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Chlamydia and yeast infection at the same time: Vaginal Yeast Infection (Yeast Vaginitis) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

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Difference Between Chlamydia and Yeast infection

Chlamydia is a bacterium that causes an STD or pneumonia illness in people. A yeast infection is an illness that is caused by Candida albicans yeast.

 

What is Chlamydia?

Definition of Chlamydia:

Chlamydia is the genus name for a group of bacteria that cause an STD infection or a type of pneumonia in people.

Type of illness caused:

Chlamydia trachomatis is a species that is responsible for a sexually transmitted disease in men and women and can be transmitted to infants causing illness. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a species that is implicated in causing a type of pneumonia which is often found in children.

Symptoms of Chlamydia:

Symptoms depend on which species of Chlamydia is involved.  In the case of C. trachomatis, the urethra of males becomes inflamed and painful, while in females, the urethra and cervix are affected and become inflamed. In these cases, there may also be a discharge and burning sensation when urinating. C. pneumoniae causes respiratory symptoms typical of pneumonia.

Diagnosis for Chlamydia:

An individual’s symptoms may lead a doctor to believe that they have a Chlamydia infection. However, the best method to use for accurately diagnosing either of the common Chlamydia infections is the molecular techniques of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). 

Risk factors and treatment:

Sexual activity, especially if with many partners, increases the risk of getting infected by C. trachomatis. This infection is most often treated with the antibiotics doxycycline or azithromycin. Children and older people who are in crowded conditions are at increased risk of catching C. pneumoniae since it is spread by respiratory secretions of sick people. Antibiotics are given to treat this condition as well.

 

What is Yeast Infection?

Definition of Yeast infection:

A yeast infection is an infection that is caused most often by a species of yeast that is known as Candida albicans. Usually, the infection is limited to the mucous membranes and to the skin unless the person has a very weak immune system. The yeast grows well in moist and warm conditions and where skin comes together.

Type of illness caused:

Most often, the yeast infection does not cause too much of a problem except in people who have a compromised immune system. It causes some problems and irritation to the genital area, mouth and/or the skin where there are folds of skin.

Symptoms for Yeast infection:

Symptoms can include itching, a rash, pustules and in the case of vaginal infections, a white discharge. Candida in the mouth will produce white plaques and in babies with candida, a diaper rash is produced.

Diagnosis:

The presence of typical symptoms may lead to suspicion that you have a yeast infection. The diagnosis though can be confirmed by microscopic examination of a sample. Candida albicans can be detected by placing a culture on a microscope slide and adding a solution of 20% potassium hydroxide. The slide is then examined for the presence of fungal structures such as budding cells or hyphae.

Risk factors and treatment:

Risk factors for candidiasis or a yeast infection include having poor hygiene, taking antibiotics which cause an imbalance in the microbes that are present. Babies who are not changed often enough may develop diaper rash. Oral antifungal medication and antifungal powders can be used. Powders that are often useful in treating yeast infections include fluconazole and miconazole.

 

Difference between Chlamydia vs. Yeast infection?

  1. Definition

Chlamydia is a bacterium that causes various infections in people. A yeast infection is an infection that is caused by a species of yeast known as Candida albicans.

  1. Causative agent

The microbe causing chlamydia infections is a bacterium. The microbe causing yeast infections is a type of fungus that is known as yeast.

  1. Cell type

The Chlamydia causing chlamydial infection is a type of prokaryotic cell. The Candida causing yeast infection is a type of eukaryotic cell.

  1. Intracellular parasite

Chlamydia is a parasite that has to live inside the cell of its host, so it is an intracellular parasite. Yeast is a parasite that lives outside the host’s cells and thus is not an intracellular parasite.

  1. Symptoms for  Chlamydia vs. Yeast infection

The symptoms of having an infection caused by Chlamydia depend on which species it is. For C. trachomatis there may be burning on urination, pain, and a discharge. For C. pneumoniae various respiratory symptoms will be present. The symptoms of having a yeast infection include itching, the presence of a rash or pustules, and a white discharge if it is in the vagina.

  1. Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Chlamydia is by a positive result when nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are done. Diagnosis of a yeast infection is by microscopic examination of a slide of the organism to which potassium hydroxide has been added to show fungal features.

  1. Risk factors

A risk factor for getting C. trachomatis include having many sexual partners, and for C. pneumoniae being in crowded conditions is a risk factor and if you are a child or elderly. Risk factors for yeast infection include, not changing a baby’s diaper often enough, having poor hygiene or taking antibiotics.

  1. Treatment for  Chlamydia vs. Yeast Infection

The treatment of Chlamydia involves using antibiotics such as doxycycline or azithromycin. The treatment of a yeast infection is by using antifungals such as miconazole or fluconazole.

Table comparing Chlamydia vs. Yeast infection

 

Summary of Chlamydia vs. Yeast Infection

  • Chlamydia is a bacterium that causes various types of infection in people.
  • A yeast infection is a problem that is caused by the yeast Candida albicans. 
  • A Chlamydia infection is best treated using various antibiotic medications.
  • Yeast infections are best treated using antifungal medicines.

 

Associate Professor of Biology PhD in Quantitative Biology at in United States

Dr. Rae Osborn was educated in South Africa and the United States. She holds Honors Bachelor of Science degrees in Zoology and Entomology, and Masters of Science in Entomology from the University of Natal in South Africa. She has received a PhD in Quantitative Biology from the University of Texas at Arlington as well as an AAS Degree in Information Network Specialist and an AAS in Computer Information Systems, at Bossier Parish Community College in Louisiana.Her skills lie in research and writing for a range of educational levels and teaching various Biology classes. She has been trained as a lecturer, researcher and computer scientist. She has experience as a writer, researcher and as a college teacher, and is currently working as a freelance writer and editor.Her accomplishments include receiving tenure and being promoted to Associate Professor of Biology in the United States and publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals.Her hometown is Pietermaritzburg in South Africa where her main interest and hobby is bird watching.

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APA 7
Osborn, D. (2019, June 10). Difference Between Chlamydia and Yeast infection. Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects. http://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-chlamydia-and-yeast-infection/.

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Osborn, Dr. Rae. “Difference Between Chlamydia and Yeast infection.” Difference Between Similar Terms and Objects, 10 June, 2019, http://www. differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-chlamydia-and-yeast-infection/.

Drug Treatment of Common STDs: Part II. Vaginal Infections, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Genital Warts

CAROL WOODWARD, PHARM.D., West Virginia University Hospitals, Morgantown, West Virginia West Virginia

MELANIE A. FISHER, M.D., M.SC., University, Morgantown, West Virginia

Am Fam Physician. 1999 Oct 15;60(6):1716-1722.

 
This is Part II of a two-part article on drug treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Part I, “Herpes, Syphilis, Urethritis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea,” appeared in the October 1 issue (Am Fam Physician 1999; 60:1387–94).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released new guidelines for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in 1998. Several treatment advances have been made since the previous guidelines were published. Part II of this two-part series on STDs describes recommendations for the treatment of diseases characterized by vaginal discharge, pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, human papillomavirus infection, proctitis, proctocolitis, enteritis and ectoparasitic diseases. Single-dose therapies are recommended for the treatment of several of these diseases. A single 1-g dose of oral azithromycin is as effective as a seven-day course of oral doxycycline, 100 mg twice a day, for the treatment of chlamydial infection. Erythromycin and ofloxacin are alternative agents. Four single-dose therapies are now recommended for the management of uncomplicated gonococcal infections, including 400 mg of cefixime, 500 mg of ciprofloxacin, 125 mg of ceftriaxone or 400 mg of ofloxacin. Advances in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis also have been made. A seven-day course of oral metronidazole is still recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in pregnant women, but intravaginal clindamycin cream and metronidazole gel are now recommended in nonpregnant women. Single-dose therapy with 150 mg of oral fluconazole is a recommended treatment for vulvovaginal candidiasis. Two new topical treatments, podofilox and imiquimod, are available for patient self-administration to treat human papillomavirus infection. Permethrin cream is now the preferred agent for the treatment of pediculosis pubis and scabies.

This article focuses on vaginal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease and genital warts, with brief mention of proctitis, enteritis and ectoparasitic infections. It should be noted that vaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis are included in the following discussion, although these infections are not sexually transmitted. They are frequently diagnosed at the same time as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), however, and the treatments often overlap.

Vaginitis

The three diseases that are most commonly associated with vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Diagnosis is based on pH measurement and microscopic examination of the vaginal discharge. Symptoms of vaginitis include vaginal discharge, vulvar itching, or both, with or without vaginal odor. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is not transmitted sexually but is evaluated at the same time as screening for STDs.

BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge or malodor. It occurs when the normal flora of the vagina that produces Lactobacillus species is replaced with anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis occurs more often in women who have multiple sexual partners, but it is not known if it is transmitted sexually. At this time, treatment for male sex partners is not recommended.

All women with symptomatic disease require treatment, including those who are pregnant. Studies have shown that bacterial vaginosis is associated with preterm delivery in pregnant women who are already at high risk for preterm delivery. Bacterial vaginosis is also associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, endometritis and vaginal cuff cellulitis after invasive procedures.

A seven-day course of oral metronidazole (Flagyl) is recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. In addition, intravaginal clindamycin cream (Cleocin) and metronidazole gel (Metrogel) are recommended treatments in nonpregnant women. 1  Table 1 shows treatment regimens that are approved for use in pregnant women.

TRICHOMONIASIS

Trichomoniasis is a disease associated with vaginal discharge that is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Trichomoniasis is transmitted sexually, yet men usually remain asymptomatic. Trichomoniasis in women is characterized by a diffuse, malodorous, yellow-green discharge and vulvar irritation. As with bacterial vaginosis, vaginal trichomoniasis may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Trichomoniasis is treated with oral metronidazole (Flagyl). Topical metronidazole is not recommended. Table 1 shows treatment regimens in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

View/Print Table

TABLE 1

Diseases Characterized By Vaginal Discharge
Disease Recommended regimens Agent Dosage Cost*

Bacterial vaginosis

Recommended regimens in on pregnant women

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

$ 6. 50 to 9.00 (generic)

Clindamycin cream (Cleocin)

2%, one full applicator intravaginally at bedtime for 7 days

40.00 (brand/40 g)

Metronidazole gel (Metrogel)

0.75%, one full applicator intravaginally twice daily for 5 days

35.00 (brand/20 g)

Alternative regimens in nonpregnant women

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11. 50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Clindamycin

300 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

46.00 (brand)

Recommended regimens in pregnant women (second trimester)

Metronidazole

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

6.50 to 9.00 (generic)

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Clindamycin

300 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

46. 00 (brand)

Trichomoniasis

Recommended regimen

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Alternative regimen

Metronidazole

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

6.50 to 9.00 (generic)

Recommended regimen in pregnant women (second trimester)

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11. 50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Vulvovaginal candidacies

Recommended intravaginal agents

Butoconazole (Femstat)

2% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 3 days

14.00 (brand/15 g)

Clotrimazole (Lotrimin)

1% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 to 14 days

6.00 to 9.00 (brand)

Clotrimazole

100-mg vaginal tablet daily for 7 days

10. 50 (generic)

Clotrimazole

100-mg vaginal tablet, two tablets daily for 3 days

4.50 (generic)

Clotrimazole (Mycelex-G)

500-mg vaginal tablet, one tablet in a single application

15.00 (brand)

Miconazole (Monistat)

2% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 days

15.00 (brand)

Miconazole

200-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 3 days

30.00 (brand)

Miconazole

100-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 7 days

12.00 (brand)

Nystatin (Mycolog II)

100,000-unit vaginal tablet, one daily for 14 days

17.50 to 29.50 (brand)

Tioconazole (Vagistate-1)

6.5% ointment, 5 g intravaginally in a single application

14.50 (brand/4.6 g)

Terconazole (Terazole)

0.4% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 days

29.00 (brand/45 g)

Terconazole

0.8% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 3 days

29.00 (brand/20 g)

Terconazole

80-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 3 days

29.00 (brand)

Recommended oral agent

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

150-mg tablet taken orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand)

TABLE 1

Diseases Characterized By Vaginal Discharge
Disease Recommended regimens Agent Dosage Cost*

Bacterial vaginosis

Recommended regimens in on pregnant women

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

$ 6.50 to 9.00 (generic)

Clindamycin cream (Cleocin)

2%, one full applicator intravaginally at bedtime for 7 days

40.00 (brand/40 g)

Metronidazole gel (Metrogel)

0.75%, one full applicator intravaginally twice daily for 5 days

35.00 (brand/20 g)

Alternative regimens in nonpregnant women

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Clindamycin

300 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

46.00 (brand)

Recommended regimens in pregnant women (second trimester)

Metronidazole

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

6.50 to 9.00 (generic)

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Clindamycin

300 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

46.00 (brand)

Trichomoniasis

Recommended regimen

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Alternative regimen

Metronidazole

500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

6.50 to 9.00 (generic)

Recommended regimen in pregnant women (second trimester)

Metronidazole

2 g orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand) 1.50 to 3.00 (generic)

Vulvovaginal candidacies

Recommended intravaginal agents

Butoconazole (Femstat)

2% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 3 days

14.00 (brand/15 g)

Clotrimazole (Lotrimin)

1% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 to 14 days

6.00 to 9.00 (brand)

Clotrimazole

100-mg vaginal tablet daily for 7 days

10.50 (generic)

Clotrimazole

100-mg vaginal tablet, two tablets daily for 3 days

4.50 (generic)

Clotrimazole (Mycelex-G)

500-mg vaginal tablet, one tablet in a single application

15.00 (brand)

Miconazole (Monistat)

2% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 days

15.00 (brand)

Miconazole

200-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 3 days

30.00 (brand)

Miconazole

100-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 7 days

12.00 (brand)

Nystatin (Mycolog II)

100,000-unit vaginal tablet, one daily for 14 days

17.50 to 29.50 (brand)

Tioconazole (Vagistate-1)

6.5% ointment, 5 g intravaginally in a single application

14.50 (brand/4.6 g)

Terconazole (Terazole)

0.4% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 7 days

29.00 (brand/45 g)

Terconazole

0.8% cream, 5 g intravaginally for 3 days

29.00 (brand/20 g)

Terconazole

80-mg vaginal suppository, one daily for 3 days

29.00 (brand)

Recommended oral agent

Fluconazole (Diflucan)

150-mg tablet taken orally in a single dose

11.50 (brand)

VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS

Symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis include pruritis, vaginal discharge and, sometimes, vaginal soreness, vulvar burning, dyspareunia and external dysuria. Vulvovaginal candidiasis can occur concomitantly with an STD or following antimicrobial therapy.

Several topical agents are still recommended for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis and are first-line therapies in pregnant women. An oral agent, fluconazole (Diflucan), has now been labeled for use in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.2,3  Systemic effects, side effects and drug interactions must be considered when oral agents are used. Table 1 lists recommended therapies for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of the upper female genital tract caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or both, although it may also be caused by microorganisms that are part of the normal vaginal flora. Disease can manifest as any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. The clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease is complicated; therefore, the CDC guidelines should be checked for more information about diagnosis.

Treatment is usually empiric, and antimicrobial therapy should cover N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, anaerobes, gram-negative facultative bacteria and streptococci. Parenteral therapy is required in several types of patients, including those who are pregnant, those who do not respond to or are unable to tolerate oral antimicrobial therapy, those with severe illness such as nausea, vomiting or high fever, those with tubo-ovarian abscess and patients who are immunodeficient. Sexual partners of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease should be evaluated and treated; empiric treatment is recommended for gonorrhea and Chlamydia. Recommended antimicrobial regimens are listed in Table 2.

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TABLE 2

Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Recommended regimens Agent Dosage Cost*

Parenteral regimens

Cefotetan (Cefotan)

2 g IV every 12 hours

$ 46.50 (brand)

or

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

2 g IV every 6 hours

85.50 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg IV or orally every 12 hours

33.50 (generic)

Alternative parenteral regimen

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

900 mg IV every 8 hours

29.00 (brand)

plus

Gentamicin

IV or IM, 2 mg per kg loading dose, followed by 1.5 mg per kg every 8 hours

3.00 to 15.00 (generic)

Oral regimens

Ofloxacin (Floxin)

400 mg orally twice daily for 14 days

131.00 (brand)

Plus

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

500 mg orally twice daily for 14 days

79.00 (brand) 8.50 to 13.00 (generic)

Alternative regimen†

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

250 mg IM in a single dose

13.50 (brand)

or

Cefoxitin

2 g IM

21.50 (brand)

plus

Probenecid

1 g orally in a single dose given once concurrently with cefoxitin

0.50 to 20.00 (generic)

TABLE 2

Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Recommended regimens Agent Dosage Cost*

Parenteral regimens

Cefotetan (Cefotan)

2 g IV every 12 hours

$ 46.50 (brand)

or

Cefoxitin (Mefoxin)

2 g IV every 6 hours

85.50 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg IV or orally every 12 hours

33.50 (generic)

Alternative parenteral regimen

Clindamycin (Cleocin)

900 mg IV every 8 hours

29.00 (brand)

plus

Gentamicin

IV or IM, 2 mg per kg loading dose, followed by 1.5 mg per kg every 8 hours

3.00 to 15.00 (generic)

Oral regimens

Ofloxacin (Floxin)

400 mg orally twice daily for 14 days

131.00 (brand)

Plus

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

500 mg orally twice daily for 14 days

79.00 (brand) 8.50 to 13.00 (generic)

Alternative regimen†

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

250 mg IM in a single dose

13.50 (brand)

or

Cefoxitin

2 g IM

21.50 (brand)

plus

Probenecid

1 g orally in a single dose given once concurrently with cefoxitin

0.50 to 20.00 (generic)

Epididymitis

Recommendations for treatment of epididymitis that is caused by sexually transmitted organisms remain the same as in previous guidelines. Ofloxacin (Floxin) is recom mended for treatment of epididymitis caused by enteric organisms or occurring in patients who are allergic to cephalosporins or tetracyclines (Table 3).

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TABLE 3

Treatment of Epididymitis
Cause Recommended regimen Dosage Cost*

Gonococcal or Chlamydial infection

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

250 mg IM in a single dose

$ 13.50 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg orally twice daily for 10 days

79.50 (brand) 3.50 to 27.00 (generic)

Enteric organisms

Ofloxacin (Floxin)

300 mg twice daily for 10 days

89.00 (brand)

TABLE 3

Treatment of Epididymitis
Cause Recommended regimen Dosage Cost*

Gonococcal or Chlamydial infection

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

250 mg IM in a single dose

$ 13.50 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg orally twice daily for 10 days

79.50 (brand) 3.50 to 27.00 (generic)

Enteric organisms

Ofloxacin (Floxin)

300 mg twice daily for 10 days

89.00 (brand)

Human Papillomavirus Infection

Human papillomavirus infection manifests as genital warts and is associated with cervical dysplasia. There are over 20 types of human papillomavirus, and not all types exhibit visible warts. Papanicolaou smears often identify associated cellular changes.

The goal of treatment is to eliminate visible genital warts. No evidence indicates that treatment affects the natural course of human papillomavirus infection or decreases its rate of sexual transmission. Two new treatments are available for patients’ self-administration: podofilox (Condylox) and imiquimod (Aldara).4  Recommendations for provider administered therapies still exist and are outlined in Table 4. Several factors should be considered when choosing a mode of therapy, such as wart size, wart number, anatomic site of wart, patient preference, cost of therapy, convenience, adverse effects and provider experience. Even with the patient-applied therapies, it is recommended that the health care provider apply the initial treatment to demonstrate the proper application technique.

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TABLE 4

Treatment of Human Papillomavirus Infection
Wart location Recommended regimen
Agent Dosage Appropriate therapy

External genital area

Podofilox (Condylox)

0.5% solution or gel (patient-applied)

Twice daily for three days, wait four days, then repeat as necessary for four cycles

Imiquimod (Aldara)

5% cream (patient-applied)

Daily at bedtime three times weekly for up to 16 weeks

Cryotherapy

Physician-applied

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Podophyllum resin

10 to 25% (physician-applied)

Weekly

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90% (physician-applied)

Weekly

Surgical removal

Alternative treatments

Intralesional interferon

Laser surgery

Vaginal

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90%

Weekly

Podophyllum

10 to 25%

Weekly

Urethral meatus

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Podophyllum

10 to 25%

Weekly

Anal area

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90%

Weekly

Surgical removal

Oral

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Surgical removal

TABLE 4

Treatment of Human Papillomavirus Infection
Wart location Recommended regimen
Agent Dosage Appropriate therapy

External genital area

Podofilox (Condylox)

0.5% solution or gel (patient-applied)

Twice daily for three days, wait four days, then repeat as necessary for four cycles

Imiquimod (Aldara)

5% cream (patient-applied)

Daily at bedtime three times weekly for up to 16 weeks

Cryotherapy

Physician-applied

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Podophyllum resin

10 to 25% (physician-applied)

Weekly

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90% (physician-applied)

Weekly

Surgical removal

Alternative treatments

Intralesional interferon

Laser surgery

Vaginal

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90%

Weekly

Podophyllum

10 to 25%

Weekly

Urethral meatus

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Podophyllum

10 to 25%

Weekly

Anal area

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Trichloroacetic acid or bichloroacetic acid

80 to 90%

Weekly

Surgical removal

Oral

Cryotherapy

With liquid nitrogen

Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks

Surgical removal

Proctitis, Proctocolitis, Enteritis and Ectoparasitic Infections

Mucopurulent proctitis and proctocolitis may be empirically treated as STDs (Table 5) while definitive diagnostic studies are performed. Permethrin cream (Nix) is the preferred agent for treatment of pediculosis pubis and scabies. Lindane (Kwell) and sulfur topical therapies are recommended as alternative regimens. See Table 5 for detailed treatment recommendations.

View/Print Table

TABLE 5

Treatment of Proctitis, Proctocolitis, Enteritis and Ectoparasitic Diseases
Condition Recommended regimens
Agent Dosage Cost*

Proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

125 mg IM in a single dose

$ 14.00 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

55.00 (brand) 2.50 to 19.00 (generic)

Pediculosis pubis

Permethrin cream (Nix)

1% cream: apply to affected area and wash off after 10 minutes

9.00 (brand/2 oz)

Lindane (Kwell)

1% shampoo: apply for 4 minutes, then wash (not recommended for use in pregnant or lactating women, or in children under 2 years of age)

3.00 to 7.00 (generic/2 oz)

Pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide

Apply for 10 minutes and wash†

Scabies .

Permethrin cream

1% cream: apply to body from the neck down and wash off after 8 to 14 hours; re-evaluate in one week

9.00 (brand/2 oz)

Alternative regimens

Lindane

1% lotion or cream: apply to body from the neck down and wash off after 8 hours; re-evaluate in one week (not recommended for use in pregnant or lactating women, or in children under 2 years of age)

6.00 to 14.00 (generic/2 oz)

Sulfur

6% precipitated in ointment: apply to all areas nightly for 3 nights†

TABLE 5

Treatment of Proctitis, Proctocolitis, Enteritis and Ectoparasitic Diseases
Condition Recommended regimens
Agent Dosage Cost*

Proctitis, proctocolitis and enteritis

Ceftriaxone (Rocephin)

125 mg IM in a single dose

$ 14.00 (brand)

plus

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days

55.00 (brand) 2.50 to 19.00 (generic)

Pediculosis pubis

Permethrin cream (Nix)

1% cream: apply to affected area and wash off after 10 minutes

9.00 (brand/2 oz)

Lindane (Kwell)

1% shampoo: apply for 4 minutes, then wash (not recommended for use in pregnant or lactating women, or in children under 2 years of age)

3.00 to 7.00 (generic/2 oz)

Pyrethrins with piperonyl butoxide

Apply for 10 minutes and wash†

Scabies .

Permethrin cream

1% cream: apply to body from the neck down and wash off after 8 to 14 hours; re-evaluate in one week

9.00 (brand/2 oz)

Alternative regimens

Lindane

1% lotion or cream: apply to body from the neck down and wash off after 8 hours; re-evaluate in one week (not recommended for use in pregnant or lactating women, or in children under 2 years of age)

6.00 to 14.00 (generic/2 oz)

Sulfur

6% precipitated in ointment: apply to all areas nightly for 3 nights†

Additional information about evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases may be found in “Guidelines for the Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” published in 1998 by the CDC, along with specific information regarding special patient populations. Table 6 lists side effects of drug classes commonly used to treat STDs.

View/Print Table

TABLE 6

Side Effects Associated with Drugs Commonly Used to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Drug Side effects

Cephalosporins

Pain at injection site, diarrhea, allergic reactions, Clostridium difficile colitis, hypoprothrombinemia, platelet dysfunction, eosinophilia, positive Coombs’ test, serum sickness, cholelithiasis (associated with use of ceftriaxone [Rocephin]) and, rarely, hemolytic anemia, interstitial nephritis, hepatic dysfunction, convulsions (associated with renal failure), neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and confusion

Fluoroquinolones

Gastrointestinal intolerance, headache, insomnia, dizziness, allergic reactions, photosensitivity, elevated liver enzymes and, rarely, papilledema, nystagmus, C. difficile colitis, marrow suppression, anaphylaxis and central nervous system stimulation

Penicillins

Rash, serum sickness, positive Coombs’ test and, rarely, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver function tests, increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, headache, confusion and seizures

Macrolide antibiotics

Diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, rash, cholestatic hepatitis and, rarely, C. difficile colitis and hemolytic anemia

Tetracyclines

Gastrointestinal intolerance, stained teeth (in children), hepatotoxicity, photosensitivity, pain with injection and, rarely, allergic reactions, visual disturbances, hemolytic anemia and C. difficile colitis

TABLE 6

Side Effects Associated with Drugs Commonly Used to Treat Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Drug Side effects

Cephalosporins

Pain at injection site, diarrhea, allergic reactions, Clostridium difficile colitis, hypoprothrombinemia, platelet dysfunction, eosinophilia, positive Coombs’ test, serum sickness, cholelithiasis (associated with use of ceftriaxone [Rocephin]) and, rarely, hemolytic anemia, interstitial nephritis, hepatic dysfunction, convulsions (associated with renal failure), neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and confusion

Fluoroquinolones

Gastrointestinal intolerance, headache, insomnia, dizziness, allergic reactions, photosensitivity, elevated liver enzymes and, rarely, papilledema, nystagmus, C. difficile colitis, marrow suppression, anaphylaxis and central nervous system stimulation

Penicillins

Rash, serum sickness, positive Coombs’ test and, rarely, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver function tests, increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, headache, confusion and seizures

Macrolide antibiotics

Diarrhea, nausea, abdominal pain, rash, cholestatic hepatitis and, rarely, C. difficile colitis and hemolytic anemia

Tetracyclines

Gastrointestinal intolerance, stained teeth (in children), hepatotoxicity, photosensitivity, pain with injection and, rarely, allergic reactions, visual disturbances, hemolytic anemia and C. difficile colitis

STD Awareness: Is Bacterial Vaginosis a Sexually Transmitted Disease?

Pictured above: Gardnerella vaginalis under a microscope. Image: K.K. Jefferson/Virginia Commonwealth University. From http://www.nist.gov/mml/bmd/membrane-012914.cfm

Bacterial vaginosis, or BV, is the most common vaginal infection among people 15 to 44 years of age. It’s caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria, such as Gardnerella vaginalis. A healthy vagina hosts thriving populations of Lactobacillus bacteria species, but when these “good” bacteria are crowded out by certain types of “bad” bacteria, the vaginal ecosystem can be shifted, causing BV.

There is a lot of confusion about BV. Is it a sexually transmitted disease (STD)? What are the symptoms? How can you avoid it?

All good questions. Let’s examine them one by one.

Is BV an STD?

The consensus seems to be that BV isn’t officially an STD, but even reliable sources have somewhat contradictory information. Planned Parenthood doesn’t list BV as an STD on their informational webpages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does include BV on their STD website, but also says that “BV is not considered an STD.”

On the other hand, the Office on Women’s Health says that “BV can … be caused by vaginal, oral, or anal sex” and that “you can get BV from male or female partners.” And there’s an entire chapter devoted to BV in the premier medical textbook on STDs, and its authors say that, while sexually inexperienced females can get BV, “the weight of evidence supports sexual transmission” of G. vaginalis, the bacteria species most famously implicated in BV infections.

The same webpage on which the CDC declared BV not to be an STD also says that it can be transferred between female sexual partners. Indeed, women who have sex with women have higher rates of BV. Since vaginal fluid could spread BV, partners can change condoms when a sex toy is passed from one to another, and use barriers like dental dams when engaging in cunnilingus (oral contact with the female genitalia) or rimming (oral contact with the anus).

What about heterosexual transmission? Bacteria from a penis can be introduced into a vagina, possibly disrupting its ecosystem. The Lactobacillus population can usually keep these invaders in check, but sometimes the vaginal flora can go haywire. Men have been found to host G. vaginalis in their penises, and because BV can be caused by numerous other bacteria — not all of which are known to scientists at this point — it is certainly possible that men could transmit BV-associated microbes to their partners during sex. Oddly, antibiotics for male partners are not recommended, as they are not found to be effective in reducing BV recurrence in female partners. However, better-designed studies might change these recommendations in the future.

The upshot? BV can be transmitted sexually, but because it can strike people who have had zero sex whatsoever, it’s not officially an STD. Many of the machinations of BV are shrouded in mystery for now, but here’s what we seem to know for sure: Virgins can get BV, but risk is increased when someone has a new sexual partner or multiple sexual partners. In fact, the more sexual partners someone has over their lifetime, the greater their risk for BV — a pattern that is consistent with STDs.

BV isn’t the only not-technically-an-STD that can descend upon a female reproductive or urinary tract in the wake of sexual activity. You might have heard of “honeymoon cystitis” — a bladder infection preceded by frequent sex. You don’t have to have sex to get a bladder infection, but some doctors believe that the friction from vaginal intercourse can push preexisting bacteria into the urethra, where it can start its journey to the bladder. Yeast infections are another non-STD that can be transmitted from one partner to another by sexual activity.

Bacterial vaginosis does increase risk for acquiring other STDs, such as HIV, herpes, chlamydia, and gonorrhea. So, while you can get it even without being sexually active, a BV infection can make you more vulnerable to STDs if you do become sexually active.

What Are the Symptoms of BV?

More than 80 percent of people with BV have no symptoms at all. But, for those of us unlucky enough to get symptoms, here are some afflictions we might experience:

  • thin white or gray vaginal discharge, which can be watery or foamy
  • vaginal odor, which might smell “fishy”
  • burning in the vagina
  • itching around the vaginal opening
  • burning sensation while urinating

These symptoms can be easily confused for trichomoniasis (trich) or a yeast infection. To get a proper diagnosis, you’ll need to see a health care provider, who can take a vaginal sample and look at it under a microscope or perform a lab test.

Can BV Cause Sores?

A lot of people might find sores in their vaginal region and hope they are symptoms of something like BV — rather than evidence of an STD. None of the sources consulted for this article listed sores as symptoms of bacterial vaginosis, but they can be symptoms of other infections, including:

  • genital herpes: symptoms can include blisters and open sores
  • molluscum contagiosum: symptoms can include round growths that may itch or feel tender
  • scabies: symptoms can include small bumps or rashes arranged in small curling lines
  • syphilis: symptoms can include a painless sore or open, wet ulcer

A health care provider will be able to give you proper diagnosis and treatment. Some infections can be dangerous when untreated — or improperly treated.

How Can I Prevent BV?

The CDC and Office on Women’s Health have some recommendations for reducing BV risk:

  • abstain from sex
  • limit sexual partners
  • refrain from douching
  • use condoms and dental dams during sexual contact
  • use condoms on shared sex toys

Alternative remedies, including probiotic supplements, are not adequately studied at this point.

You can seek diagnosis and treatment for bacterial vaginosis at a Planned Parenthood health center. Remember, if something is amiss below the belt, an accurate diagnosis from a qualified health care provider is your best chance for successful treatment!

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What Are the Symptoms & Signs of Chlamydia?

People with chlamydia usually don’t have symptoms, so most people don’t know they have it. If you do notice signs of chlamydia, get tested. Here’s what to look for.

Chlamydia usually has no symptoms.

Chlamydia can be sneaky, because you probably won’t have any symptoms you can see or feel. Sometimes the signs of chlamydia are so mild that people don’t notice them, or they mistake the symptoms for something else. Most of the time, people don’t even realize they have chlamydia — that’s part of the reason it’s such a common infection (and why it’s so important to get tested).

Chlamydia can lead to serious infections and even infertility if you don’t treat it. But it’s usually easy to cure it with medicine if you catch it early. This is why regular STD testing is so important, no matter how healthy you feel.

Signs of chlamydia

If you do have chlamydia symptoms, they can take several weeks after you got the infection to show up. Symptoms of chlamydia can appear in both men and women, including:

  • pain or burning while peeing

  • pain during sex

  • lower belly pain

  • abnormal vaginal discharge (may be yellowish and have a strong smell)

  • bleeding between periods

  • pus or a watery/milky discharge from the penis

  • swollen or tender testicles

  • pain, discharge and/or bleeding around the anus

If chlamydia infects your eyes, you may have redness, skin discoloration around your eye, itching, or discharge. Sometimes chlamydia infections in the throat cause soreness, but it’s rare.

If you or your partner has any of these symptoms, go to a nurse, doctor, or your local Planned Parenthood Health Center. It’s especially important to get checked out if you’re pregnant.

Remember, most people don’t show any signs at all when they have chlamydia. That’s why the only way to find out for sure if you have chlamydia is to get tested.

More questions from patients:

What are chlamydia symptoms in men?

Most people with chlamydia don’t have any symptoms. Or if they do get symptoms, they show up weeks after having sex without a condom.

Even without symptoms, if you have chlamydia and you don’t get it treated it can damage your reproductive system, cause epididymitis, or lead to infertility. That’s why it’s so important to get tested for STDs if you’ve had sex without a condom.

Chlamydia symptoms in men can include:

  • Pus, or watery or milky discharge from the penis

  • Pain or burning when peeing

  • Pain and/or swelling in one or both testicles

You can also get chlamydia in your butt, usually from receiving anal sex. Symptoms aren’t common, but you might notice:

  • A painful or itchy anus (butthole)

  • Discharge or bleeding from your anus

  • Diarrhea

  • Swelling in or around your anus

 Chlamydia can also infect your eyes, causing redness, itching, or discharge.

Regardless of where on your body they show up, chlamydia symptoms in men are most likely to appear in the morning.

If you notice any of these symptoms, if your partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or another STD, or if your partner has symptoms, check in with your doctor or nurse or local Planned Parenthood health center right away.

What are chlamydia symptoms in women?

Most people with chlamydia don’t have any symptoms. Or the symptoms show up weeks after having sex with someone who’s infected.

Even without symptoms, untreated chlamydia can damage your reproductive system, cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), or lead to infertility. That’s why it’s so important to get tested for STDs, especially if you’ve had sex without a condom.

Chlamydia symptoms in women can include:

  • Abnormal, yellowish, or strong smelling vaginal discharge

  • Swelling inside your vagina/painful sex

  • Pain or burning when you pee

  • The urge to pee more than usual

If the infection spreads beyond your vagina and cervix, symptoms of chlamydia in women may include:

  • Pain in your belly or lower back

  • Nausea or a low-grade fever

  • Bleeding between your periods or after vaginal sex

You can also get chlamydia in your butt, usually from receiving anal sex. Symptoms aren’t common, but you might notice:

  • A painful or itchy anus (butthole)

  • Discharge or bleeding from your anus

  • Diarrhea

  • Swelling in or around your anus

Chlamydia can also infect your eyes, causing redness, itching, or discharge.

If you notice any of these symptoms, if your partner has been diagnosed with chlamydia or another STD, or if your partner has symptoms, check in with your doctor or nurse or contact your local Planned Parenthood health center.

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My First Yeast Infection—It Was No Big Deal!

OMG, there it was—the vaginal itching…thick, white, lumpy discharge (like cottage cheese!)…soreness…irritation and burning. I was scared and afraid I may have had an STD. But after some initial research and a talk with my gyno, I found out I had the symptoms of a vaginal yeast infection. It was my first yeast infection, and what I learned was that the symptoms of STDs and vaginal yeast infections are similar, but there are some differences to look out for, and that vaginal yeast infections are common, they’re treatable, they’re really no big deal. What a relief!

What is a vaginal yeast infection and what causes it?

A vaginal yeast infection is a common condition inside the vagina caused by an ovegrowth of yeast (Candida) that normally live in the vagina. Your healthcare professional may call this infection “candidiasis“. Some women may have burning, itching, or irritation on the skin outside the vagina (vulva) at the same time that they have a vaginal yeast infection

So, if yeast infections are triggered by overgrowth of yeast, what causes it? Basically it happens because either there’s too much food for the yeast (like hormones) or the good bacteria keeping the yeast levels in check has been wiped out. Here are some possible yeast infection causes:

Too much food for yeast to grow…

  • Menstruation: Changes in hormone levels during a normal menstrual cycle can result in occasional or recurrent yeast infections.
  • Increased Estrogen Levels: Women who are taking birth control pills that have a high-dose of estrogen as well as those on estrogen hormone therapy are more susceptible to developing a yeast infection.
  • Pregnancy: Increased levels of estrogen during pregnancy make women more susceptible to yeast infections.
  • Diabetes: Whether controlled or uncontrolled, diabetes puts women at higher risk for developing a yeast infection because of the extra glucose that’s not being properly metabolized.

Not enough bacteria to keep yeast in check…

  • Antibiotics: Broad-spectrum antibiotics kill healthy lactobacillus bacteria (“good bacteria”) in the vagina, which enables yeast to overgrow.
  • Cancer Treatments: Undergoing chemotherapy treatments creates a greater risk for developing a yeast infection.
  • Impaired Immune System: Women with weakened immunity from corticosteroid therapy or HIV infections are at greater risk for developing a yeast infection.

Be sure it’s a vaginal yeast infection

It’s really important to make sure it’s a vaginal yeast infection—and not something else—based on the symptoms I talked about above. If you have other symptoms, it could be something else. Vaginal yeast infections do NOT cause foul-smelling vaginal discharge, fever, chills, lower abdominal, back or shoulder pain, or a missed period. These could be signs of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or a tubal pregnancy. If you have these symptoms, be sure to call your doctor right away.

Another way to help determine whether or not it’s a yeast infection, is a simple test you can use at home. The Vaginal Health Test from MONISTAT® is the same test used in doctor’s offices, and is super easy to use.

What Causes Painful Sex? | Johns Hopkins Medicine

The cause of most uncomfortable sex can sometimes be easy to figure out and easy to treat.

Fortunately, the cause of uncomfortable sex can sometimes be easy to figure out, says Shari Lawson, M.D., division director, General Obstetrics and Gynecology, at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. “Painful sex can be caused by an infection or a hormonal imbalance,” she says. The good news is that these things are easy to treat.

So don’t take it lying down — there are ways to make sex something to enjoy again.

Common Reasons for Painful Sex

Usually, women with painful sex have a clear-cut reason for experiencing discomfort, Lawson says. Common reasons for painful sex include:

  • Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Roughly 20 million STIs occur every year in the United States. Common STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, can cause vaginal irritation, which can create pain during sex.
  • Genital herpes: Blisters and sores caused by herpes can lead to pain on penetration.
  • Vaginitis: Vaginitis refers to any vaginal inflammation. In particular, bacterial or yeast overgrowth (caused by a fungus called candida) in the vagina can cause irritation, discharge, tenderness and itching.
  • Previous injuries: Women who have given birth to large infants might have small tears in the vagina, which will heal over time. This is more common if the baby was delivered with forceps.
  • Lower levels of estrogen: Postmenopausal women in particular might experience a dip in estrogen, which makes the vaginal lining thinner and less able to stretch. “It’s like trying to stretch a rubber band that’s lost its elasticity,” says Lawson. In this case, sex can often cause microscopic cuts, which can lead to burning and irritation.
  • Lichen sclerosus: Postmenopausal women might also suffer from lichen sclerosus, a condition in which the skin on the genitals becomes scaly and inflamed.
  • Previous sexual abuse or injury: Women who have experienced sexual trauma might associate sex with pain, leading to tense muscles.

How to Make Sex Less Painful

Your doctor will discuss your sexual history and perform an internal exam. If your doctor suspects a yeast infection or bacterial vaginosis (an infection of the vagina caused by bacteria), he or she will take a sample of your vaginal discharge and look at it under a microscope for signs of infection. Doctors also check the pH levels in your vagina. A too-high pH points to vaginosis, but a yeast infection usually has a normal vaginal pH. 

Your doctor will also look at your vagina and your vulva, the exterior of your genitals, for other lesions that might contribute to pain. You might also be screened for STDs through a urine test or vaginal swab.

Depending on the cause, common treatment options for painful sex include:

  • Topical estrogen creams: If you have vaginal atrophy, or thinning and inflammation of the vagina, estrogen creams can help restore thickness and elasticity to vaginal skin.
  • Antibiotics: If you have an STD or bacterial vaginosis, antibiotics frequently cure the infection within two weeks.
  • Antifungal creams or tablets: If you have a yeast infection, your doctor might prescribe a cream or pill to get rid of the fungus.

Getting Help for Sexual Abuse

If you have suffered sexual abuse or trauma, your doctor might refer you to a psychiatrist, therapist and pelvic floor physical therapist, who can work to release tense and tight pelvic muscles.

“I can’t emphasize enough that patients with a previous history of sexual abuse might experience painful sex due to psychosocial causes — but it can be addressed with help,” Lawson says.

So put your worries to bed: No matter what the reason for painful sex, it’s usually temporary and can almost always be treated.

Chlamydia in Women: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Top things to know about chlamydia:

  • Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, meaning that many people don’t know they have it
  • Chlamydia symptoms can include pus-like yellow discharge; frequent or painful urination; spotting between periods or after sex; and/or rectal pain, bleeding, or discharge
  • Untreated, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and/or infertility in women and people with female reproductive tracts
  • Antibiotics are used to treat chlamydia infections

What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a very common sexually transmitted infection (STI). Chlamydia trachomatis is a type of bacteria which can cause a number of different infections across the body. Chlamydia is most commonly known for infecting body parts related to reproduction (1).

What are chlamydia symptoms?

Chlamydia in women and people with female reproductive organs is often asymptomatic. This means that people often do not experience any discomfort or notice any changes while infected.

Without any symptoms, people may be infected and not know it. Some people may have very mild or vague symptoms after they are infected, which can be confused with a urinary tract infection or vaginal infection (2).

Chlamydia symptoms can include:

  • Pus-like yellow discharge
  • Frequent painful urination
  • Spotting/bleeding between periods or after vaginal intercourse
  • Rectal pain, bleeding, or discharge

What happens if chlamydia goes untreated?

A sexually transmitted infection of chlamydia can cause an infection of the cervix, urethra, and fallopian tubes in people with female reproductive organs (2,3).

As time progresses and an untreated chlamydia infection continues to spread, serious and long-term consequences like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, or chronic pelvic pain may develop in individuals with female reproductive organs. Chlamydia bacteria travel up the reproductive tract from the vagina through the cervix to the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes, causing inflammation and infection. Once inside, the bacteria damage the ovaries and fallopian tubes, and can cause scarring (4). This can have long-term effects including infertility, as scar tissue can block the fallopian tubes, preventing sperm from fertilizing an egg. Ectopic pregnancies (where a pregnancy implants outside of the uterus) are also more common, as a fertilized egg may get stuck in the damaged fallopian tube—this can be life threatening.

Chronic pelvic pain is also a possible long-term consequence of untreated chlamydia infections and is a symptom of PID (5).

In people with male reproductive organs, chlamydia can cause an infection of the urethra and epididymis, the tube that collects and stores sperm from the testicles (1).

How common is chlamydia?

In the United States, chlamydia infection rates are on the rise, making chlamydia the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in the country. In 2016, almost 1.6 million cases of chlamydia were reported to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) (1).

In the U.S., women are about twice as likely to be reported to have chlamydia as men. However, this is likely due to screening practices, since women are often screened during their annual pelvic exams. Men do not generally have similar annual screenings of their reproductive organs.

Since women are more likely to be asymptomatic, the number of people who actually have chlamydia could be even higher. Also, as testing becomes more sensitive and screening becomes more common and available, this trend is expected to continue to rise.

People (both men and women) aged 15 to 25 years old make up almost two thirds of all chlamydia cases reported in 2016 to the CDC (1). More specifically, up to 1 in 20 sexually active young women aged 14-24 could have chlamydia in the US (6).

Outside of the US, chlamydia is also very common. In 2012, the worldwide estimate of chlamydia infections was around 131 million new cases of chlamydia per year (7). This number is close to that of the entire population of Japan.

How does one get chlamydia?

Chlamydia is spread through sexual contact with an infected partner. It can be spread through any type of unprotected sex, including penis in vagina sex, anal sex, and oral sex (3). An eye infection, conjunctivitis, can also be acquired through contact with genital fluids infected with chlamydia.

A person can also be re-infected with chlamydia after having been treated previously. People don’t become immune to chlamydia after they’ve had it once.

How do I prevent chlamydia?

Using condoms every time you have sex can greatly reduce the risk of contracting chlamydia. Condoms should be used not just during ejaculation, but before any genital or sexual contact starts. If you are having oral-vaginal sex, use a dental dam to stay protected.

Ask a partner whether they’ve been tested recently for STIs before starting sexual contact. If a partner has sex with multiple people, ask about their STI status and encourage them to also get tested. Limiting the number of sexual partners you are exposed to will also decrease your risk of contracting chlamydia.

For people with female reproductive organs, a yearly gynecologic visit is recommended, even for those in a monogamous longterm relationship. People who are sexually active should always be screened for chlamydia. The screening can easily be performed—on a urine specimen, or as part of a pelvic exam.

How is chlamydia treated?

Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria. After getting a diagnosis, it is recommended that any partner that you have had sexual contact with in the last 60 days, and/or your last sexual partner, be tested.

It is possible to transmit chlamydia even while being treated with antibiotics. Stay away from sexual contact until 7 days after completion of the full course of antibiotic medication—even if symptoms have already gone away. Three months after treatment, you should get re-tested for chlamydia (2).

Special cases: chlamydia in infants, and HIV

Newborn infants are also at risk for chlamydial infections if their mother has an untreated infection at the time of delivery. Newborn infants can contract chlamydia trachomatis as they travel through the birth canal and develop eye infections or pneumonia (1). For this reason, chlamydia testing should be routine during pregnancy.

Having an STI, like chlamydia, can also increase your chances of contracting HIV if you are exposed it to it, or spreading HIV if you are already infected (8,9). If you think you have chlamydia, or any STI, it is important for you to seek help immediately from your healthcare provider or an STI clinic. Many clinics provide free or low-cost STI testing. This will all help keep you, your sexual partners, and your community healthy.

Download Clue to track sex and your period.

Article was originally published on June 11, 2018.

90,000 everything you need to know

Everyone is afraid of such negative consequences of sexual relations as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis or syphilis. However, according to new estimates, more than one million people become infected with these infections every day.

Unfortunately, although today we know more than ever about how to prevent these diseases, infection rates remain extremely high around the world.

Fortunately, all four of these infections are curable.

species of bacteria, viruses and parasites are transmitted through sexual contact.

of these are the most common sexually transmitted infections.

of these 8 infections – syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis – are treatable today.

hepatitis B infections, herpes simplex virus (HSV or herpes), HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) are viral and incurable.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs, also called sexually transmitted diseases or STDs) are often asymptomatic. However, if left untreated, they can cause serious consequences, including blindness and other neurological
disorders, infertility, mother-to-child transmission, or birth defects.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus can cause cancer, but these viral infections can be avoided by vaccination.

An additional traumatic factor can be stigmatization of a person infected with a sexually transmitted infection.

STIs are transmitted primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal and oral sex. In addition, some STIs are transmitted asexually, such as through blood or blood products. Many STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, primary infection,
caused by hepatitis B virus, HIV and syphilis can also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy and childbirth.

They are not transmitted by everyday contact such as eating and drinking, hugging or sneezing.

The latest WHO estimates are for only four treatable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and trichomoniasis).

Symptoms of these four treatable infections may include vaginal discharge, male urethral discharge, genital ulcers, painful urination, and abdominal pain.

The only way to reliably diagnose an STI is through testing.Unfortunately, most of the world’s population does not have access to reliable diagnostic testing for STIs due to their high cost and lack of test kits.
for laboratories or express diagnostics. Limited access to services for STIs, along with the asymptomatic course of these infections, leads to their further spread among different populations and communities, as well as on a global scale.

UNFPA ROVECA, Moldova [UNFPA trainer ROVECA and other activists help to educate vulnerable youth on sexual health issues, Moldova]

Information on four curable diseases

Chlamydia control

Chlamydial infection is one of the most common STIs in women, especially young women.

In 2016, 127 million cases of chlamydia were reported among men and women aged 15 to 49.

A symptom of chlamydia is painful urination, but more often the disease is asymptomatic.

It can affect the genital and urinary tract as well as the eyes. If left untreated, blindness, infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease, and ectopic pregnancy can develop. In addition, chlamydial infection can pose a serious risk
for the health of children born to infected mothers.

Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotic therapy, but we must not forget that reinfection is not uncommon.

Jonathan Torgovnik [Mississippi Youth Council representatives gather outside the state capitol to support sexuality education in their schools, USA]

Protecting yourself from trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is the most common treatable STI. Its causative agent is the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, which colonizes the lower genital tract and is transmitted, as a rule, through sexual intercourse.The peculiarity of this parasite in
the fact that it is capable of infecting areas not protected by a condom – that is, condoms cannot fully protect against trichomoniasis.

Trichomoniasis infects both men and women. Symptoms vary, but many people with an infection are unaware of it and can infect others.

To diagnose trichomoniasis, a medical professional must perform a laboratory test.

Increased vigilance against this infection is warranted, since trichomoniasis can increase the risk of contracting or spreading other STIs such as HIV, and pregnant women with the disease are more likely to have preterm births
and children with low body weight are born.

In 2016, 156 million new cases of trichomoniasis were reported among men and women aged 15 to 49.

UNICEF – Mawa [One target population – young men who have sex with men – in a public place, Bangladesh]

Syphilis is an insidious disease

Syphilis is transmitted through vaginal, anal and oral sex and causes ulcerative lesions (so-called chancre) of the genitals.If left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious and persistent disorders such as brain damage, blindness
and paralysis. For many people, syphilis is asymptomatic and unaware of their illness.

Syphilis occurs in three stages: in the first stage ulcers form, in the second there is a rash and inflammation of the lymph nodes, in the third the brain, heart and other organs can be affected.

An estimated 6.3 million people were infected with syphilis in 2016.

The disease is transmitted by contact with ulcerative lesions, mainly through vaginal, oral or anal intercourse.

Syphilis can be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. In 2016, an estimated 200,000 stillbirths occurred among 988,000 pregnant women infected with syphilis. Syphilis is the second most important
cause stillbirth worldwide and can also lead to other adverse birth outcomes such as death of the newborn, congenital anomalies, prematurity and low birth weight.

The risk of syphilis should not be neglected; if you are at risk or notice symptoms of the disease, you must undergo timely examination and treatment. Syphilis can be treated with a simple penicillin regimen.

Gonorrhea: the super germ among STIs

Gonorrhea may soon become an incurable disease. It is a bacterial infection for which there are two drugs, but resistance is already developing to one of them.It is likely that soon we will have no treatment options for gonorrhea,
caused by multidrug-resistant strains.

Individuals diagnosed with gonorrhea are at risk of serious complications, and if left untreated, the disease can cause inflammation in the uterus and lead to infertility. The infection can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman
to kid.

In pregnant women, infection can provoke preterm labor or permanent blindness in the newborn.

In 2016, 87 million people were infected with gonorrhea among men and women aged 15 to 49.

WHO / Yoshi Shimizu [STI testing in Mongolia]

How to keep yourself safe

STIs are usually transmitted through sexual contact, finger, vaginal, oral or anal contact. Some infections can be transmitted through blood or blood products, and some (including chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, herpes,
HPV infection and hepatitis B virus infection) can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth.

How to protect yourself from these infections?

  • practice safe sex;
  • using condoms and doing it right;
  • use reliable sources of information on sexual health;
  • if a risk arises – promptly seek testing and treatment; remember that most STIs are asymptomatic. Limit casual sex and use a condom with a new partner;
  • to be tested for STIs when changing sexual partners and after unprotected intercourse, as well as if there are concerns about possible infection / reinfection;
  • Discuss the potential risk of contracting an STI with a sexual partner;
  • make an informed decision about the acceptable degree of risk in sexual relations;
  • in the presence of pregnancy on the background of the risk of STIs, it is important to undergo examination and treatment before the birth of the child;
  • Re-infection is possible even after successful treatment.To prevent re-infection, you should make sure that the sex partners are treated.

Condoms, when used properly, are one of the most effective means of protecting against STIs, including HIV infection. Female condoms are also effective and safe.

A partner may often not be aware of an STI.

Any sexually active person can get an STI, but those who frequently change sex partners are at increased risk.Previous treatment for STIs does not protect against reinfection.

Juan Daniel Torres Courtesy of Photoshare [Community Development Community Outreach Discusses Health with Youth, Cambodia]

Knowledge is Power

No one is immune from STIs. Everyone should be aware of them, know the preventive measures, as well as the procedure for dealing with infection.

Comprehensive sexual health education for adolescents is essential.In the course of such comprehensive education, they should receive scientifically based information about human development, anatomy and reproductive health,
and information on contraception, childbirth and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV.

It is important that the appropriate information is communicated to children at a young age (before the onset of sexual activity).

In addition, access to STI and HIV counseling services is essential. Countries are increasingly implementing STI interventions targeting sex workers, men who have sex with men and injecting drug users.
drugs, however, in many low- and middle-income countries of the world, access to high-quality diagnostic tests is still limited.

Chlamydia symptoms in women and men. General principles of treatment

Symptoms and treatment of chlamydia in women and men

Chlamydia is a venereal disease. It is this pathology that is most often diagnosed by accident – a woman or a man simply comes to the doctors for a routine examination or ends up in inpatient departments of medical institutions and there they find out the presence of chlamydia. Nevertheless, the symptoms of chlamydia in women and men are present, in some cases they are mild, but they can be noted and the disease can be diagnosed in time.

How chlamydia is transmitted

Chlamydiae are microorganisms that do not live outside the human body, therefore, the household route of infection is not considered by doctors. The answer to the question “how is chlamydia transmitted?” can be considered a sexual route, that is, pathogens enter the body of a healthy person only during sexual intercourse, both vaginal and anal. But oral sex in terms of infection with chlamydia is considered absolutely safe, so doctors cannot name the reasons for infection with oral chlamydia.It is worth considering that these microorganisms can provoke the development of infection not only in the reproductive system, but also, for example, in the eyes.

As soon as chlamydia enters the human body, the incubation period of the disease begins, which can last 1-3 weeks – the infected person does not notice any symptoms or changes in well-being. Despite the excellent health, chlamydia strengthens in the body, actively grow and multiply.

If chlamydia has entered the body of a pregnant woman, then there is a high risk of infection of the child – chlamydia will enter his body during childbirth.Therefore, doctors are required to send a blood test for chlamydia during pregnancy.

Symptoms of chlamydia in women and men

The danger of the disease in question lies in its asymptomatic course. The first signs of chlamydia manifestation, of course, are available, but only an attentive person can notice them:

  1. Men will be characterized by bloody discharge at the time of ejaculation, minor cramps / burning in the urethra during urination.
  2. Women may experience a burning sensation during urination, itching in the urethra, characteristic yellowish vaginal discharge and an unpleasant odor.
  3. Both men and women may experience an increase in body temperature, general weakness – these symptoms are nonspecific and short-term.

Can you get chlamydia through kissing? Theoretically, there is such a possibility, but in practice, doctors have never recorded this fact.

It should be noted that the disease in question is not only almost asymptomatic. The manifestations of chlamydia literally disappear in 10-14 days on their own, but this does not mean at all that the disease has receded – on the contrary, pathogens are actively multiplying, spreading throughout the body and beginning to affect the internal organs.

Methods for the treatment of chlamydia

Diagnosis of chlamydia of the eyes and genitals should be carried out only in hospitals.The symptoms of the disease are not intense, and only laboratory tests of smears from the urethra and vagina can reveal the presence of a pathogenic microorganism. Only after confirming the diagnosis, the doctor will prescribe treatment, and you cannot do without taking specific medications.

Treatment of chronic chlamydia with antibiotics, however, as well as acute, should be carried out according to a certain scheme. As a rule, priority is given to drugs that act intracellularly – tetracycline series, macrolides, fluoroquinolones.If a patient has a mixed infection, then the doctor will select an individual treatment regimen for urogenital chlamydia. Often, together with chlamydia, a fungal infection is diagnosed, and then the patient will be prescribed antimycotic drugs – Nystatin, Pimafucin in tablet form.

Many patients wonder “why and how to treat chlamydia with immunomodulating drugs”. It cannot be said that these drugs treat chlamydia, immunomodulators increase and strengthen immunity, which increases the number of antibodies in the body, activates resistance to infections and significantly reduces the duration of treatment.

Patients will be advised to adjust their diet and introduce dairy and fermented milk products into the menu, physiotherapy and topical preparations (suppositories in the vagina) may be prescribed to get rid of itching and burning.

Detailed information about the consequences of chlamydia in children, what tests need to be passed for diagnosis and why doctors recognize the disease as dangerous, can be obtained on our website Dobrobut.com.

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STI – KVD No. 2

At-a-glance

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a group of diseases transmitted from person to person, mainly sexually.The causative agents of STIs are bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. The routes of infection are vaginal, oral, anal intercourse, very rarely – other routes of transmission (household, etc.).

These infections cause inflammatory processes, mainly in the genitourinary and reproductive spheres, and can cause various complications. Some infections pose a threat not only to health, but also to life.

More than 20 different STI pathogens have been identified.

How common are these diseases?

STIs are most common among sexually active adolescents, women and young men, especially if they have multiple sexual partners.The number of newly infected people worldwide is estimated at approximately 200-400 million, regardless of socio-economic conditions. According to the US Department of Health, in the United States each year, more than 13 million are infected with STIs, and more than 65 million people have terminal STIs.

The latent course of most diseases is the reason for the easy spread of infection.

Manifestations of infections

Most STIs cause relatively mild illness, with little or no symptoms.However, some diseases, with little or no symptoms, lead to serious complications (chlamydia).

Part of infections that cause illness lasting days or weeks. Others can last for a very long time or even a lifetime. During this time, an infected person (carrier of the infection) can infect their sexual partners.

With a constant course of the disease, the causative agent of the infection is not detected by the body’s defenses and does not cause manifestations of the disease for a long time.Otherwise, this course of infection is called latent. However, certain mechanisms (stress, hypothermia, decreased immunity, other diseases) can activate the dormant pathogen and cause an exacerbation. In some cases, an exacerbation can be without pronounced manifestations (chlamydia), in others – with vivid manifestations (genital herpes), in some cases – an exacerbation can be fatal and lead to death (HIV infection).

Complications of infections

Complications of STIs: pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis) in women, inflammation of the urinary tract (urethritis) and prostate (prostatitis) in men.The consequence of these diseases can be impaired reproductive function and infertility, both in women and in men.

Persons with STIs are more at risk of contracting HIV infection. People with HIV who have an STI are more likely to infect their sex partners with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Effect of the disease on a pregnant woman and her child

Infection of the fetus with STIs occurs during pregnancy, the newborn during childbirth through an infected birth canal.Newborn infections are very dangerous and can lead to serious illness, blindness, mental retardation, permanent neurological changes, or the death of the child.

Diagnostics

Diagnostics includes observation of clinical manifestations in a patient, collection of information about sexual intercourse and partners, examination for STIs of smears from the cervix, scraping from the urinary tract and rectum, the first morning portion of urine. The study is carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and bacteriological culture.Swabs and scrapings may cause minor discomfort. It is very important to establish the microorganism that caused the clinical manifestations in order to prescribe the correct and timely treatment. Additionally, a blood test is performed by ELISA to determine specific antibodies to STI pathogens (viruses and bacteria), the duration of the last exacerbation and the number of antibodies are assessed. The ELISA method allows you to diagnose some infections without exacerbation. For HIV infection and syphilis, the detection of specific antibodies by ELISA is critical.

Treatment

The main principles of STI treatment are the simultaneous treatment of sexual partners, the exclusion of unprotected sexual contacts during treatment and strict adherence to all medical recommendations.

For the treatment of STIs, drug regimens recommended by the world’s leading professional communities are used. These treatment regimens include drugs that have undergone numerous clinical studies and are most effective for the corresponding disease with the least number of adverse reactions.In most cases, treatment of uncomplicated infections requires 1–2 drugs.

All drugs that are basic in the treatment of STIs are produced, including by Russian pharmaceutical companies, which significantly reduces the cost of treatment. Nevertheless, it is necessary to take into account the likelihood of acquiring fakes, which can affect both the results of treatment and the appearance of unwanted drug reactions.

The effectiveness of treatment of most bacterial STIs (for example: gonorrhea, chlamydia) is at least 95%.

The duration of therapy for the most common sexually transmitted infections, as a rule, does not exceed 7-10 days. In the treatment of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, one-day treatment regimens have been tested and successfully applied. Whenever possible, STI treatment should be carried out urgently to prevent complications.

Patients need to strictly follow the doctor’s prescription. If undesirable drug reactions appear, you should consult your doctor again.

STI treatment must be carried out simultaneously with regular sexual partners. During treatment, it is necessary to avoid unprotected sexual intercourse (including orogenital and anal) until negative control studies are obtained.

Not all drugs are compatible with each other. If an STI patient, in addition to the prescribed treatment regimen, takes any other drug or dietary supplement, it is necessary to inform the doctor about this.

An important step in the fight against STIs is to notify your sexual partners that they may be infected. It is required to notify all sexual partners, if possible, within the month preceding the appearance of signs of the disease. If the detected disease was not accompanied by any symptoms, it is required to notify all sexual partners within the last 6 months.

Failure to treat sexually transmitted infections is most often associated with the following factors:

  • Violation of the medication regimen, i.e.e. skipping admission, untimely medication;
  • Reinfection due to unprotected contact with an untreated partner;

Often after the end of the course of treatment, patients may still have symptoms of the disease for some time. This is due to the fact that the inflammatory response of the body does not subside immediately after the elimination of the pathogen. However, persistence of signs of STIs for more than 7 days after the end of treatment should be a reason for a second visit to the attending physician.

In most cases, follow-up studies are required after STI treatment. The terms and conditions of these studies must be agreed with the attending physician.

Peculiarities of treatment of a specific infection are presented in the corresponding section.

Diagnosis and treatment of STIs should be carried out in a specialized clinic – KVD, which has all the necessary tools for quick and accurate diagnosis.

Viral STIs (genital herpes, HPV, HIV infection) today cannot be completely cured, but the manifestations of the disease can be reduced with the help of antiviral drugs.

Bacterial infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea are completely curable with antibiotics.

Fungal infections (thrush, etc.) and infections caused by protozoa (trichomoniasis) are completely curable with the help of special medications.

Early diagnosis and timely treatment increase the chances of successful treatment in a short time.

Prevention of infections

The best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections is long-term sex with one healthy sexual partner.It is important to discuss STI issues with your sexual partner before sex. Prevention of infections is possible if partners know about diseases and how they spread.

Latex male condoms, when used correctly, reduce the risk of transmission.

Any manifestations such as pain or discomfort when urinating, an unusual rash, discharge are a signal for the termination of sexual intercourse and immediate examination in a specialized clinic – KVD.If a patient is diagnosed with an STI, he must inform his sexual partners about this, so that they also undergo a full examination and appropriate treatment. This will reduce the risk of serious complications and prevent the possibility of re-infection.

Patients with STIs should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection of the sexual partner is possible.

90,000 Sexually transmitted infections

In recent years, sexually transmitted diseases have become very common.Today, there are more than 30 different pathogens – bacteria, protozoa, viruses, fungi, arthropods that cause these diseases. A distinctive feature of STIs is their high infectivity and rapid spread, which often bears the character of epidemics.
The main reason for the sharp increase in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases among children and adolescents is the lack of proper sex education. In 2016, more than 234 thousand cases of various STIs were registered in the Russian Federation.

STI classification

Sexually transmitted infections are divided into three groups.

1. Classic venereal diseases: syphilis, gonorrhea, inguinal lymphogranulomatosis, venereal granuloma.

2. Other sexually transmitted infections with a predominant lesion of the genitourinary system: genitourinary chlamydia, trichomoniasis, mycoplasmosis, urogenital candidiasis, balanoposthitis, gardnerellosis vaginitis, genital molluscum contagiosum, genital herpes simplex, lobuleschialis, urogenital herpes.

3. Other sexually transmitted infections, with a predominant lesion of other organs: AIDS, viral hepatitis, giardiasis, amebiasis (more common in homosexuals), cytomegalovirus.

Classic venereal diseases.

Syphilis an infectious disease caused by treponema pallidus, transmitted primarily through sexual contact, characterized by lesions of the skin, mucous membranes, nervous system, internal organs and musculoskeletal system.

Gonorrhea is an infectious venereal disease that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary organs, the oral region, the rectum, the infection of which occurs as a result of unprotected vaginal, anal, oral intercourse with a sick partner.

Other sexually transmitted infections, with a predominant lesion of the genitals.

This group includes diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, arthropods, protozoa.Very often, diseases of this group are concomitant with classic venereal diseases. A distinctive feature of all these diseases is a sluggish asymptomatic course, the absence of an acute phase and a rapid transition to a chronic form. Very often, diseases are diagnosed in women who have consulted a doctor for infertility, diseases of the genitourinary system or internal organs.

Genitourinary chlamydia. are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases.This disease is caused by the introduction of a bacterium – chlamydia. The bacterium is an intracellular parasite and most often infects the urethra or cervix, becoming a source of ascending infection. The infection can affect not only the genitourinary system, but also the eyes, joints, central nervous system, kidneys, and larynx.

Chlamydia is one of the causes of pneumonia. Infection can occur in newborns, about 50% of whom become infected either in utero or during the passage of the fetus through the birth canal of a mother with chlamydia.Chlamydia infection in 30-40% of cases is the cause of infertility, both male and female.

Trichomoniasis is a common disease of the genitourinary system, which ranks third in prevalence after gonorrhea and chlamydia. The most susceptible to infection are young people aged 20-30 years (the period of greatest sexual activity). The pathogen affects the vagina in women and the urethra in men. Symptoms of trichomoniasis are the appearance of frothy discharge of a grayish-yellow color with an unpleasant putrid odor, itching in the external genital area.In the absence of timely treatment, trichomoniasis causes complications in 60% of cases, which is much more frequent than in gonorrhea.

Genitourinary mycoplasmosis. The causative agent is mycoplasma. The disease affects the genitourinary tract in men, and in women the vagina, urethra, cervix and is asymptomatic, in rare cases reminding of itself by itching in the genitourinary tract and the appearance of mucous secretions. The disease is dangerous by the development of pathologies of pregnancy, as well as the likelihood of fetal damage and the development of pneumonia in a newborn.

Gardnerellosis. The infection is caused by a rod-shaped bacterium that infects the genitourinary system in adults. In newborns, gardnerellosis can cause the development of meningitis, pneumonia. At risk are women who lead promiscuous sex and often change sexual partners. Very often, the disease proceeds simultaneously with infection with chlamydia, gonococcus, Trichomonas, fungal infections, organ damage by anaerobic pathogens.

Genitourinary herpes. Infection occurs during kissing, during intercourse (genital, oral or anal), and during the passage of the fetus through the birth canal of the mother. Up to 70% of cases, the transmission of genital herpes can occur with an asymptomatic course of infection in a partner. The main symptom of herpes is the appearance of erosive and ulcerative defects. Newborn babies can develop meningoencephalitis.

Candidiasis is a yeast-like fungus that affects the genitourinary system.The main method of infection is sexual intercourse. The provoking factors for the development of the disease are pregnancy, the intrauterine device, the use of oral contraceptives. These factors alter the pH of the vagina, as a result of which its protective function is significantly reduced.

The above infections affect the organs of the genitourinary system, their main complications are infertility, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancies, and in men – prostatitis and impaired potency.After suffering diseases, immunity to them is not developed.

Treatment of sexually transmitted infections.

The most important thing in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases is to see it through to the end. Medicines must be prescribed by a doctor and taken strictly as directed. Treatment of both partners is imperative, since otherwise there is a high risk of re-infection. In no case should you self-medicate! The advertised drugs are indeed capable of producing a quick external effect.But uncontrolled treatment rather contributes to the transfer of the disease into a chronic form than recovery. When the first signs appear, you should definitely contact a specialist – a dermatovenerologist at any polyclinic department convenient for you.

GBUZ “OKVD No. 3”

Questions and Answers – Veterinary Laboratory Pasteur

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii, which is characterized by damage to the nervous and lymphatic systems, eyes, skeletal muscles, myocardium and other organs and tissues.The disease can occur in the form of asymptomatic carriage or an acute process of varying severity.

The life cycle of gondii takes place with the participation of a wide range of final (cats and other representatives of the feline family) and intermediate hosts (more than 350 species of animals, birds and some fish species), including humans. Intermediate hosts are infected with Toxoplasma through food and water contaminated with feces of cats containing protozoan oocysts or by eating meat from animals affected by vegetative forms of Toxoplasma.Thus, humans and other animals, including cats, are infected in two ways, through oocysts from cats and trophozoids – with meat and other animal products.

Getting into the organism of the intermediate host, Toxoplasma passes through a number of specific stages of development, is carried to all organs and tissues. The number of Toxoplasma is rapidly increasing, as the disease progresses, some of them turn into cysts, which can persist for a long time in the host’s body.

Similar changes occur in toxoplasmosis in the body of cats, but in addition, toxoplasma penetrates the intestines, where the parasite undergoes sexual development, at the end of which immature oocysts are excreted with feces into the external environment in colossal quantities.Oocysts are very stable in the external environment; in the soil they can remain viable for up to 1.5 years.

Distribution. Toxoplasmosis is ubiquitous.

Clinical signs. In cats, parasitization of Toxoplasma in the intestine practically does not cause noticeable pathological changes and a painful condition. As for other animals and humans, performing the role of an intermediate host, Toxoplasma causes serious diseases with various clinical manifestations in them.In this case, characteristic symptoms may be observed. In the acute stage of the disease, an increase in body temperature up to 40oC, discharge from the nose, eyes, symptoms of gastrointestinal tract disorders, and enlargement of lymph nodes are possible. Abortions occur in pregnant animals. Central nervous system disorders and the degree of clinical symptoms depend on the location of Toxoplasma, these disorders can occur in the form of various motor abnormalities, paresis, paralysis, riding movements, epilepsy, etc.The eyes are often affected, and chorioretinitis is most common.

With the development of the disease and the formation of immunity, the acute stage of toxoplasmosis becomes chronic, when all the symptoms appear in an erased form. It is also possible an asymptomatic course of toxoplasmosis, especially dangerous complications during human pregnancy.

A person can become infected with toxoplasmosis through contact with dogs and other animals suffering from toxoplasmosis in the acute stage, when the pathogen is released into the external environment with outflows from the eyes, nose, saliva.

Prevention. To prevent infection with toxoplasmosis in dogs and cats, it is necessary to completely exclude raw animal products from their diet (long-term freezing of meat in a refrigerator at a temperature of -18o is permissible, scalding meat or minced meat with boiling water does not provide disinfection against toxoplasma; prevent catching and eating birds, rodents and contact with other animals.Often such conditions for the prevention of toxoplasmosis are difficult to implement, especially if dogs are kept in an open-air cage way, take part in hunting or when house animals periodically have access to the street when leaving the city.

Diagnostics. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis today is carried out in many ways, which have their own characteristics.

Feces can be tested in cats for the presence of Toxoplasma oocysts. The peculiarity of the study is that the final diagnosis in the case of oocysts is not made, since cats can be parasitized by two more species of protozoa, whose oocysts are indistinguishable from T.gondii oocysts. In this case, it is necessary to conduct a serological blood test for the presence of specific antibodies to toxoplasma.

Blood tests in cats and dogs are carried out in order to identify specific antibodies to toxoplasma (the peculiarity of the study is that, as a rule, only antibodies of group G are detected, their presence in the blood indicates that the acute period of the disease has already passed). The detection of such antibodies is not a reason for treating the animal.)

For PCR diagnostics of toxoplasmosis, swabs from the eyes and nose are examined. This method is currently very reliable, but it is effective only in the acute phase of the disease, which may go unnoticed.

Latent threat: Sexually transmitted infections. | On-Line Clinic

Chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, mycaplasmosis and candida in men are the so-called “latent” genital infections, because a man may not observe any symptoms for a long time. We asked the urologist-andrologist Denis Andreevich Abrosov about how to identify and treat such diseases.

Is there a seasonality in sexually transmitted diseases?

There is, of course, a slight seasonality.But it also depends on the age of the patients. Most often, exacerbations occur in the spring and in the autumn-winter period, which, of course, is associated with a general decrease in immunity, hypothermia or overheating of the prostate in cars during unsettled weather or cold weather. Sudden changes in temperature are stress for the body, which leads to an exacerbation of hidden infections. In the spring, hormones play, more opportunities for unplanned sex. In September-October, there is a spike after vacations, students massively return to the city and are checked after the summer vacation.In January, after New Year’s corporate parties and holidays and the ancient tradition of going to the bathhouse. After the holidays, there is a risk of getting an infection.

Why do doctors recommend the simultaneous treatment of sexual partners?

Moreover, European medical centers recommend treating sexual partners in one medical center. This is related to several important questions:

  1. Diagnostic question. It is better to test sexual partners for STDs in one tested laboratory.To minimize the risk of error. Different laboratories use different reagents, storage and transportation conditions for biomaterials differ. Someone carries biomaterials to other cities, respectively, the timing of obtaining results is delayed, and the start of treatment is postponed. We work with a proven modern Krasnoyarsk laboratory, so the readiness of the tests is 2-3 days and we can start the treatment of the couple at the same time.
  2. Another important point for diagnosis is the possibility of a dialogue between the urologist and the gynecologist during the treatment of the couple.Not only to prescribe adequate treatment. To ensure control of simultaneous treatment. It is important to avoid secondary infection from the spouse if he started treatment later.

A competent doctor is a good psychologist, therefore it will be easier to solve delicate family problems when treating a couple.

Why is sexual abstinence recommended for the period of treatment?

To avoid re-infection. Each person may have an individual response to treatment, even with the same drugs.The timing of treatment for women and men is different. And barrier methods of contraception do not protect 100% against STDs. Condoms only reduce risks, but do not provide absolute protection against infection.

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be divided into 2 main groups.

• The first is those that are transmitted through fluids. These are HIV, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis (the causative agent is Trichomonas).

• The second – those that are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact – human papillomavirus (HPV or papillomavirus), herpes, syphilis, molluscum contagiosum.If the pathogens of the first group come into contact with the skin with liquid, this will not lead to infection.

For infection, they must get on the mucous membrane of the woman’s vagina or the man’s urethra, in order to further penetrate into the epithelium of the mucous membrane or into the bloodstream. If there are any wounds in the mouth or on the genitals, re-infection is possible even with “protected” or “alternative” sex.

Denis Andreevich, what is the danger of latent infections? How can you get infected with them; is it possible in a household way or not? In men, these infections are most often asymptomatic, and men believe that they do not need to be treated.

Let’s start with fungal infections then. they are mistakenly considered a purely female disease, and men pay less attention to them, they believe that it is not so significant. In fact, the same Candida albicans and faecalis cause constant urethral irritation and discomfort. Although it is not typical for a man to carry a flora and thrush containing a fungal infection, but when thrush and bacterial vaginosis are brought in from a woman, this leads to a constant chronic inflammatory process. And, most often, thrush does not just “stick” to a man, but if there is some kind of disease like chlamydia, ureaplasma or mycoplasma, then against the background of these infections, the fungal infection becomes pronounced.This is why they are called latent infections because they have no obvious symptoms. A man can only feel a slight tingling inside the urethra, a decrease in erection, a slight anxiety-discomfort in the prostate. But what does this lead to? A focus of internal constant inflammation appears in the body. This leads not only to a decrease in immunity, mood, male strength, but also to constant depression, since all the body’s forces are aimed at a constant fight against the inflammatory process, and there is no longer any strength left for anything else.

First of all, this leads to the fact that all the main hormones of the genital area, which are important for procreation, are reduced. Testosterone drops and a man simply does not have an internal reserve for accomplishment. The longer a man is sick with the same chlamydia, the more likely the male factor of infertility is.

They say that the same chlamydia leads to the formation of so-called “films” (salpingitis), is it dangerous only for women and leads to obstruction of the fallopian tubes, or is it just as dangerous for men?

This disease is dangerous for the reproductive system of both partners.The permeability of the seminal canals decreases, the quantitative and qualitative indicators of spermatozoa deteriorate. It becomes less progressively motile, more weakly motile or completely immobile spermatozoa; with serious morphological defects of the head, neck and tail, DNA fragmentation increases. These sperm cells do not move, but only twitch slightly in place. This has not yet been proven, but now many researchers have begun to associate the cause of missed pregnancies with precisely such pathologies.For example, it has been observed that chlamydial DNA can “integrate” into human DNA. In immotile sperm, the percentage of genetic defects is higher, and this increases the risk of male factor infertility, frozen pregnancies up to 10 weeks and, accordingly, the risk for women and the fetus. If a couple has untreated latent infections, it is more likely that the child will have a predisposition to the chronic diseases of the parents. Therefore, when planning a pregnancy, it is very important not to forget that the sperm renewal cycle is 72 days.If HPV or herpes are detected during planning, it is not enough to simply lower the titer, you need to wait until the percentage of defective sperm cells in the spermogram decreases, and the system is completely renewed. In the prostate, under the influence of chlamydia, whole lagoons, foci of infections are created, these foci are clearly visible during examination, since the infection lives, feeds, excretes waste products. This is a constant risk of intoxication into both the bladder and the prostate. If the infection rises to the top, it gives complications to the kidneys.Chlamydiae can cause inflammation even in the connective tissues of the joints. Men may experience chronic pain, arthritis. Very often, patients come and complain of accompanying problems – crunching and aching joints.

There is also chlamydia and ureaplasmosis of the eyes – these are constantly “flowing” eyes, pus sticking in the morning. Inflammation can spread to all mucous tissues of a person. For example, patients complain of a concomitant persistent cough. It turns out that if a man is sick and is not treated, even when using barrier methods of contraception, if there is oral sex, a girl can infect her tonsils, then with a kiss it is transferred to a man and he gets an infection, and this can already lead to pharyngitis, gingivitis and etc.

An important question is, Are these infections transmitted by household means? The network writes that ureaplasmosis “lives up to 5 days outside the mucous membrane.

This is more from the category of fairy tales, of course. Although there are very rare exceptions to every rule. It is believed that it is possible to get infected through shared towels, a bathroom, a dubious public bath and sauna, in which carriers of the infection have recently had sexual intercourse. But this is all extremely conditional, and is rare. For infection, immunity must be greatly reduced, there must be open wounds on the mucous membrane.The main route of infection, after all, is through sexual contact. In a clean home bathroom with a good hostess, this is almost impossible.

in order for a household infection to occur, what conditions must be met?

The patient must have a greatly reduced immunity, for example, other chronic infections are present; Chronic diseases, for example, herpes, RVI virus, an overloaded liver (there was hepatitis), or he is in a state of constant severe stress, when all indicators, including testosterone, are greatly reduced.

What is the incubation period for STDs?

For most infections, such as chlamydia, within 5-7 days. A week has passed since unprotected intercourse – you can and should go to get tested. Hidden asymptomatic forms can hide in the body for decades. A man and a woman with strong immunity can become infected after unprotected intimacy, but symptoms may not appear for a long time. And an exacerbation can occur just after overheating in the bath and drinking alcohol and a general decrease in immunity.There are patients who do not find symptoms for many years, and then come to be examined before pregnancy and are surprised at the test results. Sometimes it comes to family dramas. If a man has a good strong immune system, he can live peacefully with some types of STDs, the same chlamydia and ureaplasma. But, nevertheless, he can transmit the infection to his partner.

About Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma they say that their insignificant amount in the human body is the norm, is it so?

This is true to some extent, only for women.Men should not have any foreign microflora. If they have it, the man gets sick. Most often it happens like this: a patient comes and says that once upon a time there was unprotected intercourse, but there were no symptoms right away, and recently he went to the sauna, drank beer or chilled his prostate, and he developed symptoms. He thinks he picked it up somewhere recently in a household way. Takes tests, does an ultrasound, and it turns out that the person fell ill for a long time, and with the latest events he only provoked an exacerbation.

Taking tests in men is a painful procedure, is there a painless alternative?

There is an alternative. Urethral swabs are unpleasant but not fatal. Previously, the biomaterial was taken with a long metal probe, sometimes with silver, after which the soreness and burning sensation persisted for several days. Now the situation is different. And, since men are most often afraid to take even smears for infections, more comfortable diagnostic methods have appeared for them. It is enough to pass the very first morning urine sample for PCR analysis.No pain or discomfort. Now the question of identifying hidden infections is only in the desire to be healthy. Collecting your morning urine sample in a container is not so difficult, but you can bring it to the clinic on the way to work.

How to prepare for the collection of tests to ensure that infections, if any, are detected?

You don’t need any serious preparation. Previously, it was advised to drink beer the day before to provoke the process. But now it has been proven that this is not necessary. It is enough if on the eve of the study there was sexual abstinence, and if PCR is taken by urine analysis, then this should be the very first morning portion.Morning hygiene should also be ruled out. The most important thing is not to drink any antibiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs for the next two weeks before the study. Even Nice can blur the picture. As well as low-quality chicken with a high antibiotic content in the feed. I have had cases that a man drank alcohol with garlic, ginger and pepper on the eve of the study and received a false negative result. To summarize: before the study, you need to exclude products containing antibiotics and GMOs for 10 days, exclude immunostimulants, alcohol, abstain from sex on the eve of the study and pass the first portion of urine for PCR or come for a smear from the urethra.

Well, and most importantly, at the first signs, and preferably almost immediately after unprotected sex, consult a doctor you trust to conduct a competent diagnosis and prescribe an adequate treatment. Do not diagnose yourself on your own and on the advice of forums and friends. Stop hoping for a chance and a magic pill. Only a doctor can choose the right dosage and combination of drugs for you, send you to an outpatient clinic, to droppers and ILBIs, or choose the frequency and intensity of physiotherapy.Moreover, new effective methods have appeared: ultrasound, magnets, BTL shock wave therapy.

We already talked about these methods earlier (read on the topic), but I will remind you. Very often, men refuse to go to the urologist because of fear, for example, of finger massage of the prostate. But this is the last century. In the West, this method has long been abandoned in favor of Shock Wave Therapy. The effect is similar, but the patient has no discomfort. During the procedure, bacteria and their waste products are removed along with the juice of the prostate, purulent masses are removed in complex inflammations, stagnation of blood supply is eliminated, which improves the flow of nutrients and oxygen into the prostate gland.In addition, inflammation can provoke edema. To remove edema and help the body in assimilating drugs, it is recommended to undergo a course of 6-12 procedures. But, of course, only a doctor can prescribe them, taking into account the indications and contraindications for the patient.

Don’t get sick! Find a doctor you can trust!

Thrush with chlamydia: symptoms, treatment, what is dangerous

Everyone can face such diseases as chlamydia and thrush. Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease.The fungus Sandida lives in every person and is a conditionally pathogenic organism. Both are waiting for the right moment to take action. It is not easy to cure these two diseases, but if you follow the doctor’s recommendations, follow all the prescriptions and clearly understand what you are faced with, it is possible.

The main thing to remember is that it is impossible to cure chlamydia and thrush with the same drug.

What is chlamydia and thrush

Chlamydia

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease.The causative agent is the intracellular microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis, which is similar to both a virus and a bacterium at the same time. Chlamydia is united with the virus by the way of existence – they parasitize cells and are completely dependent on its energy resources. The cell membrane is a common chlamydia with bacteria. This property is decisive in the way to fight infection – the use of antibiotics. The direction of movement to the epithelium of the organs of the genitourinary system, the mucous membrane of the eyes is characteristic of these microorganisms.Infection occurs:

  • sexually;
  • from mother to child during childbirth;
  • by contact-household way, which is due to the ability of chlamydia to survive at a temperature of 18-19 C for 48 hours.

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Thrush

Taking antibiotics can provoke the growth of fungal microorganisms.

Thrush (candidiasis) is a fungal infection caused by increased growth of the yeast-like fungus Candida. This fungus is part of the microflora of the mucous membranes of a healthy person – mouth, intestines, vagina.When the body is weakened, and this can be caused by hormonal disruptions, the need to take antibiotics, stressful situations, or when a healthy person abuses sweet products, loves beer, the disease begins to progress.

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What symptoms can unite diseases?

Both diseases are united by itching and burning in the external genital area, painful urination. Discharges in chlamydia differ in structure – they are more viscous, purulent impurities are possible.For thrush, cheesy discharge with a characteristic sour smell is characteristic. For ease of comparison, information on diseases is presented in the table.

Parameters Chlamydia Thrush
Causative agent Chlamydia trachomatis Sandida fungus
Symptoms
  • urination

    • urination, itching 9014 abdomen,

    • painful menstruation,
    • discharge purulent-mucous, mucous.
  • burning,
  • itching,
  • pain during intercourse,
  • cheesy discharge.
Methods of detection Scraping by PCR General smear analysis
Treatment Antibiotics Antifungal drugs

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How are diseases related?

Chronic infections against a background of decreased immunity provoke thrush.

Both candidiasis and chlamydia most often affects the genitals of a person. Despite the fact that chlamydia and fungi belong to different types and require different treatment (antibiotics and antifungal drugs, respectively), they are often interrelated. Often the cause of the development of thrush is a chronic infectious disease – chlamydia or ureaplasmosis. The body fights infection, immunity weakens, so thrush appears. Or, during the treatment of an infectious disease, after taking antibiotics, the fungus begins to multiply intensively.

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How are diseases distinguished?

If there are complaints of itching and burning in the area of ​​the external genital organs, the attending physician takes a swab to determine the source of infection. Bacterioscopy allows you to identify the most common infections with colpitis – fungi, Trichomonas, gonococci. It is necessary to examine the smear for possible infections at the same time, since one disease often accompanies another. If the secretions contain a large number of leukocytes, the PCR study is not performed, since the results become unreliable.In case of detection of a fungus, antifungal therapy is performed.

Serious reason to carry out DNA diagnostics:

  • thrush treatment did not work;
  • discharge with itching and burning continues to bother;
  • pain in the lower abdomen joined the symptoms;
  • the temperature lasts a little more than 37 C for several days,

Polymerase chain reaction gives a 100% guarantee of the reliability of the result.

This method allows you to find the source of the disease, which is hidden in tissue cells, including chlamydia.Therefore, the analysis requires not a smear, but a scraping of cells. Re-analysis is carried out one month after the therapy. Unfortunately, sometimes it is necessary to carry out several courses of treatment.

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Why are these diseases dangerous?

The infant becomes infected through the birth canal.

Both diseases are dangerous for the expectant mother and her child, first of all, the threat of premature birth. There is a risk of infection of the baby while passing through the birth canal. Untreated candidiasis can spread to nearby organs (bladder, intestines) and cause cystitis, colitis.The damaged vaginal mucosa becomes susceptible to other infections. In addition, sexual intercourse is painful. Chlamydia, which is almost asymptomatic, can cause inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis of a woman – endometritis, salpingitis, lead to the formation of adhesions and erosions. In a man, chlamydia causes a narrowing of the urethra, which requires surgery. Often it is this pathogen that is the cause of infertility in both men and women.

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Treatment of diseases

For chlamydia and thrush, both partners are treated.During treatment, it is recommended to use a condom during intercourse. The intake of alcohol and dairy products is limited. As a therapy and prevention of thrush, it is recommended to refrain from eating simple carbohydrates, sugar, not to eat sweet fruits and berries (grapes, bananas, watermelon, apples), and not to drink carbonated sweet drinks.

The treatment regimen for chlamydia is prescribed by the attending physician. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks. Recommended intake:

  • antibiotic – “Azithromycin” once or “Doxycycline” for 7 days;
  • antifungal drugs – Fluconazole, Nystatin, Natamycin;
  • immunomodulator – “Interferon”.

Vaginal candidiasis is treated with antifungal drugs. The form of release of antimycotic drugs based on natamycin, fluconazole, nystatin: cream, ointment, suppositories, suppositories, tablets (“Pimafucin”, “Livarol”). During treatment, they adhere to a diet that restricts the use of sugary foods, alcohol, and yeast products. After the therapy, it is recommended to take probiotics that contribute to the improvement of microflora (“Ginoflor”, “Atsilakt”).