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Capsaicin pain reliever: Capsaicin (Topical Route) Description and Brand Names


Capsaicin Cream for Joint Pain

Capsaicin cream is a popular topical pain reliever that can be bought over-the-counter or made at home. Both manufactured and homemade capsaicin can treat joint pain due to arthritis and other painful musculoskeletal conditions. It is considered effective even for deep joints, such as the back, hips, and shoulders.

See Over-the-Counter Topical Arthritis Pain Relief

Capsaicin is derived from chili peppers. Experts believe that when applied to the skin, capsaicin cream:

  • Creates a heat sensation that distracts from pain.
  • Interferes with pain signals to the brain by reducing the level of a chemical neurotransmitter (Substance P) that binds with pain receptors.

One small study found that nearly 80% of subjects experienced arthritis pain relief after using capsaicin cream for 2 weeks.1


Recipes for Homemade Capsaicin Cream

Video: Reduce Arthritis Inflammation with this Homemade Cream


Interested in making homemade capsaicin cream? Try the recipe in this instructional video.
Video: Reduce Arthritis Inflammation with this Homemade Cream

There are many recipes for homemade capsaicin cream available. Almost all recipes include cayenne powder, which is made from chili peppers, and oils, such as olive oil and/or coconut oil. Some recipes also call for beeswax and a double boiler to melt it.

While making the cream, most people wear gloves to prevent unintentionally spreading the cream to skin and eyes.

Storing homemade capsaicin cream
The oils in a homemade capsaicin cream can go rancid. The time it takes for an oil to go rancid varies widely depending on the type and age of the oil, the type of storage container used, storage temperature, and exposure to light. In general, storing cream in a glass container kept in dark, refrigerated conditions is best.

In This Article:

Using Capsaicin Cream

Capsaicin cream can be used up to 4 times a day. First time capsaicin cream users—whether they are using homemade or over-the-counter products—may want to test capsaicin on a small patch of skin first. Other guidelines for application are below.

  • Apply the cream directly to the skin over the painful area. Use only as much cream as can be absorbed by the skin.
  • Once applied to the skin, the cream will cause a warm or burning sensation. This sensation lessens after a few days of use, and may go away altogether with longer-term use.
  • Use gloves or wash hands thoroughly after applying capsaicin.
  • If the hands are the area being treated, then apply the cream and avoid hand contact with the eyes and mouth. Avoiding touching the eyes and mouth for an extended period of time can be a challenge, so some users suggest washing treated hands 30 minutes after application.
  • Stop using the cream if the skin becomes irritated, red, swollen, or itchy. Also, be aware that these side effects can be aggravated by hot, humid weather, bathing in warm water, or sweating.


Capsaicin cream should not be used on broken or irritated skin or by people who have allergies to capsaicin or hot peppers. Women who are breastfeeding, pregnant, or trying to become pregnant are advised to consult their health care providers before using capsaicin cream.

Sunscreen should be applied over exposed skin when outdoors. Allergic reactions such as trouble breathing or throat swelling require immediate medical care.


  • 1.Deal CL, Schnitzer TJ, Lipstein E, et al. Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: a double-blind trial. Clin Ther. 1991;13(3):383-95.

Capsaicin: A common topical pain reliever with some surprising benefits

Capsaicin is a TRPV1 receptor agonist. Therefore it agonizes or potentiates the effect of the TRPV1 receptors located in your skin. This receptor’s functions are to detect and regulate body temperature. In addition, the receptor also provides us with the detection of hot and cold sensations ie scalding heat and pain. So what does this mean pertaining to capsaicin and pain control?

When capsaicin is applied to our skin, it depolarizes the above receptor and gradually desensitizes our sensory nerves with each repeat application. Over time (up to 12 weeks) capsaicin is able to modulate and inhibit a large portion of pain transmission. Application directions need to be diligently adhered to for capsaicin to work. One single application will not change your pain. As stated above, repeat applications are 100% necessary and you may not notice much at all for the first 6 weeks.

Standard over the counter menthol-containing creams like icy hot, tiger balm, or biofreeze are only mildly helpful and are in a totally different league in comparison to capsaicin. The beauty of capsaicin is that it has the highest (category 1) evidence and proven success with a wide variety of painful conditions. Some examples are the rash and pain after shingles (PHN), complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS/RSD), sciatica, diabetic neuropathy, and even small or large joint pains. It is important to keep in mind that the sooner capsaicin is applied, the greater its benefits recorded.

Capsaicin is available in a few convenient, OTC formulations however , for moderate to severe pain, prescription strengths are often required. There are topical agents for the more mobile body areas as well as capsaicin patches that may be applied by a family member for hard to the difficult to reach places. A one-time application of a highly concentrated (8%) capsaicin patch (for 30, 60, or 120 minutes) is even available. This is considered extremely efficacious and safe however this typically requires the patient to be anesthetized as it will most certainly cause increase temporary, skin site irritation.

Capsaicin | Uses, side-effects | Versus Arthritis

Review article (1994)

The trials included in this article investigated the effectiveness of capsaicin gel in treating osteoarthritis when compared to a placebo gel. Capsaicin was applied four times a day (0.025% in two trials and 0.075% in one). The treatment period ranged from 4 to 12 weeks.

  • Capsaicin was found to be more effective than the placebo in all three trials.
  • Data from the trials was analysed together to get a single estimate of effectiveness. It was found that capsaicin was four times more effective in improving pain and joint tenderness in participants with osteoarthritis as compared to placebo gel.

Trial 1 (1994)

A trial not included in the above review randomly selected 113 people with osteoarthritis to apply either capsaicin cream or a placebo to their affected joint four times a day for 12 weeks.

  • Significantly more participants using capsaicin cream had a reduction in pain, as assessed by a doctor and by the participants themselves.
  • The severity of pain and joint tenderness was significantly reduced in participants using capsaicin.

Trial 2 (2000)

In an RCT published in 2000, 200 participants with osteoarthritis were randomly selected to apply one of the following to their affected joint for six weeks:

  • 0.025% capsaicin cream
  • glyceryl trinitrate cream
  • a cream containing both ingredients
  • a placebo cream.

The trial found the following:

  • Participants given any of the three active treatments had a significant reduction of both joint pain and painkiller use compared to participants who received the placebo cream.
  • Participants who used the cream that contained both active treatments had the greatest improvement in pain and the most significant reduction of painkiller use.

Similar beneficial results were found in another RCT, which evaluated the effectiveness of an ointment containing several herbal compounds, including 0.015% capsaicin (Arthritis Relief Plus), in treating joint pain and stiffness in 36 people with osteoarthritis.

Trial 3‡

In the most recent trial, 100 women with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee received either 0.0125% capsaicin gel or a placebo gel three times a day for four weeks. This was followed by one week with no treatment, then another four weeks of the treatment they hadn’t previously used.

Compared to the placebo gel, greater improvements in the following were reported in relation to the capsaicin gel:

‡ A trial of low quality. Results of this trial were given a lower weighting when we came to our conclusion about the compound.

Capsaicin applied to the skin for chronic neuropathic pain in adults

Bottom line

There is moderate quality evidence that high-concentration (8%) capsaicin patches can give moderate pain relief, or better, to a minority of people with postherpetic neuralgia, and very low quality evidence that it benefits those with HIV-neuropathy and peripheral diabetic neuropathy.


Neuropathic pain is caused by damage to nerves, either from injury or disease. Pain is described as chronic if it has been experienced on most days for at least three months. Capsaicin is what makes chilli peppers hot. It is thought to reduce chronic neuropathic pain by making nerves insensitive to pain messages. This review is an update of one last published in 2013, and is about a highly concentrated preparation of capsaicin (8%) that must be administered in carefully controlled conditions in a clinic or hospital, often following local anaesthetic, because without special precautions it can initially cause pain a feeling of burning on the skin. It is used only to treat localised areas of pain. The single application is designed to produce relief of pain for up to three months.

Study characteristics

We searched scientific databases for studies that looked at the effects of high-concentration capsaicin in adults who had moderate or severe neuropathic pain. The treatment had to have effects measured for at least 8 weeks. The evidence is current to June 2016.

Eight studies satisfied our inclusion criteria, including two new studies for this update. The studies were well conducted.

Key results

In seven studies, involving 2442 participants, we found that the treatment gave good levels of pain relief to a small number of participants with some types of neuropathic pain (pain after shingles, and nerve injury pain associated with HIV infection), and probably also in another type (painful feet because of damaged nerves caused by diabetes). About 4 in 10 people had at least moderate pain relief with capsaicin compared with 3 in 10 with control. The control was a treatment that looked the same but did not contain high levels of capsaicin, with either nothing added, or very small amounts of capsaicin added. In one small study (46 participants) in people with persistent pain after hernia surgery, it did not seem better than control.

In all people who have this treatment there can be short-lived localised skin problems such as redness, burning, or pain. Serious problems seem to be uncommon, and were no more frequent in these trials with high-concentration capsaicin than with control using very low-concentration capsaicin or placebo.

Slightly more people treated with control rather than capsaicin dropped out of the studies because of lack of benefit, but there was no difference between the groups for drop-outs because of side effects.

Quality of the evidence

We judged the quality of the evidence as moderate or very low for pain relief outcomes, mainly because only a small number of studies and moderate number of participants provided information for each outcome. We judged the quality of the evidence as moderate for harmful effects. Moderate quality means that further research may change the result. Very low quality means we are very uncertain about the results.

Lidocaine or Capsaicin for Pain Relief?

When you are in pain, the only thing you want is for it to stop. With so many pain relievers in the market, it can often be very confusing what to try. Let’s talk about two of the most popular and well-known pain relieving ingredients – Lidocaine and Capsaicin. 


Which is better lidocaine or capsaicin?

First, it’s important to know more about what they are and what they are intended for. 

Lidocaine Topical Anesthetic

Lidocaine is a topical anesthetic, which means it numbs pain in the muscles and nerves. It is an amazing ingredient to numb pain fast and which is why so many people use it. Lidocaine used to be only available by prescription, but the great news is that its now available Over the Counter (OTC) with a maximum strength of 4%. (If you see it at 5% its only for anorectal use). 

Lidocaine is made in laboratories and Lidocaine Roll Ons should be registered with the FDA like Workvie’s Lidocaine Roll On. 

Capsaicin Essential Oil

Capsaicin has been used for thousands of years to treat pain and as a natural analgesic. This ingredient comes from chili peppers and causes a warming sensation on the skin. It does so by activating certain receptors, and stimulating the production of a substance that helps transmit pain signals to the brain. It tells the brain that it feels warm instead of sending a signal of pain. There are some studies that have linked Capsaicin with also reducing inflammation.  


Both Lidocaine and Capsaicin should be applied carefully to avoid irritation of the eyes and other sensitive areas after application. This is a really good reason why applying ingredients in a roll on form can help to keep them off your hands.


Have both…and more!


So if you’re still asking yourself if you should choose between lidocaine or capsaicin. Don’t.


The Workvie Lidocaine Pain Relieving Roll On combines the benefits of maximum strength 4% lidocaine with Capsaicin in a convenient roll on bottle. One common concern is skin irritation which can be issue with many topical pain relievers. However, Workvie Lidocaine Pain Relieving Roll On is made with Sweet Almond Oil and Aloe Vera Extract to help protect the skin and allow the maximum strength formula to work its magic on pain.


Use Code WKVBLOG10  for 10% OFF

The formula also contains good for you ingredients like Arnica for swelling/bruising, Glucosamine for joint health, and MSM to help repair microtears in tendons and ligaments. It is also vegan and cruelty-free which means that the ingredients are not derived from animals and have not been tested on animals.

 If you are having a hard time trying to decide between lidocaine or capsaicin creams, then select a product like the Workvie Lidocaine Pain Relieving Roll On.

Workvie Products are Available on Amazon Prime or Save Here


Sign Up to our Newsletter at the bottom of the page to get a special offer on the Workvie Lidocaine Roll On.

Warning: Please consult your doctor before applying any pain relief cream. Some people may be allergic to Lidocaine. 

This blog post is not meant to replace the advice of a trained medical professional.


Warming Muscle Rub with Capsaicin

A warming muscle rub super-infused with a unique blend of powerful, natural ingredients–such as Capsaicin*, Turmeric, Ginger, Camphor, Cloves and Cinnamon–to instantly soothe, relieve and relax sore, chronic, achy muscles. This balm gently warms and stimulates circulation, to help keep muscles and joints loose before and after exercise. Good for the skin and it smells great – not like your usual sports rub!  Look at our ingredients and you’ll see nothing but pain-relieving herbs, oils and botanical extracts that have been used to soothe over-worked muscles for centuries. Our Warming Muscle Rub does the job naturally and effectively without chemicals or artificial ingredients. Plus, our base ingredients soften and smooth skin while pure essential oils melt away the tension. 100% Petroleum-free. Rub this stuff in – you deserve it! 

*Capsaicin or Capsicum, is the ingredient found in different types of hot peppers, such as cayenne peppers, that makes the peppers spicy hot. You can eat it raw, cooked or as a dried powder, which you can add to food or drinks. It also is available as a dietary supplement and in topical creams that you apply to your skin. When a capsaicin cream or ointment is used on the skin (topical use), capsaicin helps relieve pain. Capsaicin works by first stimulating and then decreasing the intensity of pain signals in the body. Although pain may at first increase, it usually decreases after the first use. Capsaicin stimulates the release of a compound believed to be involved in communicating pain between the nerves in the spinal cord and other parts of the body.

When you apply it to the skin, capsaicin may help relieve pain from:

  • Pain disorders, including pain after surgery.
  • Nervous system problems such as diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, and postherpetic neuralgia (shingles).
  • Cluster headaches.
  • Joint problems such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Skin conditions such as psoriasis.

What you should know

  • Do not use this medication if you are allergic to chili peppers, or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to capsaicin topical.
  • Ask a doctor or pharmacist about using capsaicin topical if you have any allergies or serious medical conditions. Do not use this medication on anyone younger than 18 years old without the advice of a doctor.
  • Do not apply to open wounds or irritated skin, and avoid getting the medicine on contact lenses, dentures, and other items that come into contact with sensitive areas of your body.
  • Capsaicin can cause a burning sensation, which is usually mild and should lessen over time with continued use. If the burning sensation causes significant discomfort or skin redness, wash the treated skin area with soap and cool water. Get medical attention right away if you have severe burning, pain, swelling, or blistering of the skin where you applied this ointment.
  • Avoid getting capsaicin topical in your mouth or eyes or near your nose.
  • Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this balm, or if anyone has accidentally swallowed it. Accidental swallowing of capsaicin can cause problems with swallowing or breathing.
  • It may take up to 2 weeks of using this balm regularly before your symptoms improve. For best results, keep using the balm as directed.
  • Call your doctor if your pain does not improve after using this balm for 7 days, or if your symptoms get worse or get better and then come back in a few days.
  • We recommend using plastic gloves when applying this balm.

Using Heat and Cold to Reduce Pain

Use cold for acute pain or a new swollen/inflamed injury (Cooling Muscle Spray). 

Use heat for chronic pain or an injury that is a day or more old (Warming Muscle Rub). 

I'm a dental hygienist with occupational pain in the neck, back & migraines. This is the best relief I have found & I have tried most likely everything, from doctors, surgical procedures,acupuncture, chiropractic & massage therapists, CBD tinctures & creams & several prescriptions with little relief.
I discovered this rub at their Farmer's Market in San Diego two years ago. Best day ever!!
I love this muscle rub! Please don't ever stop producing it!

I have terrible back pain that I get once in a while in my lower and middle back. I used this cream for the very first time with my grandma in Germany and she loved it immediately. I had to get another one then once I was back here. The price is not too high for what you are getting. Oh and everything is handcrafted. You just gotta love the stuff from Holistic Science. They really do care about their products and customers 🙂 keep up the good work.

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How Hot Peppers Can Ease Pain

WIKIMEDIA, TAKEAWAYCapsaicin—a substance in chili pepper plants that makes them spicy hot—exerts its pain-attenuating effects by triggering a signaling cascade that results in the inactivation of mechano-sensitive transmembrane channels in neurons, according to a study published this week (February 10) in Science Signaling

Initially causing a burning hot sensation, the compound is used as a topical pain medication because, when applied regularly, results in numbness to local tissue. Despite being widely used, researchers have previously not known how capsaicin exerts its pain-killing effects.

The initial pain-dulling sensation occurs when capsaicin activates heat-sensing transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channels on sensory neurons. Prolonged stimulation with the compound results in desensitization of these neurons. “This is one of the underlying mechanisms of capsaicin’s numbing effect, but TRPV1 is a heat sensor, so how it affects mechanical pain was not known,” said Tibor Rohacs, an associate professor of…

Rohacs and his colleagues uncovered a link between the heat-stimulating function of capsaicin and its ability to relieve mechanical pain including neuralgia (pain from damaged nerves), neuropathy, and muscle and joint pain. Capsaicin’s activation of TRPV1 ion channels in turns inhibits mechanical force-sensing ion channels called Piezo1 and 2 by depleting phospholipid signaling molecules, phosphoinositides, in the cell membrane.

“What is unique in this study is how one kind of channel regulates the activity of another,” said Tamas Balla, a signal transduction researcher at the National Institutes of Health who previously collaborated with Rohacs but was not part of the current study. “I believe that this is the first example of ion channel cross-talk mediated by phospholipids,” Balla added.

“The work is very thorough and cutting-edge,” Mario Rebecchi, an anesthesiology and biophysics researcher at Stony Brook University in New York, told The Scientist in an e-mail.

Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons perceive pain and are often used to study mechanically stimulated ion channels, also found in peripheral neurons of the skin. Using DRG neurons isolated from mice, Rohacs and his colleagues first found capsaicin able to inhibit mechanically activated currents in these cells. The researchers then expressed TRPV1 along with either the mechanically stimulated Piezo 1 or 2 ion channel in human embryonic kidney cells. The expression of TRPV1 was necessary for capsaicin to inhibit the activity of the Piezo channels. “What was really striking was that the inhibition [of the Piezo mechnosensitive channels] was almost 100 percent,” said Rohacs.

TRPV1 activation increases intracellular calcium ion levels, which then activate phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes to break down phosphoinositides. Adding two of the most abundant types of phosphoinositides into the solution of DRG neurons in vitro resulted in less inhibition of Piezo ion channel signaling, suggesting that these lipids are required to relay the signal from TRPV1 to the mechanically stimulated Piezo channels.

To show that the depletion of phosphoinositides inhibits the Piezo ion channels, and that other calcium-signaling dependent pathways are not involved, the team bypassed PLC signaling by expressing a phosphatase that also breaks down the membrane phosphoinositides but does not result in downstream signaling effects. This direct depletion of phosphoinositides also resulted in the block of Piezo channel activity. Further in vitro experiments showed that it is the PLC delta isoform that is necessary to dampen the mechanically stimulated ion channels (rather than the beta version). Typically, PLC beta signals through G protein-coupled receptors while PLC delta signals by activating calcium ions.

“This work links how a chemical stimulus can indirectly influence a mechanical process, at least at the cellular level,” Philip Gottlieb, a biophysics researcher at the University of Buffalo in New York who was not involved in the work, told The Scientist in an e-mail. “The supposition is that mechanically induced pain can be affected by a chemical that is known to activate the TRPV1 [ion channel yet appears] unrelated to the mechanically induced response.”

The capsaicin mechanism likely involves other signaling pathways, but inhibition of Piezo channels makes sense in the context of reducing pain, said Rohacs. Another pain modality modified by capsaicin is thermal pain, Rebecchi noted.

Still, to Rebecchi’s mind, “it is a huge leap to go from channel activities in an artificial heterologous expression model in vitro to sensation of pain.” Gottleib agreed: “There remain many questions including how this will play out in animal models.”

One question is how inflammation is coordinated with pain perception and sensitivity. Balla said he would like to see how this pain-perceiving neuronal pathway interacts with inflammatory signaling molecules like bradykinin, an inflammation-mediating peptide that indirectly activates TRPV1 ion channels. This would help researchers better “understand the key players acting in concert in pain perception,” said Balla.

I. Borbiro et al., “Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides,” Science Signaling, doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2005667, 2015.

90,000 benefits and harms to health. Facts and Myths

Estimated reading time – 17 minutes.

The history of chili peppers clearly demonstrates how difficult it is to change a tarnished reputation: because of the excessive, often intolerable pungency, chili peppers were considered unhealthy. Scientists in an attempt to scientifically substantiate this fact, at the end of the 20th century, decided to research capsaicin, but suddenly everything turned out the other way around. It turned out that capsaicin, which makes hot peppers hot, is a remedy for wrinkles and excess weight, an afrozodiac and an excellent tonic, a cure for cancer and stomach ulcers, an antiseptic, an immunomodulator, an antioxidant – and all this is in the public domain, almost for nothing. always next to us, and we did not use this happiness.Today, pharmaceutical companies are pouring billions of dollars into capsaicin research, hoping to be the first to patent miraculous drugs based on it.

In this article we will talk about what is useful and harmful to capsaicin, where it can be found and how to use it. It is important to note: in the presence of chronic diseases, treatment should only be prescribed by your doctor. We do not encourage anyone to self-medicate and rely on chili peppers, prayers or conspiracies.

But after reading about the beneficial qualities of hot peppers, you may well test some of them and discover additional ways to support your health and mood.

In short, here is the content of the article:

  • What is capsaicin
  • How capsaicin works
  • History
  • The danger of capsaicin
  • Mood
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes
  • Pain pressure
  • and

  • circulation
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Insomnia
  • Irradiation
  • Lungs
  • Liver
  • Psoriasis
  • Migraine
  • Arthritis
  • Alzheimer’s

By the way, Sauces and other products based on capsa at this link.

What is capsaicin

Capsaicin gives chili peppers a hot taste.

The concentration of capsaicin in foods is measured using the Scoville pungency scale, according to which the value of pure capsaicin is 16 million units (16,000,000 Scoville). For comparison: Cayenne pepper has a pungency of 30,000 to 50,000 scoville, Jalapeno – about 8,000 scoville.

Capsaicin is extracted from hot peppers using acetone.Capsaicin extract is an oily liquid that has a pronounced red or orange color, and its capsaicin content is 5-10%.

Pure capsaicin is a white crystalline powder. It is a chemically stable element, 8-methyl-6-nonenoic acid vanilamide. The substance has a pronounced pungent taste, melting point 65 ° C.

It does not dissolve in water, but it is readily soluble in organic solvents, including ethyl alcohol and fats.

It is a neuropeptide – an active compound that affects the synthesis, storage, transport and release of a substance known as TRPV1. It is a chemical transmitter responsible for pain impulses in the nervous system.

How Capsaicin Works

By chewing on peppers, you release capsaicin. Once in the body, capsaicin disables pain receptors, and they stop sending a signal to the brain about pain. There is an analgesic effect.In more detail, Capsaicin is capable of absorbing neuropeptide P (substance P), which transmits pain signals from nerve endings to the brain. Less neuropeptide P means less pain sensation. In addition, capsaicin increases the production of prostaglandin and collagenase, which reduce inflammation and contribute to overall pain relief.

Also, capsaicin itself acts as a neuropeptide (pretending to be a neuropeptide), interacting with TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid) receptors, signaling fake heat.This leads to a more effective blocking of specific “painful” neurons, without affecting the rest, which are responsible for other feelings, motor functions, etc.

TRPV1 receptors are responsible for the sensation of pain and heat. They are activated at temperatures above 43 degrees, as well as with capsaicin. The receptor is a non-selective ion channel capable of passing calcium ions. This is how the receptor sends a signal about the rise in temperature to the brain. Activation of this receptor is subjectively experienced as pain and burning sensation.The brain responds with a command to release endorphins into the bloodstream. Endorphin can cause a state of mild euphoria and acts as a “native” pain reliever.


Capsaicin is an alkoloid close to caffeine, nicotine, morphine, etc. Chili, cumin, garlic and a number of other hot spices that contain capsaicin kill up to 75% of the most common food poisoning pathogens. This property was already noticed by early civilizations, especially in hot countries, where hot peppers helped to keep food fit for consumption.

In the excavations of Indian settlements, hot peppers are found, which were cultivated already 7,000 years ago.

The origin of the name is not known for certain. Perhaps it comes from the Greek kapto, which means to bite. According to another version, the name comes from the Latin word “casp”, which means “box”, since the internal structure of the connection is similar to a box.

Capsaicin was first isolated in the middle of the 19th century (1846). The exact chemical structure of this alkaloid was first identified by E.K. Nelson in 1919, and synthesized only in 1930. In the course of research on the properties of capsaicin, Wilbur Scovill, an employee of a large pharmaceutical company, studied the pungency of different varieties of chili. In 1912 he presented his famous scale.

In the middle of the 20th century, sociologists noticed that the inhabitants of Southeast Asia have an increased percentage of gastrointestinal diseases. A correlation was made between sick people and eating spicy foods and it was concluded that spicy foods are harmful to the stomach.In the same study in South America, the results were completely opposite: one of the lowest rates of gastrointestinal diseases in the world. But just in case, the pepper was awarded the honorary title of “harmful”. And this turned out to be enough to bury the reputation of chile for several decades. In the 21st century, scientists, already possessing the technical capabilities for detailed analysis, regularly present new discoveries about the effects of capsaicin on the body. While we are following this race, we can take a closer look at what attracted pharmacists so much about hot pepper.

The Dangers of Capsaicin

In general, today capsaicin is considered relatively safe. Moreover, it is used exclusively in a multiply diluted form. However, one milligram of pure capsaicin, when it gets on human skin, causes a severe chemical burn, which, in terms of its effect, can only be compared with a red-hot metal. Getting on the mucous membrane, the alkaloid causes severe burning, pain, tearing and mucus separation. In some cases, the reaction to capsaicin provokes the occurrence of spasm of the larynx, bronchi and even short-term loss of speech.Actually, that’s why pepper sprays appeared.

The good news is that it is very difficult to find capsaicin in its pure form, and it is not necessary, because it, like vinegar essence, for example, must be repeatedly diluted to the required concentration before use.

In hot peppers, the capsacin content ranges from 0 to 2,500,000 scoville. But even with a small concentration, unpleasant consequences can occur.

When consumed in large quantities and by untrained eaters, hot peppers can cause unpleasant sensations – a burning sensation, for example.

Hot peppers are allergic. If you are sensitive to pepper, after inhaling its smell, you may experience coughing and even choking. Sometimes allergies manifest as skin rashes and dermatitis.

Pepper helps to increase the production of acid in the stomach, so it is not advisable to use it with high acidity.

This all sounds a little scary. But right now, you will find out why capsaicin is useful, and, perhaps, this will radically change your attitude towards spicy food.


TRPV1 receptors under the influence of capsaicin cause an increase in the production of endorphins, which, in addition to relieving pain, are responsible for improving mood. Scientists have shown a link between eating spicy foods and the production of endorphins. There is an assumption that it is precisely this feeling of pleasure and happiness that causes attachment among lovers of spicy, addicting them to the use of chili peppers.

Some people equate capsaicin with an aphrodisiac because it promotes the production of endorphins, and endorphins increase the quality of sex.

Gastrointestinal tract

Capsaicin inhibits the growth of a number of bacteria. For example, Chile, cumin, garlic, ginger and a number of other hot spices destroy up to 80% of common pathogens of gastrointestinal infections, Escherichia coli, as well as Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus.

Destroys Helicobacter pylori bacteria, being one of the best natural remedies for the treatment of Helicobacter-associated ulcers and gastritis.

It has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa, prevents the negative effects of alcohol or certain types of medications (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin).

Hot pepper enhances gastric secretion, that is, improves digestion, helps to absorb nutrients.

With low acidity, capsaicin reduces heartburn.

Capsaicin is not digested by the body, passes through the entire gastrointestinal tract and finally affects the walls of the large intestine, helping to prevent constipation.

Fighting excess weight

Spicy food helps burn fat. Capsaicin is considered one of the safest natural fat burners.Reduces the level of triglycerides in the blood, increases the number of enzymes involved in fat metabolism in the liver, accelerates metabolism, activates the process of fat oxidation, is a thermogenic agent. By stimulating the release of adrenaline, it increases metabolism and helps burn calories and fats.

Moreover, in laboratory mice, capsaicin neutralizes chronic inflammation triggered by fat cells, which allows scientists to hypothesize that capsaicin is useful in combating not only obesity, but also associated diseases.

Capsaicin has been shown to reduce the hormone ghrelin, which is responsible for hunger.

To maintain your dietary intake, it is enough to consume 30 grams of hot (eg, cayenne) fresh pepper or 1 gram of dry pepper per day. If you are planning a workout and want to actively fight obesity, eat hot peppers an hour before training at the rate of 10 mg. For 1 kg. weight. Capsaicin is also sold in tablets at any pharmacy. The rules for use and doses are written in the instructions for the drug.

It is important to remember that today this is only a hypothesis, which has yet to be tested in practice.


Consuming spicy foods significantly reduces the risk of diabetes and contributes to an increase in life expectancy. This has long been proven by numerous studies. For example, Andrew Dillin, professor of the Department of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California at Berkeley (USA), conducted tests on rodents. Those mice in which the TRPV1 receptor was neutralized with capsaicin developed robust immunity to diabetes and obesity; their lifespan was 14% longer than in mice in which the TRPV1 receptor was not exposed to capsaicin.

Regular consumption of spicy food leads to a decrease in cholesterol, leptin, insulin and glucose levels.


The analgesic properties of capsaicin have been known since ancient times: the Indians rubbed their gums with a chili pepper to get rid of a toothache.

Capsaicin ointment can be used as a natural pain reliever for muscle and joint pain. It is important to understand that a burning sensation and heat is inevitably accompanied by any application of capsaicin.But immediately after, the pain will recede.

It has been proven that capsaicin helps to cope with pain of various origins:

  • Postoperative pain and various pain disorders
  • Pain in case of problems with the nervous system – diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, postherpetic neuralgia
  • Pain in psoriasis itself (and treatment psoriasis)
  • Joint pain
  • Migraines

Blood pressure and circulation

As everyone knows, high blood pressure worsens the condition of the heart and arteries, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease.A 2010 study published in Cell Metabolism confirms that capsaicin relaxes blood vessel walls, lowering blood pressure.

In addition, it lowers the level of bad cholesterol (LDL and VLDL), reduces the risk of satherosclerosis and embolism (blockage of blood vessels with gas bubbles or foreign particles, emboli).

Cardiovascular disease

Capsaicin reduces the risk of strokes. Helps in the treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases by stimulating the cardiovascular system.Helps prevent hardening of the arteries and embolism.

In some healthcare settings, high doses of capsaicin are prescribed for heart patients several days before surgery to prevent blood clots.


It has been empirically proven that for many, capsaicin is an effective means of fighting insomnia. Just consume a spicy 20 minutes before you plan to go to bed (for example, a pod of hot peppers or a couple of tablespoons of hot sauce).


Capsaicin creates a kind of “protective barrier” by inhibiting DNA binding and the ability of a number of chemical carcinogens to cause cell mutation. Not so long ago, a group of scientists from the University of Toronto, and after them Scientists from the University of Nottingham proved that taking capsaicin before irradiation makes cancer cells more sensitive to radiation (it was about prostate cancer). Relatively speaking, it “softens” them, making them easier to destroy. In 2014, scientists from the University of Alcalá (Spain) found that capsaicin successfully helps to fight other types of cancer, including cancer of the intestine, pancreas, liver, breast, although in each case it works differently – in some cases it causes suicide cells, in others it breaks the mechanism of tumor growth.

Now it is believed that if capsaicin does not become a full-fledged panacea for cancer, then it will definitely become an auxiliary agent that will increase the possibility of a complete cure.

But research is not finished yet, drugs based on capsaicin are not presented to the world. It is important to understand that capsaicin has a powerful effect on the body and, like any other drug, if used improperly, can be very harmful to health. We all understand that the treatment of serious diseases must be carried out strictly under the supervision of a doctor and in compliance with all medical recommendations.


Regular intake of hot peppers has been found to help protect DNA from radiation-induced damage. Therefore, pepper can be protected from gamma radiation.


Capsaicin thins phlegm and aids in the elimination of phlegm from the lungs, strengthens lung tissue and helps prevent and treat emphysema. Acts as a bronchodilator. It has anti-asthma properties. Effective in chronic non-allergic rhinitis, allows you to relieve dependence on vasoconstrictor drops.


Capsaicin contains flavonoids that help repair damaged liver tissue. Under the influence of capsaicin, the liver produces more bile, which, when it enters the small intestine, improves digestion.


Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that causes patches of red, itchy and scaly skin. Although there is no cure for this condition, capsaicin relieves itching and reduces the appearance of psoriatic blemishes.


Capsaicin nasal sprays have long been used to treat migraines. The course of treatment lasts up to two months.


Capaicin is effective for arthritis due to its analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Capsaicin ointments shrink tumors and relieve pain.


Capsaicin is used to prevent and treat neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Due to its antioxidant properties, it has a powerful protective effect on nerve cells.

It is difficult to find ailments from which capsaicin does not protect us. In any case, the proven benefits of this product are so extensive that the inclusion of capsaicin foods in the daily diet is highly recommended.

It is important to understand that a large-scale study of capsaicin began relatively recently (for example, the TPRV1 receptor, which is primarily affected by capsaicin, was discovered only in 1997). Today there are many hypotheses, as well as observations, research and empirical research.Many of them have yet to be tested in practice and in laboratory conditions.

Exotic peppers at the Hitsauce store:

90,000 Black peppercorns cure for cancer, depression, Alzheimer’s

You may not know, but there is one very useful product in your kitchen. Black pepper has been used to treat ailments for millennia.

Have you tried black pepper? Probably yes. Do I need to eat it? Undoubtedly!

Pepper grains are milled, and essential oil is also isolated from them. Piper nigrum (its other name) has been one of the main medicinal plants in Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda for thousands of years.

What are the benefits of black pepper? According to scientific reviews, black pepper is packed with antioxidants, anti-inflammatory properties, the ability to fight neoplasms, treat colds, relieve fever, and more.

The main active ingredient Piper nigrum is piperine.Black pepper contains volatile compounds, resins and alkaloids, which together form a plant that can fight oxidative stress. Another review found that “the key alkaloid compounds in black pepper, which include piperine, promote cognitive function in the brain, increase nutrient absorption and improve digestion.”

Let’s find out about the properties of this plant in a little more detail.

Health Benefits

1.May prevent or treat cancer

The healers believed that black pepper had anti-cancer properties, and they seem to be right. Piper nigrum can fight neoplasms and strengthen the immune system, making it an effective cancer treatment.

In vitro, the effects of turmeric and black pepper on breast cancer cells have been studied. Curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, and black pepper kill tumor cells both together and separately.

Both products have minor side effects, while they are able to fight mutated cells, preserving healthy ones. This fact speaks in favor of these spices, compared to traditional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy.

2. Protects the liver

In Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine, black pepper is used to protect the liver. In 1993, a laboratory study found that it protected the liver from oxidative damage and helped cells maintain levels of glutathione, an important antioxidant that is often depleted as a result of liver failure.

3. Has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties

One of the main causes of undermining health is chronic inflammation, the root of all diseases. The standard American diet is high in inflammation-promoting foods, which is why it’s important to eat foods that prevent it.

In addition, oxidative stress and bacterial growth in the body weaken the immune system and cause diseases that may not be noticed in the early stages.

Black pepper and its active ingredient piperine help reduce inflammation, fight oxidative stress, increase the concentration of antioxidants in the body, and kill many types of bacteria that cause disease.

For example, black pepper is effective against oral bacteria that lead to gingivitis, oral candidiasis and tooth decay.

4. May fight depression

The side effects of antidepressants and the accompanying withdrawal symptoms make them unattractive to humans.There are many dietary supplements currently available that are able to cope with this condition.

Animal studies have proven that black pepper is a natural remedy for depression when used correctly. Its effect can be enhanced by turmeric.

Useful properties of black pepper

5. Part of the epilepsy diet

Did you know that epilepsy can be treated with proper nutrition? And black pepper is included in her diet.According to traditional Chinese medicine, radish and black pepper are able to suppress convulsions.

6. Improves digestion

Ancient medicine used black pepper for some gastrointestinal problems. Capsaicin, the spice ingredient in pepper, is beneficial for digestion. Capsaicin and piperine act on the TRPV1 receptor in the gut, which signals the brain and body to produce chemicals to counteract pain and regulate digestion.

Capsaicin is very beneficial for the intestines, but over time it becomes less sensitive to pungency and its effect on digestive processes.Consuming more pepper will help restore receptor sensitivity and maximize the effect of the spice.

7. Promotes brain function and fights Alzheimer’s disease

Two studies showed a significant increase in cognitive function in volunteers who increased their piperine intake. In one experiment, Alzheimer’s disease was modeled, and the results showed “significantly improved memory and reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus.”

Another, more generalized study found piperine improved perception while reducing signs of depression.

A 2006 clinical study looked at another brain disorder that occurs in older adults: loss of reflex swallowing after a stroke. When the brain experiences such extensive damage, it is not uncommon to lose basic reflex functions. Inhaling black pepper essential oils can help reduce dysphagia symptoms regardless of other factors.

Scientists attribute this to the ability of black pepper oil to “activate the islet or orbitofrontal cortex of the brain.”

8. Reduces blood pressure

The spice does not directly affect blood pressure, but piperine helps the body fight other factors that cause high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease.

9. Helps to quit smoking

Clinical trials have shown that the use of inhaled black pepper oil cartridges reduces the urge to smoke.The control cartridge did not contain any additional ingredients; another menthol cartridge showed no significant effect on smoking cravings in this experiment.

Nutritional properties

Black pepper contains many nutrients. One teaspoon of the spice (about 2.3 g) contains:

  • 5.8 calories
  • 0.1 g fat
  • 0.5 mg sodium
  • 1.5 g carbohydrates
  • 0.6 g fiber
  • 0.2 g protein
  • 0.3 milligrams manganese (15% of the RDI)
  • 3.8 mcg vitamin K (5% of the RDI)
  • 0.03 g copper (2% of RDA)

How to use

1.Add flavor to the dish

Obviously, black pepper is most often used in cooking. It is one of the most versatile spices and is also beneficial for your health.

By adding it to meals, you also promote absorption and production of more nutrients.

2. Increase the absorption of additives

Some high quality nutritional supplements use a trikatu formula to aid in the absorption of the ingredients.Trikatu is an Ayurvedic blend of black pepper, long pepper and ginger to enrich the body with nutrients. Experts recommend including excipients containing these ingredients if you are using herbal or mushroom supplements, especially turmeric, ashwagandha, or blackberry.

Black pepper significantly increases the bioavailability of curcumin. Together, they fight cancer, inflammation and oxidation.Black pepper aids in the absorption of coenzyme Q10 as well as many other nutrients.

3. Consume medicinally

Black pepper essential oil is popular for its ability to relieve joint pain, lower blood cholesterol and cleanse the body of toxins.

Role in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine

As stated above, black pepper is a popular herb in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.Since ancient times, it has been an indispensable product in the diet and a must-have for any doctor.

Traditional Chinese Medicine

TCM is a healing system based on the concept of Chi (“life energy” or “vitality”) that circulates in our body along various meridians. Yin and Yang, opposite but complementary energies, also play an important role in TCM, as balance is needed to achieve a positive healing result.

Black pepper affects the stomach and colon meridian. It is believed to “calm the rebellious Chi” that is too high during inflammation.

Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners use black pepper to:

  • Warm the stomach. The warming properties of this spice help treat indigestion, stomach pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhea.
  • treat colds. Black pepper effectively helps to cope with colds and high fevers.
  • relieve pain. By reducing the amount of Chi energy, black pepper relieves constipation, food stagnation (which leads to bloating), nausea and cramps.
  • treat malaria. TCM practitioners use black pepper to treat malaria.

The combination of ingredients is also very important in TCM. Black pepper is considered a pungent or hot element that gives the body warmth. For this reason, it is often combined with radishes, for example, in the treatment of epilepsy.As a rule, it is recommended to consume black pepper powder (sometimes along with stewed pork stomach).

Ayurvedic medicine

Ayurveda, or Ayurvedic medicine, is very popular in India. It is also based on the balance of the three doshas (types of energy) – vata, pitta and kapha. It is believed that each person has a dominant dosha, and the task of the practitioner is to bring them to balance, equilibrium.

Piper nigrum in Hindi sounds like काली मिर्च ( kaalee mirch ), This valuable spice is used for many ailments.It even forms part of the trikatu blend. Unlike other herbs in Ayurveda, this warming spice blends easily with most herbs without any unwanted effects. Practitioners believe that black pepper “kindles agni, intestinal fire.”

As far as doshas are concerned, black pepper “is excellent in soothing kapha, helps to soothe vata and increases pitta.” It is described as light and dry (“guna” or quality), pungent and bitter (“raz” or taste) and hot (“virya” or energy).

Ayurveda practitioners recommend black pepper to:

  • to cleanse the body. Black pepper increases sweating and has a diuretic effect, helping to remove toxins from the blood.
  • improve digestion. Since this spice increases the production of gastric juice, it promotes the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, increases appetite and cleanses the intestines.
  • to increase the amount of nutrients. Due to its ability to increase the absorption of substances, black pepper “distributes” their action in the body.
  • to increase the amount of oxygen entering the brain. Since black pepper detoxifies the body, it allows oxygen to enter the brain faster.
  • to clear the respiratory tract. As a warming element, black pepper stimulates the respiratory system, clearing the pathways and relieving dry mucous membranes.
  • improve the condition of the joints. Some Ayurvedic practitioners believe that black pepper has a positive effect on joint health.
  • get rid of parasites.Warming spices are believed to have antiparasitic properties by acting on the stomach. Black pepper can also fight malaria.

Ground or peas

You can easily find both forms of the spice in your nearest store. However, keep in mind that ground peppers can quickly lose their flavor. Better to buy peppercorns and grind them yourself when necessary.

Left – black pepper in the form of “peas”, Right – ground

Black, white and red pepper

Not many people know the difference between these types of spices.Both white and black peppers come from the same berries from the same plant, but different processing methods give them completely different aromas. Black pepper is aromatic and slightly pungent, while white pepper tastes more earthy, floral and complex.

White peppercorns are harvested after the berries are fully ripe, and black ones are made from unripe berries. The berries of black pepper are dried until the shell turns black, and the white pepper is soaked in water, fermented, and before drying, the shell is removed, depriving it of piperine and essential oils, which give the pepper its beneficial properties.

Black and white peppers are not interchangeable as they taste differently.

Red pepper is derived from a completely different plant of the genus Capsicum ( Capsicum ), it contains capsaicin, a warming compound that has anti-cancer and analgesic properties. Black, white and red peppers are produced differently and have different chemical structures.

Where to buy and how to grow

As you already know, black pepper can be bought both in the supermarket and online.But maybe grow it at home? After all, it is very healthy and goes well with almost any meal.

It is possible to grow it, but it is very difficult. The black pepper plant is native to southern India and can only grow in tropical climates with high humidity, where temperatures do not drop below 15 ° C. He needs a fertile, slightly clayey bud, which is able to retain moisture. This climbing plant has heart-shaped leaves and white flowers.

You can germinate the seeds in a pot of soil that contains organic matter to support growth.Water more often, the soil should be moist at all times.

When planting germinated seeds, find a place with diffused sunlight for them. The pot must be very large, as the pepper has a complex root system. Although the plant loves moisture, the soil should not be wet, so take care of drainage. The acidity of the soil should be between 5.5 and 7 pH.

The pepper should be picked before it ripens (before it turns red), then it should be dried in the sun until it is wrinkled and black.


Black pepper can be added to almost any dish. Try making chicken and pepper. It is delicious and only takes half an hour.

Looking for something special? Algae pâté with sunflower seeds will perfectly complement black pepper.

Ground pepper can be added to almost any salad.


The first mention of black pepper dates back to 1000 BC.NS. The Greeks and Romans wrote about Arab traders who monopolized the sale of this spice. At that time, the cultivation of black pepper took place only in Kerala, in the south of India.

In medieval Europe, black pepper was a very expensive luxury, it was supplied along the Silk Road. The prices of the spice were so high that the term “as expensive as a pepper” appeared in Danish, describing an unreasonably high price for a product.

In the era of discoveries, Christopher Columbus, in the hope of getting rich, brought what he believed to be black pepper to Europe.It was only in Spain that he realized that it was a chili pepper, which cost almost nothing.

Over time, trade routes developed and black pepper became more readily available. Some documents say that 70% of the total volume of sold spices was exactly he.

Risks and side effects

Unlike other spices containing capsaicin, Piper nigrum has virtually no side effects.

However, it can affect the absorption and action of medications.If you are taking any medications, it is worth consulting with a specialist before consuming pepper, especially if you season your dishes abundantly.

Black pepper slows down the action of digoxin, a blood pressure reliever, and cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant given to prevent organ rejection after transplantation. However, it promotes the absorption of fexofenadine, an antihistamine.

Black pepper, or Piper nigrum , is a popular spice in many countries for both cooking and treating ailments.Is it helpful? Sure!

Black pepper is capable of:

    • Fight and prevent cancer
    • Protect the liver
    • Provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects
    • Fight depression
    • Improve digestion
    • Fight Alzheimer’s Disease and Improve Brain Function
    • Reduce blood pressure
    • Help Quit Smoking
    • Suppress epileptic seizures

    The three main functions of black pepper include imparting aroma to a dish, increasing the bioavailability of substances and, if we talk about essential oil, using it for various household and medicinal purposes.

    It is used in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine as a warming spice with beneficial effects on health.

    Take care of yourself and your loved ones,
    buy only healthy products!

Capsaicinoids in Pain Therapy: Targets for Pathogenetic Therapy | Rachin A.P., Sharov M.N., Vygovskaya S.N., Nuvakhova M.B., Voropaev A.A., Tarasova L.Yu.

The article deals with the problems of pain and analgesia.The principles of action of painkillers are described. A review of the data on the efficacy of capsaicinoids and a comparison of natural capsaicin and its synthetic analogue nonivamide (Capsicam) in the treatment of pain is presented.

The problem of pain and anesthesia occupies one of the leading places in modern clinical medicine and is the subject of interdisciplinary discussion [1-3].
In recent years, such studies have been in a state of intensive study, an extremely rapid accumulation of new data, which, unfortunately, do not have time to be mastered either in the fundamental or in practical terms.
It is important to note that the modern understanding of the neurophysiology of pain clearly determines that the analgesic effect of drugs should be due to their action on various levels of the central nervous system.

Neurophysiology of pain

The dorsal horns of the spinal cord are the primary central substrate for the complex interaction of the nociceptive and antinociceptive systems. It is here that the interaction between the channels of pain and non-pain sensitivity takes place, on the basis of which a stream of ascending impulses of a new quality arises.
It should be considered generally accepted that the transmission of nociceptive signals can be primarily altered at the level of the spinal cord and that the segmental mechanisms of action of analgesics play an essential role in the implementation of analgesia.
At the segmental level, the descending influences of heterogeneous antinociceptive brain systems are realized, modulating the formation of a nociceptive flow of impulses to effector neurons of various functional purposes and ultimately determining the severity of the body’s response to pain and a shift in emotional, motor and autonomic parameters.
Until now, the question of the conjugation of changes in motor and hemodynamic reactions under the influence of antinociceptive systems, their functional role in determining the cardinal mechanism of life support – the mechanism of vegetative-motor coupled control, is being discussed.
The progress that has emerged in the understanding of pain as a complex psychophysiological phenomenon, in the formation and modulation of which emotional, motivational, typological and other psychological factors play a significant role, has determined a new, psychopharmacological strategy of pain relief.
It should be emphasized that the central link that perceives different-modal afferent information is the neuronal system of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. According to modern data, it is a very complex structure, and in functional terms is considered as a kind of primary integrative center of sensory information.
The neurons of the dorsal part of the posterior horn can be divided into three main groups. The first one consists of cells activated exclusively by nociceptive stimuli or by stimulation of nociceptive A-δ and C fibers.The second group includes cells that respond to nociceptive and non-nociceptive influences and to stimulation of both high-threshold and low-threshold afferents. The third one is represented by the neurons of the gelatinous substance, which, interacting with the cells of the first two groups, form a system of modulating control of afferent entry into the spinal cord and the formation of an ascending nociceptive flow of impulses.
Neurons activated by multi-modal afferent inputs, or “multi-receptive”, “convergent”, “neurons of a wide afferent range”, play a major role in the processing of nociceptive information, in its transmission in the ascending direction and in the implementation of low-integrated simple reactions to damaging influences.
The neurons of the base of the posterior horn have a fairly wide, well-contoured receptive field surrounded by a subthreshold zone. In cases where the efficiency of the afferent input increases, the receptive field can increase. Afferent fibers of different spectrum and modality converge on these neurons, as they respond to touch, pressure, mechanical and thermal nociceptive stimulation of the receptive field. The frequency and duration of neuron responses increases in proportion to the intensity of nociceptive, especially thermal, stimuli.
It is important to note that not all dorsal horn neurons have nociceptive afferent inputs. There is a large population of cells with a narrow functional range, which are activated by light mechanical influences (touch, slight pressure) and do not respond to damaging stimuli.
Taking into account the above, the gelatinous substance of the posterior horn of the spinal cord should be considered as a zone of predominant concentration of neurons with certain properties, and not as a strictly functionally specialized nociceptive structure.
Currently, a lot of data indicate the important role of the gelatinous substance in the generation of depolarization of primary afferents.
Gelatinous substance is assigned a key role in the theory of “gate control of pain” , proposed by P. Melzak and R. Wall in 1965 [4], around which there is still debate (Fig. 1, 2).

This theory explains the formation of nociceptive flow at the segmental level based on the central interaction of the fast-conducting myelinic (non-nociceptive) and slow-conducting myelin-free systems on the first relay (convergent, multireceptive) neurons of the spinal cord.Afferent impulses arising in myelin fibers during non-damaging stimuli, simultaneously with the activation of relay neurons (T-cells) through collaterals, excites the neurons of the gelatinous substance. They, in turn, depolarize primary myelinated afferents and thereby presynaptically limit their activating effect on T cells. With nociceptive action, thin myelin and myelin-free fibers are activated, which have an inhibitory effect on the neurons of the gelatinous substance, as a result of which depolarization (or hyperpolarization occurs) of myelin fibers decreases, i.e.That is, the afferent input opens and the efficiency of synaptic action on T-neurons increases. In turn, when the T-neurons reach a critical level determined by the temporal and spatial summation of nociceptive and non-nociceptive signals, they form an upward flow of impulses of a new quality, which is perceived by the higher brain structures to a greater extent as non-nociceptive (non-painful).
The provisions of the theory of R. Melzak and P. Wall, explaining the fact that the formation of an ascending nociceptive flow in the spinal cord occurs on the basis of the interaction of multi-modal afferent inputs on relay (convergent) neurons and as a result of activation of “specific pain” neurons with ascending projections, allow scientifically explain the effectiveness of local irritants and agents containing capsaicin or nonivamide (Capsicam), a combination of 3% camphor, 3% turpentine and 1% salicylic acid (Viprosal).
Capsaicin (8-methyl-6-nonenoic acid vanillamide) – a natural alkaloid of the fruits of the capsicum Capsicum – was first isolated in 1816 by C. F. Bucholz and received the name “capsicin”. In the more familiar to us “capsaicin”, it was renamed in 1876, when J.C. Thresh isolated it in an almost pure state, and the synthesis of this substance in laboratory conditions was first carried out in 1930
Capsaicin is widely used for local anesthesia, incl.including for the treatment of neuropathic pain, since it selectively activates Ca 2+ -permeable cationic channels of TRPV1, which are located in a sufficiently large number at the ends of nociceptors.
In turn, activation of TRPV1 leads to depolarization associated with the influx of Na + and Ca 2+ ions, i.e., with the emergence of an action potential in nociceptive fibers. It is this mechanism that contributes to the burning sensation when capsaicin is applied.This is followed by prolonged refractoriness – a reduced response to painful stimuli. Binding of capsaicin to the TRPV1 receptor opens the ion channel; however, under conditions of constant activation, the receptor becomes insensitive, and the channel becomes impermeable to ions.
Two types of desensitization are associated with TRPV1 receptors: functional and pharmacological (J. Donnerer, R. Amann, 1993). Functional desensitization provides a short-term decrease or loss of sensitivity of sensory neurons to other stimuli with a single use of capsaicin, and pharmacological desensitization consists in a gradual decrease in the response to stimulation after repeated use of the substance.Nerve fibers that have secreted a significant amount of central neurotransmitters in response to exposure to capsaicin become “chemically denervated” and for some time do not respond to the stimulus (A. Szallasi, RM Blumberg, 1999). The so-called defunctionalization of nerve fibers can be explained by several reasons: a temporary loss of the electrical potential of the cell membrane, the inability to transport neurotrophic factors, and reverse retraction of epidermal and dermal nerve endings (R.Anand, K. Bley, 2011). However, desensitization of TRPV1 receptors to vanilloid should be distinguished from capsaicin-induced analgesia. The degree of loss of sensitivity of this type of receptor does not necessarily correlate with damage to the functions of other nociceptive endings. Thus, there are two different types of reduction in pain response as a result of exposure to capsaicin: desensitization of TRPV1 receptors and inhibition of the function of all nociceptors in general (M.-K. Chung et al., 2016).

Application of capsaicinoids

In accordance with the recommendations of the European Anti-Rheumatic League (EULAR 2007), local treatment of osteoarthritis of the joints of the hand should be preferred to local treatment, while local non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and capsaicin are effective and safe methods of treatment (level of evidence – IA) (Task Force of EULAR, 2007) …
Numerous studies have shown that the local application of capsaicin-containing local agents of low concentration is quite effective in the treatment of pain (R. Anand, K. Bley, 2011).
A study by R. A. Westerman et al. (1988), which compared a capsaicin-containing local agent (at a concentration of 0.01% and 0.05%), applied 3-4 times / day for 3-4 weeks, showed that the use of a concentration of 0.05% was accompanied by a marked reduction in pain in the affected segments in 77% of participants, and a concentration of 0.01% in only 30% of patients.
In a randomized clinical trial by T. Minami et al. (2001) demonstrated that the use of 0.05% capsaicin-containing agent significantly reduces allodynia induced by the administration of prostaglandin E2.
In a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study, S. Chrubasik et al. (2010) patients (n = 281) with chronic pain were randomized into two groups: patients of the first group (n = 140) were prescribed a capsaicin-containing drug as analgesic therapy (0.05%), and patients of the second group (n = 141) – placebo.The primary endpoint was a positive response to treatment, defined as a reduction in pain severity of 30% or more. After three weeks of treatment, the total pain score in both groups decreased by 49% and 23%, respectively (p = 0.0006). The odds ratio in favor of capsaicin was 4.3 (lower bound, 95% CI: 97.5% -1.9; p
Thus, the results of randomized clinical trials confirm that a capsaicin concentration of 0.05% in a topical product is characterized by an optimal balance of efficacy and safety [4–10].
According to the standards of the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS), topical capsaicin is recommended for the treatment of various neuropathic conditions associated with pain [11]. European guidelines for the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain also include short courses of capsaicin for relieving exacerbations in patients with chronic back and neck pain [12]. At the IX Congress of the European Federation of Pain EFIC on September 2–5, 2015 (Vienna, Austria), a positive effect of the use of patches with a high concentration of capsaicin for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain was noted [13].
The synthetic analogue of capsaicin is nonivamide (pelargonic acid vanillamide) (Fig. 3), which is part of the combined topical agent – Kapsikam ointment.

In 2012, T. Weiser et al. performed a study on a cell culture with expressed TRPV1 receptors [14]. When nonivamide and capsaicin were added using the potential clamping method, it was found that at the receptor level, the concentration-effect curves, the kinetics of current activation, and inhibition by the competitive antagonist capsazepine did not significantly differ between the two capsaicinoids (Fig.4).

In addition to nonivamide, Capsicam contains a complex of substances, which are also the main components that have an adjuvant local irritating, hyperemic and analgesic effect:
• racemic camphor;
• gum turpentine;
• benzyl nicotinate;
• dimethyl sulfoxide.
The indications for the use of Kapsikam ointment are muscle and joint pain (Fig. 5). It should be borne in mind that the irritating effect of Kapsikam ointment improves the general well-being of patients suffering from bruises, sprains, lumbago, lumbago, trauma and inflammation in the joints, as well as rheumatic conditions.In sports medicine, it is advisable to use Capsicam in athletes for energetic warming up of muscles that experience maximum stress during training.

Method of application of the drug Kapsikam: for muscle and joint pain – 1-3 g of ointment is applied with an applicator to the area of ​​the painful area and lightly rubbed into the skin 2-3 rubles / day. When used as a warming agent in athletes, it is applied to the massaged area using an applicator. A small amount of ointment (2-3 g) is rubbed in with massaging movements until the skin is reddened.After training, wash off the ointment from the skin with cool water. The duration of the course of treatment depends on the nature and severity of the disease, however, the drug should not be used for more than 10 days without consulting a doctor.


Expanding modern understanding of the mechanisms of pain requires an approach to pain relief as a multifactorial problem. Along with a change in the patient’s attitude to pain – an essential component of the analgesic effect and the basis of the nonspecific analgesic effect of other drugs [15–22], as well as with the use of systemic agents, the use of locally irritating ointments based on capsaicinoids, in particular ointments, seems to be very promising and expedient Capsicam.


Chili peppers – will give everyone a heat!

Chili pepper – will give everyone a heat!


In 2016, global production of chili and dried hot peppers reached 38.4 million tonnes. Chili peppers, by their nature, form a fruit – a berry. Chili peppers come in all shapes, colors, sizes and pungencies, but what they all have in common is the intense burning sensation they all cause in the mouth, eyes, or any other part of the body that comes into contact with chili juice.The reason for this is the alkaloid capsaicin, which is contained in its composition.

But chili is not only eaten for its “hot” taste. Scientists believe that capsaicin can improve blood circulation or even change the composition of our intestinal flora for the better. This alkaloid also helps with headaches , including migraines. Pepper stimulates the release of endorphins , which are natural pain relievers. Studies have shown that capsaicin speeds up metabolism and helps to reduce adipose tissue .Consuming pepper helps to control appetite and avoid overeating. As you can see, we get a lot of benefits from this berry.

Malaysia is one of the leading countries in the industrial production of chili peppers. Vuksals are also exported here and, of course, are actively used in the technology of foliar nutrition of this unusual vegetable. Our colleagues share the sheet processing scheme, it consists of two stages:

  1. Top dressing with a high potassium preparation .Effect – enhances fruit and aromatic flavors. The best results were achieved with 2-3 times spraying of plants, in the period: 2 weeks before the first harvest and then with an interval of 10-14 days. In this case, the dose of the drug was 2–3 l / ha. The specialists of the Unifer company recommend to use Wuxal Combi Plus for this technological operation.
  2. In order to improve the quality of chili peppers, their transportability, as well as to prevent rotting during storage, treatments are carried out with a preparation with a high calcium content .And therefore, we recommend sprinkling peppers with a suspension of Wuxal Calcium during the growing season. The use of this product begins with the fruit setting phase at a dosage of 3-5 l / ha and then during the growing season 4-6 times with an interval of 7-10 days.

We wish you a great thrill and more than just chili!

Gel-plaster Dikul Capsaicin Bee venom heating liquid 75 ml x1

Gel-plaster Dikul Capsaicin Bee venom heating liquid 75 ml x1

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Muscle pains are quite common and frequent in everyday life.Usually, pain in the muscles of the back occurs as a result of long-term stay in one, often uncomfortable, position. In some cases, overstrain of certain muscle groups can, when & shy, lead to undesirable changes & shy in them. In some cases, there is a high risk of transition of samples & shy, lema into a chronic form. It is a traditional professional nuisance accompanying military personnel, parents, office workers, copper and shy workers, Qing workers and many other professions. These people have the ability to & shy, the least of all to ask for copper & shy, Qing help on this matter. Overstrain of the muscles of the back may also appear suddenly in case of tea, when insufficiently warmed up muscles are subjected to significant physical exertion. Among other troubles, samples & shy, lemma sospinoy and lobster, especially & shy, benno in the autumn-winter period, for & shy, take a special place. Their main reasons are both inactive, active lifestyle, and physical overloads against the background of local hypothermia, stress and metabolic disorders.As a result of muscle spasm, there is a convergence, burning of intervertebral discs and narrowing of the joint spaces (decrease in the volume of articular cartilage). Salt & shy growths along the edges of the vertebrae (osteophytes) squeeze the nerve roots coming from the spinal cord, causing acute pain. The impetus for an exacerbation can be heavy lifting, awkward movement, as well as colds and infections. What to do? First of all, it is necessary to eliminate muscle spasm, restore disturbed local blood circulation and relieve edema.For & shy, so it is necessary to take measures to strengthen the muscle corset, to activate cellular metabolism and excretion of salt from & shy, deposits, to increase the level of local & shy links of immunity. Valentin Dikulya warming gel-plaster with capsaicin and bee venom is an effective remedy for topical application in the back and lumbar region, once & shy, worked by Academician Valentin Ivanovich Dikul, a specialist in diseases of the musculoskeletal system, at numerous requests & shy, bam patients.The action of the natural components of the gel-patch is directed to the activation of blood circulation, growth and metabolism in the problems of the skin, relaxation of muscles and stimulation of local immunity. Ingredients: Water, Isopropyl Alcohol, Polyvinyl Alcohol, Glycerin, PEG-400, Capsaicin, Vanillyl Butyl Ether, Methyl Nicotinate, Bee Poison, Raw Lean, Hydantoin DMDM. The properties and effectiveness of the warming gel patch Valen & shy, Tina Dikul with capsaicin and honeycomb, lyn poison are due to the synergy, gizm of action of its constituent components.

Bee venom is a product of the secretory of the activity of the venom glands of honey bees, a highly effective and natural remedy. Provides analgesic and anti-shy, inflammatory properties, sti-shy, modulates local blood flow, has a shy, warming and dissolves effect.

Capsaicin, red pepper extract, foot (Capsicum) has a strong warming, distracting and absorbing effect, acti & shy, visualizes metabolic processes in muscle tissue, improves micro & shy, circulation in the periarticular tissues and nutrition of the facet joints.Reduces swelling, numbness, relieves muscle spasm, blocks the action of chemical mediators that provoke inflammation, burning and transmit pain impulses to the central nervous system, inhibits pain sensitivity. Is wire & shy, nickname for other medical com & shy, ponents.

Methyl nicotinate – combined, external preparation, nenia – a derivative of vitamin PP. It has a local irritant, vasodilator and secondary analgesic effect, a powerful muscle relaxant.Provides deep penetration of other com & shy components. An irreplaceable remedy for radiculitis with pain syndrome, mom, lumbago, arthralgia and myalgia. Advantages of Valentin Dikul’s liquid plaster:

– & nbsp, ease of use (transparent, naya, elastic, thin, tear-resistant, odorless, quick-drying film, resistant to abrasion, invisible even under thin underwear),


– & nbs fast effect and long-lasting action (deep warming effect occurs within two minutes, chickpeas after application and lasts up to 24 hours),

– & nbsp, possibility of choosing consume & shy, size and shape of the patch based on the specific situation,

-100% guarantee of fixing on the body until the end of the procedure.Does not interfere with everyday activities and sports,

– & nbsp, unlike conventional plasters, no allergic reactions were detected (temporary redness after the procedure is normal),

benefit – one tube of liquid plaster is enough to make at least twenty stan & shy plasters , free size 9×12 cm. Attention! To provoke outside & shy, back problems and belt & shy, down can physical overuse & shy, pulling, sharp turn of the body & shy, whiskers, hypothermia, intoxication & shy, tion, including caused by alcohol & shy, lem and nicotine, infection (influenza, ARVI), as well as through & shy, squirrels, low temperatures, higher & shy, wet humidity. How to use: Apply a gel-film, without rubbing, with a thin layer on the problem & nbsp, area. Leave to dry completely. Wash hands thoroughly after application!

Avoid contact with mucous membranes, in case of contact with eyes, immediately rinse with plenty of water.

After finishing the use of the battery, it is advisable to remove the formed film or rinse it off with warm water. For external use only. Contraindications: individual intolerance to the components.No side effects have been identified. In the event of an allergic reaction, discontinue use and consult a physician.

Seedcoms Capsaicin Diet MIX, 3 months | Products from Japan

Diet MIX with capsaicin – created especially for those who want to achieve a slim and beautiful figure, adhere to a healthy diet and effective training!

►Capsaicin is an alkaloid found in chili peppers that gives chili peppers such a hot taste.To a greater extent, capsaicin is concentrated in the white pulp and seeds of the fruit. It does not dissolve in water, therefore, it always reaches to the human fat layer, splitting it . Promotes fat burning , it activates the fat oxidation process, and lowers LDL cholesterol levels.

►Dissolving fat is not its only beneficial property:

  • Chili peppers contain many different chemical compounds that help maintain the immune system in the body.Capsaicin has antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, analgesic, and antidiabetic properties.
  • Suppresses the helicobacter pylori bacterium – the main “culprit” of gastritis and stomach ulcers. But at the same time, it is not recommended to use chili peppers during an exacerbation of peptic ulcer disease, since capsaicin can damage the weak mucous membrane of the inflamed stomach and duodenum.

This dietary supplement also contains:

Garcinia cambogia – Garcinia fruits serve as a source of hydroxycitric acid (GLA), which is considered a good catalyst for the breakdown of fats, a metabolic accelerator, and also a natural remedy that can suppress appetite.Garcinia extract promotes the accumulation of glycogen in the liver, but blocks the conversion of this energy into fatty deposits.

Melilotus officinalis – known as an analgesic, wound healing, expectorant, laxative and anticonvulsant. Melilot improves the functioning of the urinary-genital area, removes excess water.

Red ginseng root – gives strength and vigor, gives an energy charge, prolongs life.

Directions for use : 1-2 pieces per day with water.Preferably before training. The course is designed for 3 months.

Contraindications : pregnancy and lactation, with hypersensitivity to this substance, with ulcers. Do not allow it to come into contact with open wounds and damaged skin.

Ingredients: sunflower oil, red pepper powder – 3 mg, Garcinia Cambodia powder – 2 mg, ginseng root (red ginseng), sweet clover extract powder – 2 mg, spice extract (Capsicum) – 10 mg, gelatin, glycerin , beeswax, glycerin fatty acid ester, dye (β-carotene), soy lecithin.

90,000 9 Ways to Reduce Pain Without Using Pain Relief

The pain can find a person at any time. And sometimes, if the situation is not urgent, you have to go through some time before visiting the doctor. How can you reduce pain without or supplementing with pain relievers? The Medaboutme.ru portal has collected a variety of, sometimes unusual ways of dealing with pain.

1. Cold reduces inflammation and thus relieves pain from fresh sprains, tendonitis, gout attacks and some types of headache.

2. Heat increases the intensity of blood flow in the affected area and relaxes muscles and ligaments, which means it reduces pain in arthritis, sprains (after the inflammation has been removed), tendinosis.

3. Swearing promotes the production of endorphins and allows you to cope with pain in a short period of time. In an experiment conducted by British scientists, rude subjects suffered 35 seconds longer than their polite counterparts.

4. Music and recordings relieve postoperative pain. The study was conducted on children. The half-hour audio therapy greatly helped the little patients to get through the postoperative period.

5. Sildenafil , which is the active ingredient in Viagra, relieves menstrual pain. Scientists do not yet know how, since the theory of pain relief by increasing the blood supply to the uterus has not been confirmed. In this case, one should remember about contraindications to the use of this drug.

6. Decollete therapy for men. For adult male patients who came to the dentist’s office, experimental dentists proposed the option of using a deep décolleté for female doctors. They say it helps.

7. Love for women. Ladies in long-term romantic relationships experienced less electrical shock when looking at a photograph of their partner. It turned out that at the same time in women, the activity in the area of ​​the brain responsible for the response to stress decreased.

8. Concentration on your own body , and not on the source of pain, allows you to increase the pain threshold. And if you look at an enlarged image of your own part of the body, then this gives an additional analgesic effect.

9. Analgesic products:

  • Sweets dull the sensation of pain. The binding of sugar to the taste buds creates a feeling of comfort, and in addition, sugar triggers the production of pain relievers. And dark chocolate also activates the production of endorphins.
  • Cherries contain anthocyanins, which are dyes that give the berries a red color. They work by roughly the same mechanism as aspirin.
  • Ginger relieves headache and muscle pain.
  • Garlic , thanks to its high content of essential oils, relieves toothache.
  • Cayenne pepper contains capsaicin, which activates the production of compounds that impair the transmission of pain impulses.