Can trichomoniasis cause bumps: Anne Arundel County Department of Health
Anne Arundel County Department of Health
Last updated: October 13, 2022
What is trichomoniasis?
It is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a parasite.
How do I get it?
The parasite is sexually transmitted through penis-to-vagina intercourse or vulva-to-vulva (the genital area outside the vagina) contact with an infected partner.
What are the symptoms of trichomoniasis?
The symptoms in women usually appear within 5 to 28 days of exposure. They are:
- A frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor.
- Discomfort during intercourse and urination.
- Irritation and itching of the female genital area.
Most men with trichomoniasis do not have signs or symptoms; however, some men may temporarily have an irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation.
How can I prevent getting trichomoniasis?
The best way to prevent getting trichomoniasis is to avoid sexual contact with an infected person. One way to do this is by practicing abstinence. Abstinence means not having sex with anyone. Another way to prevent getting trichomoniasis is by having only one partner who only has sex with you.
People who decide to have sex, especially if they have multiple partners, must be responsible for protecting themselves and others from infections. Do this by knowing the right way to use condoms and using them every time you have sex. Condoms can help prevent the spread of trichomoniasis. Though not 100% effective, condoms are the best protection. Even if using another birth control method, use a condom if there is a risk of getting a sexually transmitted disease during sex. Also, it is important to avoid abusing alcohol and drugs because they can prevent you from making safe choices to protect your health.
Is there a test and treatment for trichomoniasis?
Yes. Your doctor performs a pelvic exam and may see small red sores inside the vagina or on the cervix. A fluid sample from the vagina may show the parasite under a microscope or the sample can be tested in a lab.
Trichomoniasis can usually be cured with a medication prescribed by your doctor. The symptoms of trichomoniasis in infected men may disappear within a few weeks without treatment. However, an infected man with or without symptoms can continue to infect or reinfect a female partner until he has been treated. Therefore, both partners should be treated at the same time to eliminate the parasite. If you or your partner has trichomoniasis, do not have sex until treatment is complete. Take all medicine as prescribed, even if you had no symptoms or your symptoms are gone. If you are pregnant, get tested for STIs and HIV early and again late in your pregnancy. If you think you have symptoms, call the Department of Health for confidential referral and treatment.
What happens if I have trichomoniasis and I am not treated?
If trichomoniasis is not treated, in rare cases it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease in women, which can cause infertility, chronic pelvic pain or ectopic pregnancy. Also, trichomoniasis can cause small sores and inflammation, which can increase the risk of HIV transmission. Detection and treatment of a trichomoniasis infection will help lower your risk of contracting HIV.
- Getting HIV
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (women)
- Infertility (unable to have babies)
- Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy
- Chronic Pelvic Pain
For more information, referrals or CONFIDENTIAL treatment, contact:
STI Prevention and Care Program
Anne Arundel County Department of Health
1 Harry S. Truman Parkway, Suite 200
Annapolis, Maryland 21401
Monday – Friday, 8:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Does Trichomoniasis Cause Bumps? –
Online Dermatologist > Blog > Does Trichomoniasis Cause Bumps?
Trichomonas Vaginalis is a protozoan that is a common cause of infection in the United States. It is most commonly found in the lower genital and urinary tract in females, while in males, it is found in the urethra and prostate. The men who are found to have this protozoan are most commonly asymptomatic, while females demonstrate characteristic symptoms. Certain individuals may be more at risk for trichomoniasis due to adverse health conditions or lowered immunity. These individuals include the males and females who have been affected by HIV and who may demonstrate the worst symptoms.
The organisms causing trichomoniases are very motile, hence can move on their own using their flagella. Its size is almost that of a white blood cell in the body. Each protozoan of Trochomonas has four flagella and is found to reside in the lumen of the urinary and genital tracts. It causes infection by releasing certain cytotoxic proteins that have the ability to destroy the epithelial lining. Hence an infectious state of the body causes the ph of the infection site, like the vagina, to rise and become more alkaline. (1)
How Can You Get Trichomoniasis?
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection that is transmitted by direct sexual contact between partners. It has the ability to survive for a few hours in moist environments. However, transmission from a moist surface is rare and often transmitted by direct contact. It has an incubation period of between 5 to 28 days, after which the symptoms may become apparent.
The risk factors which may increase the chances of an individual getting trichomoniasis infection include:
- History of a sexually transmitted disease in the past
- Recently switching to a new sexual partner
- Having multiple sexual partners
- Using contaminated intravenous needles and drug abuse
- Not using contraceptive measures (2)
Symptoms of Trichomoniasis
The symptoms reported in women with trichomoniasis are most commonly similar to those seen with other sexually transmitted diseases. These may include having a vaginal discharge, experiencing pain during sexual intercourse, and complaining of a burning sensation on peeing. Some females with trichomoniasis may also report constant pain in their pelvis or having a feeling of discomfort, irritation, and itchiness in their genital area.
On the contrary, males who have been affected with trichomoniasis are commonly asymptomatic and do not demonstrate any characteristic symptoms. While most men are asymptomatic, some may report pain in the testicular region and mild to moderate levels of penile discharge. Some males may also report pain from micturition and the presence of cloudy urine. Severe forms of infection may also cause urethritis in males, which may also progress to prostatitis and epididymitis.
When individuals with trichomoniasis visit a healthcare physician for evaluation, the doctor may find small red bumps and sores on the genital areas. The vaginal discharge in females may be frothy in appearance and have an abnormal odor. The presence of edematous genitals with red bumps is known as strawberry cervix – which may be seen in 40% of the individuals. (3)
Strawberry cervix is not usually reported during a routine physical evaluation; however, it may only be confirmed with procedures like colposcopy. Colposcopy is a procedure performed in the doctor’s office and may take up to 20 minutes. While the pelvic examination is more commonly preferred, colposcopy allows a clearer picture of the cervix and diagnoses conditions like Strawberry cervix. The doctor may also take a swab of the vagina to test it for the presence of the pathogen. The Strawberry cervix is commonly seen in individuals with trichomoniasis and is described as the presence of numerous small red dots and bumps all over the cervix. The dots are produced by the hemorrhaging of the small capillaries present in the cervix. It may also be referred to as Colpitis Macularis.
Recommended Treatment for Trichomoniasis
Trichomoniasis is a treatable infection and may be managed by three popular approaches. These include:
- Administrating the patient with 2 grams of metronidazole,
- Administrating the patient with 2 grams of tinidazole
- Prescription of 500 mg of metronidazole, to be taken twice a day for seven days
However, the effectiveness of 2 grams of metronidazole was found to have superior results compared to those given 500 mg of metronidazole for seven days. One such study showed that individuals with a single dose of metronidazole have a 19% chance of being cured, while those taking a seven-day course of metronidazole were only 11%. (4) It is recommended to treat trichomoniasis as soon as possible to prevent the symptoms from worsening and causing discomfort to the patient. However, even if it is left untreated, it may resolve on its own due to the host’s immunity in some cases. (5) Patients who are immunocompromised or pregnant should be given first priority for treatment in order to prevent adverse outcomes.
The choice of treatment that is usually recommended for such patients is metronidazole due to its superior effectiveness against the trichomonas pathogen. Moreover, females who have been affected by trichomoniasis and are given metronidazole for it should stop breastfeeding until the treatment lasts.
The Bottom Line
Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease that Trichomonas Vaginalis causes. Trichomonas vaginitis is a parasitic protozoan that is similar in size to the white blood cells in the body. The infection is transmitted through direct sexual contact. Individuals who are particularly at an increased risk for trichomoniasis are those who don’t use protection during sexual intercourse, recently changed their partner, have multiple sexual partners, or reuse contaminated needles. The common symptoms associated with trichomoniasis include vaginal discharge, pain from micturition, pelvic pain, or pain in the testes. Small red dots or bumps on the pelvic region may also be seen.
- Schumann JA, Planner S. Trichomoniasis. [Updated 2022 Jun 21]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534826/
- Kissinger P. (2015). Trichomonas vaginalis: a review of epidemiologic, clinical and treatment issues. BMC infectious diseases, 15, 307. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-015-1055-0
- Schwebke, J. R., & Burgess, D. (2004). Trichomoniasis. Clinical microbiology reviews, 17(4), 794–803. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.17.4.794-803.2004
- Kissinger, P., Muzny, C. A., Mena, L. A., Lillis, R. A., Schwebke, J. R., Beauchamps, L., Taylor, S. N., Schmidt, N., Myers, L., Augostini, P., Secor, W. E., Bradic, M., Carlton, J. M., & Martin, D. H. (2018). Single-dose versus 7-day-dose metronidazole for the treatment of trichomoniasis in women: an open-label, randomised controlled trial. The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 18(11), 1251–1259. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30423-7
- Van Der Pol B. (2016). Clinical and Laboratory Testing for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection. Journal of clinical microbiology, 54(1), 7–12. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02025-15
Sexually transmitted diseases | Clinic Elite
Sexually transmitted diseases | Clinic Elite
ET RU EN LV LT SE FIN
Ask for the time of the visit
- HIV and AIDS
- Gonorrhea or gonorrhea
- Warts or bleeding warts
- Pubic lice
- Trichomoniasis (or trichomoniasis)
HIV and AIDS
HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Eng. HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus) – is a virus that destroys the human immune system. This virus penetrates inside the cell and has the ability to change its structure in such a way that, with further division, each new cell carries HIV. Over the years, the virus destroys so many lymphocytes that the resistance of the human body decreases, and the infected person is exposed to various diseases. Because of HIV’s ability to mutate, it is difficult to kill it with drugs.
AIDS – Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (eng. AIDS – Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) – is the final stage of HIV infection, which a person becomes ill several years after infection.
Infection. HIV is transmitted through seminal fluid (semen), vaginal secretions during unprotected intercourse or through blood. Sharing needles and syringes when injecting drugs is a high risk of infection. There is also a risk of infection during organ transplants or blood transfusions. Viral infection can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding. In Western countries, 10-20% of children from mothers exposed to a viral infection have been infected. HIV is most easily transmitted to another person during the initial period of infection, as well as at the stage of AIDS.
HIV is not transmitted through everyday contact. It is not transmitted when kissing, shaking hands, when visiting the toilet or bath. Hacecomes do not transmit the infection.
Symptoms and course of the disease. In some people (about 1/3 of those infected), the first symptoms are detected 1-8 weeks after receiving the infection. Signs of the disease may include: fever, sore throat, headache, joint pain, eczema, and swelling of the lymph glands. The first symptoms disappear on their own after a few weeks.
After the initial period, when early symptoms appear, or even in the absence of symptoms, the virus continues to spread in the body, but the person may feel healthy. As the disease progresses, swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, collarbones and underarms becomes noticeable. The general condition is deteriorating. Fever, diarrhea, and night sweats are common. The time of occurrence of these symptoms is very individual. 10 years after infection, symptoms of the disease appear in approximately 50% of those infected.
In the AIDS stage, a person’s immune defenses are weakened, so he is affected by various inflammatory diseases (for example, tuberculosis) and tumors develop (for example, Kaposi’s sarcoma). The patient’s condition depends on what diseases he becomes susceptible to and how they can be treated.
Examination. It is not possible to make a diagnosis based on symptoms, since many other diseases have the same symptoms and almost no one who is infected shows early symptoms. The only way to detect a possible infection is to take tests.
HIV infection is determined by a blood test. Since the process of antibody formation is examined, the presence of infection does not appear immediately, but only after 2-4 months. A completely reliable test result can be obtained after 6 months from the moment of possible infection. The results of the analysis are confidential information, and only the researcher himself is informed about them.
It takes 1-2 weeks to receive test results. You can get tested anonymously in many medical institutions.
Treatment. According to the law on contagion, the examination of AIDS patients, their treatment and medicines are free of charge. There is no cure for AIDS yet. Nevertheless, more and more effective drugs for AIDS patients have recently been developed. Life expectancy after the disease has increased, and a normal lifestyle can be maintained for a longer time. Thus, it can be said that at present AIDS is a long-term chronic disease.
There is no need to stop sexual activity even if infected with HIV. The most important thing is to remember responsibility in all situations and, of course, engage in only safe sex. The law obliges to take care that both the carrier of HIV and his partner adhere to the requirements of safe sex.
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Gonorrhea or gonorrhea
Pathogen: Gonorrhea bacterium
Gonorrhea is transmitted through intercourse through the vagina, anus or mouth. From the hands, the disease can spread to the eyes. There is also an infection of the rectum. A newly born child can become infected through the reproductive organs. Symptoms usually appear a day or a couple of weeks after infection.
Symptoms in women. Leucorrhoea (vaginal discharge), which may appear normal but is more copious than usual. There may be a burning sensation when urinating. Pain in the lower abdomen and fever can be a sign of inflammation that has spread to the ovaries.
In the event that gonorrhea infection has occurred through the mouth, pain in the throat may be felt, as with a sore throat, or there are no symptoms. Very often, in women, the symptoms of the disease appear very weakly or do not appear at all.
Symptoms in men. Urination burning and frequent urge to urinate. Yellowish-greenish discharge from the urethra. Painful erection. When infected through the mouth – sore throat. In men, gonorrhea can also occur without symptoms.
Examination. Samples for analysis are taken with a cotton swab from the urethra, cervix, pharynx and rectum.
Treatment. Gonorrhea is treated with antibiotics. Tests, treatment and medicines according to the law on contagious diseases are free of charge in health centers and city venereal clinics.
In women, gonorrhea, if left untreated, can lead to inflammation of the oviducts. This leads to childlessness. In men, a neglected disease can cause inflammation of the testes, which can also cause childlessness.
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Pathogen: Chlamydia bacterium
Chlamydia is currently the most common venereal disease. Chlamydia is sexually transmitted. A newborn baby can become infected through the reproductive organs. Symptoms appear approximately 10-14 days after infection.
Symptoms in women. 75% of women exposed to chlamydia have no symptoms. Unusual vaginal discharge may be a sign of infection. Minor bleeding after intercourse or between periods. Itching and burning when urinating. Pain in the lower abdomen and in the sacrum. With inflammation of the rectum, slight bleeding or mucus secretion.
Symptoms in men. Among men, approximately 25% do not have symptoms. The most common symptom may be a grayish cheesy discharge from the urethra in the morning. Slight burning when urinating. With inflammation of the rectum, there is a slight bleeding or mucus secretion.
Examination. Specimens for analysis are taken from the urethra, cervix and rectum. The presence of infection is not detected immediately – it is necessary to postpone the tests for about 10 days after a possible infection. The results can be known in about a week. If chlamydia spreads into the fallopian tubes, it can cause a blockage (obstruction). This may result in childlessness or an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Adhesions that appear as a result of the inflammatory process cause pain in the lower abdomen. Men can develop a very painful inflammation of the testicles, which, in turn, leads to obstruction of the vas deferens and a weakening of fertility. Both men and women may experience joint pain as a complication after chlamydia. Incomplete chlamydia during pregnancy can cause inflammation of the eyes and respiratory tract in the child.
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Syphilis is a slowly developing general infection, the primary symptoms of which often go unnoticed. If left untreated, syphilis can lead to death. Syphilis is transmitted during sexual intercourse, oral sex, or during pregnancy from mother to child.
Symptoms. The incubation period for the development of the disease after infection lasts 3-6 weeks. Upon completion, at the site of infection on the genitals, in the rectum or in the mouth, so-called. primary ulcers. They are small, purulent and non-painful and heal slowly over several weeks. About a week after their appearance, the lymph nodes in the groin increase, become hard, but pain is not felt. In women, the labia of the vulva may also swell.
Through the lymphatic and blood vessels, bacteria spread throughout the body. Approximately 2-4 months after infection, symptoms of the second period appear. Common symptoms may include headache, fever, sore throat. A small rash appears on the skin, as well as pimples, especially on the palms and soles of the feet. Hair loss may occur. Acne may appear on the mucous membrane of the genital organs, around the anus. The above symptoms disappear even without treatment, approximately six months after infection, and the infection passes into the so-called. latent (hidden) period. In untreated patients, on the skin and mucous membranes, the symptoms of the second period of the development of the disease may, however, appear repeatedly during the first two years after infection. During this two-year period, syphilis is contagious. Among those who had syphilis and were not involved in its treatment, in 20-30%, after many years and decades, the so-called. late syphilis, which affects the central nervous system and circulatory organs.
Examination. Syphilis is usually diagnosed based on symptoms. A blood test detects syphilis two months after infection, and only two years later, untreated syphilis ceases to be contagious.
Treatment. Syphilis is treated with penicillin given by intramuscular injection for two weeks. The earlier the course of treatment begins, the more effective it is.
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Condylomas or bleeding warts
Iru or condyloma infection affects both men and women. A newborn can become infected during childbirth through the reproductive organs. Condylomas are infected by contact of mucous membranes, during normal or anal intercourse. The transmission of infection is facilitated by the presence of lesions on the mucous membrane or an existing infection in the genital area. Infection can also occur during sexual intercourse, but warts in the mouth are extremely rare.
Symptoms in women. The incubation period for condyloma lasts from several weeks to a year. After it, small light pink or white dots appear on the mucous membrane of the genital organs, which can develop into warts, similar in shape to a cauliflower shoot. Warts range in size from one millimeter to several centimeters. In women, warts grow in the area of the pubic lips, vagina, cervix, perineum, anus, and at the opening of the urethra. The mucosal change may simply be thickening of the skin or mucosa without the appearance of warts. Sometimes the symptom is excruciating itching. Most often, condyloma occurs without symptoms and is detected during general examinations.
Symptoms in men. The incubation period is the same as for women. In men, condyloma-warts appear either under the foreskin, on the penis, head of the penis, near the opening of the urethra, or around the anus. In the oral cavity, condyloma-warts are either light or the color of the mucous membrane. Quite often, in men, condyloma occurs without symptoms in a form invisible to the eye.
Examination. Condyloma in women is detected during a gynecological examination. Often used is an analysis of a sample of exfoliated fiber taken from the cervix, as well as colposcopy (observation of the reproductive organs through a magnifying device). Condyloma in men is diagnosed by external examination, as well as through a magnifying device, as with colposcopy.
Treatment. There are many treatment options available, which are influenced by the size, number, and location of the warts. They can be lubricated, treated with freezing, removed with a laser or by electrocoagulation. Both men and women should be monitored in the future, as there is a danger of cell modification and a relatively high risk of recurrence of the disease.
The condyloma virus can cause cervical cancer. A small percentage of untreated warts on the cervix develop into cancer over the years. Therefore, medical supervision after treatment of the disease and annual testing are very important.
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Pathogen: There are 2 types of herpes simplex virus (HSV, “Herpes simplex”).
The first type (HSV-1) affects mainly the skin and mucous membrane of the lips (causes labial herpes or a rash on the lips), eyes, nose and other organs, and the second (HSV-2) mainly affects the genitals. This is genital herpes. Currently, due to the wide spread of oral-genital contacts, there are more and more cases when genital herpes is also caused by the HSV-1 virus.
After the initial infection, the virus enters the lymph nodes, where it remains in a latent form. Often the virus remains in that state without causing further symptoms, but in some infected people it reactivates excruciatingly often, even several times a year.
The disease is transmitted during sexual intercourse, as well as during oral sex. Herpes can strike the fetus during the pregnancy of an infected woman, or a newborn gets an infection during childbirth. This can lead to dangerous brain inflammation. If the mother at the time of birth has herpes vesicles, then the birth is carried out using a caesarean section.
Symptoms. The incubation period after infection ranges from a few days to a week. The first symptoms are itching and pain at the site of infection. After a couple of days, bubbles filled with liquid appear at the sites of infection. In women, blisters may appear on the labia, in the perineum, around the anus, in the vagina, or on the cervix. In men, they appear on the penis, on the head of the penis, or in the anus. Very often, primary infections are accompanied by a rapid manifestation of the disease – feeling unwell, headache and fever. The glands in the groin are almost always enlarged. The bubbles burst after a few days, after which painful wounds remain, which then become covered with a crust. Symptoms of primary infection may persist for up to two weeks
After a primary infection, the disease always remains, but only in a latent form. The frequency of recurrence of symptoms and the degree of their pain is very individual. With recurring herpes, the manifestation of the disease is usually weaker, and general well-being does not worsen. Local symptoms are the same as in the primary infection, but they heal faster or within about a week. Re-infection is often caused by stress. A recurrence of the disease also appears in connection with other infectious diseases, during menstruation or after mechanical irritation (for example, violent sexual intercourse).
Examination. The sample is taken from the vial onto a cotton swab. The result of the analysis can be obtained in a week.
Treatment. The treatment of genital herpes is a difficult task due to its lifelong presence in the body and the lack of funds that have an effective effect on it. Nucleoside analogues are the most frequently used drugs for treatment. In addition, in the acute period, a specific anti-herpetic immunoglobulin is used. In complex treatment, immunostimulants, vitamins, antihistamines and other drugs are used. When the intervals between relapses are at least 2 months, vaccination with a hermetic vaccine is carried out. After 6 months, a second course is carried out. Vaccination is repeated 4-6 more times. The use of a vaccine allows you to increase the intervals between relapses and reduce their manifestations.
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Pathogen: Yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida.
This disease is popularly called “thrush”. It is caused by yeast-like fungi. Candidiasis is a common infection. Mushrooms can be found in the vagina in many women who do not present any complaints. They enter the genital tract mainly from the intestines and through contact with patients. The development of an inflammatory reaction in candidiasis (candidiasis colpitis) is promoted by factors that reduce the body’s immunity, such as diabetes mellitus, impaired fat metabolism, diseases of the digestive system. In pregnant women, candidiasis is detected more often due to the numerous changes that occur in a woman’s body at this time. Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and some others also plays a role. “Thrush” is a manifestation of superficial candidiasis of the skin and visible mucous membranes. With severe immunity disorders, lesions of the urinary tract (cystitis, urethritis), lungs (bronchitis, pneumonia), and intestines (dysbacteriosis) can develop.
Symptoms in women. With candidiasis, women usually complain of white, cheesy discharge and itching. The disease proceeds for a long time, may be accompanied by periods of exacerbation (during menstruation, hypothermia, etc.) and subsidence of complaints.
Symptoms in men. In men, the fungus causes itching in the genitals, slight redness on the head of the penis and swelling of the foreskin.
Diagnosis, as a rule, is not difficult. Candidiasis is well detected in ordinary smears from the vagina. In some cases, culture is used (sowing secretions on nutrient media) and other methods. In the persistent course of the disease, the determination of sensitivity to various antifungal drugs is used, which makes it possible to prescribe the most effective agent.
Treatment. Nystatin, levorin, boric acid, and borax (sodium tetraborate) have been widely used to treat candidiasis. Currently, there are a number of more effective and less toxic agents.
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Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver caused by a virus. The most common types of hepatitis are hepatitis A, B, and C.
Hepatitis A is contracted when fecal particles containing the virus enter the mouth of another person. Most often, infection occurs when they are transmitted through water and food. Once in the oral cavity during the alternation of anal and oral sex, fecal particles can lead to infection with hepatitis. Hepatitis A is the least dangerous of all hepatitis. The infection does not lead to chronic liver inflammation and cirrhosis, nor does it lead to liver cancer. The disease often begins with fever, muscle pain, general malaise and diarrhea. After about a week, the urine becomes dark and the skin and whites of the eyes turn yellow. The disease goes away on its own in about 2-4 weeks.
Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood (e.g. drug syringes) or blood-containing products through sexual contact (semen, uterine discharge), or the infection is transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. Only a small proportion of those infected get an infection accompanied by symptoms. These symptoms are the same as with hepatitis A. Among those infected, a part remains a constant carrier of the virus. A small number of carriers of the virus develop cirrhosis or chronic inflammation of the liver within 10-20 years. Some carriers of active chronic hepatitis are cured by taking alpha interferon.
In case of hepatitis B, it is possible to use a series of three vaccinations for treatment (the first vaccination – the second in a month – the third vaccination in six months).
Hepatitis C is transmitted through the blood. The most common route of infection is through the use of syringes and needles while consuming drugs. Half of carriers of the hepatitis C virus develop an active form of chronic inflammation of the liver. Chronic hepatitis C increases the risk of developing liver cancer. Approximately 20% of patients with chronic hepatitis C are cured with alpha interferon treatment.
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Pathogen: Flesh-colored flat louse 1-3 mm in size.
The pubic louse sucks blood and lays eggs on the pubic hair. Infection with pubic lice occurs through bodily contact and bedding.
Symptoms. Symptoms appear 1-3 weeks after infection. Skin irritation and itching in the vulva.
Treatment. In a pharmacy you can buy a solution of hexide (Desintan) without a prescription, which is applied to the skin in the pubic area for a day. A week later, the procedure is repeated. Underwear and bed linen are changed.
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Pathogen: Scabies mite 0.3-0.5 mm in size.
Scabies is spread through body contact.
Symptoms. Itching appears 3-6 weeks after infection. With scabies obtained as a result of sexual contact, the signs of the disease are especially manifested in the lower abdomen, groin and thighs. The itching gets worse in the evening. Small reddish pimples appear on the skin. As a result of scratching, the skin can become inflamed, and pustules appear on the fingers, hands and on the penis. Traces of the movement of the scabies mite may be found.
Treatment. Hexide solution (Desintan) is rubbed all over the body. After application, the medicine is washed off after 12-14 hours. Underwear and bed linen are changed. The medicine is used again after a week. The partner and family members are treated at the same time, even if they do not show signs of illness.
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Trichomoniasis (or trichomoniasis)
Trichomoniasis (or trichomoniasis) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. It is caused by Trichomonas vaginalis – a microscopic pathogen capable of independent movement with the help of flagella and an undulating membrane. Trichomonas very often accompanies other infections of the genital tract – chlamydia, gonococcus, viruses, etc. Infection occurs, as a rule, only through sexual contact. The incubation period is 5-15 days. The development of the disease is facilitated by various diseases of the genital and other organs, accompanied by metabolic disorders, decreased immunity, hormonal disorders, violation of the vaginal flora, in which its acidity decreases. Trichomonas actively multiply during menstruation also due to changes in the vaginal environment. The causative agent lives mainly in the vagina and in the lower parts of the cervix. There is no immunity to the disease.
There are several forms of the disease: fresh (in turn, it is divided into acute, subacute and torpid, i.e. oligosymptomatic), chronic and trichomonas carriage, in which there are no symptoms in the presence of a pathogen in the vagina.
In acute and subacute forms, patients complain of profuse vaginal discharge, itching and burning in the vulva. When the urethra is affected, burning and pain during urination are observed. The torpid form is not accompanied by complaints of leucorrhoea, itching, or they are slightly expressed.
The chronic form of the disease is characterized by a long course and periodic relapses that occur under the influence of various provoking factors: general and gynecological diseases, hypothermia, violations of the rules of sexual hygiene, etc. The severity of complaints can vary widely.
Diagnosis of the disease is based on complaints, examination data and laboratory results of smears from the vagina, cervical canal and urethra. In some cases, sowing material is used.
Treatment of trichomoniasis. During this period, sexual activity is prohibited. Mandatory treatment of the husband or sexual partner, treatment of concomitant diseases. Currently, there are a large number of antitrichomonas drugs.
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how not to get infected, pills, drugs
Although everyone knows about the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease, unfortunately the number of cases is still high. The main problem is that many of the diseases are asymptomatic until they become acute, which is why it is so important to know about protection against sexually transmitted diseases and their prevention. So, how not to get sexually transmitted diseases during unprotected intercourse? What is the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases and how to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases we tell in this article.
Major sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), also called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the older term sexually transmitted diseases, are infections that are spread through sexual contact, especially through vaginal, anal and oral sex. Bacterial STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, and genital warts. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis. We will tell more about them further.
Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually transmitted through sexual contact. The disease begins as a painless sore, usually on the genitals, rectum, or mouth. Syphilis is spread from person to person through skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores.
After an initial infection, the syphilis bacteria can remain dormant in the body for decades before becoming active again. Early syphilis can be cured, sometimes with a single injection of penicillin.
Untreated, syphilis can seriously damage the heart, brain, or other organs and can be life-threatening. Syphilis can also be passed from mother to unborn child.
AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is transmitted through unprotected intercourse with an infected person or through the use of objects contaminated with infected body fluids or blood. HIV can damage the immune system and increase the risk of contracting other viruses or bacteria and developing certain types of cancer.
Chlamydia, the most common bacterial STI that results from the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. The pathogen can infect the urethra (the opening of the bladder) and the cervix (the opening of the uterus). The disease is easily treatable but is usually asymptomatic and therefore not diagnosed until it is more severe than in the early stages. Three out of four women and one in two men have no symptoms. In 40 percent of cases, by the time a woman seeks medical attention, the disease has progressed to pelvic inflammatory disease, which is the main cause of female infertility and pelvic pain.
Chlamydial infection is sometimes confused with gonorrhea, another bacterial infection transmitted through vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Not only do they share many of the same symptoms, the two diseases can occur together. Gonorrhea usually starts in the urethra (bladder opening) or cervix. However, the rapidly multiplying bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea can migrate into the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The infection, like chlamydia, can also affect the rectum.
Genital herpes can be caused by two types of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus:
HSV-1. This is the type that usually causes cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth. HSV-1 is often spread by skin-to-skin contact, although it can also spread to the genital area during oral sex. Relapses are much less common than with HSV-2 infection.
HSV-2. This is the type that usually causes genital herpes. The virus is spread through sexual contact and skin contact. HSV-2 is very common and highly contagious whether you have an open sore or not.
Genital herpes can cause pain, itching and sores in the genital area. But you may not have signs or symptoms of genital herpes. If you are infected, you may be contagious even if you don’t have visible sores.
Genital herpes is a chronic lifelong disease and is dormant most of the time. But it periodically reactivates and produces ulcers or vesicles. There is no cure for genital herpes, but medications can relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of infecting others. Condoms can also help prevent the spread of a genital herpes infection.
Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted infection caused by a tiny, single-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. In women, trichomoniasis can cause a foul-smelling vaginal discharge, genital itching, and painful urination.
In men, trichomoniasis usually has no symptoms. Pregnant women with trichomoniasis may be at a higher risk of preterm labor.
To prevent re-infection with the microorganism that causes trichomoniasis, both partners must be treated and condoms must be used correctly every time you have sex.
Scientists have identified more than a hundred types of this virus. Some of them are passed from person to person during unprotected sex and cause benign warts (warts). Other human papillomaviruses are responsible for four out of five cases of cervical cancer, in addition to several other malignancies of the genital organs.
HPV is another, often asymptomatic, STI. Nearly half of women who carry the virus show no symptoms at all, according to the National Institute of AIDS and Infectious Diseases. Genital warts (as one of the HPV stamps) usually appear in clusters inside and outside the vagina, cervix, and/or anus. Male venereal warts, which are much less common, form on the penis, scrotum, and/or around the anus. Pinkish or flesh-colored growths often disappear on their own.
Interventions for genital warts are different from those for other STIs. In most cases, topical warts can be managed, although the lesions tend to come back. Large warts may need to be removed with one of several surgical procedures: cryosurgery (freezing), electrocoagulation (cauterization), or laser surgery.
In addition, there are more than 30 types of HPV, some of which are highly onkegenic (namely: 16 and 18). HPV as such is not treated, more likely the body defeats it on its own, asymptomatically. This virus can be “sedated”. It will also be useful to vaccinate children and adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, and young girls from 18 to 26 years old (preferably before the onset of sexual activity).
How do people get STDs? An STD or STI can have a range of signs and symptoms, including no symptoms. Therefore, they may go unnoticed until complications arise or the partner is diagnosed. Signs and symptoms that may indicate an STI include:
- pain or discomfort during sexual activity or urination;
- sores, bumps, rash on or around the vagina, penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs or mouth;
- unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis or vagina;
- painful or swollen testicles;
- itching in or around the vagina;
- unexpected menses or bleeding after sexual activity.
Symptoms of infection in women
Sexually transmitted diseases in women may present with symptoms such as:
- burning or itching in the vagina;
- vaginal discharge or odor;
- pain around the pelvis;
- vaginal bleeding that is not normal;
- deep pain during sex;
- sores, bumps or blisters in the vagina, anus or mouth;
- burning and pain when urinating or defecation;
- frequent urge to go to the toilet.
Common symptoms of infection in men
Men may experience the following symptoms in the presence of sexually transmitted diseases:
- burning or itching in the penis;
- discharge from the penis;
- pain around the pelvis;
- sores, bumps or blisters on the penis, anus or mouth;
- burning and pain when urinating or defecation;
- frequent urge to go to the toilet.
Are STDs asymptomatic?
Many STDs do not have signs or symptoms, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, ureaplasmosis, syphilis, mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, etc. The danger of some of the diseases lies in their asymptomaticity, while a high percentage of people are carriers of the disease without knowing it. But do not forget that even in the absence of symptoms, you can pass the infection to your sexual partners. How to protect yourself from STDs? It’s important to use protection, such as a condom, during sex and see your doctor regularly for STI screenings so you can identify and treat an infection before you can pass it on.
How to protect yourself from sexually transmitted diseases
There is no universal cure for sexually transmitted diseases. To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease or STD, always avoid sexual contact with anyone who has genital sores, rashes, discharge, or other symptoms. The only time unprotected sex is safe is if you and your partner only have sex with each other and if at least six months have passed since you each tested negative for an STD. Otherwise, the following recommendations will be the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases:
- Use condoms (latex, polyurethane, polyisoprene) every time you have sex. If you’re using a lubricant, make sure it’s water- or silicone-based (not oil-based). Use condoms throughout the entire intercourse.
- Use a condom or latex pad during oral sex.
- Avoid sharing towels or underwear.
- Maintain personal hygiene.
- Regularly get tested for HIV, STD complex, and undergo an examination by a doctor (urologist, gynecologist).
- Get vaccinated against HPV.
- If you are being treated for an STD, do not start having sex until your doctor tells you to.
How not to get venereal diseases? The most common and popular remedy for sexually transmitted diseases is a condom, however, it does not give a 100% guarantee of protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Unfortunately, anyone who is interested in whether it is possible to contract a sexually transmitted disease using a condom will have to be disappointed – its effectiveness in this case is 70%. Therefore, the answer to the question of whether it is possible to contract a sexually transmitted disease through a condom is in the affirmative. Some viruses (genital herpes, molluscum contagiosum, papillomavirus) can penetrate through the pores of a condom. From pediculosis, syphilis and scabies, the condom is powerless. It is worth remembering that the condom can slip and break during intercourse. However, one of its advantages is the absence of side effects and contraindications (except for allergies to lubricants and latex).
Spermicides are chemical contraceptives that are inserted into the vagina to kill sperm. Spermicidal agents include tablets for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, creams, gels, suppositories and ointments for sexually transmitted diseases. These are contraceptives, one of the so-called side effects of which is the fight against pathogens of genital infections. However, doctors recommend using such products in combination with condoms, because after numerous scientific experiments, their effectiveness is in doubt. They may prevent unwanted pregnancies, but spermicides are unlikely to protect against STIs.
Emergency prevention of venereal diseases
Emergency prevention of venereal diseases in the form of agents with a bactericidal effect, although it destroys fungi and viruses, also does not provide 100% protection. Such funds – miramistin, betadine, epigen, etc. – are used for washing and douching, they have convenient bottles with dispensers. They destroy trichomonas, gonococci, pale treponema (causes syphilis) and the herpes virus.
Tablets for emergency prevention of infection with sexually transmitted diseases and other drugs should not be used frequently because, along with harmful microbes, they also destroy beneficial microflora, which helps the immune system fight diseases.
If after a few days unpleasant symptoms appear in the genital tract, you should immediately consult a doctor. In no case should you use folk methods of treatment or the advice of friends, because only a qualified doctor can help in the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.
Treatment of sexually transmitted diseases
If your sexual history and current signs and symptoms suggest that you have a sexually transmitted disease (STD) or sexually transmitted infection (STI), your doctor will perform a physical or gynecological exam to look for signs of infection, such as rashes, warts, or discharge, and then prescribe treatment.
STDs or STIs caused by bacteria are usually easier to treat. Viral infections can be treated, but not always cured. If you are pregnant and have an STI, immediate treatment can prevent or reduce your baby’s risk of getting it.
STI treatment usually consists of one of the following, depending on the infection:
- Antibiotics are the most effective tablets for sexual infections. Antibiotics for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, often in a single dose, can treat many bacterial and parasitic sexually transmitted infections, including gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis.