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Chlamydia shot: CDC – Chlamydia Treatment

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Where Can I Get Treated For Chlamydia?

Chlamydia can be easily cured with antibiotics. Your sexual partners need to be treated too. If you don’t treat chlamydia, it can lead to serious problems.

What’s the treatment for chlamydia?

Chlamydia is usually easy to get rid of. Your nurse or doctor will get you antibiotics to treat the infection. Sometimes you only have to take one dose of medication. Another chlamydia treatment lasts for 7 days. Your doctor will help you figure out which treatment is best for you.

If you’re treated for chlamydia, it’s really important for your sexual partners to get treated also. Otherwise, you can keep passing the infection back and forth, or to other people. Sometimes your doctor will give you medicine for both you and your partner.

What do I need to know if I get treated for chlamydia?

If you’re getting treated for chlamydia:

  • Take all of your medicine the way your nurse or doctor tells you to, even if any symptoms you may be having go away sooner. The infection stays in your body until you finish the antibiotics.
  • Your partner(s) should also get treated for chlamydia so you don’t re-infect each other or anyone else.
  • Don’t have sex for 7 days. If you only have 1 dose of medication, wait for 7 days after you take it before having sex. If you’re taking medicine for 7 days, don’t have sex until you’ve finished all of your pills.
  • Get tested again in 3-4 months to make sure your infection is gone.
  • Don’t share your medicine with anyone. Your nurse or doctor may give you a separate dose of antibiotics for your partner. Make sure you both take all of the medicine you get.
  • Even if you finish your treatment and the chlamydia is totally gone, it’s possible to get a new chlamydia infection again if you’re exposed in the future. Chlamydia isn’t a one-time-only deal. So use condoms and get tested regularly.

Does chlamydia treatment have side effects?

An antibiotic called Doxycycline is the most common medicine used to treat chlamydia. Like most medicines, it can cause mild side effects. The most common side effects of Doxycycline are nausea, vomiting, upset stomach, loss of appetite, mild diarrhea, skin rash or itching, change in skin color, vaginal itching, or discharge. These side effects should go away after you finish taking the medicine. Talk to your nurse or doctor about any medicines you’re already taking and any medical issues you already have before taking Doxycycline.

What happens if you don’t get treated for chlamydia?

Even though chlamydia is common and doesn’t usually cause any symptoms, it can become a big deal if it’s not caught and treated early. 

Chlamydia can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes if it goes untreated for a long time. This can cause you to have pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause permanent damage that leads to pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. So getting tested regularly for chlamydia really lowers your chances of getting PID.

If you have a penis, a chlamydia infection can spread to your epididymis (a tube that carries sperm from your testicles) if it’s left untreated, and can cause chronic joint pain. Rarely, it can make you infertile.

Having chlamydia may increase your chances of getting or spreading HIV.

If you have chlamydia during your pregnancy and don’t treat it, you can pass it to your baby when you’re giving birth. Chlamydia can also cause eye infections and pneumonia in newborns, and it also increases the risk of delivering your baby too early. 

Testing and treatment for chlamydia is quick, easy, and the best way to avoid all of these problems.

More questions from patients:

How long will I test positive for chlamydia after getting treatment?

If your nurse or doctor gives you a single dose of medicine, you have to wait 7 days before you’re no longer infected and can have sex again. If you’re taking medicine for 7 days, you won’t test negative until you’ve finished all of your pills. Either way, you need to wait 7 days until you should be cleared from the chlamydia infection.

After that 7 day mark, you can have sex again without spreading the infection. If you were given pills to take, it’s important to take ALL of your medicine, even if the symptoms go away sooner. The infection stays in your body until you finish the antibiotic pills.

Getting chlamydia again is common. Even if you finish your treatment and the chlamydia is totally gone, it’s possible to get a new chlamydia infection again if you’re exposed in the future. Chlamydia isn’t a one-time-only deal. So use condoms and get tested again in 3-4 months to make sure your infection is gone.

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Chlamydia symptoms & treatment | Avert

FAST FACTS

  • Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is normally passed on through sex without a condom or sharing sex toys with someone who has the infection.
  • Using male or female condoms and dental dams during sex will help to protect you from getting chlamydia.
  • Chlamydia is often symptomless however if left untreated it can lead to long-term health problems.
  • Chlamydia is easily treated with antibiotics.
  • Chlamydia can be passed on from mother to child during pregnancy, so it’s important for pregnant women to get tested.

What is chlamydia? 

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a bacteria called chlamydia trachomatis.

Usually it doesn’t cause any symptoms and can be easily treated with antibiotics. However, if it isn’t treated early it can spread to other parts of your body and lead to long-term health problems.

How do you get chlamydia?

Chlamydia is usually passed on through unprotected vaginal, anal or oral sex.

Chlamydia can be passed on through genital contact. This means you can get chlamydia from someone who has the infection if your genitals touch, even if you don’t have sex or ejaculate (cum).

You can also get chlamydia if you come into contact with infected semen (cum) or vaginal fluid, or get them in your eye.

Chlamydia can’t be passed on through kissing, hugging, sharing towels or using the same toilet as someone with the infection.

How do you prevent chlamydia?

Using a new male or female condom or dental dam every time you have sex is the best way to protect against chlamydia.

Chlamydia can be passed on by sharing sex toys. Always cover sex toys with a new condom and wash them after use to reduce your risk of getting chlamydia and other STIs.

It’s important to regularly test for chlamydia, even if you don’t have any symptoms, especially if you’ve had multiple sexual partners.

The contraceptive pill and other types of contraception (apart from condoms) won’t prevent you getting chlamydia, and neither will PrEP.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Many people with chlamydia don’t have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms, you may not notice them until several weeks after infection. Other people might not have any symptoms for several months.

Signs of chlamydia in women include:

  • increase in vaginal discharge
  • pain or burning when urinating (peeing)
  • pain during sex and/or bleeding after sex
  • pain in the lower stomach – especially when having sex
  • bleeding between periods and/or heavier periods.

Signs of chlamydia in men include:

  • white, cloudy or watery discharge from the penis
  • pain or burning when urinating
  • pain and/or swelling in the testicles.

You can also get chlamydia infection in your anus, eyes and throat. For both men and women, this can cause pain, discharge or bleeding in the anus, or inflammation (redness) of the eye (called conjunctivitis). Chlamydia in the throat does not usually have any symptoms.

How do I test for chlamydia?

You can get tested for chlamydia even if you don’t have any symptoms.

Getting tested for chlamydia is easy and doesn’t hurt. A healthcare professional will ask for a urine (pee) sample and/or take a swab from the area that might be infected. This is usually the lower part of the womb (cervix) or the vagina for women, and the tip of the penis (urethra) for men. If you’ve had anal or oral sex, you may have a swab taken from your anus or throat.

In some countries you can get a self-testing kit to do at home.

If you test positive for chlamydia, it’s important to tell any recent sexual partner/s so they can also get tested, and treated if necessary. If you need advice about how to do this, speak to your healthcare professional. You should also test for other STIs.

When should I get tested for chlamydia?

If you have had sex without a condom, or you are worried about chlamydia or other STIs, get tested as soon as possible. However if you test within two weeks of having sex, you may need to repeat the test later as the infection may not always be detectable in the early stages.

How is chlamydia treated?

Chlamydia can be easily treated with a short course of antibiotics. You may be able to take all the antibiotics in one day, or over a week, depending on the type of treatment you are prescribed.

It’s important to not have sex until you and your current sexual partner/s have finished treatment. If you’ve had the one-day course of treatment, you should avoid having sex for seven days afterwards.  Ask your healthcare professional when it’s safe to have sex again.

Remember that if you’ve been treated for chlamydia you are not immune and you can get infected again.

Long-term effects of untreated chlamydia

If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to other, sometimes serious, health problems.

In women, untreated chlamydia cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can cause pelvic pain, infertility (inability to get pregnant), and ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus) which can be life-threatening. PID can be treated with antibiotics.

In men untreated chlamydia can cause swelling and pain in the testicles, and pain when urinating or during sex. Rarely, it can cause infertility in men.

Chlamydia can also cause reactive arthritis in both women and men – inflammation of the joints, and in some people, the urethra and the eyes (conjunctivitis).

Chlamydia and HIV

If you have been diagnosed with chlamydia you should also test for HIV. Having chlamydia increases your risk of getting HIV, as it causes inflammation and sores that make it easier for HIV to enter the body.  

If you are living with HIV and not on treatment, having chlamydia can make you more likely to pass HIV on if you have sex without a condom. However, if you are on effective treatment and have an undetectable viral load, you will not be able to pass HIV on – having chlamydia will not affect this.

If you’re taking antiretrovirals, it’s important to discuss with your doctor how the chlamydia treatment may interact with your HIV drugs.

If you’re worried about HIV infection, find out everything you need to know in our HIV Transmission and Prevention section.

 

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Chlamydia vaccine moves a step closer | Chlamydia

A vaccine to protect against chlamydia has moved closer to becoming reality after a pioneering clinical trial found the treatment to be safe.

The vaccine successfully provoked an immune response, boosting levels of antibodies against the chlamydia bacterium in the blood and vaginal fluids.

About 131m cases of the sexually transmitted infection are diagnosed worldwide every year, and there were almost 220,000 new cases in England last year.

Chlamydia can be treated with antibiotics, but infection often has no symptoms and many people are unaware they have it. Without treatment, it can lead to a range of complications for men and women, including fertility issues and an increased risk of HIV.

Dr Frank Follmann, the head of chlamydia vaccine research at Statens Serum Institut in Denmark and a co-author of the study, said: “Chlamydia is a hidden epidemic. It is very well adapted to infecting both men and women and in most cases it does it without any symptoms.”

There have been recent drives to improve testing through screening programmes, particularly among young people, but the study’s authors say such measures have failed to tackle the problem and suggest a vaccine would be beneficial.

Writing in the Lancet Infectious Diseases journal, the researchers describe how they tested two formulations of a vaccine, with each type given to 15 women aged between 19 and 45 who did not have chlamydia. Another five chlamydia-free women were given a placebo. All received three injections into their arm muscle over four months, followed by two doses administered through a nasal spray in the weeks after. Neither the women nor those monitoring the impact of the vaccine were aware of who was in which group.

The results showed no serious adverse reactions to the vaccines. The vaccinations, but not the placebo, produced an immune response.

Follmann said the presence of antibodies in vaginal fluid was important. “We see the antibodies as a first line of defence,” he said. “They should be able to target the bacteria once it enters the genital tract.”

He said the study suggested the injection could provide sufficient protection against chlamydia, without the need for the nasal spray. The findings raise hopes that the vaccine could eventually be given at the same time as the HPV vaccine, which protects against certain cancers including that of the cervix.

The treatment is still at an early stage of development, but the team said the trial results were promising and that testing should proceed to the next stage with a larger number of participants.

“The next step is to test whether or not it could in fact protect [against chlamydia infection] in humans,” Follmann said.

What is Chlamydia Shot – Public Health

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by a  bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. Both women and men can get it by having unprotected vaginal or anal sex with an infected person. It can also be spread from a woman to baby during birth, and rarely, from the hand to the eye and, less likely, during unprotected oral sex. Each year, more than three million people of all ages become infected with chlamydia.

Chlamydia Shot

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are non ulcerative STIs. Combined co-infection with both organisms can be treated with with a single shot of   ceftriaxone along with a second oral antibiotic such as   azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) or doxycycline (Monodox, Vibramycin, others). Chlamydia is usually treated with a single dose (1g) of an antibiotic known as  azithromycin or with 7 days of another  antibiotic called doxycycline (which should not be used during pregnancy). These recommendations are based on the guidelines of  the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  geared towards preventing  the emergence of drug-resistant strains  of either Chlamydia trachomatis or  Neisseria gonorrhoeae,  the causative agent of Gonorrhea.

What Are The Side Effects of Chlamydia Shot

A common side effects of Azithromycin one of the drugs used in Chlamydia treatment is yeast infection. Occasionally, you might get a rash as a side effect from doxycycline if you are exposed to too much light. It is possible for a woman to transmit a yeast infection to a male sex partner, even though yeast infection is not considered to be a true sexually-transmitted disease because it can occur in women who are not sexually active. Keeping your vaginal area dry and avoiding irritating chemicals can help prevent yeast infections in women.

Ceftriaxone injection is a third-generation antibiotic and is  used to treat  organisms that tend to be resistant to many other antibiotics such as the gonorrhea aspect of this coinfection. Ceftriaxone may cause the following   side effects.

– diarrhea

– pain, tenderness, hardness, or warmth in the place where ceftriaxone was injected

– pale skin, weakness, or shortness

Also Read : Gonorrhea Shot 

Chlamydia – Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) – Publications – Public Information

Sexually Transmitted Diseases : Chlamydia (kla-mid-ee-ah)

What is it ?

Chlamydia is a serious bacterial disease especially for women, if not treated early. It may cause a discharge from the vagina, or pain when passing urine. Most women and some men have no symptoms of the disease.

How did I get it ?

By direct contact, usually sexual, with an infected person.

What can it do to me ?

In women chlamydia can cause a serious infection of the womb and tubes (pelvis inflammatory disease). It can lead to sterility and ectopic or tubal pregnancy. Early treatment can protect against these problems. Women can infect their newborn babies. Men can get infection of the urinary tract.

How is it treated ?

With antibiotics, usually doxycycline or azithromycin. It is important that you take the pills as directed. The disease may not be cured until all the pills are taken. Azithromycin treatment consists of 4 pills taken all at one time. Do not drink alcohol when taking antibiotics.

Does the treatment work ?

Usually, yes. You can infect another sex partner as soon as you get chlamydia. Most women and some men do not have early signs of the disease.

A pregnant women can also pass on the infection to her baby as it is being born. This can lead to infection of the eyes and lungs in the infant. It is important to inform people you have had sex with during the past 3 months because they may have the disease and not know they need treatment. Your public health nurse will contact your partner(s) if you prefer. Your name will be kept confidential.

When can I have sex again ?

After you and your sex partner(s) have finished treatment, and your doctor/clinic says you are no longer infectious (able to spread the disease to others).

Is follow-up important ?

Yes. It is important for you to return for follow-up to make sure your infection has been cured.

Remember:

  • Take medicine as directed until it is finished;
  • Avoid alcohol when taking antibiotics. Also avoid milk and dairy products if taking doxycycline;
  • Return for check-up visits as your doctor or clinic requests;
  • Tell people you have had sex with in the past 3 months;
  • Use condoms to lower the chance of infections in future.

If you are still worried or have more questions, call your local health unit or STD clinic.

Is There a Chlamydia Vaccine?

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If you have any medical questions or concerns, please talk to your healthcare provider. The articles on Health Guide are underpinned by peer-reviewed research and information drawn from medical societies and governmental agencies. However, they are not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment.

The first major attempt at a vaccine against chlamydia has passed a hurdle. Chlamydia is the most common reportable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI). While it’s asymptomatic in most people, it can cause serious complications for women, so a vaccine in progress is good news. Read on to learn more about this encouraging development. 

Chlamydia is an STI caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis that is often unrecognized because most people don’t have any symptoms. If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. PID causes inflammation of the female reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. PID may also result in scarring or blockage in the fallopian tubes, which can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or a potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy. 

In men, chlamydia can lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland), epididymitis (inflammation of the coil of tubes attached to the back of the testicles) (Hsu, 2019).

A vaccine is a treatment that sensitizes a person’s body to a particular disease, helping protect against acquiring that specific disease in the future. It often takes years of research for new vaccine development.

For now, there is no vaccine for chlamydia; however, there may be one in the coming years if further clinical trials show it to be safe and effective. In a recent issue of The Lancet Infectious Diseases, researchers reported that two versions of a chlamydia vaccine were found to be safe as part of a Phase 1 trial. Phase 1 human trials are done in very small groups of people (in this case, 35 healthy women) and look at safety and side effects (Abraham, 2019). 

In this study, the potential vaccine candidates for chlamydia were deemed safe and well-tolerated, which means they could eventually move on to the next phase of clinical trials. Researchers also found that the chlamydia vaccines provoked an immune response against the STI—with no such response in the placebo group. The main side effect was a local reaction at the injection site. While these results are promising from a public health standpoint, more clinical trials are needed (Abraham, 2019).

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Chlamydia is one of the most common STIs, with an estimated 131 million people infected worldwide each year. In the United States, it’s the most frequently reported STI caused by bacteria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that approximately four million cases occurred in 2018—most infections go unreported because of vague or nonexistent symptoms (CDC, 2021).  

Chlamydia is particularly common in younger people. According to the CDC, 1 in 20 sexually active young women between the ages of 14 and 24 are infected with the bacterium. Because chlamydia often has no symptoms, many men and women with chlamydia may not know it, passing the infection to new partners or failing to get the necessary treatment. Antibiotics can easily cure chlamydia (Torrone, 2014).

20–30% of genital chlamydia infections in women lead to symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Some women with PID will develop infertility, pelvic pain, and potentially dangerous ectopic pregnancies (Park, 2017). 

Chlamydia can cause complications in men, although they’re far less frequent. Complications can include prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) or inflammation of the urethra (urethritis). Around 1% of biological males who have urethritis may develop reactive arthritis. In some cases, urethritis and reactive arthritis also occur with eye inflammation. This triad of symptoms (arthritis, urethritis, and eye inflammation) is called Reiter’s syndrome (Hsu, 2019). 

In most cases, chlamydia has no symptoms.

In women, chlamydia usually infects the cervix first, causing cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix). That can cause pain, irritation, or vaginal discharge. Chlamydia infections can also involve the urethra, leading to urethritis and causing pain while urinating (Hsu, 2019).

In men, chlamydia bacteria can infect the urethra and lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), which causes pain while urinating and urethral discharge. Untreated chlamydia infection can also cause epididymitis, swelling in the tubes on the back of the testicles, causing pain (Hsu, 2019).

In both women and men, chlamydia can infect the eyes, causing chlamydial conjunctivitis (a type of eye inflammation)—symptoms include redness, irritation, and tearing. Chlamydia can also infect the rectum, either through anal sex or the spread of bacteria from the vagina. This might produce pain, discharge or bleeding, or no symptoms at all (Hsu, 2019).

Chlamydia trachomatis is also responsible for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), an infection of the lymphatic system, causing tender, swollen lymph nodes. It can also cause inflammation in the rectum accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms (Hsu, 2019).

While we aren’t there yet, it looks like there may be hope for a chlamydia vaccine in the near future. Researchers are particularly encouraged because of the success of the vaccine against another common STI, human papillomavirus (HPV). Hopefully, further trials and vaccine research will lead to a genital chlamydia vaccine. 

  1. Abraham, S., Juel, H. B., Bang, P., Cheeseman, H. M., Dohn, R. B., Cole, T., et al. (2019). Safety and immunogenicity of the chlamydia vaccine candidate CTH522 adjuvanted with CAF01 liposomes or aluminium hydroxide: a first-in-human, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 19(10), 1091–1100. doi: 10.1016/s1473-3099(19)30279-8. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31416692/
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, Jan). Chlamydia – CDC fact sheet (Detailed). Retrieved on May 7, 2021 from https://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia-detailed.htm
  3. Hsu, K. (2019). Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. In UptoDate. Marrazzo, J. and Bloom, A. (Eds.). Retrieved from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-of-chlamydia-trachomatis-infections
  4. Park, S. T., Lee, S. W., Kim, M. J., Kang, Y. M., Moon, H. M., & Rhim, C. C. (2017). Clinical characteristics of genital chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease. BMC women’s health, 17(1), 5. doi:10.1186/s12905-016-0356-9. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28086838/
  5. Torrone, E., Papp, J., Weinstock, H., & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014). Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among persons aged 14-39 years–United States, 2007-2012. MMWR, Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 63(38), 834–838. Retrieved from https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25254560/

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COVID Vaccine Exemptions, Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

From the USPSTF and the CDC

2) Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

Chlamydia and gonorrhea are among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the US. The rate of chlamydia infection among women is nearly double the rate among men based on 2019 CDC data. Gonorrhea infection is more prevalent in men than in women. Infection rates are highest among adolescents and young adults of both sexes. In 2019, 61% of all reported chlamydia infections, and in 2018 54% of new gonococcal infections, were among persons aged 15 to 24 years.

Chlamydial and gonococcal infections in women are usually asymptomatic and may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its associated complications, such as ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain. Infection in men may lead to urethritis and epididymitis. However, men are often also asymptomatic.

The USPSTF recently updated and affirmed their 2014 recommendation for the screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Recommendations include:

For sexually active women, including pregnant persons, screen for chlamydia and gonorrhea if they are:

  • 24 years or younger
  • 25 years or older and at increased risk for infection (B)

Women 25 years or older are at increased risk if they have:

  • A previous or coexisting STI
  • A new or more than 1 sex partner
  • A sex partner having sex with other partners at the same time
  • A sex partner with an STI
  • Inconsistent condom use when not in a mutually monogamous relationship
  • A history of exchanging sex for money or drugs
  • A history of incarceration

For sexually active men:

  • The evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. (I)

The UPSTF recommendation notes there are no good studies regarding screening intervals and suggests a reasonable approach would be to screen patients whose sexual history reveals new or persistent risk factors since the last negative test result.

The recently updated CDC guidelines for screening in men differ from the USPSTF guidelines. For men who have sex with men (MSM), the CDC recommends the following:

  • Screen at least annually for sexually active MSM at sites of contact (urethra, rectum) regardless of condom use
  • Screen every 3 to 6 months if at increased risk (i.e., MSM on PrEP, with HIV infection, or if they or their sex partners have multiple partners)

The USPSTF and CDC recommend using the nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for screening for both infections. The tests have both high sensitivity and specificity. The FDA has approved NAATs for use on urogenital and extragenital sites, including urine, endocervical, vaginal, male urethral, rectal, and pharyngeal specimens. Urine testing with NAATs is at least as sensitive as testing with endocervical specimens, clinician- or self-collected vaginal specimens, or urethral specimens in clinical settings. The same specimen can be used to test for chlamydia and gonorrhea.

Mark’s Comments:

As was noted in our September 3rd edition of Take 3, the CDC sexually transmitted disease surveillance report released in April found that in 2019, the last year for which data were available, the overall number of reported cases of STIs increased for the sixth consecutive year. We have no idea how the COVID pandemic will impact this, but do worry that the “roaring 20’s” mentality that has been written about will increase incidence even more.

One piece of information that I’m still trying to get my head around is that according to the CDC, two published studies that incorporated modeling techniques estimated that only about 10% of men and 5-30% of women with laboratory-confirmed chlamydial infection develop symptoms. Additionally, the prevalence of asymptomatic gonorrheal infections is estimated in different studies to be up to 70% of women and up to 60% of men. This is very different than what I was taught about theses STIs, particularly with regard to men. While the evidence according to the USPSTF is not robust enough to recommend screening in men, it certainly makes me have a much lower threshold to screen in higher risk men, particularly now that we use the NAATs testing rather than the historically terrifying urethral swab. Remember, an “I” recommendation doesn’t say “don’t do it,” only that we don’t know if it helps or not.

References:

  • USPSTF: Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening. September 14, 2021. Link
  • USPSTF. Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: USPSTF Recommendation Statement. JAMA September 14, 2021 Volume 326, Number 10: 949-956. Link
  • CDC STI Treatment Guidelines 2021: Screening Recommendations and Considerations Referenced in Treatment Guidelines and Original Sources – by disease. Updated 15 September 2021. Link

Chlamydia – KVD No. 2

What is chlamydia?

Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). The disease is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which affects the female genital area and causes non-gonococcal urethritis in men. Chlamydia is usually insignificant or absent, but serious complications develop. Complications can cause irreparable damage to the body, including infertility – all of this is very secretive.

Chlamydia also causes penile discharge in infected men.

Ways of infection with chlamydia

Chlamydia can be contracted at:

  • Vaginal or anal contact with an infected partner;
  • less often with oral sex;
  • use of sex toys with an infected partner;
  • infection of a newborn during childbirth from a sick mother.

Absolutely all sexually active people can get chlamydia.The greater the number of sex partners, the greater the risk of infection. The risk of infection in girls is especially high, since their cervix is ​​not fully formed. About 75% of new cases occur in women under 25. By the age of 30, approximately 50% of sexually active women have chlamydia. Sexually active men have the highest risk of infection between the ages of 20 and 24.

You can not get chlamydia through kisses, hugs, dishes, baths, towels.

Manifestations of chlamydia

Chlamydia is very secretive.About 75% of infected women and 50% of infected men are free of disease. If the manifestations of the disease develop, then this occurs approximately 1 to 3 weeks after infection.

In women, chlamydia first affects the cervix and urethra (urinary tract).

Manifestations:

  • unusual vaginal discharge;
  • pain or discomfort when urinating;

If the infection penetrates to the appendages, the following manifestations are possible:

  • pain in the lower abdomen;
  • pain in the lumbar region;
  • nausea;
  • slight increase in temperature;
  • Pain during intercourse or bleeding after it;
  • bleeding between periods.

Symptoms in men:

  • clear or cloudy discharge from the penis;
  • pain or discomfort when urinating;
  • there may be burning and itching in the area of ​​the outlet of the urethra;
  • rarely pain and / or swelling of the testicles.

Men or women who have anal contact with an infected partner can infect the rectum, resulting in inflammation, pain, discharge, or bleeding from the rectum.

Chlamydia can cause sore throat (pharyngitis) in men and women who have oral contact with an infected partner.

What complications can develop if chlamydia is not treated?

Serious short-term and persistent complications develop if the disease is left untreated. Like the disease itself, complications are often hidden.

In women with untreated chlamydia, the infection can penetrate from the urethra to the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry the egg from the ovaries to the uterus) – this causes (in 40% of cases) the development of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID causes permanent damage to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and surrounding tissue. Chronic pelvic pain, infertility and ectopic pregnancy are the result of PID.

Women with chlamydia are more susceptible to HIV infection, the risk increases by almost 5 times.

To prevent the development of serious consequences of chlamydia, an annual examination for chlamydia is required for all sexually active women aged 25 and under. Annual examination is necessary for women over 25 who are at risk (new sexual partner, multiple sexual partners).All pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia.

Complications of chlamydia in men are rare. The infection sometimes spreads to the epididymis and causes pain, fever and, rarely, male infertility (sterility).

Rarely, a chlamydial infection can cause joint inflammation in combination with skin lesions, inflammation of the eyes and urinary tract – this is the so-called Reiter’s syndrome.

The effect of chlamydia on a pregnant woman and her child

Chlamydia in pregnant women increases the risk of miscarriage, premature placental abruption. Newborns from infected mothers can get eye and lung infections. A lung infection (pneumonia) can be fatal to a newborn.

Chlamydia diagnosis

Diagnostics includes observation of clinical symptoms in a patient, examination of smears from the cervix for chlamydia, scraping from the urinary tract, the first morning portion of urine. Most often, the study is carried out by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Swabs and scrapings may cause minor discomfort.

Additionally, a blood test is carried out by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) for the presence of immunity to chlamydia, this auxiliary study often helps to establish an accurate diagnosis.

Chlamydia treatment

Chlamydia is treated with oral antibiotics. All sexual partners must be found, examined and treated to prevent re-infection. Patients with chlamydia should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection of the sexual partner is possible.Unfortunately, after successful treatment, re-infection with chlamydia is possible, since persistent immunity to this microorganism does not develop. Repeated infection of women with chlamydia leads to a significant increase in the risk of serious complications, including infertility. Re-examination is carried out 4 weeks after treatment.

Prevention of chlamydia

The best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections is long-term sex with one healthy sexual partner.Male latex condoms, when used correctly, dramatically reduce the risk of transmission.

An annual chlamydia screening is required for all sexually active women aged 25 and under. Annual examination is also necessary for women over 25 who are at risk (new sexual partner, multiple sexual partners). All pregnant women should be screened for chlamydia.

Any manifestations, such as pain or discomfort when urinating, an unusual rash, discharge, are a signal for the termination of sexual intercourse and immediate examination in a specialized clinic – KVD.If a patient is diagnosed with chlamydia (or any other STIs), he must inform his sexual partners about this, so that they also undergo a full examination and appropriate treatment. This will reduce the risk of serious complications and prevent the possibility of re-infection.

Patients with chlamydia should refrain from unprotected sex during treatment, otherwise re-infection of the sexual partner is possible.

90,000 Treatment of chlamydia, chlamydia in the clinic “Your Doctor”.Diagnostics. Sign up

Treatment of chlamydia, chlamydia in the clinic “Your Doctor”

Chlamydia, Chlamydia is an infectious disease belonging to the class of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which is caused by a specific pathogen – chlamydia. Currently, several types of chlamydia are known; the main and dangerous species for humans is Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydiae are obligate parasitic bacteria that, like viruses, can multiply inside the cells of the human body – they cause chlamydia.Chlamydiae have a unique reproduction cycle that includes the existence of bacteria in two forms — elementary bodies (ET) and reticular bodies (RT). The reproduction cycle of bacteria is from 48 to 72 hours – from the moment of the introduction of an elementary body (EB) into the cell, to the exit from an already destroyed cell of a multitude of newly formed EBs capable of infecting new adjacent cells. In the process of reproduction, ETs are transformed into transitional bodies, from which RTs are formed, and the latter, also through transitional forms, are converted back into ETs.Outside the human body, chlamydia die when heated, as well as under the influence of disinfectants. Chlamydia is transmitted from person to person mainly through sexual contact. Infection by household means, through household items, linen, towels, washcloths, etc., also occurs, but makes up no more than 7 – 12% of the total number of infections. When introduced into the body, chlamydia can affect not only the genitourinary system, causing more than half of infertile marriages and chronic inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system.Affecting the cardiovascular system, chlamydia often causes coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, affecting the lungs, causing sluggish pneumonia that does not respond to conventional treatment, as well as bronchial asthma. Chlamydial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, joints, eyes are described. According to our research, chlamydia leads to disruption of the connective tissue of the fatty capsule of the kidneys, causing nephroptosis; and also, according to our research, chlamydia is detected in 88% of patients suffering from Peyronie’s disease – fibroplastic induration of the penis.At the same time, chlamydia is a very common disease – it is detected whiter than 30% of both women and men suffering from chronic inflammatory processes in the organs of the genitourinary system. Chlamydia is often combined with other sexually transmitted infections – mycoplasmosis, trichomoniasis, gardnerellosis, candidiasis. Chlamydia of the genitourinary system affects only humans, the most common animals around humans are immune to this infection.

Symptoms of chlamydia, chlamydia

Chlamydia, as a rule, has a chronic course with mild symptoms of a various order, or asymptomatic.In some cases, the disease can have an acute and subacute clinical course. In acute form, patients reveal reddening of the mucous membranes of the urethra, cervix, sometimes some increased urge to urinate, scanty mucopurulent discharge from the urethra and vagina. In the chronic course of the disease, these symptoms are erased, mild. In this case, insignificant discharge can occur only in the morning or after hypothermia. With an asymptomatic course of the disease, patients do not present any health complaints.In men, chronic chlamydial urethritis can sometimes be accompanied by a feeling of heaviness, discomfort in the urethra, and a slight burning sensation. According to our studies, long-term urogenital chlamydia leads to the development of prostatitis in almost 100% of cases with subsequent spread to the seminal vesicles and organs of the scrotum. In women, chlamydial lesions of the urethra, Bartholin glands, vagina, uterus are often asymptomatic, only in a small part of patients accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen and pain in the lumbar region, especially during menstruation.In some patients, chlamydia occurs in a severe form, while, along with damage to the genitourinary system, there are lesions of the joints, conjunctiva of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes of the oral cavity and nasopharynx and rectum. In women, chlamydia can adversely affect pregnancy and is often transmitted to newborns. With asymptomatic chlamydia, the first signs of this disease are, as a rule, the symptoms of complications that have already developed, with their specific manifestations.

Diagnostics of chlamydia, chlamydia

An important principle in the diagnosis of chlamydia is regularity. For men and women who are sexually active outside of marriage, it is necessary to undergo tests for the presence of chlamydia every six months. For people living in marriage, this period can be from one year to one and a half years. Compulsory research for the presence of chlamydia – pathogens of chlamydia should be subjected to patients with diseases of the joints, eye lesions, sluggish diseases of the internal organs and the gastrointestinal tract, patients suffering from pathology of the cardiovascular system, lung diseases, bronchial asthma, frequent pharyngitis and tonsillitis.All patients suffering from infertility and inflammatory processes in the genitourinary system are subject to mandatory research on chlamydia. In the diagnosis of chlamydia, methods of special laboratory and bacteriological diagnostics are of primary importance. The simplest are immunoluminescent methods, which allow detecting chlamydia antigens directly in a microscopic specimen. For this purpose, the method of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is usually used, which uses monoclonal antibodies to various antigens of the pathogen.At the same time, the PIF method, according to estimates by different authors, is effective within 45 – 67% and can give false positive results. In recent years, molecular biological methods have become the gold standard in the diagnosis of chlamydial infection – chlamydia, primarily PCR (DNA diagnostics), which, subject to all conditions from the collection of material to its delivery, amplification and evaluation, is effective, according to individual authors, in 90% or more. However, in reality, according to our estimates, the effectiveness of this method is no higher than 75-80%.Currently existing methods of serological diagnostics (microimmunofluorescent, enzyme immunoassay) have limited diagnostic value, and cannot be used as the only ones in the diagnosis of chlamydia. The most effective diagnostic methods include the method of culture inoculation of the material. This method is highly specific and indispensable for determining the cure rate of a disease. Recently, another high-precision method has also been used to diagnose chlamydia – NASBA, which is a molecular biological study of chlamydial ribonucleic acid (RNA diagnostics).To obtain highly accurate results of patient examination, it is recommended to examine the material with at least three different methods at the same time.

Treatment of chlamydia, chlamydia

The introduction of modern medical technologies makes it possible to completely cure chlamydia, subject to the appropriate conditions. Treatment should be carried out under direct supervision and as directed by a physician. The period of treatment, as a rule, is not less than 20 days, however, in the presence of developed complications, this period can be increased.The general prerequisite for successful treatment is the simultaneous treatment of sexual partners – even in cases where chlamydia has been reliably detected in only one of them. During the period of the treatment process and subsequent control, sex life is prohibited for both partners. The treatment process is complex and includes both specific antibacterial drugs and non-specific drugs and physiotherapy. As in the treatment of viral infections, the treatment of chlamydia includes the mandatory use of immune drugs, most often inducers of endogenous interferon, in combination with anti-Chlamydia antibiotics (ciprofloxacins, ofloxacins, levofloxacins, etc.).). Treatment should be optimized taking into account the individual characteristics of the course of the disease, taking into account the stage of the inflammatory process, its localization, the presence or absence of complications. A patient with chlamydia is considered cured if, within 3 months after the end of treatment, chlamydia is not detected in him during control laboratory tests.

What is chlamydia, symptoms and treatment

Chlamydia is an infectious disease that is predominantly transmitted sexually. The causative agent is the microorganism Chlamydia trachomatis, which actively multiplies inside the cells. The pathogenic microbe sucks out nutrients and trace elements, grows and begins to divide, then the process spreads to neighboring healthy cells. In the absence of treatment, chlamydia penetrates almost all tissues and structures of the organs of the reproductive system.

The disease is equally common among men and women, more often diagnosed in patients of childbearing age who are sexually active.Chlamydia can be asymptomatic for a long time and cause incurable complications such as infertility. According to the World Health Organization, Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most common STIs.

Routes of infection

Chlamydia is a parasite. The microorganism easily adapts to environmental conditions, has the features of a virus and bacteria.

The disease is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person:

1.During unprotected intercourse. Infection is possible during vaginal, oral, anal sex. The likelihood of getting chlamydia from a sick partner with intimacy is more than 65% for men and more than 25% for women.

2. Vertical route – transmission of the pathogen from mother to fetus during natural childbirth. In the body of a newborn, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, and other respiratory manifestations can become symptoms of chlamydia.

3. In everyday life, through a common bed, personal hygiene items, towels, etc.e. This route of infection is rare. Doctors have recorded cases of conjunctivitis caused by the transfer of chlamydia on the hands from the external genital organs to the eyes. It was found that the microorganism remains in the external environment for up to 2 days. Optimum conditions are a temperature of about 18 ° C and humidity.

4. Airborne droplets. Some types of pathogens can enter the body through the respiratory tract. In such cases, respiratory chlamydia or pneumonia develops. It is possible to transmit microbes through saliva during a kiss, but such situations are rare and typical for advanced, chronic infections.

Chlamydia symptoms

The vast majority of carriers of the infection are unaware of their illness. Chlamydiae parasitize inside cells without affecting the quality of life of their host. The disease is more often diagnosed during clinical examination or examination by a gynecologist / urologist for other reasons.

Chlamydia in women can be manifested by the following symptoms:

1. Discharges with unusual color, odor or texture. Leucorrhoea can cause local irritation.

2. Painful urination.

3. Subfebrile body temperature (up to 37.5 ° C), which can spontaneously decrease and rise again.

4. Fatigue, weakness.

5. Aching pains in the lower abdomen during and after intercourse.

6. Admixture of blood in the discharge after intimacy.

7. Frequent inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.

8. Violations of the menstrual cycle.

Signs of chlamydia in men:

1. Unusual discharge from the penis. As a rule, they have a glassy structure and hardly smell.

2. Burning sensation during urination. Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the urinary tract becomes chronic, protracted, and difficult to treat. Sometimes the symptom persists for several months, even with treatment.

3. Soreness and swelling of one of the testicles (less often). Pain can also be given to the scrotum, urethra, lower back.

4. Increase in body temperature to 37–37.5 degrees. The infection causes intoxication, weakness.

Symptoms of oral chlamydia are distinguished into a separate group. Moreover, the disease occurs not only after intercourse with a sick partner, but also as a result of infection through dishes, wounds in the mouth. Such patients complain of nasal congestion. On examination, the doctor discovers a sticky, thick mucus, similar to phlegm, which spreads from the respiratory tract into the mouth.If untreated, plaque will cover the tongue. The smell of chlamydial mucus is unpleasant, reminiscent of rotten fish. In the early stages of the disease, sputum is located in separate foci, and then covers the mucous membranes with a continuous layer.

Chlamydia diagnosis

It is possible to establish the presence of the pathogen only with the help of laboratory tests. First of all, you need to make an appointment with a doctor: men are examined by a urologist, women – by a gynecologist. At the initial consultation, the specialist will examine the mucous membranes of the genital organs, find out the anamnesis, and ask the patient about the presence and severity of symptoms of infection.Then they start collecting materials for research.

To diagnose chlamydia, a smear is taken from the urethra or cervix, blood from a vein for PCR (polymerase chain reaction). Additional tests help to assess the general health of the patient:

Additional examinations are also needed to assess the consequences of the disease.

In some cases, the so-called carrier of the infection is found. Chlamydia persists for a long time in the human body in the form of inactive isolated colonies.Clinically, such a patient appears healthy, but PCR is positive.

Possible complications

Regardless of the causes of chlamydia and the route of infection, the infection can seriously affect human health and cause irreversible changes in the body. The situation is complicated by the fact that the disease is asymptomatic. The patient complains of unpleasant sensations when chlamydia has already spread in the genitourinary system and provoked the development of other pathologies.

Possible complications in men:

  • chlamydial prostatitis;
  • epididymitis;
  • urethritis;
  • sexual impotence.

Possible complications in women:

  • formation of adhesions in the organs of the reproductive system;
  • ectopic pregnancies;
  • 90,013 problems with conception;

  • urethro-oculo-synovial syndrome (rare), which is manifested by simultaneous inflammation of the urethra, joints and signs of conjunctivitis.

In both women and men, chlamydia can cause infertility. In different situations, changes may be incurable.

Chlamydia treatment

The causative agent of the disease is resistant to many drugs. Chlamydia treatment is carried out according to the scheme prescribed by the doctor, and the result can be achieved only if all recommendations are followed. The complex of drugs is selected individually, taking into account the symptoms. The main goal of drug therapy is to alleviate the patient’s condition and remove the causative agent of the disease from healthy cells.

Depending on the general condition of the patient, the doctor may prescribe:

1. Broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Medicines destroy chlamydia, prevent it from multiplying in the human body.

2. Vitamins and immunostimulants. The lower the immunity, the stronger the manifestations of the infection and the higher the risk of complications. A course of vitamins will help improve health.

3. Local antiseptics. For men, a urologist prescribes creams and solutions.Women are prescribed vaginal suppositories, ointments, tampons.

Medicines are taken by the patient himself and his sexual partner. During treatment, it is recommended to refrain from intimacy in order to avoid re-infection. After the course, the PCR analysis is taken again after 14, 40, 60 days to confirm complete recovery.

In addition to drug therapy, your doctor may recommend diet. It is necessary to exclude alcohol, the use of certain foods.

Prevention of chlamydia

There is no generic pill or vaccine that can protect against chlamydia.Simple rules will help reduce the risk of illness:

1. The constancy of sexual relations with one partner. Accidental relationships are a high risk not only due to chlamydia, but also due to other infections, including HIV, syphilis, and gonorrhea.

2. Use of barrier contraception. The best way to protect yourself from STIs is with a condom. Remedies significantly reduce the risk of transmission of chlamydia during intimacy.

3. Compliance with the rules of personal hygiene. It is forbidden to use other people’s towels, washcloths, underwear, and other household items.Even within the same family, these rules must be strictly observed.

4. Education of the younger generation. It is necessary to conduct conversations with children who have reached puberty. Teenagers should know about the culture and hygiene of intimate relationships, be able to use contraception. If parents find it difficult to carry on such conversations, you can register the child for a consultation with a doctor. The specialist will give competent answers to all “inconvenient” questions.

5. Regular medical examination.Young people who are sexually active need to be examined annually and tested for latent infections. This will help detect chlamydia at the very beginning of development.

Diagnostics and treatment of chlamydia in Moscow

At the MedEx clinic, you can undergo a comprehensive diagnosis and receive a treatment regimen for the disease in complete anonymity. To make an appointment, call us at the phone number listed on the website.

90,000 Chlamydia (chlamydia trachomatis) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment

IMPORTANT!

The information in this section cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-medication.In case of pain or other exacerbation of the disease, diagnostic tests should be prescribed only by the attending physician. For a diagnosis and correct prescription of treatment, you should contact your doctor.

Chlamydia: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

Definition

Chlamydia is a urogenital (genitourinary) infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia trachomatis).Early diagnosis of chlamydia is difficult, since the disease can be asymptomatic for a long time. As a result, the infection becomes chronic, accompanied by various complications, which sometimes cause infertility and miscarriage.

Causes of chlamydia

Urogenital chlamydia is a highly contagious (highly contagious) disease. The infection is sexually transmitted – if one of the partners has chlamydia, the infection of the other is inevitable if there are no methods of barrier contraception.The highest incidence is observed in people under 25 years of age. Infection of children occurs perinatally – from an infected pregnant woman through the placenta and during childbirth.

Classification of the disease

Depending on the location of lesions are distinguished:

  1. Chlamydial infections of the lower urinary tract (urogenital chlamydia):
    • urethritis – inflammation of the urethra;
    • cervicitis – inflammation of the cervix;
    • cystitis – inflammation of the bladder;
    • vulvovaginitis – inflammation of the vulva and vagina.
  1. Chlamydial infections of the pelvic organs and other genitourinary organs:
    • orchitis – inflammation of the testicle;
    • epididymitis – inflammation of the epididymis;
    • prostatitis – inflammation of the prostate gland accompanying urethritis;
    • salpingo-oophoritis – inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries;
    • endometritis – inflammation of the lining of the uterus.
  1. Chlamydial infection of the anorectal region is an inflammation of the anus and rectum.
  2. Chlamydial pharyngitis is an inflammation of the back of the throat.
  3. Chlamydial sexually transmitted infections of other localization (arthritis – inflammation of the joints, pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs, peritonitis – inflammation of the peritoneum, etc.).
  4. Chlamydial conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes.

Chlamydia symptoms

Chlamydia symptoms depend on the location of the inflammation. In some cases, there are no symptoms at all if the disease has a latent (latent) course.

When complaints occur, all symptoms of infection can be divided into two groups:

  • associated with damage to the genitourinary system,
  • associated with damage to other organs.

The main complaints of women with damage to the genitourinary system: constant pulling pain in the lower abdomen or in the lower back; discharge from the vagina or urethra; intermenstrual bleeding; pain and cramps when urinating, increased urge to urinate; itching or discomfort in the vaginal area; soreness during intercourse.Sometimes chlamydia is diagnosed on the basis of complaints of reproductive dysfunction: infertility, recurrent miscarriage, a history of miscarriages.

Manifestations of chlamydia in men are usually less pronounced and limited to discomfort during urination, frequent urination, and discharge from the urethra. With the progression of the disease, pain during urination may join.

With damage to the anorectal region, an asymptomatic course of the disease is often noted.There may be complaints of itching, burning in the anorectal region, slight yellowish or reddish rectal discharge; soreness during bowel movements, mucopurulent discharge from the rectum, often mixed with blood, constipation.

With chlamydial pharyngitis, patients may complain of discomfort, a feeling of dry throat, pain that worsens when swallowing.

Chlamydial conjunctivitis, which occurs against the background of urogenital chlamydia, is characterized by slight pain in the affected eye; dryness and redness of the conjunctiva; photophobia; scanty mucopurulent discharge in the corners of the eye.

Chlamydial infection can develop joint damage, which in most cases occurs in the form of monoarthritis, when inflammation develops in one joint (usually the knee, ankle, metatarsophalangeal, hip, shoulder or elbow). In chlamydial infections, arthritis is usually associated with urethritis and conjunctivitis.

Diagnosis of chlamydia

Since complaints and examination data for chlamydial infection are nonspecific, an accurate diagnosis is possible only with the help of laboratory diagnostics.

The diagnosis of “chlamydia” is established on the basis of the detection of the bacterial genetic material – chlamydia trachomatis DNA by the PCR method in the clinical material under study, obtained taking into account the localization of the inflammatory process. Taking material against the background of antibiotic therapy is not recommended.

For the diagnosis of uncomplicated chlamydial infection of genital localization, the collection of clinical material is carried out from the urethra in men, from the urethra and cervical canal in women.

Useful articles – skin rehabilitation clinic “Desir”

Pathogenesis of chlamydia

The causative agent of this sexually transmitted disease is the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. This pathogenic, that is, a pathogenic microorganism, like many related ones, is an obligate intracellular parasite. Simply put, it cannot reproduce without being in a cage. Therefore, in order to cause disease, he needs to penetrate there.

Infection occurs like this:

  • First, the bacterium is attached to the walls of the host cell;
  • , surrounded by a shell, gets inside and begins to multiply;
  • After a while, the host dies, and the pathogenic microorganism spreads throughout the body.

The first female organ that chlamydia affects is the uterus, and the male organ is the urethra, that is, the urethra.

Disease statistics

Chlamydia is a widespread infection today. But it is interesting that it does not occur more often than other sexually transmitted diseases. For example, outbreaks of gonorrhea and other diseases in this group are much more common.

Women are most susceptible to chlamydia, although men are also not insured:

  1. At a special risk group are people who first had unprotected sex when they were still very young, and still continue to do so.
  2. Girls and women with “low social responsibility” risk their health the most.

Studies show that nearly 100 million people are infected every year.

Chlamydia – symptoms

This is a very insidious disease, since an infected person does not always suspect about its course. And he can remain in the dark for a long time, because the incubation period of this infection:

  • minimum – 5 days;
  • maximum is a month.

The same patients who were able to detect the disease in time were more fortunate, because the treatment of chlamydia is easier and more effective at an early stage.

Sometimes the pathological process proceeds with pronounced symptoms. Some of them are the same for both genders. Most often, patients complain of fever and pain in the intimate area.

The first signs of chlamydia

Since the target organs are located in the lower back, prolonged and long-lasting pain in this area can signal chlamydia.Very often, such painful sensations, which can be observed in both men and women, are the first symptom.

There are manifestations that are more typical for men. For example, a patient should be alert if he finds:

  • impurities of pus in the urine;
  • edema of the genitals, accompanied by redness.

It is necessary to sound the alarm in cases where these symptoms do not stop for a long time.This means that the causative bacteria caused inflammation of the urethra.

The main symptoms of chlamydia in women

A woman infected with chlamydia will be able to understand that she is sick if:

  • will see vaginal discharge with a repulsive odor on the pad;
  • it comes down to bleeding that occurs when the patient has not yet begun critical days.

A signal that you need to make an appointment with a doctor as soon as possible may also be the painful sensations that occur during trips to the toilet.

The main symptoms of chlamydia in men

Men who get chlamydia often want to go to the bathroom to urinate. This procedure is usually very painful for him. Worse, the pain may not be localized in the penis, but flow to other organs – for example:

  • for the prostate;
  • bladder;
  • sometimes to the intestines.

As with women, men sometimes suffer from discharge, red due to the admixture of blood.

Symptoms of chlamydia in children

Usually, the pathogenic bacterium enters the eyes of newborn children, as a result of which one of the mucous membranes, the conjunctiva, becomes inflamed. In this state, the child’s eyes:

  • swell;
  • blush;
  • are watering.

Respiratory chlamydia in an older child can be recognized by such signs as:

  • cough and shortness of breath;
  • blue discoloration of the skin;
  • temperature rise.

In some cases, children have the same chlamydia symptoms as adults – that is, frequent urge to urinate and scabies in the intimate area.

Consequences of chlamydia

In women who have had chlamydia, the menstrual cycle is often lost. But there are also more dangerous consequences for health, the worst of which is infertility:

  1. Often, partitions – adhesions are formed in the affected organs, that is, the ovaries, the uterus and the tubes leading into it.
  2. Their appearance leads to the fact that the egg cannot enter the uterus and fertilize.
  3. Therefore, even after successful intercourse, such sick women rarely manage to become pregnant. And even if she conceives a child, she cannot bear him for a long time.

Many of the women have an inflamed lining of the uterus, a syndrome called endometriosis.

Men are not doing better – for those who have suffered from chlamydia:

  • prostate edema occurs;
  • there is an overgrowth of fibrous tissue;
  • in some cases they suffer from Reiter’s syndrome.

This condition is complex, because, in addition to the urethra, inflammation occurs in the joints and eyes.

Causes of chlamydia

Chlamydia often occurs due to multiple promiscuous relationships. It infects those who do not use protective equipment during intercourse.

Many children, especially small ones, become infected with chlamydia in a different way:

  1. When an infected mother gives birth to a baby, it picks up the bacteria.
  2. This happens when the baby makes his way through her birth canal.
  3. But he becomes infected with chlamydia not only at birth, but also during breastfeeding, because bacteria can enter his body along with his mother’s milk.

In such cases, one speaks of vertical transmission of infection. How to treat chlamydia in infants, the pediatrician will tell you.

How is chlamydia transmitted?

The sexual route is the most common way of transmission of chlamydia, but not the only one.You can get this infection by touching an infected surface and then shaking someone’s hand or touching an object. That is, the disease is also transmitted through the contact-household route, although it is extremely rare.

Types of chlamydia

Venereologists distinguish several types of this disease. It is subdivided depending on which organ it affects. Sometimes the site of infection can be located outside the reproductive system. For example, a pathogenic microbe can get into:

  • nose;
  • 90,013 eyes;

  • ears;
  • lungs.

In the latter case, it is called respiratory. Mainly children suffer from this chlamydia.

The type of it that adversely affects the genitourinary system is called urogenital. In women, it causes inflammation:

  • bladder;
  • cervix;
  • External and internal genital organs – vulva and vagina.

In a patient with a man’s pathology, the prostate gland, prostate and urethra are affected.

Chlamydia diagnosis

It is possible to identify the presence or absence of a disease in a patient only by taking tests from him:

  • in women, this smear is taken from the vagina;
  • in men – from the opening leading to the urethra.

The materials collected from the patient are taken to the laboratory, where one part is sown on a special nutrient medium, and on the other, a PCR reaction is carried out. Such tests are done very quickly, so their results can be found out the very next day after treatment.The deadline for receiving them is the second day after the patient arrives for diagnosis.

Chlamydiae cause a very dangerous sexually transmitted disease. Even if it does not manifest itself in any way, you need to see a doctor and be examined. If it is detected, the doctor will give recommendations on how to cure chlamydia. And in order not to get infected with it, it is recommended to refrain from relationships “on the side” and do not forget to put on condoms before having sex.

Chlamydia symptoms | Medical center “Meditox”

Urogenital chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection.

Today – one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. The causative agent is chlamydia trachomatis (chlamidia trachomatis).

The risk group for this disease includes women who have early sexual intercourse, sexual intercourse with several sexual partners, with pathological changes in the cervix (chronic cervicitis, pseudo-erosion of the cervix), using intrauterine contraceptives and spermicides, who have previously had sexually transmitted diseases.

Chlamydia symptoms

Clinical symptoms are associated with changes in the endo- and exocervix under the influence of chlamydial infection:

  • mucous, mucopurulent discharge from the genital tract,
  • itching,
  • discomfort, discomfort, burning sensation in the genital tract,
  • dysuric disorders (frequent painful urination).

In two thirds of cases, there is an asymptomatic and asymptomatic course of the disease, that is, there are no complaints.

The danger of chlamydia is associated with the fact that in some cases the spread of infection leads to the occurrence of chlamydial endometritis and salpingo-oophoritis. In this connection, patients may complain of recurrent pain in the lower abdomen of varying intensity. In addition, infection with chlamydia should be considered as a risk factor for dysplasia and cervical cancer.

Chlamydia can cause miscarriage and intrauterine infection of the fetus if diagnosed and treated late.

Our center carries out diagnostics and treatment of chlamydia. Modern methods of diagnostics and complex pathogenetic treatment are used.

At the first manifestations of the disease, contact your gynecologist

Contraindications

Consult our specialists for possible contraindications.

90,000 Chlamydia. Should you be afraid? Is chlamydia transmitted through a condom? PCR for chlamydia.

General

Chlamydia is a disease caused by chlamydia, an intracellular parasite that cannot live outside the host’s body.According to the new name, Chlamydophila is a gram-negative bacteria with a characteristic developmental cycle.

Chlamydiae have the characteristics of both bacteria and viruses. An infectious (which can infect) extracellular form of a microorganism is the so-called elemental body. As soon as it enters the host cell, it begins to multiply by division and then leaves the cell, which leads to its death.
In some cases, elemental bodies become permanent inhabitants of cells and become the cause of chronic infection.In recent years, a link has also been found between infection with this parasite and an increase in the incidence of cancer. This is due to the inhibition of apoptosis (planned cell death), which increases the chances of cancerous cell transformation. There are several types, including three pathogenic for humans: Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila trachomatis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

Chlamydophila psittaci

Chlamydophila psittaci is pathogenic to animals, but it can also infect humans.Its reservoir is birds, mainly parrots, pigeons and budgerigars. Infection with this form causes a disease in humans called psittacosis or psittacosis. The disease mainly affects the respiratory system, but it should be remembered that, as with any systemic infection, it can affect other organs as well, proceed in the form of sepsis (SIRS), skin rash or encephalitis. Infections usually occur when particles of dried bird droppings are inhaled, after which the microorganisms are transferred through the blood to the reticuloendothelial system of the spleen, liver and alveoli.The incubation period lasts about 1-3 weeks, cough, fever, general weakness appear.

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila pneumoniae was discovered about 40 years ago in Taiwan. The infection only affects humans. The infection spreads from person to person. The pathogen demonstrates the ability to multiply not only in the epithelium of the respiratory tract, but also in macrophages or vascular smooth muscle cells. The incubation period lasts about 1-2 weeks, most often children from 5 to 14 years old are sick.Fever, sore muscles and throat predominate initially, followed by pneumonia. This pathogen accounts for 10% of all pneumonia, and the disease is biphasic with flu-like symptoms at the beginning and mild SARS at the last stage. It is characterized by a mild degree of auscultatory changes, the absence of purulent sputum and minor changes on chest x-ray. Carriers account for up to 5% of the total population without signs of acute infection, and in the event of a decrease in immunity, they may develop the disease.However, carrier status does not require treatment. In laboratory diagnostics, serological tests and the detection of microbial antigens are used. Identification material: swabs from the throat and larynx, lavage of the bronchi and BAL (fluid for bronchoalveolar lavage) collected during broncho-fibroscopy. Among serological methods (determination of antibodies), microimmunofluorescence is the most commonly used. However, it should be remembered that a significant percentage of healthy people may have positive IgG titers.The most important is a fourfold increase in their titer in the next two determinations. They can persist from the onset of the infection up to five years after the infection has cleared.

Chlamydophila trachomatis

Eighteen serological subtypes of Chlamydophila trachomatis have been identified.

Chlamydia causes

The mode of infection is sexual contact, especially in people with multiple partners. In both men and women, the pathogen causes non-gonococcal urethritis and cystitis, as well as inflammation of the pelvic organs, vagina, cervix and appendages.

Chronic infections lead to premature birth, pregnancy problems, and epididymitis and prostatitis. During childbirth, the infection can be transmitted to the baby in the form of conjunctivitis and SARS.

The first symptom of chlamydia is a papule or erosion that appears in the genital area, which after about 4 weeks turns into a secondary lesion with inflammation in the groin and swollen lymph nodes.This is accompanied by systemic flu-like symptoms. Infection with this microorganism can also manifest as asymmetric, sterile inflammation of several joints, mainly in the lower extremities, called sexually transmitted reactive arthritis or SARA syndrome.

Extra-articular symptoms include papillary squamous rash with plantar hyperkeratosis of the feet, erythema nodosum, tenderness of the palate and mucous membrane of the cheeks and lips, conjunctivitis and anterior uveitis.

Asymptomatic myocarditis occurs quite often in the form of conduction disturbances and ascending aortitis; aortic valve regurgitation may appear as the disease progresses.

Sometimes kidney damage manifests itself in the form of proteinuria (protein and red blood cells are present in the urine test). Reactive arthritis can also occur as Reiter’s syndrome, which includes a triad of symptoms: urethritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis or iritis.

Serological diagnostics for this form of chlamydia are of limited value due to the relatively high percentage of positive antibodies in a healthy population.

The diagnosis of infection is confirmed by microscopic examination of a Gram stained urethral smear, the presence of more than 5 leukocytes (white blood cells) containing chlamydial cells at a magnification of 1000 times.

The prognosis is usually good, and the disease disappears spontaneously in 2-5 months. About 20-30 percent of cases flow into a chronic process.

Recently, studies have shown that chlamydophila is a pathogenic factor in many chronic diseases – it is involved in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis (myocardial ischemic disease), as well as lung and cervical cancer.

Macrolides and tetracyclines are primarily used to treat chlamydial infections. Simultaneous treatment of sexual partners is used. Prescribing a single dose has the advantage of patient control and adherence, but has not been shown to be more effective in clinical trials than seven days of treatment.

Is chlamydia transmitted by a condom?

Not all people of reproductive age know the answer to the question of whether chlamydia is transmitted through a condom.Based on a number of studies conducted by scientists, it can be concluded that barrier contraception is currently the most reliable way to prevent infection with sexually transmitted infections. However, some of the patients suffering from chlamydia believe that the condom did not help to avoid getting the pathogen into the body.

The main reason for chlamydia infection:

To date, contraception using latex products is considered the most reliable.Condoms not only help prevent conception, but also prevent infection by bacteria and viruses.

Infection with chlamydia can occur in several cases:

  1. When a sexually transmitted disease manifests itself in an extragenital form. In an infected person, the eyes, lungs, and pharynx are affected. Infection is possible during a kiss, if there is damage to the mucous membranes in the oral cavity.
  2. The infection can get on the bed with fluids secreted by the gonads, sperm, if barrier contraception has not been used.In this case, the pathogen is able to invade the mucous membranes of healthy partners.
  3. Improper use of a condom. The risk of contracting chlamydia is extremely high with improper use of the product and non-compliance with hygiene rules.

Number of contraceptive errors:

Some men still believe that by using a pair of condoms at the same time, the likelihood of infection is reduced to zero. This judgment is wrong.On the contrary, with such use of contraceptives, the risk of slipping from the penis and rupture increases.
Also, a latex product can be damaged during intimacy if, during putting on, a man forgot to squeeze the reservoir located at the end of the product. If the integrity is violated, pregnancy and infection with sexually transmitted infections are possible.
Some couples do not use latex during foreplay. During this period, there is no protection against chlamydia and other bacteria.The condom can be damaged when opening the package if scissors or other sharp objects are used.
To avoid breaking the integrity, you need to use the ribbed edge specially provided by the manufacturer. Before intercourse, you must check the expiration date. Old products can dry out the lubricant, increasing the risk of material damage.
Latex can be damaged by improper storage, squeezing, heating, cooling. Do not place condoms in areas with strong sunlight.

Condoms can be called a reliable means of contraception and protection against infection with chlamydia and other pathogenic microorganisms.