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Can you go swimming with a yeast infection: Consequences of an Untreated Yeast Infection? Relation with UTI?


Consequences of an Untreated Yeast Infection? Relation with UTI?

Q1. I have had only one previous yeast infection. I think I might have another one now, but the symptoms could also be happening because I’m getting my period. If it is a yeast infection, what will happen if it goes untreated? What are the consequences of this?

— Vanessa, Massachusetts

Untreated yeast infections do not have long-term consequences, such as infertility or scarring. They tend to be uncomfortable, and can cause discharge and burning, but they do not cause permanent damage.

However, if you are trying to become pregnant and have an active infection, it should be treated because it can delay or prevent pregnancy. The reason for this is not clear, but because a yeast infection affects the pH of the vaginal secretions, it may make the vagina unfriendly to sperm.

Q2. I have a vaginal yeast infection and am wondering whether I can still use my spa? What about a swimming pool? Can I pass the infection on this way? What do you suggest?

It is safe to use your spa or a swimming pool while you have a yeast infection. The infection is not contagious in this way — it can only be passed through sexual contact. The contagion rate is actually so low that even with sexual contact, a person is not particularly likely to become infected.

The main precaution you should take is to keep the vaginal area as dry as possible once you leave the pool or spa, since yeast (also known as fungus) grows best in a moist environment. Be sure to dry off well, change out of a wet bathing suit right away, and use a drying agent, such as talcum powder, to stay dry if you perspire heavily.

Q3. My urine has a yeast-like odor. I have treated the odor with yeast infection over-the-counter drugs and it will go away for a few days, then return. I do not have any pain or itching, just this strange odor. Could a yeast infection really present itself this way?

— Trilby, Ohio

Fungal infections of the urine are uncommon. Most urinary tract infections are due to bacteria, and the presence of a urinary yeast infection often implies an underlying abnormality, such as diabetes, a foreign body within the urinary tract, or prolonged antibiotic use with antibacterial medications. Urinary yeast infections do not necessarily have a characteristic odor, and it is important to determine whether or not you have an active infection. It is unlikely that the only symptom of an active yeast infection in the urinary tract would be malodor. Nevertheless, men and women can sometimes have asymptomatic colonization of the urinary tract with either bacteria or yeast (fungus). Urine cultures are effective at identifying both bacterial and fungal causes of infection. Another possibility is that the patient has a vaginal or genital skin yeast infection that is causing the characteristic odor.

Learn more in the Everyday Health Yeast Infection Center.

This is why women are more prone to yeast infections in summer

Are you more prone to yeast infections in summer? There are a couple of reasons why.

Summer – a time for sun, swimming… and uncomfortable yeast infections. You may wonder why you’re more prone to yeast infections during the warmer months.

A vaginal yeast infection can cause the following symptoms:

  • Vaginal itching and/or soreness
  • A thick, white discharge which may resemble cottage cheese and smell like baking bread
  • Burning discomfort around the vaginal opening, especially when urinating
  • Pain or discomfort during sexual intercourse
  • Redness and swelling of the vulva

Here are four reasons why women are more prone to yeast infections during the warmer months – and what you can do to avoid the problem.

1. Wet swimwear 

If you make a habit if lounging around in your wet swimming costume straight after getting out of the pool or ocean, stop doing it. While water from pools and seawater won’t cause a yeast infection, the prolonged wearing of wet swimming costumes will increase your risk of yeast overgrowth.

Avoid this: Always take a dry set of clothes when you go swimming. If you plan to lounge around the pool, a dry swimming costume might be a good idea. Rinse yourself and change into dry clothes straight after swimming if you are prone to yeast infections.

 2. Synthetic materials and tight clothing 

You may be tempted to wear lace underwear, or may live in your bikini bottoms all summer long. But synthetic materials like lycra can trap heat, which can cause you to sweat more, creating the ideal environment for yeast to grow.

Avoid this: Stick to cotton underwear. It’s more breathable and less likely to cause a yeast overgrowth or irritation.

 3. An unhealthy diet

We are all guilty of overindulging during the summer months – more sugary treats, more cocktails. Unfortunately, refined sugar causes blood sugar spikes, which can increase your risk for yeast overgrowth, leading to a yeast infection. On top of that, excessive sugar compromises the immune system, making it harder for your body to fight yeast infections.

Avoid this: You don’t have to skip the treats completely, but maintain a balanced diet by getting plenty of nutrients from fruits and vegetables. You can also take a daily probiotic to optimise your gut bacteria. You can also swap the ice-cream for yogurt as this contains probiotics to fight yeast infections. 

 4. Stress

The summer months mark the end of the year in the Southern Hemisphere, adding additional pressure to our lives. Trying to meet deadlines, end-of-year exams, getting ready for the festive season all cause stress, challenging your immune system and making you more susceptible to yeast infections.

Avoid this: Make time for relaxation in your day, even if it’s just a couple of minutes to meditate or de-stress. Get regular exercise and take a probiotic.

Image credits: iStock

Should You Take Your Little One Swimming When They Have A Diaper Rash?

photo credit: abardwell via photopin cc

In our last post we discussed some of the facts regarding diaper rashes and swimming for infants and toddlers. However, you may still be wondering if it is safe to take your L.O swimming if they have an irritated diaper rash. Like we mentioned in our last blog, it is completely okay to go swimming as long as the area is protected by zinc containing diaper rash cream like Baby Butz. However, you may want to use your discretion when deciding if the rash is too severe to go.
When considering this, it is also important to know the difference between a diaper rash and a yeast infection. Swimming with a yeast infection is not recommended because the moisture could actually make the infection worse. . Typically, a prescription ointment is required to heal a yeast infection. As soon as you noticed that your child has one you should make an appointment with your paediatrician.

Things To Know About Yeast Infections and Swimming

Although, it is completely safe to take a child in the water with a diaper rash, swimming with a yeast infection is a bad idea for two main reasons. The fungus that causes yeast infections thrives in wet and moist environments. This is why sitting in a wet diaper and bathing suit is not advisable if your child has one. The other reason is because chlorine and chemicals may irritate the infected area further making it uncomfortable for your child afterwards.
A common misconception about swimming and yeast infections is that you should not swim with one because it could be spread to others. This is absolutely not true or likely. Your child cannot spread his/or her yeast infection to other infants in the pool!
When it comes to swimming it is important that parents know the difference between a diaper rash and a yeast infection. When your child has a diaper rash it is still okay to play in the water. However, with yeast an infection you want to be more cautious.

Brandie Michelle Peters is a full time blogger and work from home toddler wrangling mommy from Medicine Hat, Alberta. When she isn’t writing fantastic word garble her young son and husky keep her busy! You can check out her more of her work at www. hatmusings.com


How to Make It Through the Whole Summer Without Getting a Yeast Infection

Sweet, sweet summertime: Lazy days by the pool, bright sunshine, and sometimes say-it-ain’t-so yeast infections. Unfortunately, warmer temps can bring with them an increased risk of this pesky issue, says Natasha Johnson, M.D., a gynecologist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. “Some women who are at risk or prone to yeast infections notice that summer can be a time of flaring,” she says. It has to do with the heat: Moisture gets trapped and yeast can overgrow, she says. (Lovely.) But you don’t have to avoid the pool like the plague or fear days spent in bikinis. Just make these simple swaps, and you’ll be itch-free all the way to fall.

1. Seriously: Ditch the Wet Clothes
So you finish a long run, and instead of slipping into fresh new (ahem, dry) clothes, you tackle a list of errands. We’ve all been there. And hey, we’re all for the athleisure look. But walking around in damp clothes means a moist environment that’s ripe for yeast to grow, says Johnson. So pack a clean pair of shorts or an extra bathing suit if you’re spending the day at the beach. Even if you don’t have time to shower, dry bottoms help keep yeast at bay, she says.

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2. Say Yes to Cotton
Lingerie is tempting, but it’s common for the skin around your vag to grow irritated by sexy materials like lace or mesh. That’s why Johnson suggests sticking with cotton. It’s less likely to trap heat, and thus, less likely to bug ya.

RELATED: These Are Officially the Most Effective Ways to Treat Yeast Infections

3. Skip the Hot Tub
“Hot tubs are notorious for harboring bacteria that can change the acid and PH levels in the vagina and cause yeast to grow,” says Johnson. Also: Private hot tubs (i.e. the one in your friend’s backyard) aren’t typically chlorinated, which means yeast has an even better chance of fluorishing, she says. If you’re going to dip, make sure it’s in a tub that’s treated with chlorine, and cap your soaks at a few minutes. Or, opt for the pool instead. Chlorine kills yeast, says Johnson, so get your swim on.

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4. Let Your Legs Breathe
Flaunt your tiniest mini skirt, sans stockings: Doctor’s orders! “What’s really bad is the fabric of pantyhose,” says Johnson. “It traps heat and moisture and can cause yeast infections.” (Hey, you don’t have to tell us twice to trash our tights.)

5. Choose Yogurt as Your Chilled Dessert of Choice
Yogurt with active acidophilus—a bacteria that exists naturally in the vagina—can help treat yeast. Some ladies find relief from recurrent symptoms with yogurts like this or probiotics, says Johnson.

RELATED: 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Having Sex with a Yeast Infection

6. Throw Out the Thongs
Backless underwear doesn’t in itself cause yeast infections, says Johnson. But if you have hoo-ha troubles, docs typically suggest skipping them since they can bother your skin.

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7. Take Preventative Measures
Sometimes there’s no way around it. Summertime = yeast infections (we hear you, girl). But there’s hope! Docs can prescribe a weekly preventative dose of an oral anti-fungal medicine called fluconazole for high-risk patients, says Johnson. If you think you need it, talk to your ob-gyn—summer’s too short!

Gifs courtesy of giphy.com

Cassie Shortsleeve
Freelance Writer
Cassie Shortsleeve is a skilled freelance writer and editor with almost a decade of experience reporting on all things health, fitness, and travel.

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Hidden dangers in swimming pools

Research shows that swimming pools, shared by many people, carry risks for many infections. Nasal infections, bacterial skin infections, vaginal infections and urinary tract infections are common – contagious – threats caused by swimming in pools. Bacteria from open wounds, fungi and bacteria on the skin can easily infect the body’s flora through the water. Bacteria may be especially harmful for children and those with sensitive skin. Therefore, it’s important to practice hygienic methods when using the swimming pool to prevent exposure to potentially deadly bacteria. Wearing a swim cap, taking a shower and washing your feet with disinfectant are crucial measures to take before entering the pool this summer.

Fungal infections are the most common type of infectious disease found in swimming pools. Commonly affecting the feet and the fingers, fungal infections can be prevented by cleansing the skin with antibacterial solution. Thoroughly disinfect your feet before entering a swimming pool. Also, if you have diarrhea, a urinary tract infection or open wounds, you shouldn’t enter the swimming pool. Unlike saltwater, which has naturally disinfecting properties, pools cannot disinfect themselves and are sometimes not properly chlorinated. So, how can we know if a swimming pool is clean or not?

Non-disinfected pools

Scientists highlight that when cleaning pools, ozone gas is the best disinfecting method that can be used. However, this method requires an ozone gas cleaning system be installed within the pool itself when it is being built. Since this is not a common method, the most widely used method of sanitizing pools is by using chlorine. However, chlorine has negative side effects for both the skin and the fabric of your swimsuit, as it causes colors to fade and can cause toxicity if it enters the lungs. When used in small amounts, chlorine does have disinfectant properties. Therefore, the amount of chlorine used in a pool is very important. This is where the factor of pool maintenance comes in. First, a pool’s chlorine level must be monitored via testing twice a day. If chlorine levels are not properly monitored, excessive chlorine levels could cause vomiting and cramping in swimmers. Check with the hotel’s management to learn if they have certified maintenance crews properly disinfecting the pool with the correct chlorine levels as suggested by the local municipality. In addition, people who will use the pool should ask how often the pool is being cleaned.

Murky waters

The water in a swimming pool should never be cloudy or murky. If you can’t see to the bottom of the swimming pool, do not swim there, as doing so could put you at risk for infectious diseases and even death.Dangers of algaeIf you are swimming in a natural or man-made lake this summer, beware of the hazards to your health. Although lakes might seem like a healthier option because of their natural appeal and stunning scenery, lakes can pose certain hazards as well. Blue-green algae is commonly seen in lakes and can sometimes produce toxic cyanobacteria. Algae is slimy and found on the surface of lakes and has a strong odor and a green color. Therefore, you should check the surface of the water before entering. Since you won’t be able to see the entire surface, using your sense of smell is another precautionary measure against algae. If there is a smell coming from the surface of the lake, there may be algae present that you cannot see. Another point to consider before swimming in a lake is the clarity of the water. Take a stick and stir the water. If you see algae or seaweed on the stick, or if particles appear on the water’s surface, I wouldn’t recommend that you enter the lake.

Deadly dirty diapers

We know that water is a natural part of the physical and social development of babies. However, how sure can you be about the cleanliness of the water the baby will enter? You need to be careful if there are other babies from a different age group in the swimming pool, as most of the babies in the pool will be wearing diapers. Feces can accidentally leak from diapers, leaving others in the pool prone to diseases. Since such leakage could spread in the pool, you need to be careful about your baby. If your baby vomits or has diarrhea after swimming in the pool, make sure that a doctor examines your child.

Don’t mingle with the crowd

If a pool is too crowded, I recommend that you visit the sea instead. Overcrowded pools lead to fungi, bacteria and viruses that infect the water. High chlorine levels in the water or regular disinfection doesn’t always prevent these diseases.

Common infections from swimming pools

Eye infections

Conjunctivitis can form in the eye, as chlorine irritates the eye. Bacterial conjunctivitis causes blurry vision, while chemical conjunctivitis causes redness and pain in the eye. If you experience these symptoms after swimming in the pool, then, you may use underwater goggles. Visit a doctor if your symptoms worsen.

Ear Infections

Ear infections can be caused by water that remains inside the ear after swimming. “Swimmer’s Ear” or otisis externa infection is not the same as the otisis externa infection experienced during early childhood. The infection forms at the external auditory canal and causes irritation and pain to people from all ages. Common symptoms are itchiness, redness, swelling of the ear, pain when pressure is exerted on the ear, lower levels of hearing, ringing in the ears and a sense of fullness in the ear. In order to avoid ear infections, consider the following:

– In order to avoid otisis externa, make sure your ears are dry as much as possible.

– Put on a swim cap and place ear plugs in the ears before entering the water.

– To make sure there is no water left in your external auditory canal, turn your head right and left to let the water run out.

– Try keeping your head dry as much as possible.

– Use towels to properly dry your ears.

– If there is still water left in your ears, try using a hair dryer to dry the air inside the external auditory canal. Make sure the dryer is at the lowest temperature and fan speed. Hold it a few centimeters away from your ears.

– Do not use cotton swabs or ear sticks in the ear canal. Such objects may harm the wax that protects your external auditory canal against infections.

– If you feel irritation, itchiness, redness and pain, consult a doctor.

Digestive System Infections

Filtering systems are commonly used in swimming pools. This causes the mixed water coming from multiple pools to spread potential infections to other pools connected via this system. This increases the risk of diarrhea microbes missed during the chlorination stage that can travel through the pool’s filtration system. In order to avoid exposure to such microbes:

– Do not use swimming pools if you aren’t sure about the chlorine level and cleanliness.

– Take showers before and after entering the pool.

– Try not to swallow any water.

Take precautions

– If the swimming pool you’re using isn’t clean enough, do not swim there.

– Avoid pools that do not have proper water circulation or that don’t have a proper chlorination system.

– Change out of your wet swimming suits or bikinis after swimming.

– Take a shower before and after the pool.

– Do not swallow pool water.

– Do not use the swimming pool if it is too crowded.

– Dry yourself thoroughly after swimming in the pool.

– Do no enter the pool with street shoes or slippers.

– Since infants under the age of two are vulnerable towards water and diseases, do not let them swim in the pool.

– Use underwater goggles, swimming caps and ear plugs before entering the pool.

Wearing a Wet Swim Suit Causes Yeast Infections?

Suiting up for swimsuit season? Don’t forget to change out of your wet or damp bathing suit after stepping out of the pool.   Wearing a wet bathing suit for too long can lead to a vaginal yeast infection.

“Bathing suits are the perfect breeding ground for yeast,” says Tia Guster, M.D., an obstetrician and gynecologist at Piedmont.  “You have moisture in an intimate area that is warm and dark. These are the types of conditions where yeast and bacteria thrive.”

What is a vaginal yeast infection?

A vaginal yeast infection is a fungal infection caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida albicans.  This causes the skin on and around the vulva to become red, itchy and inflamed and may be accompanied by an odor-free discharge that looks like cottage cheese.

“Sometimes people have a little bit of spotting if it’s a really bad yeast infection,” says Dr. Guster.

Certain medical conditions make women more susceptible to yeast infections. Women who are pregnant, obese, diabetic or immunocompromised are more likely to develop yeast infections.

How are yeast infections treated?

Yeast infections are very common and fortunately, you can treat them with over-the-counter solutions,” says Dr. Guster. “Most treatments come in one- day, three-day or seven-day options, and they include an antifungal to treat the infection and a steroid cream or anti-inflammatory agent to calm down the irritation.”

Some antifungals can also be taken orally.

If you use an over-the-counter medication and your symptoms persist, or if you notice bleeding or large amounts of discharge, contact your doctor.

Tips to prevent yeast infections

Yeast infections are uncomfortable, but don’t hang up your towel just yet. Dr. Guster has a few tips to keep them at bay:

  • Change out of your wet swimsuit. Don’t lounge around in a wet swimsuit. Change into a new, dry swimsuit. Or you can wash your wet swimsuit and use a blow dryer to expedite the drying process.
  • Wear loose, flowy clothing. “If you’re going to have your bathing suit on all day, wear a sarong, dress or loose fitting shorts that let air circulate and get that area dry faster,” says Dr. Guster.
  • Choose a swimsuit with moisture wicking protection. Moisture wicking bathing suits remove moisture from your skin and bring it to the surface of your swimsuit until it evaporates.

If you would like to schedule an appointment with a gynecologist near you, we can help you Find A Doc.

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Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran

Iran J Public Health. 2010; 39(3): 124–128.

Published online 2010 Sep 30.

A Rafiei

1Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, Infectious and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Ahwaz Joundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Iran

N Amirrajab

2Dept. of Laboratory Sciences, Paramedical School, and Infectious and Tropical Medicine Research Center Ahwaz Joundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Iran

1Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, Infectious and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Ahwaz Joundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Iran

2Dept. of Laboratory Sciences, Paramedical School, and Infectious and Tropical Medicine Research Center Ahwaz Joundishapour University of Medical Sciences, Iran

Received 2010 Mar 17; Accepted 2010 Aug 22.

Copyright © Iranian Public Health Association & Tehran University of Medical Sciences

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 3.0 License (CC BY-NC 3.0), which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.



Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran.


Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing.


A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi.


Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers.

Keywords: Swimming pool, Dermatophytes, Saprophytic fungi, Iran


There are growing rates of people attend swimming pools for recreational, rehabilitative treatment or sport, especially in tropical area. Dermatophytosis, which is the most common fungal cutaneous infection, is a communicable disease mainly transmitted by human sources and swimming pools have high potential to transfer this infection. Environmental surfaces of public swimming pools may be contaminated by many species of fungi especially in tropic climates. Therefore, they could play as one of the most important sources for fungal transmission to the swimmers. Isolation of dermatophytes from public swimming pools have been investigated and reported by a number of investigators (1–13). Existence of pathogenic fungi in environmental public places is still one of the most important transmission key.

Saprophytic fungi and yeast organisms have potential pathogenecity for candidiasis, otomycosis, asthma and allergy (5, 9, 14). Although susceptible persons may be infected from different places, however, it should be noted that pools environment have their importance role in contribution to spread these agents, especially in subtropical humid climates.

In order to indicate the frequency of fungal contamination and to control and prevent fungal diseases among public pools swimmers, the present study was designed to investigate environmental and water sources of indoor public swimming pools in Ahwaz capital city of Khouzestan Province.

Materials and Methods

Sample collection

Ten indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz City were investigated during six months (summer and winter). Samples were collected two times per month, first and fifteenth of every month. Water samples were taken from the swimming pools and foot-washing sink.

To neutralize the chlorine residual, sodium thiosulfate was added in the sampling bottles of water collection (15). All samples were transfered to the laboratory, where they were passed through milipore filters with 0.45 μm size. Filters were cultured on Mycosel agar (Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with Chloramphenicol and Cyclohexamide) and Sabouraud’s dextrose agar. The plates were incubated at 25°C for 3 weeks, and examined at frequent intervals.

Environmental samples were taken from shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by a piece of steril carpet (size of 4×5 cm2). The piece of carpets were rubbed against the dried surfaces, wrapped in sterile aluminum foil, and transferred to laboratory. Carpet pieces were shaken over the culture media under the sterile condition of biological hood. The plates were incubated as mentioned earlier.

Fungi identification

Isolation and identification of fungi were achieved by macroscopic colony characterization and microscopic examination. Dermatophyte confirmation was undertaken by complementary tests such as hair penetration, corn meal agar medium containing 2% dextrose, and urea medium when it was necessary. Yeast identification was only based on colony characterization. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing.


Of 593 total collected samples, 323(54.47%) were positive for fungi agent. The most common fungal contaminations were as follows: 372(89.2%) saprophytic, 32(7.7%) yeast and 13(3.1%) dermatophyte species.

Dermatophytes were isolated 13 times as follows: below dressing rooms area 10 cases, margin of pool walls 2 cases, and foot washing sink one case. The isolated dermatophytes species were Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum (). The fungi isolated from water of swimming pools included saprophytic filamentous and some of yeast species with predominant of Aspergillus and Penicillium (). According to our results, fungi species such as Aspergillus, Mucor, Yeast and Penicillium were in high frequency among isolated agents from environmental surfaces.

Types of isolated dermatophytic fungi from environmental and foot washing sink of swimming pools

Types of isolated saprophytic fungi from water of swimming pools

Mean pools water pH was 6. 33–7.29, and average residual chlorine concentration was 1.76 (SD=0.85–2.75).


Different studies indicated that swimming pools may play as a potential resources for spreading of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic fungi to human populations (1, 4–6). This is more important in tropical distict especially during summer, because of more bather users.

Our result indicated that isolation of dermatophytes in 13 cases, which is one of the most important points of the present study. It is in agreement with some other studies (1–13). Most of these cases were isolated from floor of changing rooms. Isolation of dermatophytes agents from environmental area of swimming pools have been reported by previous investigators (1–7, 11–13). This part of public swimming pools has suitable environmental condition for fungal agents. Contamination of environmental pools, mainly comes from fungal particle shed from infected bathers, predominantly from tinea pedis cases who usually walk bare footed on the floor (1–5, 11, 12). Special attention should be regarded for hygienic condition of this area, as it is being used by all bath users and potentially is the most important of infection source. The current study revealed isolation of T. rubrum from foot washer sink which is enriched with chloride residue, as antimicrobial agent. We were not been able to find any similar report in literature review. Isolation of T. rubrum from high concentration chloride may be an indication of dermatophytes resistance, or species biodiversity that needs more details consideration.

Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were the most common dermatophytes isolated, from floor of changing rooms. These dermatophytes are the most causative agents of tinea pedis (9). As mentioned previously bathers were spreading fungal spore while walking on the floor, which is in agreement with other authors, to prevent these infections, regional health policy makers should advised swimming pools managers to clean frequently and carefully, especially floors and environment of changing area (8,16–20).

The present study indicated that saprophytic and/or pathogenic fungi were isolated from %54.47 of water or environmental samples. Bath users are in water and environment contact and even water may be swallowed accidentally, therefore sanitary quality of indoor public swimming pools is one of the critical point to prevent any possible fungi infection.

The present study indicated the existence of saprophytic agents i.e. Aspergillus, Mucor and Rhizopus in water and environmental pools which are in agreement even with recent researches (20, 21).

In view of isolation of saprophytic and pathogenic fungi from water and environmental sources of swimming pools, it can be concluded that more attention regarding hygienic disciplines on bath users and swimming pools regulation, i.e. effective cleaning before and after bath must be undertaken to prevent fungal diseases.

Ethical Consideration

Ethical issues (Including plagiarism, Informed Consent, misconduct, data fabrication and/or falsification, double publication and/or submission, redundancy, etc) have been completely observed by the authors.


We are grateful of Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, East and West Health Centers and swimming pools staff for their collaboration and Mr. Mohammad Ali Gharri for sample collection. This work was supported by a grant from Ahwaz Jundishapour University of Medical Sciences. The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Has your dog ever had an ear infection? Are you worried that your dog may have an ear infection now or be at risk for one in the future? There are some important things owners need to know about ear infections in dogs.

Ear infections are quite common in dogs. In fact, they are among the most common health problems seen in dogs.Some dogs are more susceptible to ear infections than others. As a dog owner, you need to learn about the signs and causes of ear infections and how to help your dog.

Anatomy of a dog’s ear

The visible part of a dog’s ear (flap or point of skin) is called pinna. The inside of a dog’s ear that is visible from the outside is called the outer ear canal. This part starts with a vertical channel, then takes a turn and becomes a horizontal channel. Next is the thin piece of tissue that makes up the ear drum (eardrum).The ear drum separates the outer canal from the dog’s middle and inner ear.

Ear infections often begin in the external ear canal, which includes both vertical and horizontal canals. The lining of the canal produces sebum (oil) and wax. When sebum, wax, hair, moisture, and debris build up in the ear canal, it can become a breeding ground for yeast and bacteria. This can lead to ear infections.

Causes of ear infections in dogs

Ear infections occur when excess bacteria and / or yeast grows in the ear canal.The ear canal becomes inflamed (called otitis externa).

Some dogs secrete more earwax and sebum than others. Some have too much ear hair. These conditions make the ears more prone to developing infections.

Dogs that swim a lot may have excess moisture in their ears, leading to overgrowth of bacteria and / or yeast.

Dogs with allergies are also more prone to developing ear infections because ear inflammation can be secondary to allergies.

Certain dog breeds, such as Basset Hounds and Cocker Spaniels, are particularly susceptible to ear infections.

Signs of ear infections in dogs

Dogs with ear infections may have one or more of the following:

  • Frequent shaking of the head
  • Scratched ears
  • Smell from ears
  • Excess debris in the ears and / or discharge from the ears
  • Red, irritated ears (sometimes painful)
  • Scars and / or hair loss around ears (from scratches)
  • Head tilt

How ear infections are diagnosed in dogs> You should bring your dog to the vet at the first sign of an ear infection.Typically, a veterinarian or veterinary technician will use a swab to obtain a sample of debris / discharge from the ear. The sample will be examined under a microscope to determine the presence of yeast or bacteria, a process often referred to as ear cytology and an important diagnostic tool.

The presence of yeast or bacteria (or both) confirms the diagnosis of an ear infection. Dogs with ear yeast infections often have dark brown or black debris in their ears. Dogs with bacterial ear infections may have yellow-brown debris or even greenish pus coming out of the ears.However, without microscopic evidence, one cannot be sure of the type of ear infection present.

Treatment of ear infection

Once an ear infection is diagnosed, your veterinarian will discuss the correct treatment and how to prevent recurrence.

In many cases, your veterinarian will clean your dog’s ears. If there is excessive ear hair, it may be ripped off (as long as your dog’s ears are not too painful). Removing excess debris / secretions / hair is usually an important step to start the healing process and allow medications to work.

Your veterinarian will most likely prescribe a liquid ear medicine that will be placed directly in the ears. You will usually need to apply ear medication one to three times a day. You can also send using ear ear or ear solution and show you how to clean your dog’s ears regularly.

One or more oral medications (antibiotic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory) may also be prescribed by your veterinarian. It depends on the severity of the infection and your veterinarian’s decision on the best treatment.

It is very important to follow your veterinarian’s advice when it comes to managing ear infections.

Otherwise, serious and potentially irreversible complications may arise. Don’t stop early if you think the infection is gone. If you think your dog is better, or if the treatment does not seem to be working, contact your veterinarian for advice.

It is just as important that you receive treatment with a recommended veterinarian, it is also very important that you bring your dog back for follow-up checks if it is recommended (or if the ears do not improve).

Prevention of ear infections in dogs

At home, it’s up to you to prevent recurrence of ear infections. If your dog’s ear infections are caused by allergies, learn how you can help manage allergies.

Regardless of the cause of your ear infection, one of the most important things you can do to prevent recurrence is to start an ear cleaning regimen. Ask your veterinarian for a good ear cleaning tool that is gentle and will dry your ears.Many veterinarians recommend an ear cleaning solution called Epi-Otic from Virbac.

Most veterinarians recommend weekly ear cleaning while the ear infection is still present. Once your ear infection has cleared up, you should check your ears at least once a week. The ears should be carefully cleaned whenever you see debris. For dogs prone to developing ear infections, you should visit the ears regularly (weekly, monthly, etc. Clean less or more depending on your dog).

If your dog has a tendency to grow hair in the ear canals, the hair should be plucked regularly (usually every 2 months or so depending on the rate of growth) Ask a veterinarian, veterinarian or dog groomer technician to show you how to do this. … Or, schedule regular appointments for the groomer dog to rip out your dog’s ears.

Complications of chronic and / or untreated ear infections

If the ear infection is left untreated, further damage may occur.The dog may develop an auditory hematoma. This happens when the dog shakes its head so hard that a vessel in the ear flap (pin) breaks and blood fills the ear flap. The pinna will look like a pillow or a water balloon, and the vet will have to treat the ear (sometimes surgically).

More serious complications occur when an ear infection spreads beyond the outer ear canal to the inner / middle ear. Hearing impairment, facial nerve palsy, vestibular dysfunction, eye problems, and other problems may occur.

Chronic ear infections can cause thickening and damage to the skin of the ear canal. The canal itself becomes closed (stenotic), which further complicates the treatment of infections. In the worst cases, veterinarians recommend surgery to remove the ear canal and close the ear permanently, a procedure called total ear canal ablation and bull osteotomy (known as TECA).

Dogs with chronic ear infections require lifelong care. For chronic ear infections, there is no “cure” for everyone.Instead, it’s about keeping your ears clean, keeping allergens to a minimum, and preventing infections from spiraling out of control. Some dogs will need to see a veterinarian every few months or more to diagnose and treat ear infections.

Protect your dog from serious complications by talking to your veterinarian and following veterinary advice. In severe cases, your veterinarian may refer you to a veterinary dermatologist for advanced diagnosis and treatment.

russian translation, synonyms, antonyms, pronunciation, example sentences, transcription, meaning, collocations

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Other Results
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Rachel realized she was mostly undressed, wearing only her soaked underwear. Rachel realized that she was almost naked – she was wearing only wet underwear.
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In 1999, Calvin Klein was the subject of more controversy when it aired advertisements of young children who were only wearing the brand’s underwear. In 1999, Calvin Klein became the subject of even more controversy when it launched an ad for young children wearing only the brand’s underwear.
Wearing cotton underwear may help to reduce the risk of developing skin and vaginal yeast infections, along with not wearing wet clothes for long periods of time. Wearing cotton underwear can help reduce the risk of skin and vaginal yeast infections and avoid wearing wet clothes for extended periods of time.
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This could mean anything from wearing bras and underwear on top of clothing to wearing nothing but a bra and underwear. This can mean anything from wearing bras and underwear over clothing to wearing only bras and underwear.
Despite the lack of evidence, wearing cotton underwear and loose fitting clothing is often recommended as a preventive measure. Despite the lack of evidence, wearing cotton underwear and loose clothing is often recommended as a preventive measure.
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The shirt was an item of clothing that only men could wear as underwear, until the twentieth century. The shirt was an article of clothing that only men could wear as underwear until the twentieth century.
What does the picture of the nude woman do that one wearing, for example, a bra and underwear, wouldn’t? What does a photograph of a naked woman wearing, for example, bra and underwear do, right?

Microbial Hunters – Science Program for Kids by Smart Barcelona

Smart Barcelona has once again provided us with a great opportunity to bring science to our children in an amazing way.In this case, the “Surgery” program was the main character.

It might seem daring that a children’s activity might be related to the world of white coats. Is it possible? Well, we could say yes, since the results were very interesting. The children’s faces conveyed great satisfaction. Whereas the main criterion for measuring intensity and motivation may be based on a desire to explain everything they did, we can assure you that these activities were a great success.

Following the previous format, the day was organized in four medical departments.
In the first ward, surgeons removed the inflamed appendix. A skill task in which the previous palpation, following the established method and subsequent extirpation, will cause the patient to leave the operation unharmed. And then he was given an IV for his subsequent recovery.

In the second medical department, another patient had to find and remove a tumor located in the abdomen.Before the operation, blood samples were analyzed using a microscope, where our little doctors found tumor markers. Immediately thereafter, without much delaying the surgery, they proceeded with the surgery with great success.

The third patient was admitted to the emergency department with a bone stuck in his trachea, where young surgeons performed a tracheotomy and then connected him to a ventilator. Of course, it was a time of high tension, but everyone did just fine.

And finally, in the fourth department, our young maxillofacial surgeons removed and then implanted several teeth. Of course, our dentists had to do this on a special model with a jaw and teeth. After removing the tooth, they placed a post and, using ultraviolet radiation, firmly fixed the crown on it.

So that no one was scared, the patients were dolls, lidocaine – lidocaine, teeth – artificial, and blood – water with red dye.

While the surgeons were going about their business, their parents with great interest and attention participated in the scientific stand-up in the form of a lecture-quiz on topics related to medicine and health.