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What causes hiccups and how to stop them: Hiccups – Symptoms and causes

Toddler Hiccups: Natural Remedies

Toddler Hiccups: Natural Remedies

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Medically reviewed by Karen Gill, M. D. — By Tiffany R. Jansen on May 17, 2018

What are hiccups?

Hiccups, or singultuses, are the repetitive diaphragmatic spasms we all love to hate.

They can strike anyone, anytime, at any age — even infants in utero. They come without warning and can last anywhere from a couple minutes to a few hours.

What are hiccups and how do they happen?

The diaphragm is the muscle between the chest and the abdomen that regulates breathing. When the diaphragm contracts, the lungs expand and are filled with oxygen. When the diaphragm relaxes, carbon dioxide exits the lungs.

Events that can cause the diaphragm to contract involuntarily and repeatedly include:

  • swallowing too much air
  • eating large meals
  • drinking carbonated beverages
  • sudden changes in body or environmental temperature
  • emotional stress
  • excitement

These spasms cause the vocal cords to close abruptly, resulting in a sudden gush of air entering the lungs. That chain reaction is responsible for the all too familiar gasping sound that gave the condition its common name: hiccup!

Toddlers are more prone to the hiccups. “Because the control mechanisms for reflexes are not completely settled yet, nerve impulses can be confused by conflicting signals in toddlers,” explains Christopher Hobbs, PhD, LAc, AHG.

What are some safe remedies for my toddler?

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Hiccups typically go away on their own after a few minutes. But there are a few all-natural remedies you can try if your toddler has the hiccups.

  • Chamomile, fennel, or peppermint tea. Chamomile, fennel, and peppermint are some of the best and safest herbs for relieving the muscle spasms that cause hiccups, according to Dr. Hobbs. He recommends using a dropper to squeeze small amounts of the warm tea into your toddler’s mouth. Repeat until the hiccups stop.
  • Light pressure on the upper stomach. Gently press on your child’s upper stomach area in quick downward movements. Time each movement to coincide with the hiccup. This can be tricky given the unpredictability of hiccups. Dr. Hobbs stresses keeping the pressure light when dealing with toddlers.
  • Focus on breathing. There are a number of remedies that involve the breath, like breathing into a paper bag and holding your breath for as long as you can. One way to stop them is to “inhale forcefully through the mouth at the same time the hiccup occurs,” says Dr. Hobbs. This counteracts the spasm as it occurs.
  • Bring on the tickles. This is a gentler alternative to the scare tactic that frequently comes up as a hiccup cure. It will take your toddler’s mind off of their hiccups, which is usually all it takes to make them go away. Just be sure to back off immediately if your toddler tells you to stop.
  • Drink cold water. Sipping on a glass of cold water may sooth an irritated diaphragm so it can return to its normal movement pattern.

What not to do

There are some remedies you want to avoid. Especially when young children are concerned.

  • Don’t give your toddler cayenne water. Spicy food can get rid of the hiccups, but it can also induce hiccups or make them worse. “Kids usually don’t appreciate hot peppers at all, and it can even make them quite upset,” says Dr. Hobbs.
  • Don’t scare the wits out of your kid. A good fright is a popular suggestion for getting rid of the hiccups. However, you don’t want to traumatize your child. If you do go this route, make it more about the element of surprise and less about scaring the daylights out of your child.
  • Don’t have your child drink while upside down. Drinking something while hanging upside down is another popular hiccup remedy. However, it could cause choking and is best avoided.

What if the hiccups don’t go away?

In general, hiccups only last about an hour or two at most. But there have been cases where the hiccups have gone on for much longer.

If hiccups persist for more than 48 hours or if they begin to interfere with eating, sleeping, or breathing, see your doctor immediately. They may be able to prescribe something to alleviate the hiccups.

Persistent hiccups in adults can also be a sign of nerve damage or irritation, or central nervous system or metabolic disorders, according to the Mayo Clinic, but this is extremely rare in children.

The takeaway

Bear in mind that none of these remedies have been scientifically proven. According to a study published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, none of the techniques used over the five-year study were found to be effective in treating the hiccups.

Should the hiccups last longer than 48 hours or lead to difficulties breathing, sleeping, or eating, see your doctor right away.

Hiccups are self-limiting and should disappear on their own after a few minutes to a few hours. So, unless they last longer than 48 hours or lead to difficulties breathing, sleeping, or eating, it’s best to simply see it for what it is: an annoying but harmless bout of hiccups!

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Last medically reviewed on May 17, 2018

  • Parenthood
  • Toddler

How we reviewed this article:

Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

  • Cymet TC. (2002). Retrospective analysis of hiccups in patients at a community hospital from 1995-2000.
  • Hobbs CH, et al. (2013). Grow it; heal it: Natural and effective herbal remedies from your garden or windowsill.New York, New York: Rodale.
  • Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017). Hiccups.

Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

Current Version

May 17, 2018

Written By

Tiffany R. Jansen

Edited By

Nizam Khan (TechSpace)

Medically Reviewed By

Karen Richardson Gill, MD

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Medically reviewed by Karen Gill, M. D. — By Tiffany R. Jansen on May 17, 2018

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What Causes Hiccups After Eating?


Hiccup fast facts

  • Hiccup triggers usually involve your stomach, esophagus, or a nerve.
  • Dry foods and alcohol can cause hiccups in multiple ways.
  • Hiccups usually stop on their own within 48 hours.
  • Have your symptoms evaluated by a doctor if you have hiccups that continue for more than 48 hours.

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Hiccups happen when your diaphragm spasms, causing it and the muscles between your ribs (the intercostal muscles) to suddenly contract. This rapidly pulls air into your lungs.

Fractions of a second later, the flap that closes off your airway to prevent food getting in your lungs (the epiglottis) slams shut. The rapid closure makes the characteristic sound of a hiccup.

The diaphragm is a flat muscle separating your lungs from your abdomen. Along with the intercostal muscles, the diaphragm is important for breathing. Anything that signals your diaphragm to suddenly spasm can cause hiccups. It’s an involuntary action. You have no control over it.

Things that irritate your stomach or cause it to rapidly expand commonly trigger hiccups. This includes the things you eat as well as how much and how fast you eat.

Quickly filled stomach

Anything that causes your stomach to become bigger than usual (distension) can trigger hiccups. Your stomach lies right underneath your diaphragm on your left side. It’s possible that distension triggers hiccups by pressing on or irritating your diaphragm.

Things that can cause stomach distension include:

  • eating a lot of food at one time
  • eating food very quickly
  • swallowing air (aerophagia), especially while chewing or talking while eating
  • getting gas in your stomach by drinking carbonated beverages
  • drinking a lot of alcohol, especially beer, over a short time

Temperature change in your esophagus

Things that irritate or suddenly change the temperature of your esophagus can also cause hiccups. This may be related to irritation or stimulation of the nerves that cause the diaphragm to contract.

The main nerves are the phrenic nerve and the vagus nerve. They reside near your esophagus, so food and liquid can stimulate them as you swallow. Irritants can include:

  • very hot food
  • spicy food
  • acidic food
  • very cold liquids
  • alcohol

Non-food irritants

Things other than food can irritate or stimulate the nerves that control your diaphragm and cause hiccups while you’re eating. Some of these things are:

  • excitement
  • emotional stress
  • suddenly inhaling very cold air

Multiple triggers

Some things may cause hiccups in more than one way.

Eating dry food, such as bread

Dry food can simply tickle or irritate the back of your throat. Dry food is also more difficult to chew and swallow than soft or liquid foods. You may be swallowing bigger pieces, which can distend your stomach.

At the same time, you swallow more air when eating things that are difficult to chew. This can add to stomach distension.

Drinking alcohol

Drinking a lot of alcohol, especially beer, over a short time can distend the stomach. The carbonation in beer and other carbonated beverages like soda can add to distension, too. Alcohol can also be an irritant to your esophagus.

Hiccups will usually go away on their own.

Nothing has been proven to stop hiccups. However, there are some methods you can try to get rid of them quicker. Keep in mind these methods don’t always work. Common hiccup stoppers include the following:

  • Breathe into a paper bag.
  • Hold your breath for 15 to 20 seconds.
  • Hug your knees while you lean forward.
  • Use the Valsalva maneuver (bear down while holding your breath).
  • Drink or gargle with water or ice water.
  • Suck on a lemon.
  • Try to control your breathing by relaxing and slowing it down.
  • Eat a teaspoon of white sugar.
  • Drink hot water with honey in it.
  • Have someone try to scare you.

If you’re trying to avoid a case of hiccups, the best way to prevent them is to avoid things that cause stomach distension or irritate your esophagus. Avoid the following:

  • acidic food
  • alcohol
  • carbonated beverages
  • eating very quickly
  • hot or spicy food
  • overeating
  • swallowing air while chewing
  • talking while eating
  • very cold liquids

Hiccups usually stop on their own within 48 hours.

According to a 2012 article, hiccups lasting from 48 hours to two months are called persistent hiccups. Hiccups that last more than two months are called intractable hiccups. They may also be called chronic hiccups.

Both persistent and intractable hiccups can be a symptom of a serious condition, like a stroke, or a minor condition, like a sore throat. There are almost always other signs and symptoms of the underlying condition, though. This often makes it easier for your doctor to confirm a diagnosis or rule things out.

Hiccups that last longer than 48 hours in children and adults should be evaluated by a doctor.

Hiccups lasting less than 48 hours usually don’t need to be evaluated unless they occur so often or are so severe they interfere with daily activities, like sleeping or eating.

Hiccups and heart disease

Occasionally, hiccups are an unusual symptom of a heart condition.

A 2018 report described a man with a very high risk for heart disease who went to the emergency room complaining of having hiccups for four days. An electrocardiogram (ECG) obtained for other reasons showed he was having a heart attack, even though he had none of the usual signs or symptoms.

Older reports also describe a possible connection of persistent hiccups as a symptom of damage to blood vessels or muscles in the heart.

Anything that irritates your esophagus or causes stomach distension can cause hiccups after eating.

Hiccups usually stop by themselves, but there are things you can try to make them stop quicker. You can also try to prevent them by avoiding certain foods and drinks.

Hiccups can be irritating, but more often than not, they’re harmless.

How to get rid of hiccups in an adult or a child: the best ways

Hiccups are a very unpleasant phenomenon. Appears unexpectedly, sometimes at the most inopportune moment. Not only is it embarrassing, but it won’t go away for a long time if you don’t take action. We have collected the most effective ways to get rid of hiccups that will help you quickly suppress it in any situation.


life hacks


Women Health

How To

How to get rid of hiccups

Simple ways to get rid of hiccups and not embarrass yourself and others

If hiccups hit, try these simple ways.

Contents of the article

Do not self-medicate! In our articles, we collect the latest scientific data and the opinions of authoritative health experts. But remember: only a doctor can diagnose and prescribe treatment.

Most often, hiccups come on suddenly and can be permanently incapacitating. We tell you how to overcome this annoying and debilitating reaction of the body. The longest hiccupping person on the planet was American Charles Osborne, who hiccupped for 68 years non-stop! His hiccups did not respond to treatment and became the rarest case in history. We remind you that the normal duration of hiccups is 20-30 minutes, after this period it should stop naturally. If something went wrong and the hiccups continue for more than a day, this is a reason to consult a doctor.

Causes of hiccups

Stress, severe fright, intense sports, alcohol abuse, rapid chewing of food, hypothermia, uncomfortable posture and even childbirth can cause hiccups.

Hiccups is a rapid contraction of the diaphragm, in which the epiglottis blocks the path of air, pushing it out of the larynx with a characteristic sound.

It can be harmless and episodic, or it can turn into a constant irritant, indicating changes in your health status. Hiccups sometimes accompany conditions such as:

  1. Pregnancy – the fetus presses on the muscles of the diaphragm.
  2. Hypothermia – the muscles actively contract, trying to warm up, including the muscles of the diaphragm.
  3. Diseases of the lungs and stomach – organs adjacent to the diaphragm can put pressure on it.
  4. Diseases of the liver, in which the organ increases in size and presses on the diaphragm. That is why hiccups occur not only as a result of a single use of alcohol due to spasm of the esophagus, but also in people with alcohol dependence when liver function is impaired.
  5. Stroke and other brain diseases. With such disorders, the brain can send extra signals to the diaphragm, causing it to contract.
  6. Stress – in this case, hiccups are formed as a nervous tic, accompanied by involuntary muscle contractions.
  7. Taking certain medications. Sometimes hiccups are a side effect of drugs – tranquilizers, levodopa, antiemetics.


Important point: do not use this information for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, only the attending physician should prescribe diagnostic tests. For diagnosis and proper treatment, you should contact your doctor.

How to quickly get rid of hiccups at home

Unlike a child, getting rid of hiccups is much easier for an adult. This is due to an understanding of the cause of hiccups and the fact that an adult is suitable for the greatest number of ways to deal with annoying spasm.

Breath holding

The easiest and most effective way. Take a deep breath and hold your breath for as long as possible. To consolidate the effect, create a characteristic “goat” with the fingers of both hands and connect the index, thumb and little fingers of both hands. There is a version that this gesture activates certain points on the hands that restore even breathing.

Press on the root of the tongue

Touch the base of the tongue with your fingers or a teaspoon. Gagging will awaken the esophagus and quiet the diaphragm.

Eat a lemon

A sharp sour taste activates the esophagus and distracts the body from spasms. You can replace sour with something spicy, bitter or overly salty.

Drink water with closed ears

Pour cool water into a glass, hold your ears tightly with both hands and drink everything to the last drop through a straw or with the help of your neighbor. This method is recommended by doctors and scientists as one of the most effective.

Show your tongue

One of the oldest methods of dealing with hiccups. Open your mouth and stick out your tongue as far as you can. To enhance the effect, you can even slightly pull it with your fingers.

Switch attention

Start doing something that requires maximum concentration. For example, threading a needle or stringing beads on a thread.

Handstand or plank

Changing physical activity helps get rid of hiccups. To do this, it is not at all necessary to complete a marathon race, it is enough just to take a radically new position of the body. Stand on your hands against the wall or do a 30-second plank – this will distract you from the hiccups, and an unusual position will calm down the contractions of the diaphragm.

Dive into the water

Dive or just dip your whole head in cool water for a few seconds. This method is similar to the usual breath-hold and copes with hiccups just as well.

Rectal massage

No matter how strange it may sound, but medical practice confirms the successful result in eliminating hiccups by rectal massage. Yes, sometimes, to get rid of prolonged hiccups, you just need to massage the anus.


Fright can be both the cause of hiccups and its end. To do this, you can perform a not too dangerous house trick, for example, climb on a tall closet, ask the household to scare you, or turn on a horror movie to shout out well.


A long French kiss can get you out of hiccups. You see any free prince in home interiors – kiss immediately! But the kiss must be long so that the breath has time to readjust.

Measured breathing

To even out breathing and get rid of hiccups, inhale and exhale for five counts. Take a short pause between inhalation and exhalation. Repeat from five times. Slow breathing relieves the spasm that causes the diaphragm to contract, and the hiccups go away.

Valsalva Maneuver

Think of an action that helps relieve congestion in the ears during air flight. It has a beautiful name “Valsalva maneuver” and serves to equalize the pressure in the internal cavities of the skull with the pressure of the environment. Cover your nose and mouth with your hand and exhale strongly. You can repeat several times until the hiccups subside. However, this exercise should not be performed for colds and with caution for people with diseases of the cardiovascular system, since the Valsalva maneuver increases blood pressure.

Drink from the back of the glass

This seemingly strange action distracts the brain and stops “hearing” signals from the diaphragm. Take a glass of water, lean it against your chin, wrap your lips around the far edge and take a few sips.

Suck on an ice cube

Place an ice cube on your tongue and suck for a few minutes. When it decreases, swallow.

Induce gag reflex

Swipe a piece of cotton wool or the tip of a toothbrush over the palate to activate the gag reflex. This will help stimulate the vagus nerve and the hiccups will subside.

Push down on the diaphragm

You can use a mechanical method to get rid of hiccups. Press your hand below the sternum – so you weaken the spasm of the diaphragm.

Carotid artery massage

Lie down, turn your head to the left and feel the place where the pulse beats on the right side of the neck. Put your fingers there and massage in a circular motion for 5-10 seconds without strong pressure.

Breathe into a paper bag

Place a paper bag against your nose and mouth. Take slow breaths in and out, inflating and deflating it.

Take the correct posture

Sit on the floor or other flat surface, pull your knees to your chest, wrapping your arms around them. In this case, you need to tilt the body forward as much as possible. This twist will help relax the diaphragm muscles. Stay in this pose for a few minutes. In the absence of the opportunity to sit down, you can simply lean forward.

Breathe over ammonia

Not only strong smells, but also bright tastes relieve hiccups. Therefore, try to dissolve in your mouth a spoonful of honey, nut paste or jam. You can just put a handful of granulated sugar on your tongue.

Eat sweets

Not only strong smells, but also bright tastes relieve hiccups. Therefore, try to dissolve in your mouth a spoonful of honey, nut paste or jam. You can just put a handful of granulated sugar on your tongue.


Gargle with cold water for thirty seconds. Of course, this advice is not suitable for those who suffer from diseases of the nasopharynx.


How can an adult get rid of hiccups? The answer can be very simple and pleasant – reach an orgasm. Whether it happens as a result of sex with a partner or masturbation is not important.

Drink through a napkin

Fill a glass with cold water and place a paper towel or napkin over its neck. Sip slowly through this paper filter to relieve throat and diaphragm spasm.

What if the hiccups don’t go away?

Normally, hiccups don’t last too long, and usually one of the simple home remedies helps quickly. However, there are cases that require medical intervention. You should consult your doctor if you have hiccups for more than three hours, or if the hiccups are accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting, severe coughing, or a feeling of choking.

What can I do to prevent hiccups from coming back?

If hiccups are caused by lifestyle habits and do not require medical attention, they can be prevented by following simple guidelines.

  1. Eat more slowly to prevent swallowing air while eating.
  2. Reduce portions of food so that overeating does not lead to irritation of the esophagus.
  3. Cut down on spicy foods that irritate the walls of the stomach and esophagus.
  4. Avoid alcohol – it also irritates the digestive organs. And prolonged abuse of alcohol can cause an increase in the liver, which, in turn, will put pressure on the lungs and diaphragm.
  5. Give up carbonated drinks – the reason is the same as with spicy food.
  6. Learn breathing exercises and relaxation techniques to be able to relax your muscles and relieve stress in time.

Is hiccups dangerous?

Usually hiccups are a harmless and quickly resolving condition, but if the phrenic or vagus nerve is irritated, it can be prolonged.

Hiccups in and of themselves are not dangerous, but can be a serious symptom that indicates that the body is in danger. These diseases include:

  • intoxication;
  • diabetes;
  • stroke;
  • traumatic brain injury;
  • many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

If hiccup attacks occur frequently, and you can’t get rid of them with simple methods, then this is a sure signal that you need to contact your doctor.

How to get rid of hiccups in a baby?

Very young children often hiccup, and the most common reason for this is swallowing air while eating. The stomach swells and presses on the diaphragm, causing a spasm. Also, hiccups can be caused by diseases of the digestive system, hypothermia and stress. How to get rid of hiccups in a baby at home?

  • Massage your baby’s tummy to relieve bloating. You can also use a gas tube or give your baby dill water.
  • If the hiccups are caused by overeating, hold the baby upright for 15 minutes. So the food will pass through the esophagus faster, and excess air will come out with it.
  • If hypothermia is the cause of the hiccups, you know what to do – just keep your little one warm.
  • If the baby starts hiccuping because of fright, try giving it a drink.

Video with useful tips on how to get rid of hiccups


Click and watch

Why a person hiccups, how to get rid of hiccups, what to do if it doesn’t go away for a long time

01 .11


Author: Evlali Vasilyeva, therapist

Once people believed that if a child hiccups, it means that he is growing. It is now known that the sound “ik” gives rise to a sudden contraction of the diaphragm and closing of the vocal cords. We tell you what helps with hiccups and what to do if it does not go away.

What it is

Under the ribcage is the diaphragm – a horizontally located muscle that conditionally divides the body into chest and abdomen along the lower edge of the ribs.

When hiccups, the following happens: the diaphragm stretches down between breaths, drawing air into the body. At this time, the space between the vocal cords closes to stop the flow of air. As a result, a characteristic “ik” sound appears.

Why do people hiccup

A sharp jerk of the hand from touching something hot or sneezing after inhaling dust are reflexes. Since they save a person from a burn and, possibly, an allergic reaction, they are called protective. Hiccups are also a reflex, but why it occurs is unknown.

An external stimulus is required for a reflex to occur. Small children hiccup more often than adults – hiccups are provoked by swallowing large amounts of food along with air.

There is evidence that newborns most often hiccup, up to 40 minutes a day – tells PhD, gastroenterologist of the Fantasy children’s clinic Evgenia Mukhametova . Considering this fact, one of the versions suggests that with the help of the hiccup mechanism, the air swallowed during breast sucking is facilitated from the stomach. With age, the reflex weakens and hiccups occur much less frequently.

In adults, too, the reflex triggers a quick and rich meal, plus spicy and spicy food provokes hiccups. It is also caused by feelings of anxiety and excitement, taking anti-anxiety drugs – benzodiazepines and overstretching of the muscles of the neck.

One way or another, any of the above factors irritates the nerves that affect the act of breathing. They, in turn, irritate the nerve endings in the diaphragm and start the process of its lowering and sharp inhalation, closing of the vocal cords.

How to help and should I call Fedot

Hiccups go away on their own after a few seconds or minutes. Saying “hiccup, hiccup, switch to Fedot” is not the best way to stop the reflex, because during a conversation a person swallows air, which provokes irritation of the nerves.

Here is what they advise you to try in the fight against hiccups:

  • Hold your breath
  • Quickly drink a glass of water
  • Swallow crushed ice, crackers or some sugar
  • Gently pull your tongue
  • Gag reflex with fingers
  • Gently rub the eyes
  • Breathe into a paper bag.

When holding the breath, it is assumed that temporary cessation of breathing allows you to restore the normal rhythm of one of the nerves involved in the act of breathing. Another version: breathing into a bag or holding it increases the level of CO2 in the blood, since its lack is considered one of the causes of hiccups.

It is important to hold your breath correctly , – explains neurologist, rehabilitation specialist GMS Clinic Tigran Makichyan . With slow inhalation, holding the breath for a few seconds and slow exhalation. You can peep the correct technique in meditation videos or vocal lessons, because they teach not only to voice, but also to control your own breathing by relaxing the diaphragm.

And even the methods from the list above are not a panacea. None of these maneuvers have been clinically tested, and therefore all of them are recommendations with a low level of evidence.

When hiccups are a suspicious sign

Most often, hiccups are a nuisance lasting several minutes. But there are cases when its duration exceeds a day, or even months.

If hiccups do not go away within 48 hours, this is a reason to contact a doctor for help. Finding the cause is not always easy. For example, chronic hiccups can be provoked by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Irritation of the diaphragm causes pneumonia or surgery on the lungs or gastrointestinal tract. In more rare cases, hiccups are a symptom that appears after a stroke or a consequence of the growth of a tumor in the brain.

More than 100 possible associations have been described in the literature, but many of them are based only on individual clinical cases , – Evgenia Mukhametova explains . — Gastrointestinal diseases do predominate among peripheral causes. Reflux esophagitis and the presence of a large hiatal hernia are often cited as causes of persistent hiccups. However, there is evidence that reflux can be both a cause and an effect. Rarer causes of pathological hiccups from the gastrointestinal tract: esophageal cancer, tumor or abscess in the abdominal cavity, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction. But these pathologies, as a rule, have other warning signs that will make a person see a doctor.

Since chronic hiccups occur with serious illnesses, it will not be the only complaint of the patient. During the examination, the doctor will first of all look for symptoms of gastric juice reflux into the esophagus, assess whether it is difficult for a person to swallow, whether he has chest pain and cough. If necessary, they will conduct a neurological examination to exclude damage to the nervous system.

How to treat persistent hiccups

First of all, you need to find the root cause and treat it – then the hiccups will most likely disappear without a trace. But it is not always possible to understand what causes the reflex. In this case, there are several drugs that help in relieving hiccups. These include the muscle relaxant baclofen, the chronic pain and seizure drug gabapentin, and the antipsychotic chlorpromazine. All of them are issued strictly by prescription and have their own side effects and contraindications

The doctor selects the drug individually, comparing the benefits and harms of the drug, and also takes responsibility for the treatment, because all of the listed drugs for hiccups are prescribed off-label. Each medicine in the instructions has a column “Indications for taking the drug” – a list of diseases and conditions that are treated with it.