzes discourses around postmenopausal osteoporosis in Turkey, focusing on the different constructions of risk. ► Osteoporosis risk has been an essential component in the medicalization of menopause in Turkey. ► Osteoporosis is defined both as embodied risk and lifestyle risk in the medical and popular literature. ► Lifestyle risk is demonstrated in discussions around “traditional” vs. “modern” clothing and healthcare habits. ► This study emphasizes how local discourses can complicate the embodied vs. lifestyle risk categories.







Embodied risk

Lifestyle risk


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Common Causes of Jawbone Loss

Whenever an individual loses one or more teeth, the mass of the bones in the mouth decreases in size. This bone loss affects the gums and muscles of the mouth as well as the nerve endings that surround it.

At Prestige Oral Surgery, we can help patients understand the causes of jawbone loss, as well as how dental implants can enhance oral health, while providing the jawbone with the stimulation it needs to remain strong and structurally sound. The most common causes of jawbone loss are all related to the health of the gums and teeth. Below are the oral health conditions that are most likely to cause jawbone loss:

Tooth Loss
When teeth are missing from the bone that once supported them begins to deteriorate. This melting away of the bone is called bone resorption.
Tooth roots are naturally embedded in the jawbone. When the tooth and its root are extracted the bone structure loses function and begins to deteriorate or resorb.

Dentures And Bridgework
Many patients do address tooth loss, but choose to do so with traditional dentures or bridgework. While these restorations can improve oral strength and functions, they fail to address the complete loss of the tooth. Instead, they only address the loss of the crown of the tooth.

Periodontal Disease
Periodontal disease, or gum disease, is a bacterial infection that attacks the gums and foundation of the teeth. If this condition is left untreated, it can continue to progress to the point that the jawbone is also affected. At its worst, gum disease can lead to gum recession, tooth loss, and the loss of jawbone tissue.

Preventing Jawbone Loss
Dental implants screw directly into the root of a tooth, they fuse with the jawbone over time. This prevents bone loss and lessens the possibility of complications occurring in the gums and nerves of the mouth. Although there are various options available when replacing your teeth, only dental implants can prevent bone loss.

Schedule An Appointment
If you have suffered from tooth loss, then the health and structure of your jawbone is also at risk. Fortunately, dental implants can replace missing teeth while also helping you to preserve healthy jawbone structure. To learn more, contact Prestige Oral Surgery at 732-297-7000.

The Fight to Legalize a Machine That Melts Flesh From Bone

Liquefying a body is a chemical reaction involving water, heat, and some sort of alkaline agent—potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide are popular choices. “If you think back to high school chemistry, water has a neutral pH of 7,” says Dean Fisher, director of UCLA’s Donated Body Program. Hydrogen is the workhorse of dissolving the chemical bonds holding a body’s molecules together, and even neutral water has enough of the stuff to break down flesh, if given enough time. Alkalines—the opposite of acids—have a higher pH, and catalyze the water to attack those chemical bonds much more quickly. The machines also keep the water flowing, another crucial factor that Walter White screwed up.

And of course, the machines make sure the dissolving bath stays nice and hot. “Heat in every sense speeds up decomposition,” says Seiber. “It’s the same reason you don’t leave a bologna sandwich with mayo out in the sun, which I’ve done before.” BioResponse’s two models offer different heat settings for human remains. (The company also makes machines for cremating pets.) They look basically the same: a 10 foot by four foot stainless steel cylinder covered in pipes and nozzles attached by hoses to tanks, all propped up on a trapezoidal dolly—large enough to hold a 500-pound body. “The difference between the machines is the temperatures they operate at, and the time it takes for them to complete the process,” she says. The low heat, 208 ˚F models take about 14 to 16 hours for one body. The other machine, which is pressurized to prevent its solution from boiling, operates at around 302 ˚F. At that temperature, bones slough flesh in four to six hours.

In the end, just bones remain—plus any pacemakers, orthopedic implants, and detritus from plastic surgery. “You see fake fingernails, glass eyes, dental fillings, mercury, and gold, all that stuff can be recycled,” says Fisher. The bones themselves are pristine, if a bit brittle. These get passed along to a machine called a cremulator, which pulverizes the bone into an ashy powder, which gets passed along to the dead’s family. This is similar to how cremation by fire works, except the bony remains are quite charred by the time they come out of the kiln. Plus, the fire doesn’t make them quite as brittle, so they don’t pulverize to as fine a powder as does the chemical method.

What of the flesh? It’s true, it all goes down the drain. “It looks like a weak coffee, like a light roast color,” says Seiber. The color comes from the body’s pigments. But it’s not sludgy like you might expect (and, in fact would be the result if you were to use acid, like Jesse Pinkman did). The machine flushes the liquefied body along with about 285 gallons of the water/alkaline solution used to dissolve it. That might sound like a lot of water, but it’s less that person would have used during just three days while alive.

This coffee-colored stuff drains to the wastewater treatment plant. Which is why, every time Seiber sells a new machine, she spends weeks, perhaps months, of permitting with local governmental agencies to ensure that the output from the liquid cremation operation isn’t pumping toxins or disease back into the system. “The pH is reduced so the liquid is treated to whatever the authority wants it reduced to right inside the system,” says Seiber. And overall, the system is way more eco-friendly than either burial or cremation by fire. It requires no embalming chemicals (besides the ones the family might have requested to preserve the body for a funeral or viewing), and emits a quarter of the carbon produced by fire cremation. Also, it won’t burn the mercury in certain dental fillings. However, beginning the afterlife with a clean conscience will cost you: Seiber says alkaline hydrolysis costs roughly $500 more than traditional cremation—which can range between $1,500 to $4,000.

Bone-Bolling and Fat-Melting Establishments.

– The New York Times

The sickening effluvia arising from these establishments has been the subject of complaint for many years past, longer, perhaps, than the ” oldest inhabitant” can remember. Neighboring cities have compelled the owners of such establishments to close them up, and this has hitherto appeared to be the only remedy for the nuisance. It seems, however, from the following communication, that an apparatus can be constructed for neutralizing or retaining the odors arising from the bones and fat and that an establishment fitted with such a contrivance gives out no effluvia unpleasant to the smell or prejudicial to health. Of course, it is not to be expected that bone boilers and fat melters will avail themselves of such an apparatus, however trifling its cost, until they are compelled to do so, and it, therefore, remains tor our city authorities to give them the choice of removing their establishments altogether, or of adopting the expedient referred to or some similar one:

To the Editor of the New-York Times:

The newspapers have long abounded with complaints against certain very offensive odors, which are popularly attributed to “bone-boiling” establishments. It is an error to suppose that this effluvia is caused solely by “bone boiling.” It arises from the trying-out and manufacture (whether by steam or fire process) of all lard, tallow, soap-grease, &c. It is not owing either to the tainted condition of the fat, bones, &c. The freshest material gives out under strong heat carburetted and phosphoretted hydrogen, and other unhealthy and offensive vapors. The only remedy yet suggested is to summarily close all such factories, and thus banish the business from the island. Would this be just or judicious? Many of these melters and refiners have invested large sums in land, buildings and machinery for these purposes, and if they were compelled fo close their establishments, would not only lose a large portion of these investments, but would be unable to procure other localities near New-York. New-Jersey is closing up and driving away the factories heretofore removed to her borders; Long Island will not have them. Where will they go? These manufactures, disagreeable as they are, are necessary. From them we derive our lard, tallow, soap, candies, &c., amounting in value to millions per annum. The white sweet lard in used our kitchens, and the exquisitely perfumed soap with which the belle completes her toilet, would he impossible without the production of these sickening odors. And this business must be carried on in the vicinity of the butchers and slaughterers, or the fat of the various animals could not be obtained fresh for melting. The butchers and slaughterers will not be sent off the island. That is unnecessary, because with the French system the business can be made safe and inoffensive, and the more distant the butcher the dearer the meat. If the butcher could not sell his surplus fat at his door, he would have to charge more for his meat.

There is a way by which the senses and health of our citizens can be preserved from further attack, and yet leave the large and wealthy class engaged in this business the full enjoyment of their moral and legal rights. Mr. HULL, whose tallow factory in Elizabeth-street was formerly the cause of great annoyance and complaint to the neighborhood, adopted, and has now in daily use, a “Steam Rendering Apparatus,” which condenses and burns all the noxious gases and vapors, permitting no escape into the atmosphere whatever. Coupled with this great advantage, it produces a better and purer article of lard or tallow than can be obtained by any other process. This apparatus is erected by contract by a firm in thin city, under a guarantee of its perfect working for all the various manufactures above alluded to, and has been examined and approved by the sanitary police of this city and of Paris and London, where it is the only apparatus permitted to be used. L.E.

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  • 90,000 Printed. Unique biodegradable implants will be made on a 3D printer

    Once in the villages they sawed a copper penny and gave powder to an injured person so that his bones would heal faster. Since then, it has become clear that the “building material” for bones is not only and not so much copper.

    Modern technologies make it possible to print an implant on a 3D printer and implant it in a patient to repair a bone defect. However, the question of what to print from is still acute.Currently used in maxillofacial surgery, orthopedics, traumatology, titanium implants are fixed in bone defects with a screw and remain in the body. After 10 years they have to be changed.

    The SB RAS institutes – solid state chemistry and mechanochemistry (IHTTM), automation and electrometry (IA&E), organic chemistry ( NIOCh ) – and the State Center for Virology and Bacteriology “Vector”. They united in the framework of the project “Creation of fundamental foundations for the production of biocompatible 3D medical products by the method of selective laser sintering of mechanochemically synthesized isomorphic varieties of apatite”, supported in 2018 by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research. Upon completion of the work, a model of a 3D printer that prints biodegradable implants should appear. And the notorious “building material” has already been synthesized by mechanochemists.

    “Our institute has been dealing with phosphorites and apatites for 40 years,” says Nikolai Lyakhov, the chief researcher of the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, project manager of the RFBR, Academician Nikolai Lyakhov .- Our employee, Doctor of Chemistry Marina Chaikina began to develop this direction. We have learned how to process this hard natural mineral of phosphate ores in special mills – mechanical activators, destroy its structure, make it digestible by plants and use it as a fertilizer. And we have always thought about a possible medical use, since apatite is the very material of which our teeth and bones are made. Unfortunately, the natural mineral is not suitable for medical purposes, becausebecause it contains many different substitute ions, of which not all are useful for the body. It turned out that mechanical activators can be used not only for the destruction of apatite, but also for its synthesis. They tried to make ceramics based on apatite back in the 1980s, but faced insurmountable obstacles: this mineral cannot be melted without decomposition. Another idea pushed us to use apatites. Dentists used to make phosphate cement fillings. Then it turned out that these fillings undergo resorption, in other words, they gradually dissolve and become a source of phosphorus in the body.But can resorption be used for good purposes – to give the body a source of calcium and phosphorus to build up native bone tissue and restore bone after a fracture? So we again returned to the idea of ​​making ceramics from apatite. Since there are no ultra-high temperatures in the body, and teeth, nevertheless, are formed, we assumed that if a mineral is quickly heated with a laser pulse and then returned to its previous temperature, it will retain its properties. This was demonstrated for the first time in the world (!) Within the framework of the RFBR project ”.

    Titanium implants are widely used in medicine both in Russia and abroad.

    “There are techniques for covering such products with hydroxyapatite (a type of apatite) to speed up the implantation process,” continues Natalia Bulina, senior researcher at IKhTTM . – Titanium implants are printed using the technology of selective laser melting of metal powder, in which it is possible to print products of any shape and complexity, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient’s bone structure.We decided to take this 3D printing technology as a basis and modernize it for ceramic powder ”.

    So far, there are no technologies for 3D printing of individual ceramic biodegradable and bioavailable implants either in our country or abroad. Titanium implants are not biodegradable. If they are replaced with hydroxyapatite products, they should dissolve over time, forming a new bone at the site of the defect, since in this case hydroxyapatite becomes a source of calcium and phosphorus necessary for the formation of bone tissue.

    “As part of the work on the project, we conducted research on different compositions of artificially obtained hydroxyapatite,” explains Bulina. – For this, in the process of material synthesis, we introduced small concentrations of various biologically important ions and, as a result, selected those that have a positive effect on the process of bioresorption and osteo-integration. In vitro and in vivo biological tests have already been carried out. The studies were carried out in parallel: while at NIOCH SB RAS powder was implanted into the defects of the skull of rats, the effect of the same substances on human bone tissue cells was studied at the State Research Center of VB “Vector”.During the experiments, we have determined the composition of hydroxyapatite, which is most effective both “in vitro” and for living organisms. Next, we tested the behavior of this material when exposed to laser radiation. Fortunately, it turned out that its structure during laser melting and rapid crystallization does not have time to decompose into components, therefore, the beneficial properties of apatite will be preserved during 3D printing. Now our colleagues from the Institute of Automation and Electrometry are getting down to business. They have already developed software and a control module for the main components of a 3D printer.Thanks to a grant from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, we were able to purchase expensive components for our future installation – a working model of a 3D printer. The plans are to print a three-dimensional product and investigate its properties ”.

    The resulting implants can be used to restore small bone defects, and they will be created individually – printed based on the results of tomographic images of a particular patient.

    “We have already managed to debug the mechanochemical, that is, dry and waste-free, synthesis of material for such implants,” adds Academician Lyakhov.- You can make a whole batch of tens of kilograms for the necessary tests – preclinical and clinical. We will be able to make screws and pins for dentures and the dentures themselves not from metal and porcelain, but from apatite, native to our body – we will make a revolution in maxillofacial surgery. My dentist, for example, is keenly interested in when the apatite implants will finally appear. No less valuable is the use of our “building material” in the treatment of complex fractures and osteoporosis. This is especially important for the elderly, because there is a well-known saying: a fracture heals as many days as a person is old.The body can and should be helped to heal defects and pores in the bones – it is enough to implant a plate of hydroxyapatite next to it, and it dissolves and gives the necessary calcium and phosphorus, which are poorly absorbed in the form of drugs. Our research is a good example of how basic science, if supported a little, can produce results that are useful to literally everyone. ”

    Author: Olga Kolesova.


    Submitted to print.Unique biodegradable implants will be made on a 3D printer
    – Search (poisknews.ru), 02/13/2021

    Submitted to print. Unique biodegradable implants will be made on a 3D printer
    – Institute of Automation and Electrometry (iae.nsk.su), 02/16/2021

    Submitted to print. Unique biodegradable implants will be made on a 3D printer
    – News of Siberian Science (www.sib-science.info), 02/15/2021

    Russian scientists turned polyethylene into material for artificial bones

    This method makes it possible to form pores of the required size in polyethylene and reproduce the complex structure of bone tissue.

    According to the author of the study, Alexei Salimon, an employee of the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is a promising material for reconstructive surgery.

    “For example, in combination with collagen and hydroxyapatite, the mineral that bone is half made of, it can be used to create multilayer osteochondral implants,” says Salimon.

    Today UHMWPE is already used in modern artificial joints along with metals and ceramics.

    The dense polymer made from long linear polyethylene chains is known for its strength and safety for living tissues. In addition, it does not cause any reactions in the body.

    Due to these properties, the material can be used to create various types of implants, for example, artificial bones.

    Such an implant must be porous so that blood vessels grow into it and bone cells migrate. But obtaining complex internal structures in ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene is not easy.The same 3D printing is not useful here, because when melted, UHMWPE remains too viscous.

    This problem is solved by the technology of mixing the polymer with table salt, proposed earlier at NUST MISIS. Salt is removed from the finished product by dissolving it in ordinary water.

    In the course of the RSF project, chemists and engineers for the first time studied the structural features of a porous material obtained in this way, and proved that the technology makes it possible to control the pore size.

    As part of the experiment, we used ready-made polyethylene in the form of a powder. It and table salt were sieved, dividing by particle size into four fractions.

    Then polyethylene powder and salt were mixed in a ratio of 1: 9 (such a high salt content was necessary to obtain a polymer with a large pore volume). The mixtures were sintered at a temperature of 180 ° C and formed into identical cylinders under pressure.

    After that, the salt was removed by rinsing the products with warm water for two days.

    The researchers tested the resulting material for compressive strength and elasticity. In addition, they studied it using an electron microscope and confirmed that the diameter of the pores and the thickness of the walls between them depend on the size of the original particles.

    What is important, the mechanical properties of the materials turned out to be practically the same regardless of the pore size.

    Young’s modulus of elasticity, which describes the ability of a material to resist stretching, was expected to be significantly lower for a porous polymer than for a dense one.

    Its values ​​range from 1 to 2.5 megapascals, which corresponds to the characteristics of soft tissues, not bones.

    Figure: structure of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene obtained from particles of different sizes. Source: Sergey Lermontov, Alexey Salimon, Fedor Senatov

    Under these conditions, bone cells cannot function normally because they require a harder substrate.But in combination with other polyethylene materials, it is quite possible to create artificial bone, which will gradually be filled with bone tissue cells.

    “Porous UHMWPE can be an ideal basis for complex experiments with cell cultures,” emphasizes Sergey Lermontov , project manager of the Russian Science Foundation, head of the laboratory for new synthetic methods of the Institute of Physiologically Active Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

    According to him, cells grown on a flat surface are limited in growth and interactions, and on a 3D basis, conditions can be created close to those existing in a living organism.

    “We have already conducted experiments on growing on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene cells of a malignant tumor of the human nervous system – neuroblastoma,” he adds.

    The study involved scientists from the Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, the Institute of Physiologically Active Substances of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the National Research Technological University “MISiS”.

    The results of the experiment were published in the journal Materials .The research is carried out with the support of the Russian Science Foundation.

    Perm Polytechnic scientists have created implants that take root 2-3 times faster than analogues

    Perm Polytechnic scientists have developed biocompatible cellular implants of the maxillofacial bones. Products made of titanium alloy are created using laser melting and, in terms of properties, replicate human bone tissue as much as possible. Living cells grow into cells 2-3 times faster than analogues with a denser structure.For inventions, researchers from the Perm Polytechnic and PSMU im. Wagner received two patents.

    – Titanium alloys are often used in the biomedical field. Implants based on them have high strength, low rigidity and the required macroporosity. It is this property that ensures that bone cells and blood vessels effectively grow into the product. Titanium alloys are not rejected by the body and are not subject to corrosion, therefore, using implants from them, you can quickly restore bone tissue defects.However, their behavior in the real conditions of the human body has not yet been studied, – says the author of the development, senior lecturer of the Department of Innovative Technologies of Mechanical Engineering, Perm Polytechnic Institute Polina Kilina.

    Perm scientists conducted a comprehensive study: they designed the geometry of the implant, developed the technology for its creation and set the necessary physical and mechanical properties. Constructions with cells with a diameter of 2 × 3 mm and macroporosity of 90-97% provided the same strength and modulus of elasticity as in bone tissue.Clinical trials on laboratory animals made it possible to assess how quickly the implant was “populated” by living cells.

    – Using 3D modeling and laser melting, we have developed implants made of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The geometric shape with cells provides accelerated growth of bone tissue into the product and fixes it securely. Compared to analogs with a fine-pored structure, the restoration of bone tissue with our implant occurs 2–3 times faster, – the researcher explains.

    This effect was achieved by the macroporosity of the product. Adhesion was also provided by special particles on the surface of the implant, which increased the contact area between living cells and the structure. The pore size allowed the formation of a network of blood vessels, which supplies bone tissue with nutrients.

    Clinical trials on animals were carried out in the laboratory of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery of P.G. E.A. Wagner. Scientists found that active tissue growth into cells began after 2 weeks, and complete engraftment of structures occurred after 4–9 months.

    In the future, the researchers plan to conduct clinical trials on the implantation of implants in humans.

    III. Equipment / Consultant Plus

    III. Equipment


    Equipment for breeding, seed production and variety testing


    Equipment for growing and processing flax




    Scales for automobile, wagon, platform, conveyor, industrial for food products


    Dryers horizontal and vertical for post-harvest drying of grain before storage, mobile grain dryers


    Bucket elevators, conveyors, silos


    Automatic milking machines (robotic)


    Milking machines


    Units for feeding young cattle and other farm animals (“milk taxis”)


    Poultry incubators


    Cage equipment for poultry keeping


    Equipment for floor keeping of poultry


    Automatic combers for cattle


    Stall equipment


    Livestock drinkers


    Animal feeding troughs


    Equipment for keeping pigs


    Bactofuges for milk, separators for the isolation of somatic cells from milk


    Centrifugal cream separators


    Tanks for storing milk, milk purifiers-coolers, tanks for fermenting milk, tanks for heating edible oil or fat, tanks for the preparation of sourdough, curd baths


    Tanks for the brewing industry


    Non-electric bakery ovens, non-electric bakery ovens


    Electric bakery ovens, electric pastry ovens


    Rotary ovens


    Automated warehouses for the food industry


    Manipulators for loading racks of automated warehouses for the food industry


    Grinders, block cutters, meat mixers, meat massagers, loading devices, machines for dividing sausage strings, salting injectors, cutters, syringe machines, skinning machines, clippers, bone crushing machines, meat separators


    Chambers for smoking and cooking, intensive cooling, frying and baking, pasteurization, drying, showering for the food industry, climatic chambers for raw smoked and dry-cured products


    Fast freezing plate vertical, horizontal devices for the food industry, freezing cabinets for the food industry


    Refrigerating cabinets for the food industry


    Prefabricated refrigerating chambers for the food industry


    Refrigerated showcases for the food industry


    Installations fishmeal for the production of fishmeal


    Automatic and semiautomatic seaming, capping and filling machines for the canning industry


    Silos for the food industry


    Pumps reciprocating positive displacement, gear, screw, rotary for pumping liquids for the food industry


    Vacuum pumps for the food industry


    Overhead spatial conveyors, chain conveyors for the food industry


    Skip hoists for the food industry


    Lifts pneumatic for the food industry


    Plate heat exchangers for the food industry


    Non-domestic storage tank water heaters (recuperators)


    Blast freezers for the food industry


    Industrial ice machines for the food industry


    Cyclones for air purification, bag filters for the food industry


    Equipment for washing bottles and other containers for the food industry


    Equipment for filling, sealing and packaging bottles and other containers for the food industry


    Equipment for the food industry for packaging bottles and other containers in shrink film


    Equipment for the food industry for packaging bottles and other containers in cardboard containers


    Milk receiving equipment


    Plants for pasteurization and cooling, sterilization and cooling for the food industry


    Deaeration plants for the food industry


    Installations for pressing and cooling curd


    Baths for melting fat of animal and vegetable origin


    Drum whey separators for the food industry


    Oil formers for the food industry


    Homogenizers for the food industry


    Cheese dairy


    Technological equipment for melting and shaping cheese


    Electromechanical presses for cheese


    Mechanical, pneumatic presses for cheese


    Cheese baths


    Dispersers and mixers for pumping liquids for the food industry


    Aspirators and sorting devices


    Roller-milling machines for flour mills


    Combi-convection ovens, steam-convection electric apparatus


    Combi-steam ovens, steam-convection gas appliances


    Convection electric ovens


    Convection gas ovens


    Rotary bakery cabinets


    Gas frying cabinets


    Electric roasting cabinets


    Dryers for agricultural products


    Cabinets for preliminary and final proofing, proofing and oven units


    Sprayers, de-tippers for the food industry


    Masseter mixers and masseter distributors for the sugar industry


    Presses for the sugar industry


    Predefectors for the sugar industry


    Evaporators for the sugar industry


    Crystallizers for the sugar industry


    Defectors, filter thickeners, multi-tube dryers for the sugar industry


    Vacuum apparatus for the sugar industry


    Beet washers, saturators for the sugar industry


    Saws and lines for cutting poultry carcasses into parts, equipment for the processing of gizzards, presses for mechanical deboning of poultry carcasses, machines for cleaning paws, feathering machines, equipment for electric stunning, scalding baths, baths for water cooling of carcasses, air-drop cooling lines


    Cooking reactors for the food industry


    Fast freezers spiral freezers for the food industry


    Machines for filling and packaging pasty products for the food industry


    Weighing batchers, volumetric for the food industry


    Plants for washing equipment and pipelines for the food industry


    Units for drying-crushing of manure


    Furnaces for incineration of poultry and livestock waste


    Equipment for marking, including automation and digitalization equipment

    (Clause 92 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Thrusters, equipment and systems for precision farming technologies

    (clause 93 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Yield mapping equipment and systems

    (clause 94 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Navigational instruments and equipment for agriculture

    (Clause 95 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Telemetry equipment and monitoring systems for agricultural machinery, machinery and equipment

    (Clause 96 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Base stations and receivers for receiving coordinates, signals, data from agricultural machinery, machinery, equipment

    (Clause 97 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Samplers, instruments and equipment for soil analysis

    (clause 98 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Instruments and equipment for assessing the quality of agricultural products and raw materials

    (Clause 99 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Devices and equipment for monitoring the health and productivity of farm animals

    (clause 100 was introduced by the Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Robotic, innovative equipment for agriculture

    (Clause 101 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Disinfection equipment and modules

    (clause 102 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Unmanned aerial vehicles for agriculture

    (p.103 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for washing agricultural products

    (Clause 104 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Substrate filling line

    (Clause 105 was introduced by the Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for mixing the components of the substrate and feeding the substrate to the dispensing line

    (clause 106 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Dispensing lines

    (clause 107 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)



    (Clause 108 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)



    (Clause 109 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Steam generators

    (Clause 110 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Compressor units

    (clause 111 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Gas equipment, gas water heaters and systems for agricultural facilities

    (clause 112 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Gas generators for electricity and heat supply in agriculture

    (Clause 113 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Tanks for transportation, storage, pumping of liquids

    (clause 114 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for growing plants using hydroponics

    (clause 115 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Freezing and refrigerating equipment for agricultural purposes

    (Clause 116 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for winemaking

    (Clause 117 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for processing agricultural products and raw materials

    (clause 118 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Equipment for preserving agricultural products and raw materials

    (p.119 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Mortar units, containers

    (Clause 120 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Meteorological stations

    (Clause 121 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Elements of the irrigation system

    (Clause 122 was introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 19.03.2021 N 143)


    Prefabricated frame and awning hangars for agricultural purposes

    (clause 123 was introduced by the Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)


    Elevator equipment for elevators

    (p.124 introduced by Order of the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia dated 03.19.2021 N 143)



    SULFUR TETRAFLUORIDE ICSC: 1456 (August 2003)

    CAS #: 7783-60-0
    UN #: 2418
    EINECS #: 232-013-4

    FIRE AND EXPLOSION In case of fire, gives off irritating or toxic fumes (or gases).Not flammable. DO NOT use water. In the event of a fire in the work area, use proper extinguishing media. In case of fire: cool the cylinder by spraying water. DO NOT allow direct contact with water.

    Inhalation Burning sensations.Cough. Sore throat. Headache. Nausea. Vomit. Shortness of breath. Labored breathing. Symptoms may appear later. See notes. Use ventilation, local exhaust, or respiratory protection. Fresh air, peace. Semi-sitting position. Artificial respiration may be required. Seek medical attention.
    Leather Pain. Redness. Skin burns. ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE. Gloves for protection from the cold. Protective clothing. IF FROSTBITE: Rinse with plenty of water, DO NOT remove clothing. Rinse skin with plenty of water or shower. seek medical attention.
    Eyes Redness. Pain. Blurred vision. Severe deep burns. ON CONTACT WITH LIQUID: FROSTBITE. Wear goggles, face mask or eye protection in combination with respiratory protection…. First rinse with plenty of water for several minutes (remove contact lenses if easy to do), then seek medical attention.
    Ingestion Do not eat, drink or smoke while working.

    Leave the danger area! Consult a specialist! Ventilate.Personal protection: gas-tight chemical protection suit including self-contained breathing apparatus.

    According to UN GHS criteria

    UN Classification
    UN hazard class: 2.3; Additional UN risks: 8

    Store in a well-ventilated place.When stored in a building, fireproof rooms. Cool place. Keep dry.

    Background information in English prepared by a group of international experts working on behalf of the ILO and WHO with financial support from the European Union.
    © ILO and WHO 2018


    Aggregate Condition; Appearance


    Physical Hazards

    Gas is heavier than air.

    Chemical hazards

    Reacts intensely with water and acids. This produces toxic and corrosive fumes. Corrosive to glass and metal.

    Formula: F 4 S
    Molecular mass: 108.06

    Boiling point: -40 ° C
    Melting point: -124 ° C
    Solubility in water: reacts
    Specific vapor density (air = 1): 3.78


    Exposure routes

    The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation.

    Effects from short-term exposure

    The substance is corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract. The liquid may cause frostbite. Inhalation of this gas can cause pulmonary edema.See Notes

    Risk of inhalation

    Upon loss of tightness, a harmful concentration of this gas in the air is reached very quickly.

    Effects from prolonged or repeated exposure

    Substance may cause effects on bones and teeth. May cause fluorosis.

    Maximum permissible concentration
    TLV: 0.1 ppm as TWA


    The exposure limit value should not be exceeded during any part of the occupational exposure.
    Symptoms of pulmonary edema often do not appear until several hours have passed and are aggravated by physical exertion.
    Rest and medical supervision are therefore essential.


    EU Classification

    (en) Neither the ILO, WHO, nor the European Union are responsible for the quality and accuracy of the translation or for the possible use of this information.
    © Russian version, 2018

    Novosibirsk scientists tested material for biodegradable implants – Siberia |

    Novosibirsk.The 25th of January. INTERFAX-SIBERIA – Scientists from Novosibirsk propose to use material for implants based on the mineral hydroxyapatite, the Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry (IHTTM) said.

    It is assumed that the material will temporarily replace living tissue, give an impetus to the development of its own cells, and then dissolve, leaving behind a healed cavity.

    Biological tests of apatites with different compositions have been carried out at the Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry (NIOCh) and the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector”, the report says.

    “The research was carried out in parallel: while powder was implanted in rat skull defects at the NIOCh SB RAS, the effect of the same substances on human bone tissue cells was studied in” Vector “. In the course of experiments, scientists determined the composition of apatite, which is most effective” in a test tube “, and on living organisms – it stimulates the formation of new bone tissue and accelerates the implantation of the implanted material. At the same time, the native cells of human bone tissue do not die, but actively multiply, “the message says.

    It is planned that the implants will be 3D printed using selective laser melting technology, so the scientists tested the effect of laser radiation on the resulting composition of apatite.

    It turned out that when the powder melts, the substance does not break down, and while the implant is being printed, it will not lose its healing properties.

    The Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Novosibirsk) has developed software and a control module for the main units of the 3D printer being created.This year, scientists will develop a block of layer-by-layer printing – the sequential deposition of layers of hydroxyapatite.

    Hydroxyapatite is a source of phosphorus and calcium, from which our bone tissue is then formed, additives introduced into the structure of hydroxyapatite in a low concentration are necessary to accelerate the process of transformation of the implant into bone tissue. Such material is suitable for the restoration of small bone defects that do not bear a strong load – mainly in maxillofacial surgery.

    In addition, they can fill cavities and cracks in bones after serious diseases and injuries. The printed products will be individual: they must be designed based on the tomography data of a particular person.

    90,000 Scientists have proven that the city of the Bronze Age was destroyed by a meteorite

    Scientists conducting excavations on the territory of the ancient city of Tell el-Hammam in present-day Jordan were able to prove that this city died around 1650 BC. from the explosion above it of a gigantic ice space object, larger in size than the one that exploded in 1908 in the Podkamennaya Tunguska region in Russia.An article about this was published in the journal Nature Scientific Reports .

    In the Middle Bronze Age, Tell el-Hammam was at the height of its power. Located on a hill, the settlement became the largest permanently inhabited city in the south of the Levant, where one of the oldest civilizations developed for several thousand years. In terms of the number of inhabitants, this city in those days exceeded Jerusalem by an order of magnitude and was five times larger than Jericho. However, archaeologists excavating here have found numerous shards of pottery, the surface of which was glazed, and mud bricks and other building materials were partially melted.

    The cause of the death of Tell el-Hammam could have been a small ice asteroid, similar to the one that knocked down 80 million trees in Siberia in 1908, where an asteroid (or comet) about 50 m in size exploded over the taiga, releasing energy comparable to a thousand atomic bombs like the one later dropped on Hiroshima. But at the same time, the asteroid was a much smaller version of the giant fireball several kilometers in size, due to which the dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago.

    The speed of this object, which destroyed the city, was about 61 thousand.km / h. Having collapsed in the atmosphere, this object formed a huge fireball at an altitude of about 4 km above the ground. The townspeople who looked at him were instantly blinded. The air temperature rose to 2000 ° C. Clothes and wooden structures were on fire. Swords, spears, mud bricks and pottery began to melt. Almost immediately, the entire city caught fire.

    A few seconds later, a powerful shock wave hit this place. Moving at a speed of about 1200 km / h, it surpassed any tornado on Earth.Air currents swept through the city, demolishing buildings. They tore off the top 12 meters of the four-story palace building and threw the debris into the valley. None of the 8,000 people or animals in the city survived – their bodies were torn to pieces, and their bones were shattered into small fragments.

    About a minute later, 22 km west of Tell el-Hammam, a blast wave hit the biblical city of Jericho. The walls of Jericho collapsed and the city burned to the ground.

    In order to restore this picture of the death of the city, it took almost 15 years of painstaking excavations and the efforts of hundreds of people.A detailed analysis of the finds was carried out by dozens of scientists in the USA, Canada and the Czech Republic. Among the 21 co-authors of this work are archaeologists, geologists, geochemists, geomorphologists, mineralogists, paleobotanists, sedimentologists (they study sedimentary rocks and their formation processes), explosion experts, and doctors.

    The 1.5-meter interval in the Middle Bronze Age layer has long amazed researchers with its unusual partially molten materials. The layer of destruction contains tiny diamonoids, which, as the name implies, are as hard as diamond.It appears that trees and plants in the area instantly turned into this diamond-like material due to the high pressure and temperature of the fireball. Experiments with laboratory furnaces showed that the ceramics and mud bricks in Tell el Hammam melted at temperatures above 1500 ° C. This is enough to melt a car in minutes.



    Diamonoids formed under the influence of high temperatures and pressure

    Malcolm LeCompte

    The erosion layer also contains tiny balls of molten material that are smaller in size than airborne dust particles.They are called spherules and are composed of vaporized iron and sand that melt at around 1590 ° C. In addition, the ceramic surface is dotted with tiny molten metal grains, including iridium, which melts at 2466 ° C, platinum, which melts at 1768 ° C, and zirconium silicate (1540 ° C).

    “I believe one of our biggest discoveries is quartz grains containing cracks that only form under very high pressure,” said James Kennett, professor emeritus of earth sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara.”We have extracted quartz from the layer under study, which means that incredible pressure was created there that could damage crystals of quartz – one of the hardest minerals on Earth.”



    Small cracks in quartz grains

    Allen West

    07 September 13:04

    Taken together, all of this evidence indicates that the temperature in the city has risen higher than during volcanic eruptions, not to mention the usual city fires.The only natural process by which this is possible is a strike from space. The same signs of melting are found in known meteorite and asteroid impact sites such as Tunguska and Chicxulub crater, which was the result of an asteroid impact that killed the dinosaurs.

    Did any eyewitnesses to that explosion survive? Is that far from the epicenter. Perhaps the oral description of the destruction of the city was passed down from generation to generation until it was recorded as the history of biblical Sodom. The Bible describes the destruction of a city located near the Dead Sea – stones and fire fell from the sky, several cities were destroyed, thick smoke rose from the fires, and the townspeople died.

    “All the observations in Genesis are consistent with a cosmic explosion in the air,” Kennett says, “but there is no scientific evidence that this particular ruined city is indeed Old Testament Sodom.”

    The assumption that Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed an asteroid was first put forward in 2008 by the British Alan Bond and Mark Hempsell. As evidence, the authors relied on ancient cuneiform script found in the mid-19th century in the ruins of the royal library in Nineveh.“And the Lord rained sulfur and fire from the Lord from heaven on Sodom and Gomorrah, and overthrew these cities, and all this neighborhood, and all the inhabitants of these cities, and the growth of the earth,” says the Book of Genesis.