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Trapped Wind (Gas & Bloating) Symptoms, causes and treatment

See also the separate leaflet called Abdominal Pain.

What is wind, gas and bloating?

Diagram naming the parts of the gut

There is always a certain amount of gas in the bowel. Most of this comes from air swallowed whilst you are eating or drinking. It can also happen during smoking or when swallowing saliva. Larger amounts can be swallowed when you eat quickly, gulp down a drink or chew gum. The swallowed air goes down into the gullet (the oesophagus).

If you are sitting up, the air tends to go back up the oesophagus and escapes again through the mouth in the process of belching. If you are lying flat, the air tends to pass downwards causing gas in the stomach. This can result in bloating after eating and a hard, swollen tummy. The gas eventually enters the small bowel (small intestine) and escapes through the back passage (anus). People often refer to this as ‘farting’ or, more politely, ‘passing wind’ or flatulence.

Gas can also be produced due to germs (bacteria) acting on partially digested food in the gut. This is more likely to happen with some foods than others. Broccoli, baked beans and Brussels sprouts are well-known culprits. The number of germs in the bowel also has an effect on the volume of gas produced. The gas that is made is mainly composed of carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. It may contain traces of a chemical called sulfur. This is responsible for the unpleasant smell experienced when you pass wind through the back passage.

Abdominal bloating is the term used when the tummy feels blown out, tight or full of gas. It results in a swollen stomach and the waistband of a skirt or a pair of trousers may feel uncomfortable. You may experience crampy tummy pains.

Gas and bloating symptoms

Gas-related symptoms include burping excessively, passing a lot of wind from the back passage, crampy stomach pains and a bloated belly. Gas sometimes settles in the curves of the large bowel (large intestine) under the liver or spleen. This can cause pain in the upper right or upper left areas of your tummy.

Most people who are bothered by these types of symptoms do not actually produce more gas than usual, they are just more sensitive to normal amounts. However, it is now considered that some patients with irritable bowel syndrome do produce larger than normal volumes of gas. Irritable bowel syndrome is a condition in which bouts of tummy pain are associated with bloating and changes in bowel habit such as constipation and diarrhoea. See the separate leaflet called Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Just to complicate matters further, the amount of bloating does not relate to the seriousness of the cause. People with irritable bowel syndrome may complain of severe bloating, whilst in those with coeliac disease the bloating may be mild, moderate or severe.

What causes wind, gas and bloating?

Everybody has gas-related symptoms from time to time. In most cases, this is part of the natural working of the body and the symptoms soon pass. Some people complain they are feeling bloated all the time. As mentioned above, people are occasionally sensitive to normal amounts of gas in the tummy. The reasons for this are not entirely clear.

There are some conditions associated with larger than normal amounts of gas in the tummy:

Swallowing too much air

This is called aerophagia. You may not be aware of it but you may be swallowing air frequently or in large amounts. This often happens in people who are under stress. It can be aggravated by chewing gum and smoking. Usually, air swallowed in this way passes into the gullet (oesophagus) and down into the stomach.

However, sometimes air is sucked into the back of the throat (the pharynx) and is burped out before it reaches the oesophagus. This is known as supragastric belching.

Some people swallow air deliberately to cause belching, as they find this helps to relieve symptoms of indigestion.


Foods which are well known to cause excessive wind in the gut include:

  • Broccoli.
  • Brussels sprouts.
  • Starchy foods such as potatoes, corn and noodles.
  • Foods high in soluble fibre (eg, fruit, peas and beans).

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance happens when your body has difficulty digesting lactose. Lactose is present in milk and foods which are made with milk. Lactose intolerance causes diarrhoea, tummy pains and bloating. See the separate leaflet called Lactose Intolerance.

Intolerance to food sugars

Intolerance to sugars in certain foods can occur. Fructose intolerance is the most common. Foods high in fructose include dried fruit, honey, sucrose, onions and artichokes. Sorbitol is another sugar to which you can be intolerant. It is found in chewing gum and ‘sugar-free’ sweets.


Check the leaflet of any medicines you are taking, as wind, gas or bloating can be side-effects. Metformin (a medicine for diabetes) and lactulose (a laxative) are well known to cause these symptoms. Antacids such as magnesium trisilicate help to combat indigestion but they can increase the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the stomach, and aggravate belching.

Diseases causing increased gas

Most people with gas-related symptoms have increased sensitivity to gas or have one of the causes of increased gas production mentioned above. However, occasionally these symptoms can be caused by diseases of the bowel. Sometimes, the illness can be short-lived. For example, acute gastroenteritis (also known as a ‘tummy bug’), often caused by infection with a virus, can result in a short-term condition associated with increased gas.

Occasionally, gas-related symptoms can be features of long-term diseases. All of them can cause at least one gas-related symptom (ie tummy pain, excess wind or bloating).

Examples include:

Coeliac disease
Coeliac disease is caused by intolerance to a protein called gluten which is found in certain foods containing wheat, barley and rye. It principally affects the part of the gut called the small intestine. It can occur at any age. Symptoms are relieved by avoiding gluten-containing foods. See the separate leaflet called Coeliac Disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases
The most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis is a disease in which inflammation develops in the colon and the rectum (the large intestine). Crohn’s disease is a condition that causes inflammation of the wall of the gut (gastrointestinal tract). Any part of the gut can be affected. The main symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases are tummy pains and diarrhoea, but bloating and other gas-related symptoms can develop. The causes of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are not known. However, both conditions have genetic factors and it is thought that people who develop inflammatory bowel diseases are prone to react to infection with germs by producing an immune reaction in their bowel lining.

Diverticulitis occurs when small pouches in the wall of the large bowel (‘diverticula’) become infected. See the separate leaflet called Diverticula (Diverticulosis, Diverticular Disease, Diverticulitis).

Short bowel syndrome
Short bowel syndrome can be a complication of bowel surgery. If more than half the small bowel is removed during surgery this can cause difficulties in food absorption.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is a poorly understood condition which is caused by an overgrowth of germs in the small intestine. It can be an aftermath of bowel surgery, and also occurs more frequently in people with diabetes, inflammatory diseases of the bowel and diverticulosis. It may be associated with irritable bowel syndrome and can cause the same sort of symptoms, particularly bloating. Indeed, it is thought that some cases of irritable bowel syndrome may be caused by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is sometimes treated with antibiotics such as metronidazole.

Scleroderma is a condition which causes thickening of the skin and sometimes the internal organs. When the gut is affected it can cause problems in stomach emptying and irregularity of bowel movement. This can lead to bloating, constipation and diarrhoea. See the separate leaflet called Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis).

Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is mentioned here because, although cancer of the ovary is not a disease of the bowel, it can cause symptoms which can be confused with bowel disease. These can include feeling full quickly or loss of appetite, tummy pains and bloating. See the separate leaflet called Ovarian Cancer.

This is caused by infection with a germ called giardia. One of the symptoms is belching up foul-smelling gas.

Do I need any tests for wind, gas and bloating?

Most people with these symptoms do not need any tests. However, you may need tests if you have more worrying symptoms. These can include:

The tests may include:

How to reduce bloating, wind, and gas

People often ask how to stop bloating and how to get rid of a bloated stomach. There are several options available that will help with excessive flatulence and constant bloating.

Changes to your diet

  • It is known that there are some foods that make you bloated. Cutting down on these triggers will promote bloating relief. Keep a record of what you eat and drink to see if there are any foods or beverages which could be associated with your symptoms. These can include milk and milk products, certain fruits and vegetables, whole grains, artificial sweeteners and fizzy drinks. Pulses, bran and fruit contain fermentable carbohydrates, sugars which are easily broken down by the digestive system. Not only do fermentable carbohydrates cause excess gas, but they also work with germs to cause tooth decay. Reducing your intake of the fermentable carbohydrates found in sugary foods can result in several health benefits.
  • If you are lactose-intolerant you will need to avoid lactose-containing foods. Your doctor will advise how best to do this without developing complications such as calcium and mineral deficiency.
  • If you are fructose-intolerant you should avoid fructose-containing foods. Fructose is used as a sweetener in many processed foods; look for ‘high in fructose corn syrup’ on the label.
  • Live micro-organisms (probiotics) may be helpful, although the evidence is not conclusive. Probiotics are ‘gut-friendly’ germs (bacteria) such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The specific strain of bacteria may be important but, on current evidence, it is difficult to advise which strain(s) to use.
  • Diets which combat constipation may be helpful. For example, soluble fibre such as linseed (up to one tablespoon daily) and oats are recommended.


Exercise has been shown to improve gas-related symptoms. This is partly due to the upright position, as lying flat tends to stop gas from moving round the body.

One word of warning: excessive flatulence and belching are common in female runners. The cause for this is unknown.

Over-the-counter medicines

Simeticone is worth a try as a medication for bloating, as it is said to break up gas bubbles. There is, however, no convincing evidence in the scientific literature to support its use. It is usually sold in combination with an antacid.

Charcoal preparations, which are meant to absorb gas, may also be tried. There is some scientific evidence that they are useful as bloating remedies.

However, neither simeticone nor charcoal preparations have been found to be helpful in bloating related to irritable bowel syndrome.

Medicines which encourage the movement of the gut (prokinetic medicines) can assist with bloating relief. They can be quite helpful as bloated stomach remedies if you have excessive belching and bloating. Most of these are prescription-only preparations but peppermint can be bought in various forms.

Medicines which relieve spasm may also be helpful for bloating and distension. Medicines in this group, available without prescription, include mebeverine and alverine.

Bismuth subsalicylate has been shown to reduce the smell of gas passed through the back passage (anus). However, it should not be taken regularly due to side-effects. It is best reserved for occasional use – eg, social occasions.

Deodorising products

Carbon fibre underwear appears to be effective but is expensive. Charcoal pads and cushions are cheaper but may not be as effective.

Psychological therapies

These may be useful for people who have a low tolerance to a normal amount of gas in the stomach. Therapies which may help include mindful awareness and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Psychological therapies may also be helpful for people who have excessive belching, particularly where aerophagy is the cause. Aerophagy can also sometimes be helped by a speech therapist.

Stomach pain symptoms, causes and treatments

From diarrhoea to indigestion, gastrointestinal problems are a normal part of life and most of us suffer from tummy pain at one time or another. But when is belly ache just something you ate and when is it more serious?

GP Dr Roger Henderson identifies the seven most common types of tummy pain, including symptoms, causes and treatment tips:

1. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is defined by the presence of a group of symptoms which are present over a period of time, and affects around 1 in 5 of the population at some point in their lives.

‘IBS is a painful long-term condition which can have a big impact on day-to-day life,’ says Dr Henderson. ‘It’s important to understand your triggers and how to deal with a flare-up so you can manage symptoms effectively.’

• IBS symptoms

Abdominal pain and discomfort, diarrhoea, constipation as well as bloating of the abdomen.

• IBS causes

The cramping pain and discomfort of IBS is caused by muscle spasms in the bowel. Experts don’t know exactly why the condition develops, although they do agree that there are some things that can trigger symptoms and make them worse. Triggers for IBS vary between individuals but stress, dietary factors and some medicines are the common triggers, often in combination.

• IBS treatments

To ease IBS pain, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

  • For some people eating smaller, more frequent meals can help as well as limiting your intake of alcohol, caffeine and foods high in fat.
  • Exercising for at least 20 minutes a day will not only help to keep your stress levels down but also keep the bowels moving normally.
  • It’s also advisable to have an over-the counter remedy such as an antispasmodic to hand just in case symptoms become particularly painful.
  • Antispasmodics, like Buscopan IBS Relief, can be taken at the first sign of a flare up and quickly work to ease spasms in the intestines at the root cause of pain – other painkillers are less effective at targeting this type of pain.

    2. Trapped wind

    Trapped wind is a common tummy complaint, often caused by eating certain foods.

    • Trapped wind symptoms

    The typical symptoms of trapped wind in the bowels include stomach cramps, burping, bloating, flatulence, nausea, vomiting and pain when bending over, lying down or with physical exercise.

    • Trapped wind causes

    It is normal to have gas in your intestine and we all produce several litres of gas a day through the normal processes of digestion. Some of this is reabsorbed into the bloodstream and eventually breathed out, with the remainder being expelled as wind.

    One possible cause of excess gas may be swallowing too much air when eating, drinking or talking. Certain foods and fizzy drinks can also contribute to this. Smoking can also make you swallow more air and some people also swallow air as a nervous reaction.

    Excess gas can also be caused by bacteria in the colon producing too much gas when they break down food. Foods containing complex carbohydrates, for example vegetables such as beans, cabbages and Brussels sprouts, are difficult for the human body to digest and are broken down by gas-producing bacteria instead. Foods that contain sorbitol, an artificial sweetener, can lead to similar problems.

    • Trapped wind treatments

    To ease trapped wind symptoms, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

    • Cut down on foods known to cause wind and bloating such as beans, onions, broccoli, cabbage, sprouts and cauliflower but make sure you still eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
    • Try avoiding high fat foods and eggs as these can produce bad smelling gas as well as refined and sugary foods, especially those containing the artificial sweetener sorbitol.
    • Keep hot spicy food to a minimum, particularly if you are not used to it.
    • Try not to swallow too much air.
    • Don’t talk and eat at the same time, sit down to eat (sitting upright and not slumped over), stop chewing gum and chew with your mouth closed.
    • You should also try to reduce the amount of fizzy drinks you consume and avoid drinking from a straw as this can make you swallow air.
    • You should also avoid sitting for long periods.
    • If you’re sitting at work, take regular breaks (at least every hour) to stretch the legs and abdomen.
    • Try to take regular exercise to help improve your digestion, for example, it may help to go for a short walk after eating in order to move gas around.
    • Gently, but firmly, massage the abdomen from right to left to release any trapped wind.

      3. Constipation

      Constipation is largely due to your diet, but it also has psychological, physical, emotional and hormonal components, so it’s worth making an appointment with your GP.

      • Constipation symptoms

      The symptoms of constipation are infrequent bowel movements, hard, dry stools, difficulty or pain when defecating and swelling of the abdomen.

      • Constipation causes

      The cause of constipation can be down to diet. Not eating enough fibre such as fruit and vegetables and not drinking enough water can contribute to the condition. With a change in lifestyle, often comes a change in eating habits, which may be causing problems. Certain medications can have side effects which include constipation and it can also be a result of anxiety or depression.

      • Constipation treatments

      To ease constipation discomfort, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

      • Try to eat foods high in fibre, including raw fruit and veg, pulses and whole grains.
      • If you’re experiencing symptoms of constipation, eating oranges at least once a day may be helpful as the citric acid they contain is a natural laxative.
      • Drink at least eight glasses of water or juice a day and exercise regularly.
      • Whenever possible go to the lavatory as soon as the urge strikes, or take a laxative if necessary.

        4. Crohn’s disease

        Crohn’s disease is a condition that causes the lining of the digestive system to become inflamed.

        • Crohn’s disease symptoms

        The symptoms include unintended weight loss, blood and mucus in stools, abdominal pain, diarrhoea and extreme fatigue. If there is a problem within the immune system, this could cause the body to attack healthy bacteria in the gut. An infection may trigger a similar response from the immune system.

        • Crohn’s disease causes

        Genetics and the environment (Crohn’s is more common in westernised countries such as the UK) have also been linked to the disease.

        • Crohn’s disease treatments

        To ease Crohn’s disease symptoms, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

        • The treatment for Crohn’s comes in the form of medication which aims to reduce the inflammation and treat the symptoms.
        • Many people with Crohn’s find that dairy can make symptoms worse so avoiding this may reduce them.
        • Aloe Vera has anti-inflammatory properties and some find this can help ease the symptoms when taken on a regular basis.
        • Stress may exacerbate symptoms too so limiting stress and adopting relaxation techniques may also help.

          5. Coeliac disease

          Coeliac disease is a well-defined, serious illness where the body’s immune system attacks itself when gluten is eaten. This causes damage to the lining of the gut and means that the body cannot properly absorb nutrients from food.

          • Coeliac disease symptoms

          The symptoms of coeliac can present as mild or severe and most often include diarrhoea, making it very difficult to separate from other tummy issues.

          • Coeliac disease causes

          Coeliac disease is not a food allergy or intolerance, it is an autoimmune disease.

          • Coeliac disease treatments

          To ease coeliac disease symptoms, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

          ‘The most common symptom of coeliac disease is diarrhoea, caused by the body not being able to fully absorb nutrients known as malabsorption,’ says Dr Henderson.

          ‘This can result in stools containing high levels of fat, make them foul smelling, greasy and frothy. Unfortunately there is no cure for coeliac disease yet, but switching to a gluten-free diet will reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent serious complications in the future.

          6. Gastroenteritis

          Gastroenteritis vomiting bug can be a very unpleasant sickness and diarrhoea bug, but try to avoid seeing your GP as it’s extremely contagious.

          • Gastroenteritis symptoms

          The main symptoms of gastroenteritis are sudden, watery diarrhoea, feeling sick, vomiting, and a mild fever. Some people also have other symptoms such as a loss of appetite, an upset stomach, aching limbs and headaches. Symptoms typically appear up to a day after becoming infected and can last a few days but can sometimes last longer.

          • Gastroenteritis causes

          The most common cause is a viral infection such as with the norovirus and adenovirus. Food poisoning can also cause it, such as food infected with Campylobacter, Salmonella and E. Coli. Meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, shellfish and parboiled rice are the most commonly affected.

          • Gastroenteritis treatments

          To ease gastroenteritis discomfort, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

          • Wash your hands and the surfaces you come into contact with regularly as it’s likely to spread to those around you.
          • If you are concerned or need advice call NHS 111 or your GP surgery.
          • Otherwise with plenty of fluids and rest it should clear up on its own within a week.

            7. Stomach ulcer

            An ulcer is potentially dangerous so it’s important to look out for the warning signs. These include difficulty swallowing or regurgitation, persistent nausea and vomiting, vomiting blood or vomit with the appearance of ‘coffee grounds’, black or tar-like stools, unintended weight loss, anaemia (paleness and fatigue) and sudden, severe and incapacitating abdominal pains. If any of these occur, seek medical advice.

            • Stomach ulcer symptoms

            A stomach ulcer is very different from a stomach ache so the two should not be confused. Symptoms of a stomach ulcer can vary greatly from person to person. Many people never realise that they have an ulcer, others feel pain or a burning sensation in their upper abdomen.

            The symptoms are often described as indigestion, heartburn, hunger pangs or dyspepsia. Some sufferers find that eating actually helps settle their discomfort for a while, others find it makes them worse. Citrus drinks and fruit and spicy or smoked foods can all make the pain worse.

            • Stomach ulcer causes

            Until the 1980s it was often thought that stress and spicy food directly caused ulcers but it is now known that almost all patients with ulcers have a bacterial infection of the stomach called Helicobacter pylori. Other causes include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin or ibuprofen, smoking and heavy alcohol intake.

            • Stomach ulcer treatments

            To ease stomach ulcer symptoms, Dr Henderson recommends the following:

            • Stop smoking.
            • Take paracetamol instead of aspirin.
            • Reduce your alcohol intake and try to keep stress levels to a minimum.
            • Avoid taking non-steroidal tablets (NSAIDs) for arthritis or pain control whenever possible.

              Last updated 25-10-19

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              Causes, Symptoms, Management & Prevention


              What is intestinal gas?

              Intestinal gas is a mix of odorless vapors, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen and methane. This gas forms in the digestive system. When these vapors mix with intestinal bacteria, an unpleasant sulfur odor can develop.

              Your body releases gas through the mouth (belching) or rectum (flatulence). Sometimes gas gets trapped in the stomach. This gas buildup causes abdominal pain and bloating (a swollen or tight feeling).

              How common is intestinal gas?

              Intestinal gas is a fact of life — a natural result of food digestion. Everyone feels gassy now and then. Studies suggest that most people pass gas (fart) up to 21 times per day.

              Symptoms and Causes

              What causes intestinal gas?

              Causes of intestinal gas include:

              • Food digestion: Your small intestines lack certain enzymes needed to digest and absorb carbohydrates (sugars) in sweet, starchy and fibrous foods. This undigested food passes into the large intestine, where harmless bacteria break down the food, forming hydrogen and carbon dioxide gases. In some people, intestinal bacteria produce methane gas, too. This process is responsible for most gas passed in flatulence.
              • Swallowing air: You swallow air (containing oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide) without even noticing while eating, drinking, chewing gum or smoking. You can also swallow too much air if you have loose-fitting dentures. Most people expel swallowed air through the mouth by belching (burping). But your intestines partially absorb some air, which you pass when you fart.

              Who might get intestinal gas?

              Excess gas can make your stomach feel swollen or bloated. You may pass flatulence (sometimes foul smelling). Though uncomfortable, excess gas is rarely a concern. Things that make you produce too much gas include:

              • Behavioral factors, such as swallowing air while chewing, drinking and talking.
              • Dietary choices, such as consuming too many gas-producing foods (beans, potatoes, corn, onions, apples and high-fiber products).
              • Digestive problems, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lactose intolerance and celiac disease.
              • Intestinal infections, such as giardiasis, that cause an overgrowth of intestinal bacteria.
              • Medications or motility disorders that slow the bowels, such as IBS, diabetes and scleroderma.

              What are the symptoms of intestinal gas?

              Gas symptoms vary depending on the cause. Some typical symptoms of intestinal gas are:

              • Belching (burping).
              • Bloating.
              • Flatulence (farting).

              What are the signs of an intestinal gas problem?

              You should contact your healthcare provider if you experience gas along with:

              Diagnosis and Tests

              How is intestinal gas diagnosed?

              Your healthcare provider may ask you to keep a food diary for a week or more to see if certain foods or drinks make you gassy. Because excessive gas can be a sign of a health problem, you may need one or more of these tests:

              • Blood tests: These tests detect certain conditions like celiac disease that cause gas.
              • Breath test: A hydrogen breath test identifies lactose intolerance or abnormal bacterial growth in the intestine.
              • Colon screening: A flexible sigmoidoscopy lets your provider view the lower part of your colon and rectum (lower intestine). With a colonoscopy, the provider views all of the large intestine. These tests help identify digestive disorders like Crohn’s disease as well as colon cancer.
              • Food elimination: Your healthcare provider may suggest removing certain foods to see if gas symptoms improve. For example, if you’re less gassy after cutting out dairy, you might be lactose intolerant — unable to break down lactose, a sugar in milk.
              • Gastrointestinal (GI) tract exam: If you belch a lot, your provider may perform a gastrointestinal exam called an upper GI test or barium swallow. You swallow a solution that coats the esophagus, stomach and part of the small intestine with barium for easier viewing on X-rays.

              Management and Treatment

              How is intestinal gas managed or treated?

              By treating a health condition that causes excessive gas, you can enjoy better health. For occasional gas, your healthcare provider might suggest one of these over-the-counter products:

              • Alpha-galactosidase (Beano®), an enzyme to break down hard-to-digest foods.
              • Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol®) for adults with upset stomach and diarrhea.
              • Lactase enzymes (Lactaid®) for lactose intolerance (a problem digesting milk sugars).
              • Probiotics (Culturelle®) to get rid of bad gut bacteria.
              • Simethicone (Gas-X®, Mylanta®) to reduce intestinal gas buildup that causes bloating.

              Prescription medications may help if you have a motility problem like IBS. Antibiotics can treat bacterial overgrowth in the intestines that cause excess gas and bloating.

              What are the complications of intestinal gas?

              Extra gas can cause pain, discomfort and embarrassment, but it’s usually not a serious health problem. Gas buildup can sometimes feel more worrisome, though. Gas on the left side of the colon can cause chest pain that you might mistake for a heart attack. Gas buildup on the right side can mimic pain from gallstones or appendicitis. A health professional should check out these symptoms for any concerning underlying cause.


              How can I prevent intestinal gas?

              Most foods containing carbohydrates can cause gas. A food diary can help you determine which foods make you gassy. But don’t cut out too many things. Many vegetables, fruits, dairy products, wheat products and beans cause gas, but they’re also very good for you.

              To reduce your body’s gas production, you can:

              • Chew slowly, and don’t talk while eating.
              • Cut back on carbonated beverages, chewing gum and hard candies.
              • Drink through a straw.
              • Limit certain sugars, including fructose, sucrose, sorbitol and raffinose.
              • Stop smoking.

              Living With

              When should I call the doctor?

              You should call your healthcare provider if you experience:

              • Chest pain or signs of heart attack.
              • Gastrointestinal discomfort not associated with eating.
              • Severe abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation.
              • Tarry, black stool or rectal bleeding.
              • Unexplained weight loss.

              What questions should I ask my doctor?

              You may want to ask your healthcare provider:

              • Could a medical condition be making me gassy?
              • What tests can determine the cause of intestinal gas?
              • What steps can I take to cut down on intestinal gas?
              • What foods or drinks should I avoid?
              • What’s the best treatment for my gas symptom?
              • How can I tell the difference between gas and something more serious?
              • Should I look out for signs of complications?

              A note from Cleveland Clinic

              While intestinal gas is common, the symptoms — belching, flatulence, bloating and stomach discomfort — can be embarrassing and even painful. Gas is sometimes a symptom of a more serious health problem. Talk to your healthcare provider about your concerns. The right treatment can ease gas symptoms so you can go about your day in confidence.

              This Is What Your Excessive or Foul-Smelling Gas Could Mean

              If there is one subject few people discuss, passing gas just might be it. Don’t let your embarrassment keep you from staying healthy.

              Intestinal gas is completely normal, and it goes unnoticed until it is passed through your mouth as a burp or your rectum as flatulence. The problem is when passing gas becomes excessive or overly foul-smelling. How can you tell if gas is just an inconvenience or a sign that something more serious is happening?

              Does your gas occur after eating?

              There are many common foods that may produce gas. These include beans, sodas and other carbonated drinks, sugar substitutes such as sorbitol and other artificial sweeteners, milk and dairy products, cabbage, bran, cauliflower and broccoli. For some people, having gas after eating these foods is perfectly normal. On the other hand, if your gas is particularly bad after eating foods such as these, you may have irritable bowel syndrome.

              Do you bloat and pass gas after eating foods with wheat, barley or rye?

              It could signal a more serious condition called celiac disease, an immune reaction that, over time, damages the lining of your small intestine and keeps nutrients from being absorbed into the body.

              According to the Celiac Disease Foundation, 2.5 million Americans go undiagnosed and may be at risk for long-term health complications, such as the development of other conditions, including type I diabetes, dermatitis herpetiformis (itchy skin rash), anemia, osteoporosis, infertility and miscarriage, migraines and intestinal cancers.

              Is your gas worse after eating foods with dairy products?

              People with lactose intolerance may experience diarrhea, gas, abdominal cramping, bloating and nausea from 30 minutes to several hours after eating food containing lactose. Most symptoms of lactose intolerance can be managed by limiting or avoiding the consumption of products with lactose. Tablets or drops that help manage symptoms are also available, but they may not be recommended for all patients, including small children and pregnant and breastfeeding women. Your doctor can help you determine which dietary changes and treatment options may be best for you.

              Have you had stomach surgery?

              If you have had bariatric surgery, it could be that your gas is a symptom of a malfunction in the way your stomach is emptying waste into the small intestine. This condition is called dumping syndrome. It occurs when waste is rapidly flushed from the stomach into the duodenum — either too early or too late — after eating. Nausea, excessive gas, severe cramping, sweating, dizziness, diarrhea, bloating and an irregular heartbeat are some of the symptoms of dumping syndrome.

              For any of these concerns, it’s important that you visit your doctor to discuss your symptoms and possible treatments. Waiting might only make your condition worse.

              by Heidi Tyline King

              Do you have questions or concerns about bowel health? The experts at Keck Medicine of USC can help. If you’re in Southern California, request an appointment or call (800) USC-CARE (800-872-2273).

              Underlying causes of abdominal pain – when a medical emergency

              Key facts

              • Abdominal pain can have many different underlying causes.
              • Sudden and severe abdominal pain is a medical emergency and you requires immediate help.
              • Mild to moderate abdominal pain may only last for a few hours or a few days and can clear up without the need for treatment.
              • Children often experience stomach or abdominal pain, which may not have a physical cause.
              • Older people are more likely to have abdominal pain with atypical symptoms.

              On this page

              What causes abdominal pain?

              There are many underlying causes of abdominal pain. Some of these are short-term (acute) causes that aren’t serious — the symptoms may last only hours or days, and may clear up by themselves. Others are longer lasting and may be more serious.

              There are also causes of abdominal pain that require urgent medical attention and may be life-threatening.

              Some causes of abdominal pain are more common — or less likely — in certain age groups or genders.

              Children often get stomach or abdominal pain. Some of the most common causes are gastroenteritis, wind or indigestion. Some causes of abdominal pain apply mainly to children, such as colic, intussusception, and testicular torsion. For more information on these, see abdominal pain in children.

              Women may experience abdominal pain associated with their periods, pregnancy or problems with their urinary or reproductive system.

              Older people are more likely than younger people to have abdominal pain due to heart or lung problems, bowel obstruction, or conditions such as diverticulitis or gallstones.

              CHECK YOUR SYMPTOMS — Use the abdominal pain Symptom Checker and find out if you need to seek medical help.

              What causes sudden and severe abdominal pain?

              Sudden and severe abdominal pain should never be ignored. Steadily worsening abdominal pain may also be a sign of a serious condition.

              If you have these symptoms, go immediately to your nearest hospital emergency department or call triple zero (000) and ask for an ambulance.

              Some of the causes of serious abdominal pain include:


              Appendicitis causes a dull pain that starts around the belly button area. It normally travels to the lower right of the abdomen where it is felt as a sharp pain. Other symptoms of appendicitis include a loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever and chills.

              If left untreated the appendix can become swollen and infected and then it may burst. Urgent surgery is usually the treatment required for appendicitis.

              Bowel obstruction

              Bowel obstruction can be partial or complete. Most bowel obstructions are in the small bowel, the section between your stomach and your large intestine.

              Bowel obstructions cause bloating and abdominal pain. The pain may be cramping or colicky, so it starts suddenly and comes and goes in waves. You may not be able to poo or fart (pass gas/wind). If the blockage is only partial, you may have diarrhoea. You may also feel sick (nausea) and have lost your appetite.

              You might need surgery, depending on your situation.


              If gallstones block a bile duct they can cause pain known as biliary colic.

              Biliary colic pain is felt on the upper right side of the abdomen, under the ribs. The pain is often severe and comes in waves that usually last between 30 minutes and 2 hours. It is often accompanied by nausea.

              You may need to have your gallbladder removed surgically. This operation is called a cholecystectomy and is often done using keyhole surgery (laparoscopic surgery).

              Kidney stones

              Many small kidney stones are passed to the bladder without any problems. But large kidney stones may become stuck in the ureter, causing a blockage that stops the flow of urine out of the kidney. This can cause a sudden pain called renal colic, which starts as a gripping pain in your back, just below your ribs. The pain may move around to your abdomen at the front of your body, or to your groin. The pain may come and go in waves.

              You may also have fever or shivers, an urge to urinate, or blood in your urine. Kidney stones are more common in older people.

              Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)

              An aneurysm is an abnormal enlarged area in a blood vessel, where the walls of the blood vessel have become weak and allowed it to bulge out. If the aneurysm ruptures it causes sudden, severe and persistent abdominal or back pain. This is a life-threatening emergency. These aneurysms happen mostly in older people.

              Other symptoms of AAA are feeling faint, nausea and vomiting.

              Heart attack

              In addition to chest and arm pain radiating to the jaw or back, heart attacks can also cause indigestion, nausea and abdominal pain. Women, especially, may experience these other symptoms.

              Pregnancy problems

              Severe abdominal pain in pregnancy could be due to one of the causes above, or it could be connected to your pregnancy, as with the following:

              • Pre-eclampsia — This is a complication of pregnancy that causes dangerously high blood pressure and can be fatal, both for the mother and baby. There may not be any symptoms, but severe upper right abdominal pain and vomiting may occur.
              • Ectopic pregnancy — This refers to when an embryo implants outside the womb. It can cause one-sided abdominal pain or severe pain in the lower abdomen.
              • Pre-term labour — This is defined as going into labour before 37 weeks of pregnancy. It causes painful contractions and cramping for the woman.

              FIND A HEALTH SERVICE — The Service Finder can help you find doctors, pharmacies, hospitals and other health services.

              What causes long-term or recurrent abdominal pain?

              Long-term abdominal pain may be present all the time or it may come and go. Pain that has been present for 3 months or more and that comes and goes in episodes is known as recurrent pain. It may worsen over time or stay the same in intensity.

              Common causes of long-term or recurrent abdominal pain include:


              Acid reflux (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, or GORD) causes discomfort and pain in the upper abdomen, commonly known as heartburn. Other symptoms include belching, sore throat and bad breath. Symptoms may flare up after eating certain foods or large meals.

              Hiatus hernia

              Hiatus hernia — where part of the stomach protrudes from the abdomen into the chest — can lead to symptoms of GORD.

              Irritable bowel syndrome

              Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes cramping abdominal pain, bloating and episodes of constipation or diarrhoea. The cramping pain is often relieved by passing wind or going to the toilet.

              Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis

              Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are known together as inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms include crampy abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and a feeling of urgently needing to pass a poo. Blood, mucus or pus may be seen in your poo.


              Diverticulitis occurs when small abnormal pockets in the wall of the bowel become inflamed or infected, which can cause left-sided abdominal pain and bloating. Passing wind or going to the toilet may relieve symptoms, although a mild attack may last for a few days. Eating sufficient fibre is recommended to soften stools and prevent constipation. Flare-ups are rare, but some people will have a recurrence of diverticulitis. The condition becomes more common with increasing age.

              Peptic ulcers

              Peptic ulcers, such as stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, can cause dull abdominal pain that comes and goes. The condition may develop a few hours after eating or during the night. Taking antacids or eating some food may relieve it.

              If you experience a sudden sharp stomach pain, however, or start vomiting blood or pass blood in your poo, you should seek urgent medical attention. You may have a bleeding perforated ulcer — one that has made a hole through the wall of your stomach.

              Coeliac disease

              Coeliac disease can cause ongoing abdominal pain and other gastrointestinal symptoms, such as cramping, diarrhoea, constipation, bloating and flatulence.


              Bowel cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer can all cause abdominal pain that may steadily worsen over time. In their early stages, these diseases often don’t cause any symptoms, which is why it’s important to take advantage of any screening programs that are available.

              Functional dyspepsia

              Functional dyspepsia is a condition with multiple recurring symptoms in the upper abdomen but no obvious physical cause. These symptoms may include abdominal pain, a feeling of fullness, burning pain, and problems with muscle function on the gut.

              Period pain

              Throbbing, cramping pain in the lower abdomen that follows a monthly menstrual cycle is known as period pain.

              Urinary tract infections

              Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) may cause lower abdominal pain when you are passing urine.

              What causes mild to moderate abdominal pain?

              Most Australians will experience mild or moderate abdominal pain from time to time. Often these episodes last only a few hours or days. They may clear up without the need for treatment. However, you may be more comfortable managing the symptoms with medicines from your pharmacy or doctor.

              Some of the causes of short-term abdominal pain are:


              Flatulence (farting or trapped wind or gas) is normal, but sometimes the amount of gas is excessive and causes bloating, wind pain or discomfort. Most people will experience this from time to time. The pain is usually relieved when you pass the gas.


              Indigestion refers to discomfort in the upper abdomen — some people call it tummy pain or an upset stomach. It feels like you are full before you have finished eating. You may also have heartburn, a burning feeling rising up from your chest. If you are middle-aged or older, it’s important to know the symptoms of heart attack. They can be similar to those of indigestion.


              Constipation is common both in adults and children, and increases with age. Some people have a bowel movement (poo) more frequently than others, but constipation is generally understood to mean having fewer than 3 bowel movements in a week. Stools may also be lumpy or hard and difficult to pass.

              As well as abdominal pain, constipation can also lead to stomach wind being trapped.

              Pregnancy and some medicines can cause constipation too.


              Diarrhoea is very common in all age groups. If the person with diarrhoea is a baby, child or older person they should see a doctor. However — regardless of your age — if you are experiencing severe diarrhoea, or diarrhoea that has lasted for more than a few days, then you should seek medical advice. You should also seek medical advice if you have both diarrhoea and:

              • fever
              • blood or mucus in your stool
              • diarrhoea at night
              • signs of dehydration — including feeling tired, urinating less frequently, feeling thirsty with a dry mouth


              Gastroenteritis is an infection of the digestive system that can cause stomach cramps and diarrhoea. The symptoms may take a couple of days to appear, then last a couple of days.

              Food poisoning

              Food poisoning usually causes an upleasant illness, but it lasts for only a few days. It is more serious for the very young and for older people since they are more at risk of dehydration.


              Gstritis is inflammation of the stomach lining due to infection, medicines or alcohol. Gastritis causes pain under the ribs. It may also cause indigestion and nausea.

              Lactose intolerance

              Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose (a sugar in milk) and can cause bloating, wind, diarrhoea and cramps.

              Which medicines can cause abdominal?

              Some medicines can cause abdominal pain as a side effect. Common examples include:

              If you, or someone you are caring for, has an episode of abdominal pain that you think may be related to a medicine, talk to your pharmacist or doctor. There may be an alternative medicine that is better for you.

              ASK YOUR DOCTOR — Preparing for an appointment? Use the Question Builder for general tips on what to ask your GP or specialist.

              Resources and support

              If you have abdominal pain and you need advice, call healthdirect on 1800 022 222 (known as NURSE-ON-CALL in Victoria) to speak with a registered nurse, 24 hours, 7 days a week.

              For more information and support, try these resources:

              Other languages

              For information in languages other than English:

              Symptoms & Causes of Gastroparesis

              What are the symptoms of gastroparesis?

              The symptoms of gastroparesis may include

              Certain medicines may delay gastric emptying or affect motility, resulting in symptoms that are similar to those of gastroparesis. If you have been diagnosed with gastroparesis, these medicines may make your symptoms worse. Medicines that may delay gastric emptying or make symptoms worse include the following:

              These medicines do not cause gastroparesis.

              If you have gastroparesis, you may feel full long after eating a meal.

              When should I seek a doctor’s help?

              You should seek a doctor’s help right away if you have any of the following signs or symptoms:

              • severe pain or cramping in your abdomen
              • blood glucose levels that are too high or too low
              • red blood in your vomit, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds
              • sudden, sharp stomach pain that doesn’t go away
              • vomiting for more than an hour
              • feeling extremely weak or fainting
              • difficulty breathing
              • fever

              You should seek a doctor’s help if you have any signs or symptoms of dehydration, which may include

              • extreme thirst and dry mouth
              • urinating less than usual
              • feeling tired
              • dark-colored urine 
              • decreased skin turgor, meaning that when your skin is pinched and released, the skin does not flatten back to normal right away
              • sunken eyes or cheeks
              • light-headedness or fainting

              You should seek a doctor’s help if you have any signs or symptoms of malnutrition, which may include

              • feeling tired or weak all the time
              • losing weight without trying
              • feeling dizzy
              • loss of appetite
              • abnormal paleness of the skin

              What causes gastroparesis?

              In most cases, doctors aren’t able to find the underlying cause of gastroparesis, even with medical tests. Gastroparesis without a known cause is called idiopathic gastroparesis.

              Diabetes is the most common known underlying cause of gastroparesis. Diabetes can damage nerves, such as the vagus nerve and nerves and special cells, called pacemaker cells, in the wall of the stomach. The vagus nerve controls the muscles of the stomach and small intestine. If the vagus nerve is damaged or stops working, the muscles of the stomach and small intestine do not work normally. The movement of food through the digestive tract is then slowed or stopped. Similarly, if nerves or pacemaker cells in the wall of the stomach are damaged or do not work normally, the stomach does not empty.

              In addition to diabetes, other known causes of gastroparesis include

              This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
              (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.

              The NIDDK would like to thank:
              Michael Camilleri, M.D., Mayo Clinic, Rochester

              Gastroparesis – NHS

              Treating gastroparesis

              Gastroparesis cannot usually be cured, but dietary changes and medical treatment can help you control the condition.

              Dietary changes

              You may find these tips helpful:

              • instead of 3 meals a day, try smaller, more frequent meals – this means there’s less food in your stomach and it will be easier to pass through your system
              • try soft and liquid foods – these are easier to digest
              • chew food well before swallowing
              • drink non-fizzy liquids with each meal

              It may also help to avoid certain foods that are hard to digest, such as apples with their skin on or high-fibre foods like oranges and broccoli, plus foods that are high in fat, which can also slow down digestion.


              The following medicines may be prescribed to help improve your symptoms:

              • domperidone – which is taken before eating to contract your stomach muscles and help move food along
              • erythromycin – an antibiotic that also helps contract the stomach and may help move food along
              • anti-emetics – medicines that can help to stop you from feeling or being sick

              However, the evidence that these medicines relieve the symptoms of gastroparesis is relatively limited and they can cause side effects. Your doctor should discuss the potential risks and benefits with you.

              Domperidone should only be taken at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time because of the small risk of potentially serious heart-related side effects.

              Electrical stimulation

              If dietary changes and medicine do not help your symptoms, a relatively new treatment called gastroelectrical stimulation may be recommended. However, this is currently not routinely funded by many NHS authorities.

              Gastroelectrical stimulation involves surgically implanting a battery-operated device under the skin of your tummy.

              Two leads attached to this device are fixed to the muscles of your lower stomach. They send electrical impulses to help stimulate the muscles involved in controlling the passage of food through your stomach. The device is turned on using a handheld external control.

              The effectiveness of this treatment can vary considerably. Not everyone will respond to it, and for many people who do respond, the effect will largely wear off within 12 months. This means electrical stimulation is not suitable for everyone with gastroparesis.

              There’s also a small chance of this procedure leading to complications that would require removing the device, such as:

              • infection
              • the device dislodging and moving
              • a hole forming in your stomach wall

              Speak to your surgeon about the possible risks. You can also read the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines on gastroelectrical stimulation for gastroparesis.

              Botulinum toxin injections

              More severe cases of gastroparesis may occasionally be treated by injecting botulinum toxin into the valve between your stomach and small intestine.

              This relaxes the valve and keeps it open for a longer period of time so food can pass through.

              The injection is given through a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) which is passed down your throat and into your stomach.

              This is a fairly new treatment and some studies have found it may not be very effective, so it’s not recommended by all doctors.

              A feeding tube

              If you have extremely severe gastroparesis that is not improved with dietary changes or medicine, a feeding tube may be recommended.

              Many different types of temporary and permanent feeding tube are available.

              A temporary feeding tube, called a nasojejunal tube, may be offered to you first. This is inserted into your digestive tract through your nose and delivers nutrients directly into your small intestine.

              A feeding tube can also be inserted into your bowel through a cut (incision) made in your tummy. This is known as a jejunostomy.

              Liquid food can be delivered through the tube, which goes straight to your bowel to be absorbed, bypassing your stomach.

              Speak to your doctor about the risks and benefits of each type of feeding tube.

              An alternative feeding method for severe gastroparesis is intravenous (parenteral) nutrition. This is where liquid nutrients are delivered into your bloodstream through a catheter inserted into a large vein.


              Some people may benefit from having an operation to insert a tube into the stomach through the tummy (abdomen). This tube can be periodically opened to release gas and relieve bloating.

              A surgical procedure may be recommended as a last resort to either:

              • create a new opening between your stomach and small intestine (gastroenterostomy)
              • connect your stomach directly to the second part of your small intestine, called the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy)

              These operations may reduce your symptoms by allowing food to move through your stomach more easily.

              Your doctor can explain whether any procedures are suitable for you, and can discuss the possible risks involved.

              90,000 Immunologist Bolibok named a new symptom of the “delta” strain of coronavirus

              The Central Research Institute of Epidemiology is considering the hypothesis that the stomach and intestines, along with the respiratory organs, can become the main routes through which the coronavirus enters the body.

              “According to the results of a meta-analysis of 35 studies in patients with coronavirus infection, the overall prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms is 15%, and the most common of them are nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite,” – said on the eve of the head of the clinical research department Khadizhat Omarova to the RIA agency ” News”.In her opinion, the increasing cases of such manifestations of COVID-19 are associated with a mutation of the virus.

              In a conversation with Gazeta.Ru, immunologist and allergist Vladimir Bolibok agreed with Omarova.

              “The starting picture of COVID-19 began to resemble rotavirus infection. This property of the new strain “delta” is explained by pathophysiology – the virus spreads much easier and faster throughout the body. The cells that cover the intestines have receptors for the coronavirus. Although the receptor for coronavirus on enterocytes is not very densely located, there are a lot of these cells themselves, and when the virus infects them, the symptoms are more pronounced, ”the expert explained.

              He noted that it is difficult even for a specialist to distinguish abdominal pain and other symptoms similar to the manifestations of diseases with enteroviruses and Coxsackie viruses – it is necessary to do a coronavirus test.

              The ability of coronavirus to infect intestinal cells was noticed at the beginning of the pandemic, in particular in China, where a rectal smear is often used for PCR diagnostics.

              “When a virus gets to a person, he swallows it with saliva. In the cells of the intestine, a certain amount of viral particles in this case is necessarily accumulated, and as a result, the concentration of RNA of the virus “at the exit” from the intestine is the highest.The sensitive test system will easily detect even the latent disease COVID-19, ”Bolibok said.

              Vladimir Bolibok added that this fall, in addition to problems with the gastrointestinal tract, one of the new manifestations of the “delta” was a runny nose.

              “Basically, they began to see a doctor with a runny nose, but without loss of taste and smell – this is a new observation. Clinical symptoms change very quickly, covid has symptoms of ARVI or rotavirus infection, so each patient should be tested, ”the specialist concluded.

              Epidemiologist Eduard Shunkov also speaks about disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract in people infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In his opinion, the manifestations of the disease and the degree of its severity depend on the state of the patient’s body, age and the presence of chronic diseases.

              “It is generally accepted that a virus, once it enters the body, weakens the protective functions and aggravates chronic pathologies. Therefore, it is not surprising that in people with problems in the stomach and intestines, the virus can cause vomiting and diarrhea.And people, even without pathologies, can indeed develop dyspeptic disorders after the introduction of the virus into the body, since this is a response to the infectious process and the appearance of toxins, ”the doctor told Gazeta.Ru.

              At the same time, the symptoms of rotavirus infection in COVID-19 are not new, and those infected with abdominal pains came to doctors throughout the pandemic, emphasized the pediatric immunologist, doctor of medical sciences Andrei Prodeus. If we consider the stomach as a potential “entry into the body” for the SARS-CoV-2 virus along with the respiratory tract, then the chances of natural resistance to the virus in the stomach are higher than when it enters the respiratory tract.

              “The immunity of the mucous membranes in the trachea and in the mouth is the only defense of the body when it meets the virus through the respiratory tract. The gastric juice contains hydrochloric acid, which is capable of destroying any virus, preventing it from spreading throughout the body.

              Most foreign objects enter the stomach during a lifetime. If it were not for the aggressive environment of the stomach, children who grab everything, simply would not survive. Therefore, the manifestations of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with COVID-19 are akin to an immune response, the body fights the cells of the virus this way.And even in people with stomach diseases, the concentration of hydrochloric acid is often such that it destroys the virus, ”the specialist emphasized.

              According to the doctor, the risk is harder to tolerate the coronavirus for patients with gastritis, pancreatitis and other chronic ailments in the stomach and intestines, still remains: the symptoms of each patient must be considered individually.

              “This disease is especially difficult for those who have chronic diseases of the kidneys, respiratory and cardiac systems.There is a direct reason for the connection with the course of the coronavirus infection, ”concluded Prodeus.

              On September 22, the Moscow authorities announced that 100% of patients with coronavirus in the capital had a delta strain.

              90,000 The court arrested the general director of Gazprom Mezhregiongaz Makhachkala

              The Kirovsky District Court of Makhachkala has arrested Vladimir Anastasov, General Director of Gazprom Mezhregiongaz Makhachkala, for ten days, on suspicion of fraud. If charges are brought within ten days, the arrest period for the head of the company will be extended to two months.

              Vladimir Anastasov was arrested on Saturday, December 15, in one of the healthcare institutions in St. Petersburg. Employees of the UEBiPK Ministry of Internal Affairs in the Republic of Dagestan drew up a protocol of detention 20 minutes before the scheduled medical operation scheduled for him, the press service of Gazprom Mezhregiongaz reported on December 16. Then he was taken to Makhachkala.

              By the end of the day on Sunday, the Ministry of Internal Affairs for Dagestan indirectly confirmed the fact of the detention of Mr. Anastasov. The criminal case was initiated on December 13 at h.4 tbsp. 159 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation on the fact of theft of natural gas on an especially large scale, a spokesman for the press service of the republican police told Kommersant. “The head of one of the republic’s gas companies has been detained on suspicion of involvement in this crime,” he said.

              Today, at a working meeting in Makhachkala, the head of Dagestan, Vladimir Vasilyev, commented on the detention of Vladimir Anastasov. “According to verified data,” he said, “the overwhelming majority of people pay for gas, but someone, in the interest of earning income, compromises the population by writing off debts for gas and electricity, and this is a huge image damage for the republic.We will create all conditions for fraudsters to be punished, people are protected, and the quality of gas and electricity meets the standards. We will not be able to develop the economy if its shadow side flourishes nearby. Soon, I think, we will get rid of this shameful plume of the region, which has the most abnormal losses. ”

              Read more about the case in the publication of “Kommersant” “Trust was abused in Makhachkala Gazprom”.

              Yulia Rybina, Makhachkala

              90,000 Smells can be an indicator of what a person is sick with – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

              The famous perfumer Oleg Chazov claims: odors can not only raise or worsen mood, but also be an indicator of what a person is sick with.

              Oleg Borisovich, I can’t help but ask a question. You have a sonorous surname: the world’s leading cardiologist Yevgeny Chazov who are you? ..

              Oleg Chazov: I would be honored to be a relative of such a person, but I am only a namesake. And not even a doctor, although there are many doctors among my family. Perfumer. In particular, I am engaged not only in composing fragrances, but also studying how these fragrances affect you and me. Let me give you an example. There are popular French perfumes with an amazing scent.But some of their fans noticed: they use perfume and – immediately attacks of bronchial asthma. At first they thought it was a coincidence. But long-term observation and studies have shown: yes, your favorite spirits are to blame.

              And can you explain what constituents of these spirits are capable of causing asthma attacks?

              Oleg Chazov: I can. They include extracts of iris and hyacinth. So they can provoke seizures. The perfume developers took this circumstance into account and proposed new synthetic ingredients.Now this perfume composition has become safe.

              We live in a world of smells. But we almost never think that they have an impact on our health.

              Oleg Chazov: And in vain. Some diseases can be diagnosed by smell. For example, if suddenly an unpleasant, very specific, aroma appears on a person’s hands, an experienced specialist familiar with the theory of odors immediately suspects that such a person has a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. In turn, the smells also have healing properties, especially when it comes to the effect on the cardiovascular and nervous systems.From time immemorial, there is such a thing as incense. If the sufferer of headaches is immersed in the aromas of chamomile and other wildflowers, then both headaches and bad mood will go away. It is no coincidence that doctors advise to ventilate the premises. A variety of odors accumulate there, often contradicting each other, and it becomes difficult for a person to breathe. And not because he has a bad heart or lungs are out of order, but because the world of aromas presses on the body.

              Personally, I love lilies.I love to put a vase with them at the head of the bed: it is easy for me to breathe, I sleep well. But the closest friend begins to choke at the sight of them. Why?

              Oleg Chazov: There are explanations for this: from the individual reaction of the body to these flowers and ending with the concentration of the aroma in the air. Everything, of course, is very individual. In the countries of the East, aromatherapy is very widespread in diagnostics, prevention and treatment of diseases. Unfortunately, traditional medicine knows little about aromatherapy and therefore does not actually use it.He usually recommends being outdoors and thinks little about the fact that even in the fresh air, its components are not good for everyone.

              For example, even well-known obstetricians hardly know that the skin of a pregnant woman has its own special scent. I am now observing a woman who is six months pregnant; she had severe toxicosis. And I decided to choose an aromatic composition for her, which contains an extract of burdock, a little vanilla and other interesting extracts. After she began to use this scent, the toxicosis practically disappeared.But it should be borne in mind that I made this fragrance individually, and it cannot be a recommendation for all pregnant women.

              It is not customary for us to take seriously the effect of fragrances on human health, but is aromatherapy itself known to many?

              Oleg Chazov: Unfortunately, there are a lot of amateurs in aromatherapy who do not know the nuances. Everything here is individual, and this must be taken into account.

              Natural or carbon monoxide: how to prevent accidents

              Jan 18Am. 2017, 03:51 PM

              Recently, incidents related to the use of gas in everyday life have been recorded in several regions of Russia.

              Most often these are carbon monoxide poisoning or accidents caused by the explosive properties of natural gas. Unfortunately, there is often a substitution of the concepts of natural and carbon monoxide.

              “In order to protect yourself and others from the negative consequences of gas use, it is important to observe safety rules when operating gas equipment, as well as to know the properties of natural and carbon monoxide gases,” said Dmitry Golubkov, head of Mosoblgaz.

              What is the difference and how to prevent accidents when using gas at home? Let’s figure it out.

              Natural gas is the one that is supplied through gas networks to gas-using equipment.

              To detect its possible leakage, the gas is odorized before being fed into the gas pipeline, that is, a specific smell is given by introducing special components into it.

              What is the danger of a natural gas leak?

              First of all, natural gas is explosive and fire hazardous.At a concentration of 5% of the volume of the room, in the presence of a fire source, it can cause an explosion and fire.

              Secondly, at a higher concentration (more than 10%), a person may suffocate from lack of oxygen.

              The first symptoms of negative effects of natural gas are dizziness and headache. As soon as you smell gas, open wide the windows, shut off the gas source and call the gas service, do not light a fire, do not use electricity.

              How to prevent accidents

              1. Timely carry out maintenance of gas-using equipment by specialized organizations.
              2. Always ventilate the area where the gas appliances are located. Good ventilation is a guarantee of safety when using gas.
              3. Do not try to troubleshoot the gas equipment yourself, you must call the gas service specialists.

              Carbon monoxide is a product of incomplete combustion of natural gas, for example, in gas columns.

              Carbon monoxide is practically odorless and non-explosive, unlike natural gas.

              In the absence of draft in the chimney or ventilation duct, carbon monoxide can cause severe poisoning. Even in small quantities, carbon monoxide is dangerous: 0.1% of the content in the room – the onset of poisoning, 0.5% – fainting.

              The reason for the poisoning of people with carbon monoxide is the lack of air supply necessary for the complete combustion of the gas, as well as malfunctioning of the flue ducts when using household heating and hot water appliances.

              Visually, with complete combustion, the flame is light blue or bluish-violet, with incomplete combustion, it is yellowish-straw.

              The first symptoms of the negative effects of carbon monoxide are headache, dizziness, nausea, general weakness.

              How to prevent accidents

              1. It is imperative to regularly check the presence of draft in ventilation and flue ducts, its absence can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning.The presence of a draft in the smoke ducts is checked before firing up, during operation and after turning off the device: you need to bring a lighted match “under the hood” of the water heater, while the flame should be drawn in. Checking the draft in the ventilation duct is carried out by bringing a thin sheet of paper to the grill of the ventilation duct, the sheet of paper should stick to the grill.
              2. Under no circumstances should the ventilation ducts be covered or covered.

              Thus, the safe use of natural gas in everyday life implies the absence of leaks of both natural and carbon monoxide gases.It must be remembered that the responsible observance of the rules for using gas is a guarantee of safety.

              Source: http://in-schelkovo.ru/novosti/bezopasnost/prirodnyy-ili-ugarnyy-gaz-kak-predotvratit-neschastnyy-sluchay

              Dietitian named the least harmful coffee: Society: Russia: Lenta.ru

              Nutritionist and champion of Russia in body fitness Maria Rozanova named the least harmful type of coffee.In her opinion, it should be the simplest possible drink without additives and with a low caffeine content, reports “Moscow 24”.

              The specialist noted that the now fashionable coffee with milk powder, cream and sugar causes the fermentation process and kills the beneficial intestinal microflora, which helps to weaken the immune system. She cautioned against drinking a drink with a thick head of milk foam – latte, macchiato and cappuccino.

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              00:01 – April 4

              20:11 – April 30

              “If we add milk, cream, sugar or sweetener to coffee, the nutritional value of the drink will change, the content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates will increase.The more milk, the less antioxidant activity. Therefore, of course, it is better to choose a drink as simple as possible, without additives and a high concentration of caffeine itself: it is Americano, and without sugar, ”Rozanova emphasized.

              With studies that three cups of coffee a day prolongs life, the nutritionist agreed, but recalled that the volume of these cups is no more than 70 milliliters, while some people drink from containers of even 400 milliliters, the drink is also consumed differently , soluble or filtered.

              Rozanova noted that coffee contains more than a thousand active substances; chlorogenic acid, polyphenols, diterpenes and caffeine affect the human body the most. The latter creates the illusion of a surge of strength, but after an hour, fatigue returns and even intensifies, the specialist added.

              The nutritionist emphasized that the drink is harmful for people with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, diabetes, low blood pressure. In addition, it provokes skin problems and weight gain, as well as the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the vessels.

              Previously, nutritionists named foods dangerous for consumption on an empty stomach. Coffee, according to scientists, stimulates increased production of acid in the stomach, and also irritates the stomach lining, which causes nausea and heartburn. In people with irritable bowel syndrome, coffee can worsen its symptoms – abdominal cramps, bloating, and digestive upset and gas.

              Ukrainian melange will flow to Russia – InoTV

              With the assistance of the OSCE, Ukrainian toxic waste, dubbed melange, will be shipped to Russia.However, due to the heat, the chemical formula of the melange has changed and now its transportation is fraught with risks.

              OSCE will help Ukraine get rid of toxic substances. For 25 years, containers with a highly toxic mixture called melange have been stored at a rocket fuel warehouse near the town of Radekhiv, Lviv region. Before the collapse of the USSR, it was used to make rocket fuel.

              On July 20, it was announced that the active phase of transporting melange to Russia began.In the first batch, about 400 tons of the substance will be sent for disposal. The tender for the propellant component was won by two Russian enterprises: the Sverdlov Plant in Dzerzhinsk and the Biysk Oleum Plant.

              OLEG PROKOPENKO, OSCE expert: At Russian factories, this melange is perceived as a raw material. Accordingly, quite valuable products are obtained from this raw material – this is nitric acid, nitrobenzene, and in the future it is involved in the technological process of manufacturing other consumer goods.For example, these are aniline dyes, foam rubber, polyurethane foam, and so on, and even in upholstered furniture.

              Funding and coordination of this project was partly taken over by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

              ANTON MARTYNYUK, OSCE Chemicals Export Project Manager: This particular project combines all three forms of interaction. Cooperation of military personnel through the Ministry of Defense, as well as addressing environmental and human rights issues.Therefore, it was this project that found, so to speak, a response and support from foreign donors, despite the difficult conditions of the financial crisis, which naturally affects all donor countries.

              The substance melange is highly toxic, so all base personnel wear protective suits. Inhalation of vapors may cause nausea and vomiting, by contact with the skin a chemical burn will be.

              Due to the high summer temperatures, there is work here for firefighters too.They have to water the mélange containers to keep them from overheating.

              SERGEY NIKOLAEV, Major General, Head of Operation: He has been in these tanks for 25 years or more. And during this time he managed to change his chemical formula and his composition. And the liquid, which we call melange, has already become even more aggressive, and active corrosion of the walls of the containers where it is stored is observed.

              The transportation of this propellant component began in 2009, when 2,740 tons of liquid chemicals were sent from Western Ukraine to Russia.

              By the end of this year, about two and a half thousand tons of chemicals are planned to be removed from the base near Radekhov.

              Air date July 22, 2010.

              90,000 Fake “killers” of coronavirus and cancer

              NUR-SULTAN. KAZINFORM – Kazakhstani social media users continue to spread fake messages about the ability of lemon, ginger, garlic, honey, fat tail fat and other products to kill cancer cells and treat coronavirus infection, Kazinform reports with reference to stopfake.kz.


              The message about the treatment of coronavirus with lemon has been circulating on social networks around the world since 2019. Its authors refer to a certain director general of the Beijing military hospital, Chen Horing, who advised adding a third of a lemon to hot water and consuming it daily. This drink can supposedly replace antiviral medication. This is a false statement. There is no publicly available information about the researcher Chen Horin. There are no studies that have confirmed the effectiveness of vitamin C against coronavirus.

              “There is no scientific evidence that lemon prevents COVID-19. However, in general, WHO recommends consuming adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy diet, ”says the website of the World Health Organization.

              The statement that lemon water helps to kill cancer cells is also not true.

              Physicians do not deny that certain types of compounds contained in lemons may be useful in the prevention of certain types of cancer.However, these substances can only increase the body’s ability to fight cancer, but not kill cancer cells.

              fat tail fat, honey and ginger

              Kazakhstanis share with each other the method of treating COVID-19. WhatsApp is sending out a video that mixes fat tail fat, honey and ginger. Such a mixture is supposedly capable of curing CVI in two weeks. This is unsubstantiated.

              Sheep fat has been used as a medicine for a long time. However, there is not enough scientific research to support its medicinal properties.Accordingly, it is impossible to argue that fat will protect against infection with COVID-19 or even cure this disease.

              Ginger can be used for nausea, vomiting and migraine. The plant is able to relieve these symptoms. However, it is pointless to use it to treat other diseases, since its medicinal properties have not been proven. It is known that eating ginger during pregnancy can harm the developing fetus.

              There are studies confirming the antimicrobial properties of honey.However, only in those cases when it was applied directly to the wound. In some cases, honey used in this way promotes faster healing. There is no evidence that honey is effective in treating viral diseases.


              Kazakhstanis in messengers disseminate an audio message, allegedly recorded by the president of the Research Institute of Emergency Pediatric Surgery and Traumatology Leonid Roshal. In the message, he recommends eating a head of garlic on an empty stomach every morning in order to avoid contracting COVID-19.This is an old fake.

              This message was distributed in the Russian segment of the Network in March 2020. Then he was refuted by Leonid Roshal himself.

              “Just don’t spread stupidity, but everything is fine. Now there is a bike on the Internet when a man in the voice of Roshal says that every morning you need to swallow a head of garlic and drink hot water – and there will be no coronavirus. But this is not Roshal. Roshal is the one who speaks to you, ”he said in an interview with the Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper.

              Amygdalin (vitamin B17)

              In Kazakhstan social networks, information is spread that cancer can be cured with amygdalin. In fact, drugs with this substance are not only ineffective against cancer, but also hazardous to health.

              Amygdalin is a naturally occurring compound that can be found in some foods, such as almonds or apricot pits.

              In the early 1950s, amygdalin and its derivative laetrile were marketed in America under the trade names Laetrile and Vitamin B17.Although this drug has nothing to do with vitamins. This was done in order to circumvent American drug laws.

              The drugs were advertised as anti-cancer drugs. But after a while they were banned in the USA and European countries, as research showed their inefficiency and danger.

              The fact is that amygdalin (laetrile, vitamin B17), when it enters the human body, turns into hydrogen cyanide, which prevents cells from using oxygen.Cyanide poisoning can cause nausea, migraines, oxygen starvation, liver damage, coma, and death.

              Amygdalin as an anticancer agent is categorically rejected by the scientific and medical community, in particular, the US Food and Drug Administration, the American Cancer Society, and the American Medical Association.