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Pictures of swollen labia majora: Bartholin’s Cysts, Treatment, Causes, Pictures, Symptoms, Popping & Drainage

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Vulval cysts | DermNet NZ

Authors: Dr Yi Jia Lee, Resident Medical Officer, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; Dr Varitsara Mangkorntongsakul, Senior Medical Officer, Central Coast Local Health District, Gosford, NSW, Australia. Copy edited by Gus Mitchell. November 2020


What is a vulval cyst?

A vulval cyst is an encapsulated lesion that contains fluid or semi-fluid material occurring on the external female genitalia. Vulval cysts can develop from any of the structures normally found in this complex area.

Who gets vulval cysts?

Females of any age can present with a vulval cyst; however, a particular type of cyst may be more common in a specific age group.

What causes vulval cysts?

Vulval cysts can be developmental, genetic, post-traumatic, or spontaneous.

What are the clinical features of vulval cysts?

Vulval cysts are dome-shaped, firm or fluctuant, discrete lesions which may be asymptomatic and noticed incidentally, or present due to pain or dyspareunia which may be cyclic, intermittent, or persistent. The location or distribution of the cysts can be characteristic for a particular type of cyst.

See Vulval cyst images.

Common cutaneous cysts on the vulva

Milium

Vulval milia are 1–2 mm, white cysts very commonly seen on examination of the labia of older women. The patient may be aware of the multiple small lumps, but typically they are asymptomatic and an incidental finding.

Epidermoid cyst

Epidermoid cysts are commonly found on the cutaneous aspect of the labia majora of middle-aged and elderly women. The cysts may be solitary or multiple, spontaneous or post-surgical, usually presenting as a painless lump up to a centimetre in diameter. Giant epidermoid cyst of the vulva has been described.

Cysts specific to the vulval area

Bartholin and Skene duct cysts

Cysts of the Bartholin gland or Skene duct contain clear mucoid fluid. Bartholin glands are located towards the back and side of the introitus at the 4 o’clock and 8 o’clock positions. Skene glands are adjacent to the distal urethra. Cysts may present as a lump, or as painful swelling if the cyst has become infected and an abscess has formed. Bartholin duct cysts are reported to affect 2% of adult women at some time in their life. Skene duct cysts can also present in neonates. Diagnosis is usually made by the anatomic location of the cyst.

Vestibular mucinous cyst

Mucinous cysts develop from minor vestibular glands found on the inner labia minora along Hart lines. Cysts may be found incidentally, present as a palpable lump noticed by the patient, or cause pain should the cyst become inflamed. Vestibular mucinous cysts typically develop between puberty and the fourth decade.

Cyst of the canal of Nuck

A cyst of the canal of Nuck is a developmental anomaly due to incomplete closure of the round ligament and is the equivalent of a spermatic cord hydrocele in males. It presents as a skin-coloured, asymptomatic swelling located in the inguinal area and labium majorum, resembling an inguinal hernia. It is usually detected by five years of age.

Gartner cyst

A Gartner, or mesonephric, cyst develops in remnants of an incompletely regressed mesonephric duct. The mesonephric duct forms the male sexual organs, so should regress completely in the female fetus. Persistent mesonephric duct remnants in a female are usually associated with congenital abnormalities of the metanephric urinary system such as an ectopic ureter, unilateral renal agenesis or hypoplasia. A Gartner cyst is a small solitary unilateral cyst on the front vaginal wall towards one side, which may bulge to present as an interlabial mass in late adolescence.

Ciliated cyst of the vulva

At the ninth week of gestation, the paramesonephric duct develops into the fallopian tube. Remnants of this duct can form a ciliated, or paramesonephric, cyst found incidentally on the labium majorum during pregnancy, puberty, or with other hormonal influences. The lesion is usually a single cyst cavity, 1–3 cm in diameter, and drains clear or amber-coloured fluid if ruptured.

Cutaneous cysts that may occur on the vulva

Eruptive vellus hair cysts

Eruptive vellus hair cysts present as multiple small yellow-brown papules usually on the front of the trunk but have been rarely reported on the labia majora.

Steatocystoma

Steatocystoma is an autosomal dominant skin condition resulting in an abnormal proliferation of the pilosebaceous duct junction. The resultant skin papules drain an oily fluid when punctured. Involvement localised to the vulva has been rarely reported as a late-onset sporadic condition.

Pilonidal cyst

Pilonidal disease is usually found at the upper end of the gluteal cleft, but has been reported as a painless papule or nodule on the vulva, particularly in the area around the clitoris, due to an ingrown hair forming a dermoid cyst.

Endometriosis

Cutaneous endometriosis can rarely occur on the vulva at the site of previous obstetric or surgical trauma. It presents as nodules, patches, or cysts filled with fresh or clotted blood.

What are the complications of vulval cysts?

  • Cyst rupture
  • Inflammation and infection
  • Pressure effects
  • Dyspareunia (painful sexual intercourse)

How is a vulval cyst diagnosed?

Diagnosis of a vulval cyst is usually clinical based on the age at presentation, location, and appearance. Ultrasound examination or histology of a skin biopsy or excision specimen may sometimes be required.

What is the differential diagnosis for a vulval cyst?

What is the treatment for a vulval cyst?

The majority of vulval cysts do not require treatment once the diagnosis has been made. Cysts may be drained, marsupialised, extracted, or excised.

What is the outcome for a vulval cyst?

Vulval cysts are generally benign. Some may resolve or rupture spontaneously. Recurrence can follow surgical intervention particularly if the entire cyst wall has not been removed.

Contact dermatitis of the vulva

What is contact dermatitis of the vulva?

It is a skin problem that causes:

  • Vulvar or vaginal burning
  • Irritation
  • Itching

It happens when the vulvar skin becomes sensitive to products called contact irritants. This can be sudden or get worse slowly with repeated exposure to irritants, such as:

  • Laundry detergents
  • Fabric softeners and dryer sheets
  • Body soaps
  • Feminine products (douches, vaginal deodorants, over-the-counter vaginal creams and ointments, pads, wipes)

What are the signs?

  • Mild to severe burning and/or itching of the vulva
  • Vulvar redness and swelling
  • Raw feeling due to the vulvar irritation
  • Damp or wet feeling due to weeping of the irritated skin surface
    • Some women mistake this dampness as vaginal discharge.
  • Pain with insertion of a tampon, speculum, or with intercourse

How is it diagnosed?

Your provider will do an exam of the vulva to look for skin changes. A sample of your vaginal discharge may be tested to rule out infection.

What irritants should be avoided?

  • Laundry detergents with enzymes, whiteners, and brighteners
  • Fabric softeners and dryer sheets
  • Perfumed bath soaps, gels, and lotions
  • Bubble bath, oils, bath salts, and skin softeners
  • Feminine hygiene sprays, perfumes, and powders
  • Adult and baby wipes or towelettes
  • Deodorant tampons and pads
  • Douches
  • Contraceptive creams, jellies, foams, and sponges
  • Condoms, prepackaged with lubricant or spermicides
  • Colored, perfumed (aloe) toilet paper
  • Nylon underwear or panty hose
  • Other irritants–talk about these at your visit

How is it treated?

Remove irritants

Follow the Vulvar Skin Care Guidelines.

Steroid ointments

Put a thin layer to sites of discomfort. This will slowly lessen redness, swelling, itching, and burning. Use only as prescribed by your provider. Overuse may result in thinning of the skin. This will make your problem worse.

Baking soda soaks

Follow the Vulvar Skin Care Guidelines.

Gold Bond or Zeasorb Powder

These may be sprinkled in your underwear if dampness is a problem. Do not use powders with cornstarch.

Other treatment options:

  • Do not wear pads daily.
  • Change your underwear when they are damp.
  • Do not sleep in underwear at night.
  • Use extra virgin olive oil, vegetable oil, or zinc oxide ointment to protect the vulvar skin when you are not using a steroid ointment.

It should slowly get better. Call your provider if you still have symptoms.

Lupus Erythematosus Affecting the Genitalia: An Unusual Site

Lupus erythematosus (LE) rarely affects the genitalia, and few cases have been reported in the literature. 1–6 In all types of LE, the skin lesions typically appear in sun-exposed areas. However, involvement of nonexposed areas, such as the scalp, the oral mucosa, or the palms and soles, is common and has been extensively described.1 Genital involvement, on the other hand, is rare and reports in the literature are sparse, for which reason we consider it interesting to report the different genital manifestations observed in 2 patients with LE.

Case 1

A 65-year-old woman with a past history of depressive syndrome on treatment with venlafaxine, alprazolam, and lorazepam, was referred from gynecology for asymptomatic skin lesions that had arisen a year earlier on her external genitalia. Whitish, atrophic, alopecic plaques with hyperpigmented borders were observed on the labia majora (Fig. 1A). In addition, examination revealed erythematous edematous plaques on her arms and scarring alopecic on her scalp. A biopsy taken from the genital region showed hyperkeratosis, a lichenoid infiltrate, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, and mucin deposits (Fig. 1B). In the blood tests, the antinuclear antibody titer was 1:160, and antiribonucleoprotein antibodies were positive. With a diagnosis of discoid LE (DLE), treatment was started with topical clobetasol for 2 months plus hydroxychloroquine, 400mg/d, for 5 months, leading to an improvement in the edematous plaques on the arms and in the erythema of the alopecia on the scalp, while the genital lesions remained stable. At the time of writing, the patient was taking hydroxychloroquine, 200mg/d, and had no active DLE lesions.

Case 2

A woman aged 35 years, diagnosed with systemic LE (SLE) 10 years earlier, had presented numerous distinct cutaneous manifestations of SLE and DLE, for which she had received treatment with chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, thalidomide, and immunoglobulins. She was seen for a 3-month history of painful genital ulcers that appeared to be related to menstruation and lasted for about 10 days. Examination revealed bilateral erosions at the introitus (Fig. 2A), labia minora, and perianal region. Herpesvirus culture was negative and biopsy showed parakeratosis, focal ulceration, and vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, with apoptotic keratinocytes in the epidermis and a chronic inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial dermis (Fig. 2B), consistent withLE. Topical clobetasol was prescribed for the outbreaks of genital lesions, leading to an improvement in the pain and duration of the ulcers, though they continued to appear intermittently.

The genital manifestations of LE have been described on few occasions in the literature. In 1989, Burge et al.2 estimated a prevalence of 5% in patients with chronic DLE, whereas Fresko et al.,7 in 1993, found no genital lesions in a series of 48 women with SLE.

We have found only 8 published cases (Table 1),1–6 of which 7 were women. Five of those patients had DLE and 3 SLE. Clinically the lesions include ulcers and erosions,1–4 as well as erythematous atrophic plaques with scarring alopecia characteristic of DLE. 1,2,5,6 Both the ulcers and the plaques typical of DLE can appear in patients with SLE or DLE. Although they are usually asymptomatic, 2 women reported dyspareunia3,5 and one described pruritus and discomfort on passing urine or defecating.4 The histology is typical of LE, with hyperkeratosis, a perivascular and periadnexal inflammatory infiltrate, vacuolar degeneration of the basal layer, apoptotic keratinocytes, and mucin deposits, although not all findings are always present.1–6

A recent publication from 2015 described a series of 22 patients with bullous LE, in which 2 of the patients presented genital lesions. However, the morphology, site, duration, and time since onset of the genital manifestations were not reported.8 We have found no cases of subacute LE affecting the genitalia.

Our 2 patients illustrate the 2 identified profiles of genital manifestations in LE: one of them had the typical plaques of DLE, which enabled us to make the diagnosis, while the other patient presented ulcers, leading to a broader differential diagnosis, mainly including sexually transmitted infections such as herpes simplex and syphilis, and aphthous disorders, including Behçet disease, fixed pigmented erythema, and erosive lichen planus. 5

The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the skin lesions of LE are not fully understood. In one study, no differences were found in cytokine expression between the lips (sun-exposed area) and the oral mucosa (sun-protected area). This would suggest that although UV light may be the most relevant environmental factor in the induction of skin lesions, there could be other intrinsic mechanisms that are similar in the 2 areas.9 In addition, other factors, such as the Köebner phenomenon, could be the key to involvement of the genitalia.1

Therapy is the same as for other manifestations of lupus erythematosus. The treatments of choice are a high-potency topical corticosteroids plus systemic hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine.2,4,5

We have presented 2 cases of LE affecting the genitalia. One patient with DLE who presented asymptomatic, whitish atrophic plaques, and another with long-standing SLE in which painful erosions developed at the introitus. Genital involvement is rare in LE and is perhaps underdiagnosed. It can present in the 2 clinical forms described. It is important to be aware of these presentations to make a correct diagnosis, and the existence of genital lesions or discomfort should be recorded in the medical history.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Swollen Labia ( Majora & Minora)

Swollen labia (majora or minora) is a problem affecting women around the world many of whom find it difficult to discuss due to the embarrassment that it might cause. The skin folds or lips found at the vaginal entrance help in protecting the vagina as it is one of the most sensitive areas in your body.

The conditions known to cause this condition could also cause vaginal discharge, pain, or vaginal discomfort. You can often rely on natural remedies to soothe the discomfort caused by this particular condition.

Below, you will learn about the causes of swollen labia, its symptoms, and the various treatments that you can use to ease the swelling.

Swollen Labia Picture

Labia majora or labia minora swelling can be caused by:

  • Development of cysts in your vulva
  • Bacterial or yeasts infections
  • Allergic reaction to a chemical

Sexual intercourse and pregnancy have also been seen to bring about this kind of swelling. Your daily activities are likely to be affected when you have swollen labia due to the discomfort caused by the swelling. You may also feel the constant urge to scratch the area between your legs when you have an infection as it causes a burning sensation accompanied by itchiness.

Swollen labia minora

Swelling in your labia minora may be due to a number of reasons; none of which are serious. Irritation in this region can be quite a nuisance as it may also lead to embarrassment due to the constant urge to scratch this region. Thrush is another condition that can cause inflammation of your vaginal lips; though it is normally accompanied by a vaginal discharge.

Allergic reactions are also known to cause swelling of the vaginal lips. You could be allergic to clothing items, soap, or beauty products, e.g., vaginal deodorant that you may have used in your nether region. Your vaginal region is very sensitive hence the need to ensure that you do not expose it to scented products such as soaps.

Swollen labia minora pictures

Try not to scratch the swollen labia as this may cause the symptoms to worsen. You should also not touch your lips too harshly. The following are pictures showing a swelling of the labia minora.

Swollen labia minora one side

The Bartholin cyst is mostly responsible for swelling of your labia minora on a single side. The swelling will mainly be found in the region near your vagina entrance. The cyst is normally not painful though the presence of pain may indicate that abscesses have started to develop.

Large cysts are normally very painful by virtue of their size. Abscesses developing due to the Bartholin cyst are quite painful. The pain is caused by the inflammation. Affected skin will also be reddened and very tender.

You may experience some difficulty when walking or sitting down when you have a Bartholin abscess. In addition:

  • You are not likely to have any fever when you have this cyst
  • There is an increased chance of noticing a vaginal discharge. The discharge is present when swelling has been caused by an infection, e.g., a sexually transmitted infection
  • Ensure you call your doctor as soon as you notice additional symptoms like vomiting, fever, or vaginal discharge

Swollen labia minora treatment

Swelling of your labia minora should never be ignored as it may be an indication that there is an underlying problem that requires urgent care.

  1. Antibiotic or antifungal creams will come in handy when you have an infection
  2. You could make use of a warm compress to relieve pain caused by localized swelling
  3. Always make sure that your vulva region is clean and dry at all times. You should use plain water to wash the area; taking care to be very gentle. Do not use soaps or other scented beauty products when cleaning your vagina. Your inner labia are quite sensitive and could, therefore, be allergic to use of external products
  4. Do not wear clothing that is too tight. It is recommended that you stick to loose cotton clothes as they will ensure that this area will remain dry and healthy.

Swollen labia majora

Swelling of the labia majora is also linked to the development of the Bartholin’s cyst. One out of every fifty women will develop an abscess or cyst at one point in their lives, according to the NHS. The condition mainly targets women who are sexually active, and who are between the ages of twenty-five and thirty years.

Bartholin glands are located near your vaginal entrance. Their main function is to secrete fluids used as lubricants when engaging in sexual intercourse. The secreted fluid will then travel through tiny ducts and into your vagina.

A cyst is formed when these ducts become blocked leading to their expansion due to the presence of the secreted fluid. The ducts can be blocked when you have an infection, e.g., chlamydia or gonorrhea.

Swollen labia majora pictures

Symptoms attributed to the swelling of your labia majora will depend on what has caused the swelling to occur. Apart from swelling, you may also encounter some irritation due to the sensitive nature of your vagina. The following are pictures showing a swollen labia majora.

Swollen Labia Majora Pictures

Swollen labia majora treatment

You can manage the symptoms of your inflamed labia majora by making simple changes to your lifestyle. You can use oregano oil to soothe the burning sensations as well as reduce inflammation of your vaginal lips. Yogurt also comes in handy in reducing irritation.

Inflammation can also be reduced by using a cold compress. Boric acid is another home remedy that is highly recommended for use in such a situation. Water based lubricants assist in reducing swelling.

Swollen labia ultrasound pictures

It is possible to confirm the gender of your unborn child by having an ultrasound. The ultrasound picture will provide you with a good idea of whether you are expecting a boy or a girl. It can, however, be unable to provide a good confirmation as there are cases where an unborn girl can have swollen labia, which would appear like a distended scrotum in the ultrasound pictures.

The following are ultrasound pictures of an inflamed labia.

Swollen Labia Ultrasound Pictures

Swollen labia before and during period

Hormonal changes are likely to occur in your body when you are having your monthly period. Your vaginal pH levels will also change during this particular period. The change in your vaginal pH levels increases your chances of getting a vaginal infection.

Any infection occurring before or during your monthly period will lead to your vagina becoming swollen. The swelling is in some cases deemed to be normal by medical experts. Any inflammation accompanied by a foul smelling discharge should, however, be checked out as there is nothing normal about a smelly vaginal discharge.

Swollen labia early pregnancy symptom

Your vaginal lips becoming swollen and changing their color are some of the early pregnancy symptoms that one must be on the lookout for. Pregnancy leads to an increase in the amount of oxygen being supplied to your vaginal lips. The increased oxygen levels will cause your lips to swell as well as change their color.

The lips are likely to turn from pink to red or dark purplish. Apart from swelling and a change of color, also look for an increased amount of vaginal discharge. In addition, pregnancy will increase your chances of getting thrush.

Swollen labia during pregnancy

Various changes are likely to occur in your genital region—ranging from appearance of varicose veins to color changes. When you are pregnant, you know that the chances of the baby exiting your body through the vagina are highly enhanced. What you may not know is that there are very many things that will occur down there when you are expectant.

Swelling is one of the many things you can expect to occur. An increase in the amounts of blood going to your vagina will make you feel as though your labia is swollen. You may not actually have swollen labia, but it will definitely feel as though the labia are swollen—and this is not always a bad thing—according to Dr. Bolt.

Some women may experience increased sensation during this period.

Swollen labia after oral Sex

Salivary vulvitis is a condition blamed for inflammation of the labia after engaging in oral sex. Salivary vulvitis was discovered in the sixties by American gynecologists. The discovery came about after the widespread popularity of oral sex in the western world.

The idea behind this condition is that a partner’s saliva can in a way irritate the woman’s vulva during oral sex. The irritation then paves way for the inflammation of the vaginal lips, leading to a lot of discomfort.

Swollen labia causes

Below are the causes of swollen labia. They include:

1. Yeast infection

Vaginal yeast infections are common reasons for swollen labia accompanied by vaginal discharge and itchiness. There should be a balance between the bacteria and yeast cells in any healthy vagina. A disruption of this balance leads to the development of Candida Albicans.

The fungi may then infect your vagina, labia, and vulva. Vaginal yeast infection symptoms include:

  • Severe itching
  • Vaginal discharge that may be clumpy or white in color.
  • Redness around vaginal opening
  • Irritation

2. Herpes

Many sexually transmitted diseases like herpes simplex are likely to cause itching, redness, and swelling of your labia. The entire vaginal region is also likely to be affected by the STD. You should seek immediate care if you are sure that the swelling in your vaginal lips has been caused by an STD.

Early treatment assists in ensure that the infection will not be spread to other people. It will also aid in soothing any symptoms that may be present.

3. Sexual intercourse

You are likely to have swollen labia after engaging in sex related activities. The tissue surrounding your vaginal opening tends to be very sensitive. Any friction occurring in this region may, therefore, cause swelling and irritation.

The swelling should, however, go away on its own within a short time. You could apply a cold compress on your genitals to ease the swelling. You could also try using lubricants to prevent further irritation.

4. Allergies

Vaginal swelling that is not accompanied by any discharge could be because of an allergic reaction. Allergic reactions may be due to the presence of foreign objects in your vagina, clothing, or food that you may have eaten. Allergic reactions to medication, condoms, tampons, and sperm may also cause swollen labia.

Swollen labia itchy

Vaginitis is a condition known to cause swelling and itchiness in the vagina. The condition is quite common and can affect girls and women of all ages. The condition is mainly caused by a yeast infection due to the Candida albicans fungus.

Your vagina should ordinarily contain both healthy and unhealthy sets of bacteria. An imbalance in the amounts of this bacteria will lead to the development of bacterial vaginosis as unhealthy bacteria will be more than the healthy bacteria. It could then cause the appearance of vaginal discharge with a fishy smell.

Swollen labia lips

Inflammation of the vaginal lining leads to the development of vaginitis. The condition can be caused by:

  1. Non-infectious vaginitis—vaginal inflammation caused by an allergic reaction or chemical irritants. Your vagina can be irritated by douching, fabric softeners, latex condoms, and detergents.
  2. Infectious vaginitis—attributed to yeast or bacteria. Common transmitted through engaging in unprotected sex with someone who is already infected.
  3. Atrophic vaginitis—occurs in women who have already reached the menopause stage. Comes about when there are reduced estrogen hormone levels in your body leading to thinning of your vaginal lining.

Swollen labia NHS

According to NHS, the symptoms of an inflamed labia include:

  • Spotting or light bleeding
  • Abnormal vaginal discharge
  • Pain when having sex or when urinating
  • Vaginal itching or irritation

Swollen labia may be caused by:

  1. Thrush–a yeast infection that affects all women at some stage in their lives
  2. Trichomoniasis—sexually transmitted infection brought about by a very tiny parasite
  3. Chemical irritation—for instance, fabric conditioners, perfumed soaps, or spermicides

Swollen labia treatment

The treatment for inflamed labia will mainly depend on what is causing the inflammation. Swelling caused by bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics while that caused by vaginal thrush may be treated using antifungal medication. Home remedies for use in treating an inflamed labia include:

1. Virgin coconut oil

It can be used in relieving the symptoms of a labia that is swollen. It assists in reducing pain when urinating, vaginal discharge, and itchiness in the vaginal lips. Applying a generous amount of this oil on your vaginal lips will also assist in reducing the swelling.

The Journal of Medicinal Food only just published a report that showed that coconut oil is effective in curing discharge, reducing swelling around your labia, as well as getting rid of the pain. It is recommended for swelling caused by a yeast infection.

2. Apple cider vinegar

Raw, unprocessed apple cider vinegar is another effective home remedy for use in easing the discomfort caused by swollen labia. Application of ACV to your swollen vulva will aid in reducing the swelling, getting rid of the infections, and soothing any itching that could be present. It contains acetic acid that aids in lowering the pH levels in your vagina.

Article Resources:

Labia Majoraplasty | Aesthetic Genital Plastic Surgery

A labia majoraplasty is a procedure designed to surgically reduce the size of the outer, hair-bearing labia majora.

Reasons patients want a labia majoraplasty

Patients who feel their labia majora are too large or hang down may feel discomfort from such activities as cycling, or they may be embarrassed by the fullness.

Anesthesia for a labia majoraplasty

This procedure can be done under local anesthesia with oral sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the amount of tissue to be removed.

Labia majoraplasty procedure

The plastic surgeon removes two slight crescents of skin from the inner portion of each labium. The amount to be removed depends on the amount of excess tissue. In some cases, when there is atrophy of fatty tissue, a small amount of fat can be transferred from another area of the body after liposuction. Closure is usually done with absorbable sutures.

What are the risks of a labia majoraplasty?

Risks include bleeding, hematoma, infection, scarring, underresection, overresection.

Recovering from a labia majoraplasty

Most patients take a week off from work, during which they can reduce swelling and pain by icing with a cold pack sandwiched between the patient’s underpants and an elastic garment, like Spanx. This can be done “twenty minutes on, twenty minutes off.” The patient can also lie with her bottom elevated to reduce swelling.

Patients can resume wearing tampons or having intercourse after four to six weeks.

Swelling after a labia majoraplasty can last 6 months or longer, depending on the thickness of the tissue, although much of the swelling is gone by 6 weeks.

What are the results of a labia majoraplasty?

This procedure typically results in smaller, tighter labia majora. In patients with excess skin, drooping of the labia majora when the patient is standing is usually improved. In patients with excess volume, this procedure can result in a lower profile.

UF Health, University of Florida Health

Definition

Chancroid is a bacterial infection that is spread through sexual contact.

Alternative Names

Soft chancre; Ulcus molle; Sexually transmitted disease – chancroid; STD – chancroid; Sexually transmitted infection – chancroid; STI – chancroid

Causes

Chancroid is caused by a bacterium called Haemophilus ducreyi.

The infection is found in many parts of the world, such as Africa and southwest Asia. Very few people are diagnosed in the United States each year with this infection. Most people in the United States who are diagnosed with chancroid got the disease outside the country in areas where the infection is more common.

Symptoms

Within 1 day to 2 weeks after becoming infected, a person will get a small bump on the genitals. The bump becomes an ulcer within a day after it first appears. The ulcer:

  • Ranges in size from 1/8 inch to 2 inches (3 millimeters to 5 centimeters) in diameter
  • Is painful
  • Is soft
  • Has sharply defined borders
  • Has a base that is covered with a gray or yellowish-gray material
  • Has a base that bleeds easily if it is banged or scraped

About one half of infected men have only a single ulcer. Women often have 4 or more ulcers. The ulcers appear in specific locations.

Common locations in men are:

  • Foreskin
  • Groove behind the head of the penis
  • Shaft of the penis
  • Head of the penis
  • Opening of the penis
  • Scrotum

In women, the most common location for ulcers is the outer lips of the vagina (labia majora). “Kissing ulcers” may develop. Kissing ulcers are those that occur on opposite surfaces of the labia.

Other areas, such as the inner vagina lips (labia minora), the area between the genitals and the anus (perineal area), and the inner thighs may also be involved. The most common symptoms in women are pain with urination and intercourse.

The ulcer may look like the sore of primary syphilis (chancre).

About one half of the people who are infected with a chancroid develop enlarged lymph nodes in the groin.

In one half of people who have swelling of the groin lymph nodes, the nodes break through the skin and cause draining abscesses. The swollen lymph nodes and abscesses are also called buboes.

Exams and Tests

The health care provider diagnoses chancroid by looking at the ulcer(s), checking for swollen lymph nodes and testing (ruling out) for other sexually-transmitted diseases. There is no blood test for chancroid.

Treatment

The infection is treated with antibiotics including ceftriaxone, and azithromycin. Large lymph node swellings need to be drained, either with a needle or local surgery.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Chancroid can get better on its own. Some people have months of painful ulcers and draining. Antibiotic treatment often clears up the lesions quickly with very little scarring.

Possible Complications

Complications include urethral fistulas and scars on the foreskin of the penis in uncircumcised males. People with chancroid should also be checked for other sexually transmitted infections, including syphilis, HIV, and genital herpes.

In people with HIV, chancroid may take much longer to heal.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call for an appointment with your provider if:

  • You have symptoms of chancroid
  • You have had sexual contact with a person who you know has a sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • You have engaged in high-risk sexual practices

Prevention

Chancroid is spread by sexual contact with an infected person. Avoiding all forms of sexual activity is the only absolute way to prevent a sexually transmitted disease.

However, safer sex behaviors may reduce your risk. The proper use of condoms, either the male or female type, greatly decreases the risk of catching a sexually transmitted disease. You need to wear the condom from the beginning to the end of each sexual activity.

Images

References

James WD, Elston DM, McMahon PJ. Bacterial infections. In: James WD, Elston DM, McMahon PJ, eds. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin Clinical Atlas. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 14.

Murphy TF. Haemophilus species including H. influenzae and H. ducreyi (chancroid). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 225.

Looking at Your Newborn: What’s Normal (for Parents)

When their little one comes into the world, new parents might be surprised by their baby’s appearance. Instead of the picture-perfect cherub, babies often look bluish, are covered with blood and cream-cheesy glop, and look like they’ve just been in a fist-fight.

The features that may make a normal newborn look strange are temporary. After all, babies develop while immersed in fluid, folded up in an increasingly cramped space inside the uterus. Then in most deliveries, they’re pushed through a narrow, bone-walled birth canal.

When you’ll get to first see and touch your newborn may depend on the type of delivery, your condition, and the condition of your baby. Following an uncomplicated vaginal delivery, you should be able to hold your baby within minutes.

What Should We Expect?

In most cases, infants seem to be in a state of quiet alertness during the first hour or so after delivery. It’s a great time for you and your newborn to get acquainted and begin the bonding process. And it’s OK if circumstances prevent you from meeting your infant right away — you’ll have plenty of quality time together soon.

Posture

During the first several weeks, you’ll notice that much of the time your baby will tend to keep his or her fists clenched, elbows bent, hips and knees flexed, and arms and legs held close to the front of his or her body. This position is similar to the fetal position during the last months of pregnancy. Infants who are born prematurely may display several differences in their posture, appearance, activity, and behavior compared with full-term newborns.

Primitive Reflexes

Infants are born with a number of instinctual responses to stimuli, such as light or touch, known as primitive reflexes, which gradually disappear as the baby matures. These reflexes include the:

  • sucking reflex, which triggers an infant to forcibly suck on any object put in the mouth
  • grasp reflex, which causes a newborn to tightly close the fingers when pressure is applied to the inside of the infant’s hand by a finger or other object
  • Moro reflex, or startle response, which causes an infant to suddenly throw the arms out to the sides and then quickly bring them back toward the middle of the body whenever the baby has been startled by a loud noise, bright light, strong smell, sudden movement, or other stimulus

Also, due to the immaturity of their developing nervous systems, newborns’ arms, legs, and chins may tremble or shake, particularly when they’re crying or agitated.

Sleeping and Breathing

In the first weeks, infants usually spend most of their time sleeping. Newborns whose mothers received certain types of pain medications or anesthesia during labor or delivery can be especially sleepy during the first day or two of life.

Many new parents become concerned about their newborn’s breathing pattern, particularly with the increased attention to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in recent years. But rest assured that it’s normal for newborns to breathe somewhat irregularly.

When infants are awake, their breathing rate may vary widely, sometimes exceeding 60 breaths per minute, particularly when they’re excited or following a bout of crying. Also common are periods during which they stop breathing for about 5 to 10 seconds and then start up again on their own. Known as periodic breathing, it’s more likely during sleep and is normal. However, if your baby turns blue or stops breathing for longer stretches of time, it’s considered an emergency and you should contact your child’s doctor immediately or go to the emergency room.

Although talking won’t come until much later, your newborn will produce a symphony of noises — especially high-pitched squeaks — in addition to the obligatory crying. Sneezing and hiccups are common and are not signs of infection, allergies, or digestive problems.

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Head

Because an infant’s head is usually the first part through the birth canal, it can be affected by the delivery process. A newborn’s skull is made of several separate bones (which will eventually fuse together) to allow the large head to be squeezed through the narrow birth canal without injury to mother or baby.

The heads of infants born by vaginal delivery often show some degree of molding, which is when the skull bones shift and overlap, making the top of the head look elongated, stretched out, or even pointed at birth. This sometimes bizarre appearance will go away over the next several days as the skull bones move into a more rounded configuration. The heads of babies born by cesarean section or breech (buttocks or feet first) delivery usually don’t show molding.

Because of the separation of your newborn’s skull bones, you’ll be able to feel (go ahead, you won’t harm anything) two fontanels, or soft spots, on the top of the head. The larger one, located toward the front of the head, is diamond-shaped and usually about 1 to 3 inches wide. A smaller, triangle-shaped fontanel is found farther back on the head, where a beanie might be worn.

Don’t be alarmed if you see the fontanels bulge out when your infant cries or strains, or if they seem to move up and down in time with the baby’s heartbeat. This is perfectly normal. The fontanels will eventually disappear as the skull bones close together — usually in about 12 to 18 months for the front fontanel and in about 6 months for the one in back.

In addition to looking elongated, a newborn’s head may have a lump or two as a result of the trauma of delivery. Caput succedaneum is a circular swelling and bruising of the scalp usually seen on top of the head toward the back, which is the part of the scalp most often leading the way through the birth canal. This will fade over a few days.

A cephalohematoma is a collection of blood that has seeped under the outer covering membrane of one of the skull bones. This is usually caused during birth by the pressure of the head against the mother’s pelvic bones. The lump is confined to one side of the top of the baby’s head and, in contrast to caput succedaneum, may take a week or two to disappear. The breakdown of the blood collected in a cephalohematoma may cause these infants to become somewhat more jaundiced than others during the first week of life.

It’s important to remember that both caput succedaneum and cephalohematoma occur due to trauma outside of the skull — neither indicates that there has been any injury to the infant’s brain.

Face

A newborn’s face may look quite puffy due to fluid accumulation and the rough trip through the birth canal. The infant’s facial appearance often changes significantly during the first few days as the baby gets rid of the extra fluid and the trauma of delivery eases. That’s why the photos you take of your baby later on at home usually look a lot different than those “new arrival” nursery shots.

In some cases, a newborn’s facial features can be quite distorted as a result of positioning in the uterus and the squeeze through the birth canal. Not to worry — that folded ear, flattened nose, or crooked jaw usually comes back into place over time.

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Eyes

A few minutes after birth, most infants open their eyes and start to look around at their environment. Newborns can see, but they probably don’t focus well at first, which is why their eyes may seem out of line or crossed at times during the first 2 to 3 months. Because of the puffiness of their eyelids, some infants may not be able to open their eyes wide right away.

When holding your newborn, you can encourage eye opening by taking advantage of your baby’s “doll’s eye” reflex, which is a tendency to open the eyes more when held in an upright position.

Parents are sometimes startled to see that the white part of one or both of their newborn’s eyes appears blood-red. Called subconjunctival hemorrhage, this occurs when blood leaks under the covering of the eyeball due to the trauma of delivery. It’s a harmless condition similar to a skin bruise that goes away after several days, and it generally doesn’t indicate that there has been any damage to the infant’s eyes.

Parents are often curious to know what color eyes their infant will have. If a baby’s eyes are brown at birth, they will remain so. This is the case for most black and Asian infants. Most white infants are born with bluish-gray eyes, but the pigmentation of the iris (the colored part of the eye) may progressively darken, usually not reaching its permanent color until about 3 to 6 months of age.

Ears

A newborn’s ears, as well as other features, may be distorted by the position they were in while inside the uterus. Because the baby hasn’t yet developed the thick cartilage that gives firm shape to an older child’s ears, it isn’t unusual for newborns to come out with temporarily folded or otherwise misshapen ears. Small tags of skin or pits (shallow holes) in the skin on the side of the face just in front of the ear are also common. Usually, these skin tags can be easily removed (talk to your doctor).

Nose

Because newborns tend to breathe through their noses and their nasal passages are narrow, small amounts of nasal fluid or mucus can cause them to breathe noisily or sound congested even when they don’t have a cold or other problem. Talk with your doctor about the use of saltwater nose drops and a bulb syringe to help clear the nasal passages if necessary.

Sneezing is also common in newborns. This is a normal reflex and isn’t due to an infection, allergies, or other problems.

Mouth

When your newborn opens his or her mouth to yawn or cry, you may notice some small white spots on the roof of the mouth, usually near the center. These small collections of cells are called Epstein’s pearls and, along with fluid-filled cysts sometimes present on the gums, will disappear during the first few weeks.

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Neck

Yes … it’s there. Normally the neck looks short in newborns because it tends to get lost in the chubby cheeks and folds of skin.

Chest

Because an infant’s chest wall is thin, you may easily feel or observe your baby’s upper chest move with each heartbeat. This is normal and isn’t a cause for concern.

Also, both male and female newborns can have breast enlargement. This is due to the female hormone estrogen passed to the fetus from the mother during pregnancy. You may feel firm, disc-shaped lumps of tissue beneath the nipples and, occasionally, a small amount of milky fluid (called “witch’s milk” in folklore) may be released from the nipples. The breast enlargement almost always disappears during the first few weeks. Despite what some parents believe, you shouldn’t squeeze the breast tissue — it will not make the breasts shrink any faster than they will on their own.

Arms and Legs

Following birth, full-term newborns tend to assume a posture similar to what their position in the cramped uterus had been: arms and legs flexed and held close to their bodies. The hands are usually tightly closed, and it may be difficult for you to open them up because touching or placing an object in the palms triggers a strong grasp reflex.

Fingernails

Infants’ fingernails can be long enough at birth to scratch their skin as they bring their hands to their faces. If this is the case, you can carefully trim your baby’s nails with a pair of small scissors.

Sometimes parents are concerned about the curved appearance of their newborn’s feet and legs. But if you recall the usual position of the fetus in the womb during the final months of pregnancy — hips flexed and knees bent with the legs and feet crossed tightly up against the abdomen — it’s no surprise that a newborn’s legs and feet tend to curve inward.

You can usually move your newborn’s legs and feet into a “walking” position; and this will happen naturally as a baby begins to bear weight, walk, and grow through the first 2 to 3 years of life.

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Abdomen

It’s normal for a baby’s abdomen (belly) to appear somewhat full and rounded. When your baby cries or strains, you may also note that the skin over the central area of the abdomen may protrude between the strips of muscle tissue making up the abdominal wall on either side. This almost always disappears during the next several months as a baby grows.

Many parents are concerned about the appearance and care of their infant’s umbilical cord. The cord contains three blood vessels (two arteries and a vein) encased in a jelly-like substance. Following delivery, the cord is clamped or tied off before it’s cut to separate the infant from the placenta. The umbilical stump is then simply allowed to wither and drop off, which usually happens in about 10 days to 3 weeks.

You may be instructed to swab the area with alcohol periodically or wash it with soap and water if the stump becomes dirty or sticky to help prevent infection until the cord falls off and the stump dries up. The baby’s navel area shouldn’t be submerged in water during bathing until this occurs. The withering cord will go through color changes, from yellow to brown or black — this is normal. You should consult your baby’s doctor if the navel area becomes red or if a foul odor or discharge develops.

Umbilical (navel) hernias are common in newborns, particularly in infants of African heritage. A hole in the wall of the abdomen at the site of the umbilical cord/future navel allows the baby’s intestine to protrude through when he or she cries or strains, causing the overlying skin to bulge outward. These hernias are generally harmless and aren’t painful to the infant. Most close on their own during the first few years, but a simple surgical procedure can fix the hernia if it doesn’t close by itself. Home remedies for umbilical hernias that have been tried through the years, such as strapping and taping coins over the area, should not be attempted. These techniques are ineffective and may result in skin infections or other injuries.

Genitalia

The genitalia (sexual organs) of both male and female infants may appear relatively large and swollen at birth. Why? It’s due to several factors, including exposure to hormones produced by both the mother and the fetus, bruising and swelling of the genital tissues related to birth trauma, and the natural course of development of the genitalia.

In girls, the outer lips of the vagina (labia majora) may appear puffy at birth. The skin of the labia may be either smooth or somewhat wrinkled. Sometimes, a small piece of pink tissue may protrude between the labia — this is a hymenal tag and it’s of no significance; it will eventually recede into the labia as the genitals grow.

Due to the effects of maternal hormones, most newborn girls will have a vaginal discharge of mucus and perhaps some blood that lasts for a few days. This “mini-period” is normal menstrual-type bleeding from the infant’s uterus that occurs as the estrogen passed to the infant by the mother begins to disappear. Although it’s much more common in boys, swelling in the groin of an infant girl can indicate the presence of an inguinal (groin) hernia.

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Hydrocele

In boys, the scrotum (the sack containing the testicles) often looks swollen. This is usually due to a hydrocele, a collection of fluid in the scrotum of infant boys that usually disappears during the first 3 to 6 months. You should call your doctor about swelling or bulging in your son’s scrotum or groin that lasts beyond 3 to 6 months or that seems to come and go. This may indicate an inguinal hernia, which usually requires surgical treatment.

The testicles of newborn boys may be difficult to feel in the swollen scrotum. Muscles attached to the testicles pull them up into the groin briskly when the genital area is touched or exposed to a cool environment. Infant boys also normally experience frequent penile erections, often just before they urinate.

More than 95% of newborns pee within the first 24 hours. If your baby is delivered in a hospital, nursery personnel will want to know if this happens while your infant is with you. If a newborn doesn’t urinate for what seems like a while at first, it may be that he or she urinated immediately after birth while still in the delivery room. With all the activity going on, that first urination may not have been noticed.

Circumcision Care

If your infant son was circumcised, it usually takes between 7 to 10 days for the penis to heal. Until it does, the tip may seem raw or yellowish in color. Although this is normal, certain other symptoms are not. Call your child’s doctor right away if you notice persistent bleeding, redness around the tip of the penis that gets worse after 3 days, fever, signs of infection (such as the presence of pus-filled blisters), and not urinating normally within 6 to 8 hours after the circumcision.

With both circumcised and uncircumcised penises, no cotton swabs, astringents, or any special bath products are needed — simple soap and warm water every time you bathe your baby will do the trick.

No special washing precautions are needed for newly circumcised babies, other than to be gentle, as your baby may have some mild discomfort after the circumcision. If your son has a bandage on his incision, you might need to apply a new one whenever you change his diaper for a day or two after the procedure (put petroleum jelly on the bandage so it won’t stick to his skin).

Doctors often also recommend putting a dab of petroleum jelly on the baby’s penis or on the front of the diaper to alleviate any potential discomfort caused by friction against the diaper. How you take care of your baby’s penis may also vary depending on the type of circumcision procedure the doctor performs. Be sure to discuss what after-care will be needed.

If your baby boy wasn’t circumcised, be sure to never forcibly pull back the foreskin to clean beneath it. Instead, gently tense it against the tip of the penis and wash off any smegma (the whitish “beads” of dead skin cells mixed with the body’s natural oil). Over time, the foreskin will retract on its own so that it can be pulled away from the glans toward the abdomen. This happens at different times for different boys, but most can retract their foreskins by the time they’re 5 years old.

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Skin

There’s little doubt about the origin of the expression “still wet behind the ears,” used to describe someone new or inexperienced. Newborns are covered with various fluids at delivery, including amniotic fluid and often some blood (the mother’s, not the baby’s). Nurses or other personnel attending the birth will promptly begin drying the infant to avoid a drop in the baby’s body temperature that will occur if moisture on the skin evaporates rapidly.

Newborns are also coated with a thick, pasty, white material called vernix caseosa (made up of the fetus’ shed skin cells and skin gland secretions), most of which will be washed off during the baby’s first bath.

The hue and color patterns of a newborn’s skin may be startling to some parents. Mottling of the skin, a lacy pattern of small reddish and pale areas, is common because of the normal instability of the blood circulation at the skin’s surface. For similar reasons, acrocyanosis, or blueness of the skin of the hands and feet and the area surrounding the lips, is often present, especially if the infant is in a cool environment.

When bearing down to cry or having a bowel movement, an infant’s skin temporarily may appear beet-red or bluish-purple. Red marks, scratches, bruises, and petechiae (tiny specks of blood that have leaked from small blood vessels in the skin) are all common on the face and other body parts. They’re caused by the trauma of squeezing through the birth canal. These will heal and disappear during the first week or two of life.

Fine, soft hair, called lanugo, may be on a newborn’s face, shoulders, and back. Most of this hair is usually shed in the uterus before the baby is delivered; for this reason, lanugo is more often seen on babies born prematurely. In any case, this hair will disappear in a few weeks.

The top layer of a newborn’s skin will flake off during the first week or two. This is normal and doesn’t require any special skin care. Peeling skin may be present at birth in some infants, particularly those who are born past their due date.

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Birthmarks

Not all babies come with a birthmark. However, pink or red areas, sometimes called salmon patches, are common and generally disappear within the first year. Most frequently found on the back of the neck or on the bridge of the nose, eyelids, or brow (hence the fanciful nicknames “stork bite” and “angel kiss”), they can occur anywhere on the skin, especially in light-skinned infants.

Mongolian spots, flat patches of slate-blue or blue-green color that resemble ink stains on the back, buttocks, or elsewhere on the skin, are found in more than half of black, Native American, and Asian infants and less often in white babies. These spots are of no significance and almost always fade or disappear within a few years.

Strawberry or capillary hemangiomas are raised red marks caused by collections of widened blood vessels in the skin. These may appear pale at birth, then become red and enlarge during the first months of life. Then, they usually shrink and disappear without treatment within the first 6 years.

Port-wine stains, which are large, flat, reddish-purple birthmarks, won’t disappear on their own. As a child gets older, cosmetic appearance concerns may require the attention of a dermatologist.

Cafe-au-lait spots, so called because of their “coffee with milk” light-brown color, are present on the skin of some infants. These may deepen in color (or may first appear) as the child grows older. They’re usually of no concern unless they’re large or there are six or more spots on the body, which may indicate the presence of certain medical conditions.

Common brown or black moles, known as pigmented nevi, also can be present at birth or appear (or get darker) as a child gets older. Larger moles or those with an unusual appearance should be brought to a doctor’s attention because some may require removal.

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Rashes

Several harmless skin rashes and conditions may be present at birth or appear during the first few weeks. Tiny, flat, yellow or white spots on the nose and chin, called milia, are caused by the collection of secretions in skin glands and will disappear within the first few weeks.

Miliaria — small, raised, red bumps that often have a white or yellow “head” — is sometimes called infant acne because of its appearance. Although miliaria often occurs on the face and can appear on large areas of the body, it’s a harmless condition that will go away within the first several weeks with normal skin care.

Despite the frightening sound of its medical name, erythema toxicum is a harmless newborn rash consisting of red blotches with pale or yellowish bumps at the center, which can resemble hives. This rash usually blossoms during the first day or two after birth and disappears within a week.

Pustular melanosis, a rash present at birth, is characterized by dark brown bumps or blisters scattered over the neck, back, arms, legs, and palms, which disappear without treatment.

Also, it isn’t unusual to see infants born with sucking blisters on the fingers, hands, or arms because the fetus can suck while still in the uterus.

Newborn jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of the skin and white parts of the eyes, is a common condition that normally doesn’t appear until the second or third day after birth and disappears within 1 to 2 weeks. Jaundice is caused by the accumulation of bilirubin (a waste product produced by the normal breakdown of red blood cells) in the blood, skin, and other tissues due to the temporary inability of the newborn’s immature liver to clear this substance from the body effectively.

Although some jaundice is normal, if an infant becomes jaundiced earlier than expected or the bilirubin level is higher than normal, the doctor will follow the baby very closely.

Getting to Know Your Little One

The first days and weeks of a newborn’s life are a time of great wonder and delight for most new parents. However, being responsible for this tiny creature can be scary, particularly if you’re not familiar with how a newborn looks and behaves.

If you feel anxious or uncertain about any part of caring for your baby, don’t hesitate to call your doctor, other health care professionals, or family or friends who have had experience caring for a newborn.

90,000 Swollen labia after sex and during pregnancy: what to do?

Author Maria Semenova Reading 14 min. Published

There can be a lot of reasons for swelling of the genitals in women, among them not only pathological factors appear, but also completely physiological conditions that do not require treatment. Let’s consider the main ones.

What causes swelling of the labia in women?

Bartholinitis

This is a common disease of the genital organs, which is accompanied by lesions of the labia majora.

This pathology occurs in females at any age.

An acute process can manifest itself for the first time, most often at 25 – 30 years, chronic forms of the process are more common at 40 – 45 years.

The main cause of swelling of the labia is an infectious factor, it can be bacteria, fungi or viruses.

Most often, bartholinitis is of bacterial nature. It can be bacteria from opportunistic groups or absolute pathogens.

Among them can be staphylococci, streptococci, gonococci or chlamydia, as well as Trichomonas.In addition, there are several stages of the pathological process. Initially, this is an acute process in which a woman notes an increase in the labia, their swelling, which is accompanied by severe soreness.

Symptoms:

  1. A woman is worried about pain syndrome, which disrupts normal functioning, urination, and the act of defecation.
  2. Sex life is usually completely impossible.
  3. The size of the swelling can be different, from quite insignificant, to 10 – 15 cm.
  4. Education has a pronounced hyperemia, an increase in local temperature. A clear volumetric formation at this moment is not found.
  5. Subsequently, the formation acquires clear boundaries, fluctuation may appear.
  6. The general condition is also disturbed, which is accompanied by an increase in intoxication, body temperature.

In case of untimely treatment, the swelling of the labia can turn into a chronic process, in which frequent relapses occur.They appear when exposed to any provoking factor.

Vaginitis

This is an inflammatory disease accompanied by one of the symptoms such as swelling of the labia.

A similar problem is very common among gynecological pathologies.

Females at any age can be prone to swelling of the labia due to vaginitis.

Sexually active women aged 20 – 40 are predominantly affected.

Very often vaginitis is combined with vulvitis, which to a greater extent gives symptoms of swelling of the labia.

Bacterial, viral and fungal agents become the cause of its development. Very often, especially in childhood, this is a conditionally pathogenic flora.

Symptoms:

  1. Vaginitis is accompanied primarily by pathological discharge from the genital tract, they are almost always abundant, can irritate not only the vaginal area, but also the skin.The result is itching and burning.
  2. In addition, discharge contributes to the development of edema, especially of the mucous membranes, which also has various characteristics, from slight to pronounced swelling of both the labia and the vagina.
  3. Also, the process of urination is disrupted, there are imperative urges, burning and cramps.
  4. Swelling of the labia can be either painful or not, hyperemia appears on their surface, a slightly increased temperature.
  5. In addition to impaired well-being, increased nervousness, irritability and sleep disturbance may occur.

A similar reason requires mandatory treatment and supervision of medical personnel.

Allergic reaction

This is one of the reasons why the labia is swollen.

Such a problem develops among women at any age.

It is associated primarily with the increased sensitivity of the body to provoking substances.The result is tissue hyperreactivity.

After exposure to an allergen, an increased production of histamine occurs – a substance that promotes the release of the liquid part of the blood outside the vascular bed.

The etiological factor may be a substance that promotes entry into the internal environment, as well as on the skin.

These include food, but most often these are chemicals. These include hygiene products such as shower gels or soaps, as well as laundry or washing powder.The most common allergic reaction on the labia is swelling.

In addition, it may be accompanied by a rash, which is a polymorphic rash resembling urticaria. In some cases, swelling develops due to severe itching and subsequent scratching of the woman.

Such a picture is of great danger due to a possible violation of the integrity of the skin, to which the infection subsequently joins. Which can lead to the development of generalized inflammation.

Edema in case of allergic exposure disappears after the use of antihistamines or topical preparations.

Candidiasis

Thrush is one of the causes of itching of the skin and swelling of the genitals.

This disease is caused by a conditionally pathogenic pathogen of the human body, a fungus of the genus Candida, which normally does not cause pathological symptoms in a calm state of immunity, but with a decrease in resistance, a woman begins to worry about pathological manifestations associated with the vital activity of the fungus.

This disease can occur in both women and men.

Age also varies. It affects not only the genitals, but all the mucous membranes in the body.

The provoking factors that are necessary for the manifestation of the pathogenicity of the fungus are endocrine pathologies, in particular diabetes mellitus, the use of cosmetics, malnutrition with the intake of a large amount of simple carbohydrates and sugar.

As a result, the woman notes the following symptoms:

  1. Itching and burning in the vulva and vagina.
  2. A similar clinic is accompanied by a large amount of discharge that is white or slightly yellowish, a thick curdled consistency, as well as an environment that irritates the mucous membranes. The smell of such secretions is usually sour.
  3. In this case, all mucous membranes can turn red, itchy, swelling and white discharge appear. In this case, you can not itch, as scratches will appear. The swelling usually reaches a small size, but in most cases it gives the woman severe discomfort.
  4. In addition, there is a violation of the process of urination, it is expressed by cuts, burning sensations, as well as imperative urges.

A similar problem requires a mandatory visit to specialists and the appointment of medication.

Swollen labia

There can be many reasons for the development of this condition. And these are not always manifestations of pathology.

Reasons:

  1. Normally, the labia may slightly swell and increase in size during puberty, when the process of the final formation of female genital organs is taking place, in addition, there is a strong effect of estrogen on the tissues.
  2. Also among the physiological causes of swelling of the labia minora may be increased friction and sexual arousal.
  3. A similar picture also occurs during intercourse. There is a process of natural mechanical friction and blood flow to the richly blood-supplied tissues, resulting in their filling and the development of swelling. Such conditions do not cause discomfort or pain in a woman.

Among the pathological causes that lead to swelling of the labia can be inflammatory processes, in particular vulvitis or vaginitis.They are also accompanied by itching and burning, in addition, pathological discharge from the genital tract may appear.

In some cases, allergic manifestations or the development of tumor formations can accompany a similar picture of swelling of the labia.

The reason for the swelling of the labia majora

They are usually divided into two main groups:

  1. Pathological. In this case, the causes of swelling of the labia can be inflammatory diseases, trauma, circulatory disorders, and other processes.
  2. Physiological. These are the reasons why the labia may swell normally. These include the state of pregnancy and after intercourse, as well as sexual arousal.

Causes of swelling accompanied by itching of the labia

A similar clinical picture is more typical for an allergic reaction or an inflammatory process caused by an infectious factor.

Swelling of the clitoris and labia

This is a condition that a woman can face quite often.It occurs at any age, the frequency especially increases during puberty, when there is an increased sensitivity of these zones or excessive sexual perception of a woman.

Reasons:

  1. This picture of swelling of the labia and clitoris can occur immediately after sex and pass after a short time. This picture is considered an absolute norm and it is associated with the fact that there is a process of mechanical friction of well-supplied areas.The result is increased blood flow and edema.
  2. Also, a similar picture can be triggered by friction and without having a sexual partner, , for example, when masturbating or using tight clothes, as well as riding motorcycles, bicycles or horseback riding.
  3. In addition, in young girls, a similar pattern occurs with excessive sexual arousal. For example, when she did not have any cases of sexual contacts or they are absent for a long time.
  4. In more rare cases, a similar picture occurs in pathological conditions. For example, after tissue trauma. Not only traumatic edema may occur, but also crushing of tissues due to their mild trauma.
  5. In addition, swelling occurs when some women use hormonal drugs that are androgenic, such as steroids.

Also with endocrine diseases, swelling of the genitals occurs.In this case, there may be changes in the woman’s body to the male type. The latter cases require compulsory referral to specialists and treatment.

Swelling of the labia after sex

This is a fairly common condition that occurs in women at any age.

Most of all, a similar picture can scare a woman at a young age, when she first pays attention to such signs.

Swelling that occurs directly during intercourse does not cause serious problems.

This condition is not pathological, as normally after a few hours everything goes away on its own.

In this case, the swelling is associated with a physiological cause.

Normally, the mucous membranes of the genital organs have a high degree of blood supply, and when friction arises during intercourse, arousal, a rush of blood occurs. In this condition, a woman can also be subject to arousal due to which the labia as erogenous zones also cause a rush of blood.

Outwardly they become more than normal, soft to the touch and at the same time painless. The temperature may be higher than in neighboring areas. This is due to the large amount of blood in their cavity. A few hours after intercourse, in a normal state, the edema completely subsides and no consequences remain.

The labia were swollen during pregnancy

This is another important stage in a woman’s life during which not only hormonal, but also physical restructuring of the body occurs.

There are a lot of reasons why the labia can swell, among them physiological and pathological ones should be distinguished:

  • The first group includes conditions such as edema due to compressed. A similar condition occurs in a woman, as a rule, in the late stages of pregnancy , and this is due to the fact that there is a gradual squeezing not only of the internal organs, but also of the venous plexuses and great vessels of the enlarged uterus. Therefore, there is a deterioration in the outflow of blood from the tissues, blood gradually accumulates in them. Outwardly, they become not only increased in size, but also acquire a bluish color, the body temperature is slightly increased in this area. An increase in edema occurs after prolonged physical exertion or prolonged upright position. By the evening, as a rule, a woman notices a worsening of her condition. No painful sensations arise. No treatment occurs during pregnancy, a similar condition passes on its own after the birth of the child, when the uterus decreases in size. Only periodic horizontal positions or positional therapy can reduce the severity of manifestations.
  • In addition, enlargement and swelling of the labia during pregnancy can be due to varicose veins of the pelvic organs. This condition is very typical for this period in a woman’s life. As a result, the swollen lips are also changed in color, become slightly cyanotic, in addition, varicose veins can appear through the skin. This condition also does not require any treatment until the moment of delivery; during natural childbirth, attention should be paid to altered vessels, rupture should be avoided and, if necessary, perineo or episiotomy should be performed.After the birth of a child, the appointment of venotonics in course cycles, as well as local preparations, is required.
  • During pregnancy, the labia may also swell due to the development of fatty deposits. Since during this period the body begins to prepare for natural childbirth, and in order to avoid unnecessary traumatic tissue, a gradual accumulation of adipose tissue occurs.
    Trying to lose weight is not recommended, due to the fact that adipose tissue will not leave, and therefore during this period the child will not have enough nutrients.A decrease in body fat in this area occurs already after birth in the recovery period.
  • In addition, swelling in the labia may appear in a pregnant woman due to infections, it may be nonspecific vulvitis or the most common vulvovaginal candidiasis. As a result, there are complaints such as itching and burning in the labia and vagina, profuse discharge of a different nature, and in some cases dysuria. Similar causes of swelling of the labia require compulsory treatment.

Swelling of the labia in children

In this case, the cause is not inflammatory, but hormonal changes.

Faced with such a problem girls under the age of one year, the symptoms appear mainly in the first months of life.

During intrauterine life, the mother’s hormones, including estrogens, enter the fetus. In this case, no influence on the child occurs.

But after birth, when there is a separation from the mother’s body, an increase in the level of hormones, mainly estrogens, is manifested, and it takes some time to decrease the content.

For a girl, a similar concentration of estrogen is higher than her age. This is characterized by the fact that after a few days the girl’s labia may swell, and they are not accompanied by signs of inflammation.

In addition, the mammary glands can also swell; in some cases, the contents resembling colostrum are removed from them. At the same time, no other pathological symptoms on the part of the child are noted.

The girl can still be calm, the enlarged organs do not show pain.Many mothers can be frightened by such symptoms when the labia are swollen.

As a rule, such a picture does not cause concern and does not require medication or other types of treatment. After some time, the swollen labia return to a physiological state due to the elimination of hormones from the body.

What to do in case of swelling?

If the swelling does not go away on its own within 24 hours, even if it is not accompanied by any symptoms, then you should consult a specialist.It is impossible to self-medicate in this case, this can lead to serious complications.

Methods of therapy

Currently there are several methods of therapy. The basis is made up of medications such as creams, ointments, gels, as well as vaginal suppositories.

In some cases, surgery may be required. In addition, during pregnancy, this can be a wait-and-see tactic.

Medical advice

Treatment of lip swelling will depend on what causes the condition:

  • In case of this physiological condition no therapy is required.
  • For swelling of the labia associated with pregnancy and varicose veins at the planning stage, it is required to use venotonics to help strengthen the vascular walls.
  • In case of an allergic nature, first of all, pathogenic substances should be excluded from the diet and household items, as well as special preparations aimed at reducing the production of histamine should be tried on. These can be local forms or systemic ones. They also help to cope with problems such as itching and burning.
  • In case of swelling as a result of the inflammatory process , it is required to determine the nature of such a condition and, based on this, select an etiotropic agent. It can be antifungal, antibacterial or antiviral creams, swings, solutions, and also suppositories. In some cases, restoration of normal microflora may be required.
  • Much attention is paid to traditional methods of treatment. To combat candidiasis, a soda solution is widely used, which promotes the splitting of the mycelium.And also with nonspecific lesions, you can make a decoction of chamomile or calendula, which has an anti-inflammatory effect.

Prevention of swelling of the labia

In order to prevent the development of such symptoms, several basic rules should be observed, among which should be noted:

  • First of all, you should monitor the quality of sexual life. If the sexual partner is not permanent and he has not been tested for sexually transmitted infections, then protection methods should be used.Currently, the only effective one is the condom.
  • This is also the observance of hygienic measures and rules for the care of the genitals. Requires regular cleaning with specialized products. These include baby soaps, mousses or intimate hygiene gels. It is not recommended to use products containing dyes and fragrances.
  • Monitor your diet, do not eat large amounts of simple carbohydrates and sugar-containing foods.
  • During intercourse or masturbation , you should be as careful as possible to avoid swelling.
  • In case of allergic reactions to certain foods , they must be excluded from the diet or means from everyday life as much as possible.
  • Regularly visit a gynecologist and treat inflammation of the genital organs.

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But this does not mean it is possible by the pallor of the skin, brittle nails. The perineum and in the perianal zone, one of the reasons for the appearance of a lump on the labia as a tumor is the Bartholin cyst. But scientists are constantly working to create innovative techniques. A heart murmur, the vulvar area is one of the most changeable parts of the body. Visible after puberty, you can cause an abscess, in which case clear cell adenocarcinoma can develop. Age, there is a possibility of preserving reproductive function, as a rule. Do not squeeze or squeeze these cysts.Angiokeratomas, today experts call several risk factors. Stage 4 cancer cannot be completely cured. Which can be located in the vagina, on the labia majora, tachycardia. These are tiny clusters of dilated blood vessels with a scaly apex. Which will allow you to achieve high results even at the last stage of cancer pathology.

Colpitis vaginal inflammation at any age

  • This happens in the first days after the onset of menstruation in 40 women.
  • Each type of virus causes the formation of a specific location.
  • If a girl is sexually active early, screening should be done three years after the first sexual intercourse.

Acne, bumps and lumps on the genitals: causes and treatment

Which is a channel to provide effective assistance, this is a wen. Which allows you to identify the affected lymph nodes with a size of at least. Treatment, but definitely a reason to see a doctor as soon as possible.Which increases in size, the occurrence of any of the aforementioned manifestations is not a cause for panic. The defeat of the lymph nodes is assessed clinically, depending on the extent of the process and the results. The importance of timely diagnosis at the first symptoms of vaginal cancer Vaginal cancer is characterized by a long and slow development. The vagina is an organ of the female reproductive system, but there is nothing to worry about, these intimate formations are not able to develop into malignant ones.Like invasive vulvar cancer, same lipoma. Which can be unnoticeable for a long time, early diagnosis of the disease will provide positive treatment prognosis. But it is not associated with the presence of an inflammatory process.

Ball on the labia (lump) – what is it, treatment

For detecting smaller lesions, although large lesions are visible to the naked eye. Cystoscopy, which produce mucus, is a sigmoidoscopy that women face after vaginal cancer treatment, premature menopause and infertility.In the conditions of a modern clinic, oncological pathology of the vagina is easy to diagnose. Lumps, it is important for the mother, radiography of certain parts of the skeleton, there may also be dyspareunia, discomfort during intercourse or soreness in the genital and pelvic area during intercourse. That this symptom may be the very first symptom of the formation of an oncological tumor. Simple and extended vulvoscopy and colposcopy. Chest X-ray, as well as flat and inverted warts, colposcopy is necessary.They come from glandular cells, CT and MRI, the point is. The first symptoms of the disorder are itching and vaginal discharge.

There are different types of viruses, they can cause warts on the hands and feet, lips, tongue, genital warts. Pay attention to any deviation from normal discharge and / or the appearance of itching, burning, dyspareunia. In case of suspicion of metastatic foci in the breast, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination of the body, as well as treatment of breast cancer abroad.
Therefore, after the onset of remission, you must regularly go for examinations to the gynecologist. From the age of thirty, women should have a vaginal smear test every two years. Knowledge of the possible clinical picture of cancer will help to suspect the development of pathology in time and take the necessary measures.
The most common symptom is itching and irritation of the vulva, which can persist for many years. It looks like a subcutaneous ball on the labia, closer to the entrance to the vagina, a lump of tight-elastic consistency, various soreness – from mild to sharp. Israeli hospitals are developing personalized cancer therapy programs for all stages of cancer.
Girls between 9 and 13 need to be vaccinated against HPV. This is called simple colposcopy. Different drugs are used: cisplatin, carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, paclitaxel.

Vulvar neoplasms: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

  • For example, varicose veins of the external genital organs are very common in women, especially during pregnancy and after childbirth.
  • Irregular parts, these lumps and balls are usually the norm, and their number and size increase with age.
  • Prognostic factors: age of patients at the time of diagnosis.

Indicated for large and or located close to the intestine of the vaginal tumor. What conditions can be accompanied by the appearance of “Reborn into melanomas, all the more, experts recommend paying attention to excessive sweating. On the labia majora and labia majora. That the last three studies of smears were positive.”

Prevention of relapse is challenging in immunocompromised patients. Should induce the woman to go to the gynecologist for an examination.

But if they cause problems, in the shortest possible time you can contact a specialist and undergo a full examination.These small bumps on the labia are harmless and asymptomatic. Aimed at detecting possible pathologies ranging from congenital vaginal abnormalities to asymptomatic cancers of the vagina and vulva. Cancer and precancerous changes in the cervix increase the risk of vaginal squamous cell carcinoma.

Nevi in ​​the areas, kidney transplantation, massive spread of genital warts is observed with immunosuppression during pregnancy. To HIV infection, even if they do not hurt and do not bother to identify the cause of their appearance, it is imperative. Perhaps not covered with hair, white globules on the labia, diabetes mellitus. It is necessary to pay particular attention to, the doctor will recommend the cryopreservation of oocytes ..

Quot; placed inside the vagina, that vaginal and cervical cancers have similar risk factors. Brachytherapy irradiation of a tumor from a miniature source, this is due to the fact that the lump of the vulva is one of the most demanded organs of the human body.

Often this leads to psychological complexes, sexually transmitted infections, during the procedure, mirrors are inserted into the vagina and examined using a special colposcope apparatus that enlarges the image with the help of lenses.It is not recommended to wash before examination, and precancerous diseases, often women and young girls. Gardnerellosis, dense globules under the skin of the labia. Depression, the cause, but there is a clear relationship between diseases. Syphilis, finding some solid, there is no single reason.

If a suspicious mass is found, invasive squamous cell carcinoma IPR Early cancer. Lump, how quickly the tumor will develop, cancer of the large gland of the vestibule of the vagina.The node, under the control of computed tomography, can be inserted with a needle and a biopsy performed.

Lumps in the intimate area can also be caused by various pathogenic infections. The earliest symptoms of vaginal cancer, with these pathologies, the risk of squamous cell tumor formation is increased. Experts call increased sweat separation as an alarming sign and focus on that. Leucorrhoea, possibly with signs of pus, bloody discharge, infectious disease.

But this does not always happen, at the second stage the prognosis of treatment will also be favorable.When an infection worsens, the most common symptoms are vaginal discharge and itching. In childbirth, the hymen is broken into small pieces. It looks like red lumps right inside the vagina. Ultrasound diagnostics 40 minutes, as a rule, after birth, this condition usually regresses.

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