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Chills no fever diarrhea: Why Do I Have Cold Chills? 6 Causes of Body Chills Without Fever


Why Do I Have Cold Chills? 6 Causes of Body Chills Without Fever

A walk down a cold, windy street can send a shivery tingle up and down your body, but so can some health conditions, like the flu, kidney stones, or an underactive thyroid.

You get chills when the muscles in your body squeeze and relax to try to make heat. This sometimes happens because you’re cold, but it can also be an attempt by your immune system — the body’s defense against germs — to fight off an infection or illness.


Your body may use chills to boost its core temperature and kill off the flu virus you’ve caught. This is why fever and chills often happen at the same time. Although you may feel like you are freezing, your body temperature inside could be turned up as high as 104 F.

If flu is the cause of your chills, you might also have symptoms like:

Most of the time, the flu goes away on its own within 2 weeks. During that time, you should rest and drink lots of fluids. Children under the age of 5, adults over 65, and anyone with a long-term health issue should see a doctor right away.


Just like with the flu virus, your body can turn on the chills in response to other infections. This may help your immune system kick in faster and work better.

Chills are a common symptom of infections like pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTI), and malaria.

Besides chills, an infection can also cause symptoms like:

  • Fever
  • Coughing
  • Sore throat or mouth sores
  • Stuffed-up nose
  • Shortness of breath
  • Stiff neck
  • Pain or burning when you pee
  • Diarrhea
  • Throwing up
  • Belly pain
  • Redness, soreness, or swelling in one area

See your doctor if you have these symptoms. You may need medication to treat the infection.

Infection Due to a Kidney Stone

You might get chills because of an infection that starts when you have a kidney stone.

Sometimes minerals and salts stick together to form a hard mass inside your kidney called a kidney stone. This is more likely to happen if you don’t drink enough water each day, eat a diet that’s high in protein, or have a high body mass index (BMI.)

If the kidney stone irritates or blocks your urinary tract, it can cause an infection, which could cause chills.

Other symptoms you might get with kidney stones are:

  • Pain in your side, back, belly, or groin
  • Pain when you pee
  • Pink, red, or brown urine
  • Urgent need to pee
  • Pee more or less than you usually do
  • Cloudy urine that smells funny

Call your doctor right away. If your stone doesn’t pass on its own, you may need surgery or a treatment that can break it into small pieces.


If your body loses heat faster than it can make it, your body temperature will start to drop. Under normal conditions, it should be around 98.6 F. If it drops below 95 F, you have what’s called hypothermia. Your organs can’t function like they should when they’re that cold. Chills are your body’s attempt to try to warm back up.

Shivering is the first sign of hypothermia. Other symptoms to watch for are:

  • Slurred speech
  • Slowed, shallow breathing
  • Low energy
  • Weakened pulse
  • Feeling clumsy
  • Confusion
  • Bright red, cold skin (in babies)

If you think you or someone you know has hypothermia, call 911. Medical treatment may be needed to raise your body temperature back to normal levels.

Underactive Thyroid

Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck. It makes a hormone that helps your body stay warm and keeps your organs working like they should. If your thyroid doesn’t make enough of this hormone, you have an underactive thyroid, also known as hypothyroidism.

Besides chills without fever, symptoms can include:

There’s no cure for hypothyroidism, but you can control it with medicine. Your doctor might prescribe a daily pill that supplies the hormone your thyroid no longer makes.


You get a condition called hypoglycemia when your blood sugar drops to an unsafe level. This is most likely to happen if you have diabetes and your food and medicine get out of balance. Insulin and the oral diabetes medications called sulfonylureas are the most likely to cause hypoglycemia.

Although it’s rare, people without diabetes can get hypoglycemia, too.

If you have hypoglycemia, you can have body chills without fever. Other common symptoms are:

If you catch hypoglycemia early, you can treat it by eating a simple sugar like glucose tablets or gel, hard candies, or juice or sugar soda. If your hypoglycemia is so severe that you become unconscious, a friend or family member that you’re with can inject you with glucagon, a hormone that helps control blood sugar.

If you are at high risk for hypoglycemia, you and your family should know how to recognize and treat it. Always let your doctor know if you think you have hypoglycemia, even if you don’t have diabetes. If left unchecked, it could cause you to have a seizure or pass out.

The Most Common Causes of Chills, With or Without Fever

  • Body chills are commonly caused by cold external temperatures, or changing internal temperatures, such as when you have a fever.  
  • When you have chills without a fever, causes may include low blood sugar, anxiety or fear, or intense physical exercise. 
  • To get rid of chills, you’ll need to treat the root cause, such as taking fever-reducing medications or boosting blood sugar levels. 
  • This article was medically reviewed by Jason R. McKnight, MD, MS, a family medicine physician and clinical assistant professor at Texas A&M College of Medicine. 
  • This story is part of Insider’s guide to Fever. 

Chills can be caused by cold external temperatures, a fever or changing internal temperatures, and other medical conditions like hypoglycemia or anxiety. 

They are often accompanied by shivering or shaking, and raised bumps on your skin known as “goosebumps.” Here’s what you need to know about the most common causes of chills and how to relieve them. 

What causes chills? 

Chills are your body’s attempt to regulate or raise your internal temperature.  

For example, when you’re exposed to a cold environment, your internal body temperature decreases. As a result, your body shivers to generate heat, which can be experienced as chills. 

Chills also commonly occur with a fever, and in this case, your body shivers as a defense mechanism against harmful pathogens. 

Infectious bacteria and viruses thrive at normal body temperature, which is about 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. When you have an infection, your body responds with chills, which raises your internal temperature, and slows down the reproduction rate of the virus or bacteria. 

That’s why chills are a common symptom of many viral and bacterial infections, such as: 

  • Flu
  • Pneumonia
  • COVID-19
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI)
  • Malaria
  • Strep throat
  • Sinus infection

Chills without fever 

Cold temperatures or fevers aren’t the only causes of chills. Other causes include:

  • Low blood sugar levels or hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar levels trigger your body’s stress response, which can result in chills or shaking. Other symptoms of hypoglycemia include confusion, sweating, fatigue, and an irregular or fast heartbeat. 
  • An intense emotional reaction. Fear or anxiety can cause your body to sweat, which can then result in chills, since sweating lowers your internal temperature. Intense feelings of anxiety also cause your body to go into a “fight or flight” mode and release adrenaline. A surge in adrenaline can cause you to shiver or experience chills.
  • Extreme physical exertion. As you exercise, your body temperature rises and your body produces sweat to prevent overheating. After a long run or another strenuous exercise, your core temperature drops. This drop, combined with a layer of sweat against the skin, can cause you to shiver as your body tries to return to a normal temperature. 

How to get rid of chills 

If you’re experiencing chills due to a cold environment, then they should stop once you warm yourself up, says Nate Favini, MD, Medical Lead of Forward, a preventive primary care practice.  

But if your chills are associated with a bacterial or viral infection, treating your fever will likely  resolve your chills, says Leo Nissola, MD, an immunologist in California. 

To break a fever, you can take over-the-counter medication, like Tylenol or Ibuprofen, which are common fever reducers that decrease inflammation and may help mitigate chills. 

Chills themselves are not necessarily dangerous, though a high fever can be. You should seek medical care if your temperature reaches 103 degrees Fahrenheit or higher, or your fever doesn’t respond to fever reducing medications, as this can be a sign of a serious illness that needs medical attention. 

If you’re experiencing chills for other reasons, like low blood sugar, treating the underlying cause will often resolve the issue. For example, to immediately treat a hypoglycemic attack, Nissola recommends consuming sugar, like fruit juice. 

To stop a panic attack with chills, you can practice deep breathing or relaxation techniques.  

If you experience chills after vigorous exercise, you should change out of your sweaty clothes as soon as you can after your workout and put on warm, dry clothes to regulate your body temperature. 

Related articles from our Health Reference library:

Body Aches & Chills

There are many telltale symptoms of illness, but one we often forget about (until we’re the one experiencing it) is the chill that comes along with the cold or flu. That and the body aches. It’s hard to fully describe but you know what I’m talking about – your muscles and joints ache and your skin may even hurt to the touch. You can definitely get a fever with chills but don’t be fooled – you can even have chills without fever. And you want to keep it that way! So grab a light blanket and let’s talk about how to keep those body aches and chills under control.

What causes body aches?

I know you’re not in a particularly grateful mood, but first let’s thank your body for doing everything it can to protect you! That crummy feeling means our immune system is actually sending out white blood cells to fight an infection, and that is why we feel so stiff and achy. Our body has gone to war!

Along with a possible fever, you may also experience a sore throat and body aches, fatigue, headaches, nausea, stomach aches – these are all possible with a brewing virus and hopefully our body does its job and wins this battle.

What causes cold chills without fever?

Chills are your body’s way of warming you up, oftentimes (but not always) to a feverish level. During this process, as suggested by the word “chills,” we feel cold and want to crawl underneath a pile of blankets. Unfortunately, this will help that fever build! One blanket (or adding warm clothes) is fine to help find some comfort for you or your kiddo but don’t go overboard. (Once the shivering, or chills stops, remove the blanket or excess clothing.)

Chills are not concerning and are just our body’s way of fighting through a virus. We can let our temps creep up as high as 102 F before we treat with medication (tiny tots excluded) – it helps us get through the illness that much faster!

How to get rid of body aches and chills?

  • If you or your babe are really uncomfortable with the chills or achiness, you may take an over-the-counter medication to bring the fever down to a more comfortable range. (Reminders: No medications for our babes <3 months old, no ibuprofen <6 months old, no Aspirin <18 years old.)
  • Dehydration adds to the overall achiness, so amp up those fluids.
  • Rest! Let your body fight for you while you reap the benefits of extra sleep.
  • Take a warm bath to soothe your sore muscles. If you’re running a fever, make sure the water isn’t too hot – we don’t want to make the fever worse.

When to call your doctor or head to the ER if you have body aches and chills?

When we do need to be concerned here is more about the fever range and accompanying symptoms. Call your doctor if:

  • Temperature >100.4 F rectally in our babes <3 months old
  • Temperature >102 F in our kiddos >3 months old to 2 years old
  • Temperature >103 F in ourselves or our kiddos >2 years old
  • Fever present >3 days
  • You or your kiddo are lethargic
  • You or your kiddo are dehydrated (dry mouth, no tears, no urinating >8 hours)
  • Shivering or shaking chills carry on past 30 minutes
  • Fever is accompanied by other symptoms that concern you

Head to the ER if your kiddo or loved one:

  • Has difficulty breathing
  • Is disoriented/confused
  • Has a seizure
  • Has a fever >105 F

Keep in mind that body aches and chills are side effects of a virus. The achiness will go away as the virus goes away, so hang in there. Avoid the urge to bundle up, drink plenty of fluids, and get some extra rest. Hopefully this remains at aches and chills and you’re able to move on! If you are ever concerned about other symptoms or worry they are carrying on too long, always call your doctor. Or check on those other symptoms through your Kinsa app and prepare to receive more advice from me, Nurse Blake!

Fever or Chills, Age 11 and Younger

Do you think your child may have a fever or chills?

How old are you?

Less than 3 months

Less than 3 months

3 months to 3 years

3 months to 3 years

7 to 11 years

7 to 11 years

12 years or older

12 years or older

Are you male or female?

Why do we ask this question?

  • If you are transgender or nonbinary, choose the sex that matches the body parts (such as ovaries, testes, prostate, breasts, penis, or vagina) you now have in the area where you are having symptoms.
  • If your symptoms aren’t related to those organs, you can choose the gender you identify with.
  • If you have some organs of both sexes, you may need to go through this triage tool twice (once as “male” and once as “female”). This will make sure that the tool asks the right questions for you.

Has your child had a fever seizure?

Fever seizures are uncontrolled muscle spasms that can happen when a child’s body temperature goes up quickly.

Has your child had surgery in the past 2 weeks?


Surgery within past 2 weeks


Surgery within past 2 weeks

Does your baby seem sick?

A sick baby probably will not be acting normally. For example, the baby may be much fussier than usual or not want to eat.

How sick do you think your baby is?

Extremely sick

Baby is very sick (limp and not responsive)


Baby is sick (sleepier than usual, not eating or drinking like usual)

Is your child having trouble drinking enough to replace the fluids he or she has lost?

Little sips of fluid usually are not enough. The child needs to be able to take in and keep down plenty of fluids.


Unable to drink enough fluids


Able to drink enough fluids

Would you describe the breathing problem as severe, moderate, or mild?


Severe difficulty breathing


Moderate difficulty breathing


Mild difficulty breathing

Would you describe the breathing problem as severe, moderate, or mild?


Severe difficulty breathing


Moderate difficulty breathing


Mild difficulty breathing

Is your child’s ability to breathe:

Getting worse?

Breathing problems are getting worse

Staying about the same (not better or worse)?

Breathing problems are unchanged

Getting better?

Breathing problems are getting better

Did you take a rectal temperature?

Taking a rectal temperature is the only way to be sure that a baby this age does not have a fever. If you don’t know the rectal temperature, it’s safest to assume the baby has a fever and needs to be seen by a doctor. Any problem that causes a fever at this age could be serious.


Rectal temperature taken


Rectal temperature taken

Is it 100.4°F (38°C) or higher?


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)


Temperature at least 100.4°F (38°C)

Have tiny red or purple spots or bruises appeared suddenly?


Sudden appearance of red or purple spots or bruising


Sudden appearance of red or purple spots or bruising

Does your child seem to be in pain?

Does your child have shaking chills or very heavy sweating?

Shaking chills are a severe, intense form of shivering. Heavy sweating means that sweat is pouring off the child or soaking through his or her clothes.


Shaking chills or heavy sweating


Shaking chills or heavy sweating

Does your child have a health problem or take medicine that weakens his or her immune system?


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems


Disease or medicine that causes immune system problems

Does your child have a rash that looks like a sunburn?

Did you take your child’s temperature?

How high is the fever? The answer may depend on how you took the temperature.

High: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

High fever: 104°F (40°C) or higher, oral

Moderate: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Moderate fever: 100.4°F (38°C) to 103.9°F (39.9°C), oral

Mild: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

Mild fever: 100.3°F (37.9°C) or lower, oral

How high do you think the fever is?


Feels fever is moderate

Mild or low

Feels fever is mild

How long has your child had a fever?

Less than 2 days (48 hours)

Fever for less than 2 days

From 2 days to less than 1 week

Fever for more than 2 days and less than 1 week

1 week or longer

Fever for 1 week or more

Do you think that a medicine or a vaccine may be causing the fever?

Think about whether the fever started soon after you began using a new medicine or a higher dose of a medicine. Or did it start after you got a shot or vaccine?


Medicine or vaccine may be causing the fever


Medicine or vaccine may be causing the fever

Many things can affect how your body responds to a symptom and what kind of care you may need. These include:

  • Your age. Babies and older adults tend to get sicker quicker.
  • Your overall health. If you have a condition such as diabetes, HIV, cancer, or heart disease, you may need to pay closer attention to certain symptoms and seek care sooner.
  • Medicines you take. Certain medicines, such as blood thinners (anticoagulants), medicines that suppress the immune system like steroids or chemotherapy, herbal remedies, or supplements can cause symptoms or make them worse.
  • Recent health events, such as surgery or injury. These kinds of events can cause symptoms afterwards or make them more serious.
  • Your health habits and lifestyle, such as eating and exercise habits, smoking, alcohol or drug use, sexual history, and travel.

Try Home Treatment

You have answered all the questions. Based on your answers, you may be able to take care of this problem at home.

  • Try home treatment to relieve the symptoms.
  • Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). You may need care sooner.

Babies can quickly get dehydrated when they lose fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • The baby may be fussy or cranky (mild dehydration), or the baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up (severe dehydration).
  • The baby may have a little less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or the baby may not be urinating at all (severe dehydration).

You can get dehydrated when you lose a lot of fluids because of problems like vomiting or fever.

Symptoms of dehydration can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel tired and edgy (mild dehydration), or you may feel weak, not alert, and not able to think clearly (severe dehydration).
  • You may pass less urine than usual (mild dehydration), or you may not be passing urine at all (severe dehydration).

Severe dehydration means:

  • The baby may be very sleepy and hard to wake up.
  • The baby may have a very dry mouth and very dry eyes (no tears).
  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 12 or more hours.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The baby may have no wet diapers in 6 hours.
  • The baby may have a dry mouth and dry eyes (fewer tears than usual).

Mild dehydration means:

  • The baby may pass a little less urine than usual.

Symptoms of difficulty breathing can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • You may feel a little out of breath but still be able to talk (mild difficulty breathing), or you may be so out of breath that you cannot talk at all (severe difficulty breathing).
  • It may be getting hard to breathe with activity (mild difficulty breathing), or you may have to work very hard to breathe even when you’re at rest (severe difficulty breathing).

Symptoms of difficulty breathing in a baby or young child can range from mild to severe. For example:

  • The child may be breathing a little faster than usual (mild difficulty breathing), or the child may be having so much trouble that the nostrils are flaring and the belly is moving in and out with every breath (severe difficulty breathing).
  • The child may seem a little out of breath but is still able to eat or talk (mild difficulty breathing), or the child may be breathing so hard that he or she cannot eat or talk (severe difficulty breathing).

Sudden drooling and trouble swallowing can be signs of a serious problem called epiglottitis. This problem can happen at any age.

The epiglottis is a flap of tissue at the back of the throat that you can’t see when you look in the mouth. When you swallow, it closes to keep food and fluids out of the tube (trachea) that leads to the lungs. If the epiglottis becomes inflamed or infected, it can swell and quickly block the airway. This makes it very hard to breathe.

The symptoms start suddenly. A person with epiglottitis is likely to seem very sick, have a fever, drool, and have trouble breathing, swallowing, and making sounds. In the case of a child, you may notice the child trying to sit up and lean forward with his or her jaw forward, because it’s easier to breathe in this position.

Many prescription and nonprescription medicines can trigger an allergic reaction and cause a fever. A few examples are:

  • Antibiotics.
  • Barbiturates, such as phenobarbital.
  • Aspirin, if you take too much.

Fever can be a symptom of almost any type of infection. Symptoms of a more serious infection may include the following:

  • Skin infection: Pain, redness, or pus
  • Joint infection: Severe pain, redness, or warmth in or around a joint
  • Bladder infection: Burning when you urinate, and a frequent need to urinate without being able to pass much urine
  • Kidney infection: Pain in the flank, which is either side of the back just below the rib cage
  • Abdominal infection: Belly pain

Symptoms of heatstroke may include:

  • Feeling or acting very confused, restless, or anxious.
  • Trouble breathing.
  • Sweating heavily, or not sweating at all (sweating may have stopped).
  • Skin that is red, hot, and dry, even in the armpits.
  • Passing out.
  • Seizure.
  • Nausea and vomiting.

Heatstroke occurs when the body can’t control its own temperature and body temperature continues to rise.

Severe dehydration means:

  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be extremely dry.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 12 or more hours.
  • The child may not seem alert or able to think clearly.
  • The child may be too weak or dizzy to stand.
  • The child may pass out.

Moderate dehydration means:

  • The child may be a lot more thirsty than usual.
  • The child’s mouth and eyes may be drier than usual.
  • The child may pass little or no urine for 8 or more hours.
  • The child may feel dizzy when he or she stands or sits up.

Mild dehydration means:

  • The child may be more thirsty than usual.
  • The child may pass less urine than usual.

Certain health conditions and medicines weaken the immune system’s ability to fight off infection and illness. Some examples in children are:

  • Diseases such as diabetes, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and congenital heart disease.
  • Steroid medicines, which are used to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Medicines taken after organ transplant.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer.
  • Not having a spleen.

Temperature varies a little depending on how you measure it. For children up to 11 years old, here are the ranges for high, moderate, and mild according to how you took the temperature.

Oral (by mouth), ear, or rectal temperature

  • High: 104° F (40° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 100.4° F (38° C) to 103.9° F (39.9° C)
  • Mild: 100.3° F (37.9° C) and lower

A forehead (temporal) scanner is usually 0.5° F (0.3° C) to 1° F (0. 6° C) lower than an oral temperature.

Armpit (axillary) temperature

  • High: 103° F (39.5° C) and higher
  • Moderate: 99.4° F (37.4° C) to 102.9° F (39.4° C)
  • Mild: 99.3° F (37.3° C) and lower

Note: For children under 5 years old, rectal temperatures are the most accurate.

Sudden tiny red or purple spots or sudden bruising may be early symptoms of a serious illness or bleeding problem. There are two types.

Petechiae (say “puh-TEE-kee-eye”):

  • Are tiny, flat red or purple spots in the skin or the lining of the mouth.
  • Do not turn white when you press on them.
  • Range from the size of a pinpoint to the size of a small pea and do not itch or cause pain.
  • May spread over a large area of the body within a few hours.
  • Are different than tiny, flat red spots or birthmarks that are present all the time.

Purpura (say “PURR-pyuh-ruh” or “PURR-puh-ruh”):

  • Is sudden, severe bruising that occurs for no clear reason.
  • May be in one area or all over.
  • Is different than the bruising that happens after you bump into something.

You can use a small rubber bulb (called an aspirating bulb) to remove mucus from your baby’s nose or mouth when a cold or allergies make it hard for the baby to eat, sleep, or breathe.

To use the bulb:

  1. Put a few saline nose drops in each side of the baby’s nose before you start.
  2. Position the baby with his or her head tilted slightly back.
  3. Squeeze the round base of the bulb.
  4. Gently insert the tip of the bulb tightly inside the baby’s nose.
  5. Release the bulb to remove (suction) mucus from the nose.

Don’t do this more than 5 or 6 times a day. Doing it too often can make the congestion worse and can also cause the lining of the nose to swell or bleed.

Severe trouble breathing means:

  • The child cannot eat or talk because he or she is breathing so hard.
  • The child’s nostrils are flaring and the belly is moving in and out with every breath.
  • The child seems to be tiring out.
  • The child seems very sleepy or confused.

Moderate trouble breathing means:

  • The child is breathing a lot faster than usual.
  • The child has to take breaks from eating or talking to breathe.
  • The nostrils flare or the belly moves in and out at times when the child breathes.

Mild trouble breathing means:

  • The child is breathing a little faster than usual.
  • The child seems a little out of breath but can still eat or talk.

Shock is a life-threatening condition that may occur quickly after a sudden illness or injury.

Babies and young children often have several symptoms of shock. These include:

  • Passing out (losing consciousness).
  • Being very sleepy or hard to wake up.
  • Not responding when being touched or talked to.
  • Breathing much faster than usual.
  • Acting confused. The child may not know where he or she is.

If you’re not sure if a child’s fever is high, moderate, or mild, think about these issues:

With a high fever:

  • The child feels very hot.
  • It is likely one of the highest fevers the child has ever had.

With a moderate fever:

  • The child feels warm or hot.
  • You are sure the child has a fever.

With a mild fever:

  • The child may feel a little warm.
  • You think the child might have a fever, but you’re not sure.

A baby that is extremely sick:

  • May be limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • May not respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • May be hard to wake up.

A baby that is sick (but not extremely sick):

  • May be sleepier than usual.
  • May not eat or drink as much as usual.

Pain in children under 3 years

It can be hard to tell how much pain a baby or toddler is in.

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the baby cannot sleep, cannot get comfortable, and cries constantly no matter what you do. The baby may kick, make fists, or grimace.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The baby is very fussy, clings to you a lot, and may have trouble sleeping but responds when you try to comfort him or her.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The baby is a little fussy and clings to you a little but responds when you try to comfort him or her.

Pain in children 3 years and older

  • Severe pain (8 to 10): The pain is so bad that the child can’t stand it for more than a few hours, can’t sleep, and can’t do anything else except focus on the pain. No one can tolerate severe pain for more than a few hours.
  • Moderate pain (5 to 7): The pain is bad enough to disrupt the child’s normal activities and sleep, but the child can tolerate it for hours or days.
  • Mild pain (1 to 4): The child notices and may complain of the pain, but it is not bad enough to disrupt his or her sleep or activities.

Symptoms of serious illness in a baby may include the following:

  • The baby is limp and floppy like a rag doll.
  • The baby doesn’t respond at all to being held, touched, or talked to.
  • The baby is hard to wake up.

Symptoms of serious illness may include:

  • A severe headache.
  • A stiff neck.
  • Mental changes, such as feeling confused or much less alert.
  • Extreme fatigue (to the point where it’s hard for you to function).
  • Shaking chills.

Seek Care Now

Based on your answers, you may need care right away. The problem is likely to get worse without medical care.

  • Call your doctor now to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care in the next hour.
  • You do not need to call an ambulance unless:
    • You cannot travel safely either by driving yourself or by having someone else drive you.
    • You are in an area where heavy traffic or other problems may slow you down.

Call 911 Now

Based on your answers, you need emergency care.

Call 911 or other emergency services now.

Sometimes people don’t want to call 911. They may think that their symptoms aren’t serious or that they can just get someone else to drive them. Or they might be concerned about the cost. But based on your answers, the safest and quickest way for you to get the care you need is to call 911 for medical transport to the hospital.

Seek Care Today

Based on your answers, you may need care soon. The problem probably will not get better without medical care.

  • Call your doctor today to discuss the symptoms and arrange for care.
  • If you cannot reach your doctor or you don’t have one, seek care today.
  • If it is evening, watch the symptoms and seek care in the morning.
  • If the symptoms get worse, seek care sooner.

Make an Appointment

Based on your answers, the problem may not improve without medical care.

  • Make an appointment to see your doctor in the next 1 to 2 weeks.
  • If appropriate, try home treatment while you are waiting for the appointment.
  • If symptoms get worse or you have any concerns, call your doctor. You may need care sooner.

Fever Seizures

Fever or Chills, Age 12 and Older

Postoperative Problems

Gastroenteritis – Digestive Disorders – Merck Manuals Consumer Version

Epidemic and often seasonal

Symptoms begin 3 to 4 days after infection

Usually lasts 2 to 7 days

Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are not given.

Eating contaminated meat (especially undercooked poultry)

Drinking contaminated water or unpasteurized milk

Often bloody, sometimes watery diarrhea lasting 1 day to a week or more

Antibiotics given in the early stages of illness may shorten the duration of symptoms (for example, azithromycin or ciprofloxacin).

Usually due to bacterial overgrowth in people who have been taking antibiotics

Antibiotic that caused the illness is stopped.

Vancomycin or fidaxomicin is given by mouth.

Metronidazole may be given to people who cannot tolerate vancomycin and fidaxomicin.

Drinking contaminated water

Recreational water exposure

People with impaired immune systems are particularly susceptible

Watery diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue, and vomiting

Usually lasts about 2 weeks

Antiparasitic drugs are sometimes given (for example, nitazoxanide).

Eating or drinking contaminated food or water

Bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss lasting 1 to 3 weeks

Can cause infection in liver and other organs

Antiparasitic drugs are given (for example, metronidazole, iodoquinol, or paromomycin).

Eating undercooked ground beef or drinking unpasteurized milk or juice

Swimming in contaminated pools

Touching infected animals and then putting fingers in the mouth

Sudden abdominal cramps, watery diarrhea that usually becomes bloody within 1 to 3 days, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in about 5% of people

Eating or drinking contaminated food or water

Usually lasts 3 to 5 days

Antibiotics (for example, ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin) may help shorten duration of illness.

Azithromycin is given to children.

Drinking contaminated water

Person-to-person contact, particularly in day care centers

Diarrhea, nausea, and loss of appetite

More long-term illness (lasting several days to several weeks) may occur, with greasy stools, abdominal bloating, gas, fatigue, and weight loss

Antiparasitic drugs are given (for example, metronidazole or nitazoxanide).

Epidemic and often seasonal

Frequent watery diarrhea lasts 1 to 2 weeks

Mild vomiting begins 1 to 2 days after diarrhea

Fever affects 50% of people

Symptoms begin 3 to 10 days after infection

Usually lasts 10 days or more

Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are not given.

Epidemic and often seasonal

Vomiting, especially in children

Stomach cramps, headache, and aches and pains

Fever higher than 102° F (about 39°C) occurs in about 30% of people

Diarrhea usually affects adults

Symptoms begin 1 to 2 days after infection

Usually lasts 2 to 7 days

Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are not given.

Epidemic and often seasonal

Vomiting and fever higher than 102° F (about 39°C)

Symptoms begin 1 to 3 days after infection

Antibiotics and antiviral drugs are not given.

Vaccines are available for infants.

Contact with reptiles (for instance, iguanas, snakes, and turtles), birds, or amphibians (for instance, frogs and salamanders)

High fever, exhaustion, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea that may or may not be bloody

Symptoms usually last 3 to 7 days

Antibiotics usually are not given.

Person-to-person contact, especially in day care centers

In mild cases, watery, loose stools

In severe cases, high fever, exhaustion, severe abdominal cramps, painful passage of stool containing blood and mucus

Symptoms usually last about a week without treatment

Antibiotics shorten the duration of the illness and decrease chance of spread to another person (for example, ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).

Eating food contaminated by toxins produced by bacteria

Severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

Symptoms begin within 12 hours after eating contaminated food and lessen within 36 hours

Antibiotics are not given.

Eating or drinking contaminated food or water

Painless, watery diarrhea and vomiting

Can lead to massive fluid loss and shock

Antibiotics are given (for example, ciprofloxacin or doxycycline).

Watery diarrhea, often with little nausea or vomiting

Antibiotics are given (for example, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole).

Diarrhea is first sign of illness for some COVID-19 patients

Some patients with COVID-19 experience gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly diarrhea, as the first sign of illness, according to a new study.

Among this subset of patients — who have mild disease overall — respiratory symptoms show up only later in the illness, and some never develop respiratory symptoms at all, the authors said.

The findings are important because those without classic symptoms of COVID-19 — such as cough, shortness of breath and fever — may go undiagnosed and could potentially spread the illness to others, the researchers said.

Still, they note that digestive problems are common overall and don’t necessarily mean that a person has COVID-19. But doctors should recognize that sudden digestive symptoms in people with a possible COVID-19 contact “should at least prompt consideration of the illness,” the authors wrote in their paper, published ahead of print Monday (March 30) in The American Journal of Gastroenterology. “Failure to recognize these patients early and often may lead to unwitting spread of the disease.” 

Coronavirus science and news

The study is not the first to report digestive symptoms as a sign of COVID-19. For example, a study posted March 18 in the same journal found that, among about 200 COVID-19 patients at three hospitals in Wuhan, China, around 50% reported at least one digestive symptom, and 18% reported diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain. However, that study and others have tended to focus on patients with severe illness, rather than those with mild disease.

In the new study, the researchers analyzed information from 206 patients at Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College in Wuhan, which was designated as a hospital for COVID-19 patients. To be included in the study, patients needed to have a mild illness, without difficulty breathing or low blood oxygen levels.

Overall, 48 patients (23%) were admitted with digestive symptoms only, 89 (43%) with respiratory symptoms only and 69 (33%) with both respiratory and digestive symptoms.

Among all patients with digestive symptoms (117 patients), about 67 (58%) had diarrhea, and of these, 13 (20%) experienced diarrhea as the first symptom of their illness. Patients’ diarrhea lasted from one to 14 days, with an average duration of five days, the report said. About one-third of patients with digestive symptoms never experienced a fever.

Patients with digestive symptoms tended to seek health care later than those with respiratory symptoms, an average of 16 days from the start of their symptoms, compared with 11 days for those with respiratory symptoms, the study found. Those with digestive symptoms also took longer to clear the virus from their body (test negative for COVID-19), taking about 41 days on average, compared with 33 days for those with respiratory symptoms only.

Finally, those with digestive symptoms were much more likely to have the new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, detected in their stool, with about 73% having positive stool samples, compared with 14% of those with respiratory symptoms only. This finding suggests, but does not definitely confirm, that that virus infects the gastrointestinal tract, the authors said.

Overall, “these data emphasize that patients with new-onset diarrhea after a possible COVID-19 contact should be suspected for the illness, even in the absence of cough, shortness of breath, sore throat or even fever,” the authors concluded. “Optimally, testing for COVID-19 should be performed using both respiratory and stool samples, if available.” 

The authors note that their study was relatively small, and larger studies are needed to further describe digestive symptoms in patients with mild COVID-19.

Originally published on Live Science. 

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What is Gastroenteritis?

Gastroenteritis refers to an infection of the stomach and the intestine. The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis are vomiting and frequent episodes of diarrhea that occur three or four times every 24 hours.


The symptoms of gastroenteritis usually begin within 24 to 48 hours of infection and may include:

  • Vomiting
  • Nausea or feeling ill
  • Metallic taste in the mouth
  • Three or more episodes of diarrhea every 24 hours
  • Stool may contain blood and mucus
  • Fever
  • Chills, shivering and fever
  • Muscle and body ache
  • Stomach cramps
  • Headache


Gastroenteritis may be caused by viruses, bacteria or parasites. In England, the majority of adult gastroenteritis is caused by norovirus and food poisoning. The infection interferes with the absorption of water from the contents of the intestine, which leads to dehydration and the passing of watery stools.

Gastroenteritis is highly infectious and is mainly spread from person to person via the fecal–oral route, usually as a result of people touching objects after using the toilet without washing their hands. If another person touches their mouth after touching the contaminated object or uses the object to prepare or eat food, they may become infected with the virus.

Diagnosis and treatment

Gastroenteritis often does not require a diagnosis because the symptoms usually clear up without treatment. If symptoms persist, however, a stool sample may sent for analysis to help determine the pathogen that has caused the infection. While viral diarrhea usually resolves with rest and plenty of clear fluids, bacterial diarrhea needs to be treated using antibiotics. In some cases, blood and urine tests may also be recommended to rule out other conditions if an individual is particularly ill or symptoms last for longer than would usually be expected with gastroenteritis.

The majority of people who suffer form gastroenteritis only experience mild symptoms that pass after a few days. However, if patients are severely ill or vulnerable due to older age or another condition, then treatment may be recommended to prevent dehydration which can be fatal.

Dehydration leads to an excess loss of fluid and electrolytes from the body. An oral rehydration solution can be used to treat these individuals. The solution contains a carefully balanced mixture of salt, sugar and essential electrolytes such as sodium and potassium to help replace fluid that has been lost.

Further Reading

90,000 Chills at a temperature – the reasons and what to do if the body is chilly and aching


356 814

7 minutes


Why does the chill appear without fever?
What to do in case of chills
Can chills be prevented?

Chills in an adult arise from a spasm of the superficial vessels of the skin and is accompanied by tremors, in which individual muscle fibers begin to contract, and a goose bumps sensation due to muscle contraction that lifts the hairs on the arms and legs. At the same time, a person feels cold, tries to wrap himself up in a blanket or curl up. In this way, the body tries to keep warm 4.5 .


Most often, chills are observed against the background of fever 3 , which accompanies almost all infectious diseases 4 – this is a universal reaction of the body 4 . When microbes and viruses penetrate into it, the body “defends itself” by increasing the body temperature 2.3 .

Since more heat is generated during muscle contractions 6 , it means that the more pronounced the chill, the higher the body temperature 2 .Light chills are typical for 38 – 39 0 C, “chattering teeth” and strong tremors – for fever in the range 39 0 – 40 0 C. Stunning chills covering the whole body occur at temperatures above 40 0 C 3.6 .

Chilliness and fever can be troubling with various infectious diseases, for example, with a cold, flu 3 or when a focus of purulent inflammation is formed in any organ – for example, in the heart, kidneys, pleura, lungs or veins – a focus of purulent inflammation 7 …The cause of the symptoms is pyrogens or substances that can affect the thermoregulatory center in the brain. Pyrogens can be biologically active substances that are secreted by bacteria, viruses and other pathogens 3 .

Sometimes, not pathogens of infections act as pyrogens, but substances that are formed in the body itself during damage and decay of tissues – inflammation, bruises, hemorrhages 2.3 .

Even if you feel cold, trembling in your body, and the thermometer shows a temperature above 37 0 C, the cause may not be inflammation or even infection, but the following conditions:

  • Nervous strain. With neurocirculatory dystonia (neurosis), chills often begin in the evening or at night. It can be triggered by emotional stress 16 .
  • Hormonal imbalance. Chilliness in women against a background of increased temperature (37-38 0 C) is a common sign of menopause 3.7 or premenstrual syndrome 18 .
  • Diseases of the blood. Symptoms resembling an infectious fever with tremors may be indicative of hemolytic anemia or lymphoma 14 .
  • Hyperthermia. Overheating of the body occurs after intense physical overstrain, if the ambient temperature is higher than 26.7 0 C 14 . In such conditions, heat transfer is disturbed, and excess heat accumulates in the body 5 . Overheating affects athletes participating in competitions in a country with an unusual climate, while not observing the correct drinking regime, as well as people who are obese 14 .

Why do chills appear without fever?

Chilliness can also occur against the background of normal and even low body temperature 1.2.14 .With hypothermia, – for example, with prolonged exposure to cold or immersion in cold water, 1.2 – the vessels narrow so that the body does not lose heat. For example, trained swimmers with enough body fat to retain heat usually do not shiver in cold water. But in thin people with a low level of physical activity in similar conditions, blood circulation is quickly impaired, severe tremors develop, turning into chills, and the body temperature can even drop 14 .

Other causes of chills without fever include:

  • hypoglycemia – a decrease in the level of glucose in the blood – in patients with diabetes mellitus 9 ;
  • hypothyroidism – deficiency of thyroid hormones 15 ;
  • hypertensive crisis – a sharp and significant rise in blood pressure 8 .

Shivering without fever may occur if a long time elapses between taking antipyretic drugs. These medicines quickly bring down the temperature, but if they are used incorrectly, sometimes there is a side effect – muscle contraction, that is, tremors in the body.To prevent such phenomena from occurring, consult a specialist, he will tell you how to take antipyretic drugs correctly 14 .

What to do with chills

In case of hypothermia, it is enough to warm up – put on warm clothes, drink hot tea or milk 1 . If, with a flu or a cold against the background of fever (above 38 90 025 0 90 026 C) and chills, the state of health worsens, the legs and hands become cold, and the skin is “marbled”, there is a possibility that the body temperature will rise, which means that measures must be taken 2 , 10 .First of all, see a doctor at the clinic or call a doctor at home.

To relieve unpleasant symptoms, when chills occur, you should:

  1. Wrap yourself in a blanket and keep warm. There is no need to be afraid that the temperature will start to rise even faster. The body with fever does not lose the ability to resist external heating 2 .
  2. Wipe the body with warm water at a temperature of 41 0 C and above. By evaporating from the surface of the skin, the water will remove heat and help it gradually cool.But remember that you cannot wipe your skin with cold water: sharp cooling causes even greater muscle and vascular spasm, intensifies chills and accelerates the rise in temperature 10 . Antipyretic drug 10 should be taken 30 minutes before wiping off.

If rubbing is carried out without taking an antipyretic, chills may appear – due to tremors in the body, the temperature will rise again 17 .

11 , 12 .

  • Paracetamol, phenylephrine, chlorphenamine and caffeine are included in RINZA® tablets. The drug is ready for action 10 minutes after ingestion 13 , reduces muscle and joint pain, lowers high temperature 11 . RINZA® also facilitates breathing in case of swelling of the respiratory tract, helps to reduce sore throat, itching of the eyes and nose 11 .
  • Powders for the preparation of RINZASIP® with vitamin C, in addition to paracetamol, phenylephrine, pheniramine and caffeine, contain ascorbic acid.RINZASIP® with vitamin C with orange, lemon or black currant flavor reduces cold symptoms and increases body resistance 12 .

Attention! You can take antipyretic drugs for no more than 5 days 11.12 . If the fever, tremors and sensation of coldness do not disappear or reappear, you should consult a specialist and find out the reasons for this condition 4 .

Can chills be prevented?

To avoid the appearance of this symptom, you must first act on its causes – avoid situations in which it occurs, for example, hypothermia or training in high temperature conditions 14 .It is also important to strengthen the immune system and start treating a cold at the first symptoms. If chilliness is not associated with a cold and occurs periodically 8.14.16 , you need to consult a doctor in a timely manner to prevent a new attack. Indeed, in such cases, chills can be a signal that the body sends in various chronic diseases 2 .

The information in this article is for guidance only and does not replace the professional advice of a physician.Consult a qualified professional for diagnosis and treatment.


  1. Avkhimenko MM Cold trauma: emergency medical care, prevention // Nurse / №1. – 2014 .– S. 33-39.
  2. Wismont F.I.Selected lectures on pathophysiology. Fever. // Minsk. – 1997. – 21 p.
  3. Goncharova O. M., Lobanova E. V. Feverish syndrome in the practice of a local therapist // Textbook / Amur State Medical Academy – 2018.
  4. Zvereva N. N., Sayfullin M. A. Fever: causes, mistakes, optimal approach // Medical Council / №11. – 2018 .– S. 158-161.
  5. Kalyuzhnaya L. I., Zemlyanoy D. A. Heat transfer disturbances. Fever // Pediatrician / Volume VI. – No. 1. – 2015 .– S. 125-133.
  6. Litvitsky P.F. Disturbances in the heat balance of the body. Fever // Polls of modern pediatrics / VOL. 8 – №6. – 2009 – S. 55-63.
  7. Tsogoeva L. M., Snopkov Yu. P., Lavrov E. V. Fever of unknown origin (to help the practicing physician) // Medicine of emergency conditions // № 5 (60).- 2014 .– S. 40-45.
  8. Podolskaya A.A., Kim Z.F., Palmova L. Yu. Hypertensive crisis: a differentiated approach to therapy // Bulletin of modern clinical medicine // 2015 Volume 8, Appendix 1, pp. 142-146
  9. Starostina EG Hypoglycemia and hypoglycemic coma // Medical Council / №5-6. – 2013 .– S. 6-10.
  10. Zakharova I.N., Korovina N.A., Ovsyannikova E.M. Fever
    variety of reasons and complexity of the solution // Medical Council / №2. – 2013 .– S. 82-90.
  11. Instructions for the use of RINZA® tablets: https://www.rinza.ru/instrukciya/rinza-tabletki, https://www.rinza.ru/products/tabletki/rinza-tabletki
  12. Instructions for the use of RINZASIP® with vitamin C: https://www.rinza.ru/instrukciya/rinzasip-poroshki, https://www.rinza.ru/products/poroshki/rinzasip-s-vitaminom-c.
  13. Paracetamol in the composition reaches its maximum concentration in blood plasma after at least 10 minutes. Not associated with effects on symptoms. Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics, edited by Mark Tomlin, p.62, 2010.
  14. Nikonov V.V., Feskov A.E., Fedak B.S. Feverish states in clinical practice // Medicine of emergency conditions. Selected Clinical Lectures. Volume 4 – 2nd ed., Rev. and add. / Donetsk: Publisher Zaslavsky A.Yu., 2012 .– 512 p. / ISBN 978-617-632-001-2
  15. Okorokov LN Diagnostics of diseases of internal organs: V. 2. Diagnostics of rheumatic and systemic diseases of connective tissue. Diagnostics of endocrine diseases: – M. Med. lit., 2005-576 p.
  16. Okorokov A.N. Diagnostics of diseases of internal organs: T. 7. Diagnostics of diseases of the heart and blood vessels: – M. Med. lit., 2003 – 416s.
  17. Delyagin V.M. Fever. The variety of reasons and the complexity of the solution / Help the pediatrician. No. 1 2013, pp. 80-83.
  18. Premenstrual Syndrome: Patient Management Tactics in Outpatient Clinical Practice. V.N. Serov, V.L. Tyutyunnik, M.A. Tverdikova // Reproductive endocrinology №4 (12) / 2013 P.30-34.

Pediatricians told about the main symptoms of coronavirus in children | News | OTP

Fever, diarrhea and vomiting are the main symptoms of coronavirus in children.RBC writes about this with reference to a study by a group of pediatricians, which was conducted in four hospitals in Western China.

It was found that fever or fever occurs in 76% of infected children. A severe cough was recorded in 62%, another 12% had diarrhea and vomiting.

According to a study, lung problems in minors appear in the later stages of the disease.

It is specified that during the study, from January 27 to February 23, 34 children aged from one month to 12 years were examined.Minor patients suffered from COVID-19 in mild (18%) or moderate (82%) form.

On the eve of RIA Novosti published the story of two-year-old Maria Parshikova, who died in the Morozov hospital in Moscow. The girl died due to a new disease caused by the coronavirus. This was revealed only after the autopsy. The doctors were unable to make a correct diagnosis at first and then help the child.

According to Anna Parshikova, Masha’s mother, at first her daughter’s temperature rose under 40.

“Two days later, Marusya started running and jumping as usual. But I fell ill: weakness, chills, but low temperature. After the same symptoms appeared in my husband, ” – she said.

Three weeks after she recovered, the girl’s temperature rose again.

“On the third day my daughter had a severely swollen lymph node in her neck. The doctor from the clinic said: it looks like mononucleosis. Then I saw a rash on the girl’s legs and threw the photo to a friend, a pediatrician, ” – recalls Marusya’s mother.

A doctor friend advised me to urgently call an ambulance, suspecting Kawasaki syndrome in the child.

According to the head of the Department of Pediatrics at the RUDN Medical Institute and the consultant pulmonologist at the Morozov Hospital Dmitry Ovsyannikov, a new childhood ailment was discovered in early spring – a multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19. Another name is Kawasaki-like disease.

He clarified that this syndrome has no prevention, it develops one to six weeks after suffering a coronavirus infection.

It is urgent to go to the hospital if parents observe symptoms such as fever, changes in mucous membranes (red lips, strawberry or raspberry tongue), swelling of the palms and feet, conjunctivitis, swollen lymph nodes, especially cervical, as well as various rashes in their child …

reasons, diagnosis and treatment “- Yandex.Qu

The onset of chills without an accompanying increase in body temperature can occur under the influence of many external factors – stress, being in a cold room, etc.e. The person himself expresses complaints that he is “frozen”, and it is for this state that an increase in body temperature is not characteristic.

Numerous factors can cause unpleasant sensations, but most often the reasons lie in the failure of the functioning of individual internal organs, or even entire systems. Sometimes it is impossible to figure out what caused this condition on your own, and then there is only one way out – to seek help from a medical specialist.

The main task is to identify and eliminate the causes of ailment, because they often lie in the development of dangerous pathological processes.An untimely response to a deviation, or its complete ignorance, can cause irreparable harm to health, since a person without medical education can neither determine the source of the ailment, nor take the right measures to eliminate the disease he has.

The main causes of chills without fever

Below are the most common causes of chills without fever.

  1. The initial stage of influenza or acute respiratory disease (ARI).In this case, the temperature does not rise yet, but the feeling of chills is already making itself felt. When the body is attacked by viruses, such a symptom may indicate the body’s struggle with foreign agents. Thus, the body gives a signal that there are health problems. In this case, a warm drink with the addition of honey, raspberries or lemon will help to keep warm. You can also make a warm foot bath with baking soda or herbal decoction.
  2. Neurocirculatory dystonia (VVD).This disease is currently poorly understood. It is accompanied by a decrease in capillary tone, which results in an unreasonable chill without fever, a decrease in blood pressure, dizziness attacks, heat intolerance, etc. The symptoms of this pathological condition are so diverse and sometimes contradictory to each other that it is almost impossible to independently suspect the disease.
  3. Jumps in blood pressure. Sudden changes in blood pressure readings are often accompanied by the onset of chills without an increase in body temperature.But most often this symptom is observed in hypertensive patients, therefore, if a person regularly feels attacks of causeless chills, and at the same time the body temperature does not go beyond the normal range, he needs to consult a doctor and undergo an examination.
  4. Psychoemotional disorders. Chills without fever, accompanied by tremors in the muscles, may be the result of regular stress, provoking the release of large amounts of catecholamines into the bloodstream. The increased concentration of these hormones has a direct effect on the muscles, resulting in tremors in the body.When there is a sharp expansion of the blood vessels, the opposite effect is observed. At this moment, a person experiences a rush of heat, which “spreads” throughout the body. In addition to chills, the body can react to stressful situations with an increase in heart rate and respiration, a short attack of hypertension,

    noise or ringing in the ears

    … The person begins to feel unreasonable anxiety, concern.

  5. Hypothermia. Often chills without an increase in body temperature occurs against the background of hypothermia.In this case, a person feels a trembling all over the body and a cold snap of the arms and legs. As a rule, chills occur after the cold environment has been replaced by a warm place of stay. By behaving in this way, the body naturally tries to resume normal thermoregulation. A warm drink will help get rid of unpleasant sensations – tea with lemon and honey, cocoa, or just a glass of warmed milk.
  6. Unusual manifestation of an allergic reaction. Quite often, chills without fever are observed in people who have eaten an allergenic product.It can be anything – honey, pollen, nuts, etc. In parallel with the chills, the allergic person notes the appearance of headaches, swelling of the mucous membranes of the mouth and nose, itching throughout the body.
  7. Pathologies of infectious origin, or poisoning (in particular, food). During the first few hours, such pathological conditions proceed without an increase in body temperature. In case of poisoning, chills are often accompanied by diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to take an antidiarrheal and antiemetic drug and see a doctor as soon as possible.
  8. Violation of the functioning of the circulatory system. Often, people who have problems with the work of the circulatory system present complaints of chills without elevated body temperature. Insufficient blood circulation leads to a lack of heat, therefore, in such patients, in addition to chills, there is also a coldness of the extremities, possibly even on an ongoing basis.
  9. Pathology of the endocrine system. The thyroid gland is directly involved in the process of thermoregulation of the body.With a decrease in the level of T4 and T3, this function of the body is disrupted, as a result of which a person feels chill, trembling in the body, general weakness and other, no less unpleasant, symptoms. Another disease accompanied by chills without fever is


    … An increase in glucose levels leads not only to chills, this deviation is also accompanied by thirst, dry skin, tremors of the limbs. It should be noted that a drop in sugar levels can also lead to chills.

  10. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastritis or stomach cancer is also often accompanied by a feeling of chills, while the temperature remains normal. In parallel, a person has acute abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, bouts of heartburn. If these pathologies were not found, the patient undergoes an additional examination to find out the causes of the ailment.

Selected causes of chills in women

In addition to the previously considered reasons, the occurrence of chills without an increase in body temperature in women can be explained by:

  • onset of premenstrual syndrome;
  • 90,073 migraine attacks;

  • hyperhidrosis, which can develop with inflammation of the sweat glands, endocrine pathologies, diseases of internal organs, or with tuberculosis.

In the above cases, chills may occur regardless of the time of day. If it occurs during the night, most likely, we are talking about hypothyroidism in women.

Chills without fever during pregnancy

Chills without an increase in body temperature in pregnant women may occur due to the above-described deviations. But other factors can also cause this symptom:

  • development of ARVI or influenza;
  • 90,073 stress suffered;

  • an attack of VSD;
  • diabetes mellitus.

Another cause of chills without fever in pregnant women can be shock or collapse.

A feeling of chilliness in expectant mothers is considered normal if it is:

  • occurs during the first weeks of pregnancy, and then goes away on its own;
  • has no accompanying symptoms in the form of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, panic attacks, coughing, diarrhea;
  • is not accompanied by bloody vaginal discharge.

Spontaneous early termination of pregnancy can also cause chills without fever. Along with this symptom, the woman develops severe abdominal pain, accompanied by vaginal bleeding.

Frozen pregnancy is another cause of chills without fever. In this case, this symptom is a sign of intoxication of the body, which developed against the background of necrosis of fetal tissues and their penetration into the bloodstream. In addition to chilliness, women with a frozen pregnancy feel severe weakness, nausea and dizziness.

Arterial hypertension may be accompanied by chills in the second half of pregnancy. These symptoms are evidence of the development of preeclampsia, a condition dangerous to the health of the expectant mother and the life of the fetus. Gestosis requires compulsory treatment, since its uncontrolled course can lead to extremely serious complications, up to a lethal outcome for both the woman and the unborn child.

Chills with menopause

During menopause, active hormonal changes in the woman’s body begin.The extinction of reproductive function cannot but affect the general condition of the patient, therefore, in this case, chills without fever, alternating with hot flashes, and accompanied by increased sweating and irritability, is a completely understandable symptom.

Chills during lactation

The causes of chills in the postpartum period are mostly consistent with those of pregnancy. Another deviation that can cause this symptom, and is characteristic only of nursing mothers, is lactostasis.To alleviate the condition, a woman just needs to regularly express milk so that it does not stagnate and does not form lumps in the tissues of the breast.

Often, women who have given birth develop or recur with pathologies of the thyroid gland or diseases of other parts of the endocrine system: hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Damage to the pituitary gland, followed by hypopituitarism, is also a common cause of chills in women in labor.

To confirm or deny the presence of pathologies of the endocrine system and, in particular, the thyroid gland, it is necessary to take a blood test for thyroid hormones T3, T4, TSH, and undergo an ultrasound of the thyroid gland.


For an accurate diagnosis in the presence of chills without fever in a patient, the doctor must perform diagnostic manipulations in the form of a physical examination and anamnesis. Based on the data received, the specialist makes a decision to conduct:

  • clinical studies of blood and urine;
  • fluorography or radiography;
  • biochemical blood test;
  • X-ray examination of internal organs;
  • 90,073 tests for STDs;

  • immunological tests.

The examination scheme is developed by the attending physician individually for each patient. If we are talking about a pregnant woman or a nursing mother, X-ray examinations, if possible, are excluded.


Specific therapy methods directly depend on the underlying cause of chills without fever. With an infectious etiology of the symptom, antibacterial drugs are prescribed. The patient should follow bed rest and diet.In addition to antimicrobial drugs, the patient may be prescribed antipyretic drugs and vitamins.

Food poisoning requires the use of sorbents, rehydration agents, antiemetic and antidiarrheal drugs. In this case, adherence to the diet is also required.

If chills without fever are the result of STDs or systemic pathology, a course of basic therapy is carried out. Medicines are selected individually for each patient, taking into account the individual characteristics of the organism and the clinical manifestations of the pathological process.

Causes of chills without fever, or when to see a doctor

Some situations, accompanied by the appearance of chills without an increase in body temperature, require a mandatory visit to a doctor. So, it is necessary to make an appointment with a specialist if:

  1. In addition to chills without fever, the patient complains of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Such symptoms may indicate an acute intestinal infection, which requires mandatory medical intervention.With such complaints, the patient can turn to a therapist or a gastroenterologist.
  2. There is a skin rash, which, along with chills, may indicate an allergic reaction.
  3. The patient has a runny nose, cough, muscle weakness and body aches. These pronounced symptoms may indicate SARS or flu.
  4. If the chills are accompanied by atypical symptoms – skin flushing, vesicular rash, etc. These clinical signs are especially often manifested in patients who have visited exotic countries, so they require special attention from the infectious disease specialist.
  5. If chills occur daily, or with suspicious regularity, it is recommended to consult a cardiologist and undergo the necessary diagnostics. A similar symptom may indicate hypertension, which requires compulsory treatment.

It is important to understand that all previously considered causes and methods of therapy for chills without fever are not a guide to self-medication. Such a symptom can indicate serious, and even dangerous health problems, so it cannot be ignored, but you should not take any measures to eliminate it at your own discretion.

Material provided


What does a chill signal about?

“My grandmother has severe chills, mostly in the evening and at night. At the same time, the body temperature remains normal. What could it be? ” Valeria, Kopyl.

– Chills – a condition in which a person feels unwell and chilly. This is due to sharp spasms of small vessels located close to the skin.But chills are not a disease, but only the body’s reaction to sudden changes in temperature and metabolic disorders. There are many factors provocateurs. For example, such a symptom may indicate the initial stage of influenza or acute respiratory infections. Or about vegetative-vascular or neurocirculatory dystonia, which are accompanied by a decrease in capillary tone, which results in an unreasonable chill without fever, a decrease in blood pressure, dizziness attacks, and heat intolerance. The symptoms of this pathological condition are so diverse, and sometimes contradictory, that it is almost impossible to independently determine the disease without a doctor.Often, people who have problems with the work of the circulatory system present complaints of chills without elevated body temperature. Insufficient blood circulation leads to a lack of heat, therefore, in such patients, there is also a cold snap of the extremities. A possible reason is also a sharp change in blood pressure readings. Most often, this symptom is observed in hypertensive patients before a crisis, so if a person regularly feels this, he needs to measure blood pressure several times a day, undergo an examination, and the doctor must schedule special medications.It is necessary to engage in physical education, give up bad habits (smoking causes vasospasm), monitor your diet. Chills without fever, accompanied by tremors in the muscles, may be the result of constant stress, provoking the release of a large amount of catecholamine hormones into the bloodstream. Such a chill occurs even against the background of hypothermia.

Quite often, chills without fever are observed in people who have eaten an allergenic product. It can be anything – honey,

cereals, nuts.A reaction to flowers, pollen is possible. In parallel, the allergic person notes the appearance of a headache, swelling of the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and nose, itching of the body. Food poisoning during the first few hours can also proceed without an increase in body temperature, but with chills, diarrhea, nausea, dizziness, and vomiting.

The thyroid gland is directly involved in the process of thermoregulation of the body. With a decrease in the level of its main hormones, this function is disrupted, and the person feels chill, trembling in the body, general weakness, and other equally unpleasant symptoms.Another disease accompanied by chills without fever is diabetes mellitus. An increase in glucose levels is also accompanied by thirst, dry skin, tremors of the limbs. But a drop in sugar levels also leads to chilliness. During menopause, women may also experience chills due to a lack of hormones and a general restructuring of the body. In this case, sometimes hot flashes are noted. The best method is hormone therapy. It should be appointed by a specialist. Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and various neoplasms are also accompanied by a feeling of chills, and the temperature may remain normal.As with long-term unbalanced diets.

The best way to cope with chills is a warm bath with essential oils, preparations for strengthening blood vessels. You can simply wrap yourself up in a blanket and have lemon tea with honey. If the chills have arisen due to severe stress or nervous strain, then drink mint tea. Decoctions of sour berries and warm milk with honey will also help. You may need to be treated by a neurologist. Quenching, contrast showers, a Russian bath or a sauna followed by a cold shower and a swimming pool are also recommended.To prevent an unpleasant symptom, you need to avoid hypothermia (dress for the weather), control your psycho-emotional state and prevent stress in time, accompanied by loss of appetite, apathy, insomnia, irascibility, depression, a desire to hide from the whole world.

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Salmonellosis ›Diseases› Dr.Peter.ru

Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease that predominantly affects the gastrointestinal tract.


There are three forms of salmonellosis, which are divided into several variants of the course:

gastrointestinal form

  • gastric variant
  • gastroenteric variant
  • gastroenterocolitic variant

generalized form

  • typhoid variant
  • septic version

bacterial excretion

  • spicy
  • chronic
  • transit

The most commonly recorded gastroenteric variant of the gastrointestinal form of salmonellosis.It develops acutely a few hours after infection. The disease begins with a sharp rise in temperature, chills, headache, aching joints. After a while, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain join, mainly in the stomach and around the navel. The belly is swollen. At the same time, the stool is at first just liquid, and after a while it becomes watery, frothy, with an unpleasant odor and a greenish color. Moreover, the urge to defecate is not painful. But urine becomes less and less, as the amount of fluid in the body decreases.The skin of a person suffering from gastroenteric salmonellosis is pale, but in the case of a severe course of the disease, cyanosis is possible.

With severe dehydration, clonic cramps (rapid muscle contractions, following each other after a short period of time) are possible. Most often, they occur in the muscles of the legs.

Symptoms gastroenterocolitic variant gastrointestinal form resemble those of gastroenteric variant.However, in this case, bowel movements are accompanied by painful urges, and on the 2-3rd day of illness, the volume of stool decreases, mucus and blood appear in the feces.

For gastric variant , repeated vomiting and pain in the stomach area are characteristic. However, in this case, there is no diarrhea at all, and the symptoms of intoxication (headache, fever, chills, body aches) are weak.

The generalized form of salmonellosis develops, as a rule, after gastrointestinal. Typhoid variant of generalized form begins with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, but then these symptoms subside or disappear altogether. But the temperature rises, there is pain. Patients feel weak, they suffer from insomnia. Their skin is pale, but a rare pink rash appears on the skin of the abdomen and lower chest. The patient’s condition resembles that of typhoid fever, which, of course, complicates the diagnosis.

Septic variant of the generalized form of salmonellosis can also begin with manifestations of gastroenteritis, but then it is replaced by fever with chills.When the temperature drops, the patient sweats, his muscles ache, and tachycardia develops. This condition can last for a long time. Moreover, during the illness, secondary purulent foci can form in the lungs, muscles, subcutaneous tissue, kidneys. Eyes (iridocyclitis) may also be affected.

Those who have undergone salmonellosis for about a month after recovery excrete Salmonella during tests. This is acute bacterial excretion . However, in some cases, bacterial excretion continues for three months after recovery, in this case it is said about chronic bacterial excretion .Bacteria excretion without clinical manifestations of the disease is also possible, in this case they speak of transient bacterial excretion .


The causative agents of salmonellosis are bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These are small gram-negative rods that can persist in the environment. So, in water they last about 5 months, in meat – about 6 months, and in a carcass of birds – more than a year. Salmonella remains on eggshells from 17 to 24 days, but it is known that with prolonged storage of eggs, bacteria can penetrate through the shell and multiply in the yolk.In some foods, such as milk, butter, cheese, salmonella can multiply without changing the taste of the product. At a temperature of 70 ° C, salmonella die within 5-10 minutes. There are strains of Salmonella that are resistant to many antibiotics and disinfectants.

Salmonella is ubiquitous. The reservoir and source of infection are cattle, pigs, domestic and wild birds. When examining domestic animals and birds, as well as their meat, salmonella were found in 1-5% of the cattle, in 4-30% of all surveyed sheep, 5-15% of pigs.Salmonella was also found in 50% of ducks and geese. In healthy animals, these bacteria do not cause discomfort, animals and birds are simply carriers of bacteria. However, in weakened animals, they penetrate from the intestines into organs and tissues and cause inflammatory diseases. A person with low immunity can also become infected from salmonellosis, but this is rare and only in hospitals.

Salmonella enter the human body with food, most often with poorly cooked poultry, eggs, meat.In hospitals, contact transmission of infection through towels, toys, playpens, hands is possible. People are very easily infected with salmonellosis.

So, through the mouth, Salmonella enter the gastrointestinal tract, reach the small intestine, attach to the intestinal epithelial cells and release toxins. After a while, bacteria penetrate into the epithelial cells. Phagocytes (white blood cells that protect the body by absorbing foreign particles and microorganisms) prevent this, as they can.In the process of absorption, inflammation develops. And when Salmonella is destroyed, endotoxin is released, which stimulates the outflow of fluid into the intestinal lumen, increasing its peristalsis (contractions). This leads to the development of diarrhea and dehydration. Due to the intoxication of the body and its dehydration, the work of the cardiovascular system is disrupted – tachycardia develops, and blood pressure decreases. Dehydration also contributes to impaired microcirculation of blood in the kidneys, which leads to the development of acute renal failure.

In most (95-99%) cases, Salmonella does not penetrate beyond the submucous layer of the intestine. However, sometimes bacteria enter the bloodstream, then a generalized form of salmonellosis develops. This usually occurs in immunocompromised patients.

Salmonellosis is dangerous not only due to dehydration, it also has other serious complications – infectious-toxic shock, peritonitis, toxic expansion of the intestine.


The diagnosis of salmonellosis is made by an infectious disease specialist or gastroenterologist.Feces and vomit are taken for analysis. They also do general and biochemical blood tests and a general urine test. To assess the severity of the patient’s condition, you need:

Salmonellosis is differentiated from cholera, typhoid fever, shigellosis, escherichiosis, mushroom and heavy metal poisoning. Also, in some cases, it is necessary to exclude acute myocardial infarction, acute appendicitis and an attack of gallstone disease.


In an acute or complicated course of the disease, the patient is hospitalized.In other cases, they are left at home, having assigned bed rest.

If the patient’s condition allows, treatment begins with gastric lavage, enemas and intake of enterosorbents. This is done to remove bacteria that have not yet invaded the epithelial layer of the intestine. In most cases, however, this cannot be done, as these methods contribute to even greater dehydration.

With dehydration, glucose-salt solutions are prescribed inside. At home they are taken orally (by mouth), in the hospital they are given intravenous infusions.

Antibiotics for the gastrointestinal form are rarely prescribed, more often they are used for the generalized form of the disease.

In the course of treatment, the patient is shown diet No. 4.


The main prevention of salmonellosis is epidemiological and epizootic surveillance, which should be jointly carried out by veterinary and sanitary-epidemiological services. It is necessary to carefully check both livestock and meat in markets and in stores.

It is important to properly cook meat, poultry and eggs, and wash your hands when returning home from public places and before eating.

© Dr. Peter

90,000 HIV symptoms, infection and spread

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV attacks the immune system by destroying white blood cells that help the body fight infections and disease. Testing is the only reliable way to tell if you have HIV.The following are symptoms that can serve as a warning that you have an infection.

Method 1 of 3: Identifying Early Symptoms


Determine if you are experiencing severe fatigue for no reason. Fatigue can be a symptom of a wide variety of illnesses, and is also seen as a symptom in people with HIV. This symptom should not cause you more concern if it is the only one that you feel, but it is worth considering in the future.

  • – Severe fatigue is not a feeling when you just want to sleep. Do you feel tired all the time, and even after a good night’s sleep. Do you go to naps during the day more often than usual and avoid strenuous activity because you feel exhausted. This type of fatigue is cause for concern.
  • – If this symptom persists for more than a few weeks or months, you should be tested to rule out HIV.


Monitor fever or increased night sweats. These symptoms often occur in the early stages of HIV, during the so-called primary or acute stage of HIV infection. Again, many people do not have these symptoms, but those who did have them usually feel them 2-4 weeks after they acquired HIV.

  • – Fever and increased sweating are symptoms of the flu and common cold. If it is a cold season or a flu epidemic, you may have these diseases.
  • – Chills, muscle pain, sore throat and headache are also symptoms of the flu and colds, but can also be signs of early HIV infection.


Check for swollen glands in the throat and lymph nodes in the armpits and groin. Lymph nodes are swollen as a result of infection. This does not happen in everyone who has early HIV, but among those who have these symptoms, these are the most common.

  • – In HIV infection, the lymph nodes in the neck usually swell more than the nodes in the armpits and groin.
  • – Lymph nodes can swell as a result of other types of infections such as colds and flu, so further testing is needed to make a diagnosis.


Pay attention to cases of nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. These symptoms can also be a sign of early HIV infection.Check if these symptoms persist for a long time.


Pay attention to sores in the mouth and genitals. If mouth ulcers occur with other symptoms already mentioned, and especially if you have not usually had such sores before, this may be a sign of early HIV infection. Genital ulcers are also a sign that you may have been infected with HIV.

Method 2 of 3: Identifying progressive symptoms


Do not rule out dry cough. This symptom occurs in the late stages of HIV, sometimes even for many years after infection, when the virus was latent in the body. This seemingly harmless symptom is easy to miss at first, especially if it occurs during the allergenic or flu season or during the cold season. If you have a dry cough and cannot get rid of it with antihistamines or an inhaler, then this could be a sign of HIV.


Look for unusual spots (red, brown, pink, or purple) on the skin. People with advanced HIV infection often have skin rashes, especially on the face and torso. The rash can be inside the mouth or nose. This is a sign that HIV is turning into AIDS.

  • – Flaky, red skin is also a sign of advanced stage of HIV. The spots can be in the form of boils and bumps.
  • – A rash on the body is usually not accompanied by a cold and fever. Accordingly, if you have such symptoms alternately, consult a doctor immediately.


Pay attention to pneumonia. Pneumonia is a common illness among those whose immune systems are weakened for various reasons. People with advanced HIV infection tend to develop pneumonia through exposure to germs, which usually do not cause such a severe reaction.


Check for thrush especially in the mouth. The last stage of HIV usually causes thrush in the mouth, called stomatitis. It looks like white or other unusual patches on the tongue or inside the mouth. This is a warning sign that the immune system cannot fight infection effectively.


Examine your nails for fungus. Yellow or brown nails with cracks and chips are a common sign of advanced HIV infection. The nails become more susceptible to fungi, which the body can normally fight against.


Determine if you are experiencing rapid weight loss for an unknown reason. In the early stages of HIV, it can be caused by severe diarrhea, in the later stages by “atrophy”, a strong reaction of the body to the presence of HIV in the body.


Watch out for memory loss, depression, or other neurological problems. In the latter stages, HIV affects the cognitive functions of the brain. These symptoms are serious in themselves and should be investigated anyway.

Method 3 of 3: HIV Data


Find out if you are at risk. There are several conditions that put you at risk of contracting HIV.If you have such situations, then you are at risk:

  • – You have had unprotected anal, vaginal or oral sex.
  • – You used needles and syringes with other people.
  • – You have been diagnosed with or treated with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), tuberculosis, or hepatitis.
  • – You had a blood transfusion between 1978 and 1985, years before blood tests were started, to prevent a transfusion of contaminated blood.


Do not wait for symptoms to appear before testing. Many people with HIV do not know they have it. The virus can remain in the body for more than 10 years until symptoms appear. If you have reason to suspect that you have contracted HIV, do not refuse the test due to the absence of symptoms.


Get an HIV test. This is the most accurate method in determining HIV. Contact us at: g.Izhevsk, st. Truda 17a, tel. (3412) 21-15-94 or to one of our zonal centers located in the cities of Glazov, Votkinsk, Sarapul, Mozhga, as well as in the villages of Uva and Igra.

  • – Testing is simple and absolutely FREE.
  • – If you have been tested for HIV, do not let fear prevent you from getting your test results. Knowing whether or not you are infected will change either your lifestyle or the way you think.


  • – If you have doubts about doing the analysis or not, do it.This is the only correct and safe action for both you and those around you.
  • – HIV is not transmitted by airborne droplets or food. This virus does not live long outside the body.

90,000 COVID and did not stand nearby: the worst epidemics and pandemics in human history

Rostov region, April 27, 2020. DON24.RU. The coronavirus pandemic is on everyone’s lips today.The daily news of new victims of COVID-19 infection is causing fear in people, and many people in the media and social networks have already rushed to dub the new virus “the plague of the XXI century.” However, experts still believe that such conclusions are premature.

For example, the head of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Rostov State Medical University, Doctor of Medical Sciences, Yuri Ambalov, notes that COVID-19 is a completely new disease, not yet studied, and we still do not have a complete idea of ​​its real threat. However, in his opinion, 70-90% of people who become infected with it will suffer the disease asymptomatically and in the future will have immunity.

He added that at the present stage of development, humanity has not yet known an epidemic, in which there were as many seriously ill patients at the same time. However, in his opinion, it makes sense to compare the new disease with the “Spanish flu” – the flu, which in 1918-1920, according to a number of sources, claimed tens of millions of lives.

The correspondent of the DON 24 news agency plunged into the history of the most terrible diseases of mankind and compiled a list of epidemics and pandemics, which demonstrates that at the current stage, COVID-19 is not as terrible as it is “painted”.

Plague of Athens (430-426 BC)

Plague in Athens, Michael Swerts

In ancient times, many diseases that people of those times did not know how to classify and diagnose, received the collective name “plague”. So in Athens, during the war with the Spartans, an outbreak of an unknown disease occurred, which spread with lightning speed and in a matter of days led the infected to death. According to rough estimates of experts, about 100,000 people died from this disease.

The Athenians then decided that this was the punishment of the gods, but many modern scientists agree that in fact the disease was brought to the city by sailors-merchants from Egypt. The spread of the disease was facilitated by overcrowding of people, as well as poor living conditions for both civilians and soldiers.

The ancient Greek historian Thucydides, who suffered the Athenian plague, left behind a list of symptoms of the disease, among which were: fever, gastrointestinal disorders and signs of poisoning.Modern researchers have found in the remains of victims of the Athenian plague, the DNA of the causative agent of typhoid fever, the symptoms of which are similar to those described by Thucydides.

Plague of Galen (165-180 AD)

“The Angel of Death breaks down the door during the plague of Rome”, engraving by Levasseur after J. Delaunay

An epidemic brought to the Roman Empire by troops returning from campaigns in the Middle East. Modern experts suggest that it was smallpox or measles, but more accurate data on this matter does not exist today.

It is known that the plague of Galen, named after the doctor who described it, claimed the lives of about 5 million people – about 2,000 died per day. Galen himself described that the infected have fever, diarrhea, pharyngitis and skin rashes.

The plague of Galen is also called the Antonine plague – in honor of the name of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, whose reign fell on this terrible time.

A little less than a century later, another outbreak of the plague of Galen was recorded in the Roman Empire, but in history it remained under a different name – the plague of Cyprian.It got its name thanks to the bishop of Carthage Cyprian, who described this disease. According to rough estimates, it claimed the lives of about 1 million more people.

Justinian’s Plague (541-750)

“Saint Sebastian prays for the victims of the Justinian plague”, Jos Liferinx

Justinian’s plague is the first recorded plague pandemic in the history of mankind. It spread to the entire territory of the civilized world of those times and claimed more than 90 million human lives.

It received its name in honor of the Byzantine emperor Justinian I. The course of this disease was described in his book “Church History” by the Antiochian lawyer Eugarius Scholasticus. According to this work, the disease took place mainly in the bubonic and septic form. In the first case, growths formed on a person’s body, by which it was possible to identify the sick person. In the second case, there were no external signs of infection in a person – among the symptoms, one could note an increase in temperature, shortness of breath, delirium and a rapid pulse.This form of infection caused the greatest fear, since a perfectly healthy-looking person died in a matter of days after infection.

Black Death (1346-1353)

“The Triumph of Death”, Pieter Bruegel the Elder

One of the most famous pandemics in human history. It is she who is most often remembered when they talk about diseases that have affected a significant part of the world’s population. And not in vain – the “black pestilence” destroyed 200 million people, which was then equal to about 60% of people on Earth.

The main carriers of the plague were rats and other rodents, as well as insects. The plague struck China first. Hebei Province suffered especially from it, in which about 90% of the population died. Then the disease spread to Mongolia, and then, together with merchant caravans, came to India. Further – to Syria and Egypt. Gradually spreading northward, the plague reached Europe. Merchants also brought her there.

Russia was one of the last to suffer from this disease. More than other cities, the plague then struck Moscow, Smolensk, Kiev, Chernigov and Suzdal.However, going down to the south, the disease faded away somewhere in the area between the Dniester, Don and Khoper rivers.

As in the case of Justinian’s plague, this time the disease for many was bubonic and septic. However, there was also a pulmonary form – with it, the patient had a cough and hemoptysis.

Cocoliztli epidemic (1545-1554)

Aztec ruins, pinterest.ru

This epidemic, the nature of which is still debated by scientists, mowed down 15 million people in Mexico and Central America.Its name comes from the Aztec word cocoliztli, meaning “pest”. For a long time it was believed that it was a hemorrhagic fever, but now researchers believe that the causative agent was typhoid fever.

In people infected with “cocolisto”, the color of eyes, skin and urine changed – they acquired a greenish-yellow or black tint. The tongue also blackened. Soon after the onset of these signs, the person began to have delusions and convulsions, as well as painful lumps behind the ears and pain in the chest and abdomen.

It is believed that this disease was brought to Mexico by the Spaniards.

Plague under Alexei Mikhailovich (1654-1655)

Meeting of processions on the occasion of the plague of 1654

Different sources differ in the estimate of how many people actually died from this epidemic – from 300 thousand to 1 million. Nevertheless, at any value of this interval, this outbreak of plague is the most deadly in the history of our country.

The disease has spread to at least 25 administrative units of Central Russia: Aleksin, Vologda, Zvenigorod and Zvenigorodsky district, Kazan, Kaluga, Karachev, Kashin and Kashinsky district, Kolomna, Kostroma, Moscow, Murom, Nizhny Novgorod, Przemysl, Pereyaslavl- Zalessky Pereyaslavl Ryazansky, Suzdal, Tver, Torzhok, Novotorzhsky district, Tula, Uglich, Shuya and Yaroslavl. According to the testimony of contemporaries, church cemeteries even in Moscow were overcrowded. Since the bodies were considered contagious for several years after death, for a long time after the epidemic, it was forbidden to make new burials in these cemeteries.

Great Plague in London (1665-1666)

Corpses are dumped in a plague grave (illustration 1885), Hulton Archive

This epidemic raged mainly in the UK, but also affected some other European countries, reaching them along trade routes. The scale of this epidemic is incomparable with the previous one – according to historians, about 100,000 people died from it. However, it was not the only problem in London in those years – as soon as the epidemic subsided, the Great Fire broke out in the city, which destroyed most of it in just four days.

Plague of Marseilles (1720-1722)

Chevalier Rose during the plague, Michel Serre

This epidemic in its scale and mortality rate is similar to the Great London one – in three years it destroyed about 100,000 people who lived in the French Marseilles and other cities of Provence. Traditionally, it was brought by traders – experts believe that it was brought by the ship “Grand Saint-Antoine”, which sailed from Syria via Seid, Tripoli and Cyprus.

The French quickly realized the danger of the disease and declared Marseille a quarantine zone – residents were forbidden to leave the city, while everyone else was not allowed to enter it. However, there were also quarantine violators then, which is why the disease spread to several nearby cities. But soon stone walls were erected around the contaminated area, and quarantine violators were threatened with the death penalty. Thanks to this, the disease declined relatively quickly.

The last plague epidemic in Russia (1770-1772)

“Plague Riot”, Ernest Lissner

An epidemic that began during the Russo-Turkish War and killed about 100,000 people in Moscow alone.The infection spread widely in the central part of Russia, coming from the Northern Black Sea region. Martial law, fear of people, as well as restrictive measures imposed by the authorities caused many so-called plague riots and riots, which had to be suppressed by force.

The largest of all recorded riots was the Moscow riot, which lasted from September 15 to 17, 1771. It was caused by the ban of the Moscow Archbishop Ambrose from holding prayers at the Bogolyubskaya Icon of the Mother of God at the Barbarian Gate of Kitai-Gorod.Thus, the clergyman wanted to prevent mass infection, but the reaction of the people turned out to be too violent: people plundered Chudov and the Donskoy monasteries, killed the archbishop himself, and then began to smash rich houses, as well as plague hospitals.

During the suppression of this riot, 100 people were killed, another 313 were arrested. Of these, four were executed.

Cholera pandemic (1816-1860)

Picture of a patient with cholera in 19th century medical textbooks

Like the coronavirus today, cholera in the 19th century was called the “plague of the century.”It was the second outbreak of cholera that Alexander Pushkin experienced on his family estate in the village of Bolshoe Boldino, where he wrote Eugene Onegin, Belkin’s Tales, Little Tragedies, House in Kolomna and many other smaller works.

There were three outbreaks of cholera in the 19th century: from 1816 to 1826 (in Europe and Asia), from 1829 to 1851 (in addition to Europe and Asia, it also affected North America) and from 1852 to 1860 (most of the world). During all this time, more than 60 million people died from the disease, despite the fact that it is not transmitted by the respiratory route.Cholera can be infected exclusively through the fecal-oral route, that is, through contaminated environmental objects. The main symptoms of cholera are dehydration, vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, convulsions. In severe cases, the skin turns blue, the skin on the hands is covered with wrinkles, the eyes sink. Literally until the last second, a person is conscious.

Smallpox (1877-1977)

An Indian suffers from smallpox. Florentine Code

This disease has long been a danger to humanity.During the period from 1877 to 1977, smallpox claimed the lives of more than half a billion people around the planet, and it was possible to defeat it only with the invention of the vaccine. At the same time, plans for combating smallpox were outlined on maps and drawings, which reminded of real military operations. The last death from this disease was recorded in 1978 – smallpox claimed the life of medical photographer Janet Parker. Now the virus is officially considered extinct – this is the first disease completely defeated by humans.

Having become infected with smallpox, a person in a matter of days became covered with an ulcerative rash.At the same time, his temperature rose, he was tormented by severe pain in the limbs. At later stages, the person began to fall into delirium – impaired consciousness and convulsions appeared. In the most severe forms, massive hemorrhages in the skin developed, but death most often occurred before the manifestation of this symptom.

Russian flu (1889-1890)

Caricature depicting a patient with the flu in Paris, from the French satirical edition of Le Grelot, January 12, 1890

The cause of this pandemic was the influenza virus, but what type of virus, scientists have not yet reliably established.Initially it was thought that it was influenza A of the h3N2 subtype, but later researchers concluded that it was influenza A of the h4N8 subtype.

The name influenza was due to the fact that the first cases of infection were recorded in St. Petersburg in December 1889. The spread of the disease was facilitated by a developed transport infrastructure – in those years, 19 largest European countries were connected by rail. Because of this, in a matter of months, the disease spread to the entire northern hemisphere.

Since at that time the media were already using the telegraph to transmit information, the news agenda was in many ways similar to today’s: people daily found out the number of infected and dead.Therefore, the epidemic of this flu is also considered the world’s first “media pandemic”.

The influenza virus causes a cough in humans, which is caused by irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Headaches, symptoms of intoxication and fever are also present. The virus weakens the body’s defense systems, allowing a secondary infection to join, which can cause complications.

Spanish Flu (1918-1920)

Emergency department established at Funston Army Training Camp, 1918, Kansas, USA

It was with this flu pandemic that the Rostov infectious disease specialist compared the current COVID-19 pandemic.The Spanish flu, which is essentially influenza A of the h2N1 subtype, in just two years infected more than half a billion people, and killed more than 100 million. Along with the plague and smallpox, this pandemic is remembered as one of the worst in history, because about 5 % of the world’s population.

The epidemic began at the end of the First World War, and many researchers are inclined to believe that the hardships of martial law contributed to the spread of the disease: unsanitary conditions, vitamin deficiency, poor nutrition and overcrowding of people.

The first patients with “Spanish flu” appeared in the United States, but it was Spain that was the first to announce a pandemic, which is why the flu got its name.

In just a month since the onset, this flu has infected 8 million people in Spain. Most of those infected were healthy people between the ages of 20 and 40. And in 25 weeks from the “Spanish flu” killed 25 million people around the world.

As with the previous pandemic, good transport links have contributed to the spread of this virus.However, the authorities of many cities and countries, realizing that the disease had reached them, introduced quarantine regimes. Entire settlements from Alaska to South Africa were infected and died out. Cemeteries were overflowing everywhere and there were not enough gravediggers, which is why, in the end, those who died from the “Spaniard” began to be buried in mass graves, without a coffin and funeral services.

The main cause of death was a feature of this type of virus – the lung tissue of infected people was destroyed, due to which the respiratory system was quickly filled with fluid.

Asian influenza (1957-1958)

Hong Kong Flu, Ian Brody, Getty Images

This epidemic broke out in China with influenza A virus subtype h3N2. Starting in the Far East, the epidemic began to gradually move westward and eventually reached the United States. In the USSR, its outbreaks were observed from March to May 1957, and most often children under three years old or people over 40 became its victims. in a few hours.

According to some reports, about 1.5 million people died from this virus, but some experts are inclined to believe that the real figure reached 5 million. In their opinion, in Asian countries in those years the population census was inaccurate.

For ten years, the “Asian” flu mutated, mixing with the avian flu, and as a result mutated into a new subtype – h4N2. Its first outbreak was recorded in Hong Kong, which is why it got its name – “Hong Kong”. Just two weeks after the onset, new cases were identified in Vietnam and Singapore.By the fall, it had reached India, the Philippines, Northern Australia, Europe, and the United States. By 1969, it was also recorded in Japan, Africa, and South America.

This virus turned out to be less lethal than its predecessor, doctors explain this by the fact that many people have immunity to the “Asian flu”, as well as the emergence of effective drugs. Nevertheless, in less than a year, it claimed the lives of at least a million people.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1980 – present)

Photo: tut.by

This epidemic has been plaguing humanity for more than forty years, and a cure has not yet been found. Today’s therapy and medications can only slow down the course of the disease, but do not get rid of it.

According to UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS), the number of HIV victims in 2018 alone reached 1.1 million, and in total more than 40 million people died due to HIV. More than 37 million people live with him today.

Recall that this virus is transmitted through blood, sexually and from mother to child.Once in the body, it destroys the cells of the immune system, and without therapy, their number soon drops. When the immune system is sufficiently weakened, other diseases appear in the human body that would not exist without HIV – this is AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

South Africa, Nigeria and India have the largest numbers of people living with HIV today.

Swine influenza A / h2N1 (2009-2010)

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A pandemic that most modern people remember well.Many scolded the World Health Organization for allegedly in vain declared “swine” flu a pandemic. There are also many supporters of the version that the “swine” flu was actually a conspiracy of pharmaceutical companies, which amassed a total fortune of more than $ 18 billion during the pandemic.

Indeed, at first glance, everything was not so bad. According to the WHO, the number of deaths in people infected with this disease was just over 18,500.In fact, these are only laboratory confirmed cases, and today, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, it is believed that 575,400 people have become victims of the virus.

For the first time this flu was recorded in Mexico, where its second name came from – “Mexican” (by analogy with “Spanish flu”). The main symptoms of the disease were: headache, fever, cough, runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting and cutting pain in the abdomen.

Ebola (2013-2015)

A man with a child with Ebola virus symptoms awaiting admission to a clinic in Monrovia, Liberia, TASS / EPAAHMED JALLANZO

The Ebola epidemic predominantly affects West Africa.Although imported cases were recorded in some places in the world, it never came to a pandemic.

As in the case of cholera, this disease is not transmitted by the respiratory route, but it is easy to get it through touching infected objects or the blood of infected animals and people. The Ebola vaccine has only a temporary WHO registration, and she received it only in October 2019.

The Ebola outbreak that took place in West Africa caught local doctors by surprise – they were not ready for so many infected at a time and did not have experience in dealing with such infections.
At first, the symptoms of Ebola resemble the flu: a person feels tired, chills, decreased appetite, weakness, muscle pain, sore throat and joints. The temperature, however, rises above 38 degrees. Later, the person develops shortness of breath and chest pain, as well as headaches. In half of the cases, the patients had a rash in the form of a flat red area with small bumps. In some cases, a person may experience internal or external bleeding associated with decreased blood clotting.The death of a person, most often, occurs from a lack of blood and other fluids in the body, which the patient loses due to diarrhea and vomiting.

The international community helped to defeat the Ebola epidemic, but more than 11,000 people still fell victim to the disease.