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Cold sweats stomach pain nausea diarrhea: Stomach pain and chills: 12 causes


Stomach pain and chills: 12 causes

Here, we list some of the common causes of stomach pain and chills:

1. The common cold

Most adults can expect to have two or three colds every year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Children usually have more.

The common cold causes symptoms including:

Symptoms typically improve after 7–10 days, though a cough can persist for 2 weeks or more.

Treatment involves home remedies such as resting, staying hydrated, and taking over-the-counter (OTC) medications.

2. Gastroenteritis

Gastroenteritis occurs when the stomach and intestines are inflamed due to a bacterial or viral infection.

Viral gastroenteritis, which some doctors call stomach flu, is the most common form. Other causes include reactions to food or medications.

In the United States, around 179 million cases of acute gastroenteritis each year, according to a study in the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. This makes it one of the most common illnesses.

Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include:

  • diarrhea
  • headache
  • low-grade fever or chills
  • muscle aches
  • nausea
  • stomach cramps
  • vomiting

Symptoms can persist for up to a week. Some treatment options include resting, staying hydrated, eating soft foods, and taking OTC medications.


Salmonella infection

Infection with Salmonella bacteria is a common occurrence in the U.S. It causes 1.2 million illnesses annually, according to the CDC. People typically get the infection as a result of consuming contaminated food or water.

Symptoms usually begin within 12–72 hours of infection and may include:

  • diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • headache
  • nausea
  • stomach cramps
  • vomiting

Treatment is typically unnecessary, and most people recover within a few days. During this time, self-care measures can reduce discomfort. People with severe symptoms may require medication or even hospitalization.

4. Urinary tract infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria or other microbes infect the urinary tract. Females have a higher risk of developing UTIs than males do, with 40–60 percent of females experiencing one in their lifetime.

Symptoms may include:

  • an increase in urinary frequency
  • an increase in urinary urgency
  • burning pain when urinating
  • cloudy, strong-smelling, or pink urine
  • fever or chills
  • pain in the pelvis or back, which may radiate to the abdomen
  • passing small amounts of urine regularly

Most UTIs will require antibiotic treatment, but some home remedies can reduce discomfort until the infection clears up. Home remedies include drinking plenty of water, avoiding caffeine, and using a heating pad on the abdomen.

5. Kidney stones

Share on PinterestDrinking fluids can help small kidney stones pass through the urinary tract.

When minerals and salts build up in the kidneys, they can form hard deposits called kidney stones.

A 2018 review in the journal Advances in Urology suggests that 1 in 11 people in the U.S. develop kidney stones.

These hard deposits may not cause any symptoms until they change positions in the kidney or urinary tract.

Kidney stones can then result in:

  • changes in urinary habits and amount
  • cloudy, strong-smelling, or pink urine
  • fever and chills, in the case of an infection
  • nausea
  • pain in the abdomen, groin, sides, and back
  • painful urination
  • vomiting

Small kidney stones can pass through the urinary tract on their own. It is helpful to drink fluids and take pain relivers until the stone passes.

At other times, it is necessary to undergo surgery or another type of medical procedure to remove the stone.

6. Prostatitis

Prostatitis is inflammation of the prostate gland, which is just below the bladder in males.

Prostatitis has a prevalence rate of 8.2 percent and is “the most common urological diagnosis” in males aged 50 and under.

Bacterial prostatitis, which results from bacterial infection, causes:

  • difficulty urinating
  • flu-like symptoms, such as chills
  • cloudy or bloody urine
  • frequent urination
  • pain in the abdomen, lower back, genitals, or groin
  • painful urination and ejaculation

Treatment may include taking antibiotics and other medications. Using heating pads, making dietary changes, and making lifestyle changes may provide some symptom relief.

7. Mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis, or the kissing disease or mono, passes between people through saliva. Along with stomach pain and chills, symptoms include:

  • fatigue
  • fever
  • headache
  • a sore throat
  • skin rash
  • swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits
  • swollen tonsils

Symptoms usually do not appear until 4–6 weeks after infection and last for up to 2 months.

Treatment includes resting, staying hydrated, and taking OTC pain relievers. Some people may require medications for secondary infections.

8. Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation of the air sacs. In the U.S., it is “a leading cause of hospitalization” in both adults and children.

Pneumonia symptoms, which range in severity, include:

  • chest pain
  • chills
  • coughing up phlegm
  • diarrhea
  • difficulty breathing
  • fatigue
  • fever
  • nausea
  • stomach pain
  • vomiting

Pneumonia can be life-threatening for older adults, children, and those who have a compromised immune system. People who have symptoms should always speak with a doctor.

Treatment includes taking medication, resting, and other home remedies. Some people may require hospitalization.

9. Gallbladder inflammation

Gallbladder inflammation, or cholecystitis, is swelling of the gallbladder, which is a pear-shaped organ in the abdomen.

Gallstones are the most common cause of gallbladder inflammation. According to a 2012 study in the journal Gut and Liver, around 10–15 percent of adults will develop gallstones. Other causes include tumors and infections.

Cholecystitis symptoms, which often get worse after eating large or fatty meals, include:

  • abdominal pain and tenderness, usually in the upper right or center
  • fever or chills
  • nausea
  • pain in the back or right shoulder

If left untreated, gallbladder inflammation can cause severe complications. Some treatment options include hospitalization, fasting, intravenous fluids, and taking pain relievers. Surgery may be necessary to remove the gallstones or the entire gallbladder.

10. Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) occurs when sexually transmitted bacteria, including chlamydia or gonorrhea, spread to the fallopian tubes, uterus, or ovaries.

Research from 2017, which appeared in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, suggests that 4.4 percent of sexually experienced females of reproductive age have PID.

PID does not always cause symptoms. Sometimes, people only realize that they have the condition when they experience difficulty getting pregnant.

If symptoms do occur, they include:

  • bleeding between periods
  • bleeding during or after sex
  • chills
  • difficult or painful urination
  • fever
  • heavy and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • pain in the lower abdomen and pelvis

Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics to people with PID. Sexual partners also require treatment.

Without treatment, the infection can cause chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility.

11. Appendicitis

Appendicitis is inflammation of the appendix, which is a piece of tissue attached to the large intestine.

Appendicitis affects 1 in 1,000 people in the U.S., usually those aged 10–30 years old.

The condition causes pain on the lower right-hand side of the abdomen. This tends to get worse over time and may occur alongside:

Surgery is usually necessary to remove the appendix.

12. Diverticulitis

Diverticulitis occurs when diverticula, which are bulging pouches that form in the gut’s lining, develop an infection or inflammation.

According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, these pouches may form in 35 percent of U.S. adults aged 50 and below, and in 58 percent of all people over the age of 60. However, most cases do not progress to diverticulitis.

Symptoms include:

  • constipation or diarrhea
  • fever or chills
  • nausea
  • stomach pain, which may be severe and persistent
  • vomiting

Mild cases typically clear up by taking antibiotics, resting, and making dietary changes. Severe cases may require surgical intervention.

Other causes

Stomach pain and chills may have other less common symptoms, including:

  • cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that causes organ damage
  • epididymitis, or inflammation of the epididymis, which is a coiled tube at the back of the testicles
  • heart attack, but only in rare cases
  • leukemia, a cancer of the blood and bone marrow
  • malaria, an infectious disease that mosquitoes carry
  • meningitis, or inflammation of membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord
  • pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas
  • peritonitis, or inflammation of the peritoneum tissue in the abdomen
  • scarlet fever, a bacterial illness
  • shingles, a viral infection similar to chickenpox
  • tuberculosis, a bacterial infection of the lungs
  • Weil’s disease, a bacterial infection often transmitted by rodents
  • yellow fever, an infection that mosquitoes carry

Stomach Flu (Gastroenteritis) : Symptoms, Causes & Diagnosis


What is stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

Gastroenteritis is inflammation (irritation) of your intestines. People usually call it a “stomach bug” or “stomach flu,” even though it’s not limited to just influenza. Although most people report stomach pain, gastroenteritis can also involve your small intestines and colon.

How common is stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

Stomach flu is common. More than 20 million people get sick each year in the U.S. with an intestinal upset. Viruses are the most common cause of stomach flu.

Who gets stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

Anyone can come down with stomach flu. But you’re more likely to get it if you’re in a place where lots of people share living or dining spaces, such as:

  • Children in daycare or at camp.
  • Nursing homes.
  • Students living in dormitories.
  • Military personnel.
  • Prisons.
  • Psychiatric wards.
  • Cruise-ship passengers.
  • Travelers to less-developed countries.
  • Anyone with immune compromised state.

Symptoms and Causes

What causes stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

You can get sick from bacteria, parasites, toxins and viruses. Viruses are the most common cause of so-called stomach flu. Norovirus is often the culprit for adults, while rotavirus is frequently to blame for stomach flu in children. These viruses mostly infect the lining of the small intestine.

What are the symptoms of stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

The main symptom of gastroenteritis is diarrhea. When the GI tract becomes infected during gastroenteritis, multiple activities from the virus brings on diarrhea. Malabsorption occurs because of the destruction of the gut cells called enterocytes. The virus can also disrupt the reasbsorption of water and induce secretory diarrhea, which is responsible for the loose liquidy stools.

Can stomach flu cause a fever?

You might get a fever when you have stomach flu. A fever can be a sign that your body is fighting an infection. You may feel sweaty, clammy or have the chills. You may also get a headache or ache all over your body.

Is the stomach flu worse in some people?

In general, most people recover quickly from the stomach flu. Symptoms can be worse in babies, young children, older adults or anyone of any age that is immune-compromised. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause dehydration (not enough water in the body) within just a short period of time, depending on the circumstances. Signs of dehydration include:

  • Extreme thirst.
  • Less urine output than usual (no wet diapers for three hours or more in infants).
  • Urine that is darker in color.
  • Sunken cheeks or eyes.
  • Lightheadedness, dizziness upon standing.
  • General weakness.

Why does stomach flu hit at night?

In some people, the stomach flu symptoms may be more pronounced at night due to their circadian rhythm. At night an increase in immune system activity releases infection-fighting chemicals. These can cause inflammation that make you feel worse as you battle your flu.

Is stomach flu (gastroenteritis) contagious?

Viral stomach flu spreads easily to others. You can catch a stomach flu virus any time of the year, but the common norovirus is more widespread from November to April when people tend to be more indoors. Because a variety of viruses can cause stomach flu, you might get different versions of gastroenteritis many times throughout life.

It’s spread from person to person by coming into contact with tiny, invisible particles from a sick person’s stool or vomit if you:

  • Touch a surface and come in contact with the germs and you touch food or your mouth.
  • Eat or drink food or beverages that have a sick person’s germs.
  • Have close contact with someone who has stomach flu (even if they have no symptoms).

Diagnosis and Tests

When should you see a doctor for stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

You’ll likely be able to fight off stomach flu virus without seeing a healthcare provider. If you have signs of dehydration (dark, infrequent/low urine output, dry mucous membranes, lightheadedness, dizziness, etc.), you should seek medical care right away. Also call your healthcare provider if you have:

  • High fever.
  • Bloody diarrhea.
  • Severe pain.
  • Symptoms that fail to improve/resolve over time.

How is stomach flu diagnosed?

Healthcare providers often can diagnose stomach flu from your symptoms. But your provider may want to rule out other illnesses with some tests:

  • Stool samples: Tests look for bacteria, viruses or parasites in your stool
  • Sigmoidoscopy: A doctor inserts a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera from the anus into the lower large intestine to look for signs of inflammatory bowel disease. The sigmoidoscopy is a 15-minute procedure that doesn’t usually require sedation.

Management and Treatment

How can I get rid of stomach flu (gastroenteritis)?

The most important things you can do to feel better faster are rest and staying well hydrated. Between diarrhea and vomiting, your body loses a lot of water and electrolytes. If your belly is still upset, you can take small, frequent sips of water, sports drinks, juice or broth, or chew on ice chips. It is important to know that water alone may not be enough to keep you hydrated in severe cases of diarrhea so make sure to take in electrolyte balance hydration (sports drinks, Gatorade®, Pedialyte®, etc). Eat a normal diet when you feel hungry again.


How can stomach flu (gastroenteritis) be prevented?

Since stomach flu can be caused by multiple factors, getting the flu vaccination alone isn’t enough to protect you from gastroenteritis. Children should follow the standard vaccination schedule and get the rotavirus vaccination when indicated. This vaccination can protect your child from getting sick from the rotovirus but not all children can receive this oral vaccination, so please check with your pediatrician before doing so.

You can take other steps to reduce your risk of getting stomach flu:

Practice good handwashing

When you’re sick, the virus spreads from anything that comes in contact with virus-infected feces. Good handwashing is vital in stopping the spread. Viruses left on hands can easily spread to surfaces, food and people you touch. It’s important to wash your hands well after you go to the bathroom, change a diaper, touch any bathroom surfaces and before you handle food.

Be careful with food

You can catch stomach flu from contaminated food or water, or pass it on to someone else. To keep viruses out of your food:

  • Clean kitchen surfaces with a disinfectant (cleaner that kills germs), especially when working with raw meat or eggs.
  • Keep raw meat, eggs and poultry away from foods that are eaten raw.
  • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat, eggs and shellfish.
  • Consume only pasteurized dairy products and apple juice. Pasteurization is a heating process that kills germs.
  • Rinse fruits and vegetables before eating.
  • Drink bottled water and avoid ice cubes when traveling, especially in developing countries. Unfamiliar germs that live in the water can make you sick.
  • · Stop making food for others when you’re sick and for two days after symptoms are gone.

Clean sick areas

Clean anything that you may have touched while you were sick with stomach flu. Wash laundry with hot water and dry with high heat. Be sure to use a disinfectant to clean areas where a sick person vomited or had diarrhea.

Outlook / Prognosis

How long does stomach flu last?

The stomach flu usually lasts less than a week. Be sure to stay home if you have symptoms, and continue to practice good handwashing afterward. The virus can still be in your stool for up to two weeks after you’ve stopped having symptoms, so be extra careful with your bathroom habits. Always wash your hands after having a bowel movement, and wash any soiled fabrics in hot soapy water.

Living With

What can I do at home to feel better?

Get plenty of rest and keep drinking lots of liquids until your symptoms pass. Drinks that have both sugar and salt (like sports drinks) help your intestine absorb fluids better and replace the lost electrolytes. Nibbling salty crackers along with ginger ale or a similar sweet drink could also help. Avoid dairy products like cow’s milk for one or two days — milk can make diarrhea worse due to temporary lactose intolerance that often come with gastroenteritis.

To control severe diarrhea, your healthcare provider may recommend an over-the-counter medication such bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol® or Kaopectate®). You shouldn’t use these medicines if you have a high fever or bloody diarrhea, which can be signs of deeper infection from bacteria or a parasite. Antidiarrheal medications aren’t safe for children to use. Instead, see your healthcare provider for treatment.

Nearly everyone gets a bout of stomach flu at some point. It’s not pleasant, but it usually passes in less than a week. Give yourself time to rest and recover before you go back to your daily activities. Fortunately you can take steps to avoid the likelihood of passing it on to others or picking it up again in the future.

Heart Attack Symptoms | Winneshiek Medical Center

Chances are, you a have a preconceived idea of what a heart patient looks like. And you may or may not fit your criteria. However, research shows that people with heart disease cannot be stereotyped – more simply, we could all suffer a heart attack no matter our age or perceived health status.

A heart attack is defined as part of the heart muscle dying because of lack of blood flow. How do you know if this is happening to your heart?

Heart Attack Symptoms (from MayoClinic.com):

  • Chest discomfort or pain – This discomfort or pain can feel like a tight ache, pressure, fullness or squeezing in the center of your chest lasting more than a few minutes. This discomfort may come and go.
  • Upper body pain – Pain or discomfort may spread beyond your chest to you shoulders, arms, back, neck, teeth or jaw. You may have upper body pain with no chest discomfort.
  • Stomach pain – Pain may extend downward into your abdominal area and may feel like heartburn.
  • Shortness of breath – You may pant for breath or try to take in deep breaths. This often occurs before you develop chest discomfort.
  • Anxiety – You may feel a sense of doom or feel as if you’re having a panic attack for no apparent reason.
  • Lightheadedness – You may feel dizzy or feel like you might pass out.
  • Sweating – You may suddenly break into a sweat with cold, clammy skin.
  • Nausea and vomiting – You may feel sick to your stomach or vomit.

Additional heart attack symptoms in women:

Women may have all, none, many or a few of the typical heart attack symptoms. For women, the most common heart attack symptom is still some type of pain, pressure or discomfort in the chest. But women are more likely than are men to also have heart attack symptoms without chest pain, such as:

  • Neck, jaw, shoulder, upper back or abdominal discomfort
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain or “heartburn”
  • Sweating
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Unusual or unexplained fatigue

There are no heart attack symptoms that are specific to women; however, women may be more likely to experience certain symptoms over others. The best advice? Be aware of all possible symptoms, and seek emergency care if you experience them. Better to be sent home from the emergency room with a diagnosis of severe indigestion than to experience a heart attack, having decided to stay home.

For more information on heart attacks in women, visit www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-attack-symptoms/HB00054.

Addison’s disease – Symptoms – NHS

Addison’s disease can be difficult to detect at first because early symptoms are similar to those of many other health conditions.

Initial symptoms of Addison’s disease can include:

  • overwhelming exhaustion and lack of energy
  • loss of appetite and unintentional weight loss
  • dizziness on standing
  • low blood pressure
  • patches of skin that are darker than the surrounding skin (hyperpigmentation)
  • craving salty foods
  • feeling and being sick
  • muscle weakness with cramps
  • abdominal pain
  • abnormal drowsiness or tiredness (lethargy)
  • low mood (mild depression) or irritability
  • a frequent need to pee
  • increased thirst
  • difficulty concentrating
  • headaches
  • a slight temperature

Some women with Addison’s disease may have irregular periods or miss periods completely. Women may also lose their pubic hair and the hair under their armpits.

Children with Addison’s disease may go through puberty later than usual.

Some people with Addison’s disease also develop low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia). This can cause symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, confusion, anxiety and even unconsciousness (particularly in children).

If you’re experiencing symptoms of Addison’s disease, see your GP so they can diagnose or rule out the condition. These symptoms will usually improve with appropriate treatment.

Read more about diagnosing Addison’s disease and treating Addison’s disease.

Adrenal crisis

If the levels of hormones produced by the adrenal gland become too low it can lead to a life-threatening situation known as an adrenal or Addisonian crisis. This can be triggered by severe physical stress like having an operation or having another illness like an infection.

During an adrenal crisis, the symptoms of Addison’s disease appear quickly and are severe. This could happen when you’re already experiencing initial symptoms or without any symptoms at all.

Signs of an adrenal crisis include:

  • severe dehydration
  • pale, cold, clammy skin
  • sweating
  • rapid, shallow breathing
  • dizziness
  • low blood pressure
  • severe vomiting and diarrhoea
  • abdominal pain or pain in the side
  • fatigue and severe muscle weakness
  • headache
  • severe drowsiness or loss of consciousness

An adrenal crisis is a medical emergency. If left untreated, it can be fatal. If you think you or someone you know with Addison’s disease is having an adrenal crisis, dial 999 for an ambulance.

If an adrenal crisis is not treated, it can lead to a coma and death. There’s also a risk your brain will not get enough oxygen if treatment is delayed, which can cause permanent disability.

Page last reviewed: 14 June 2018
Next review due: 14 June 2021

25 Subtle Signs You’ve Caught Coronavirus

With so much focus on the coronavirus, it’s easy to psych yourself out and think you’re infected when you feel the slightest headache coming on. Compare these subtle signs that you may have coronavirus to the symptoms you’re experiencing. Note: You don’t have to have all of these symptoms to be infected with coronavirus; please check with your medical provider to be sure. And if you want to be extra careful, click here for the longer, fuller list of the Sure Signs You’ve Already Had Coronavirus.


Like many other viruses, COVID-19 may completely zap your energy. If you’re feeling unusually tired, it may be a subtle sign that you’ve contracted the virus. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 44% to 70% of patients with coronavirus reported fatigue as a common symptom they experienced when they contracted the virus. If you simply stayed up late to binge watch your favorite show or you didn’t sleep well because you drank too much whiskey, your fatigue is explainable. If you can’t explain your full-body fatigue, cross-check it with the following symptoms of COVID-19.


The CDC reports a dry cough as a common symptom of coronavirus and 59% to 82% of patients diagnosed with the virus felt it coming on with a dry cough. According to Lisa Maragakis, M.D., M.P.H. from the Johns Hopkins Health System, the virus “travels to the back of your nasal passages and to the mucous membranes in the back of your throat.” This is what causes an instant dry cough as soon as you’re infected with the virus. Keep in mind, allergies may also cause a dry cough, so don’t jump to conclusions that you’ve been infected if this is the only symptom you experience. 


About 31% to 40% of diagnosed coronavirus patients experienced a shortness of breath. According to the Mayo Clinic, a shortness of breath can be described as an “intense tightening in the chest, air hunger, difficulty breathing, breathlessness, or a feeling of suffocation.” You may experience a shortness of breath when you’re exercising intensely or if you’re experiencing anxiety or a panic attack. However, if you can’t catch your breath and there’s no reason for it, you may have been infected with coronavirus.


A fever is the most common symptom for those diagnosed with coronavirus. 83% to 99% of COVID-19 patients report experiencing a fever. According to Harvard Medical School, you have a fever if your body temperature is 100.4° Fahrenheit or higher. You may also experience “chills, sweating, muscle aches, nausea, and weakness.” Your body develops a fever when it’s working hard to fight off an infection or inflammation. Your fever may be a sign that you have the flu or it may be a symptom of COVID-19. Call your doctor if you develop a fever so you can potentially get tested for the virus.


If you couldn’t smell your toast burning or coffee brewing this morning, it may be cause for concern. One of the most subtle symptoms associated with coronavirus is a loss of your sense of smell, also referred to as anosmia. This symptom was discovered by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery when doctors found that many who tested positive for the virus had lost their ability to smell. “In South Korea, where testing has been more widespread, 30% of patients testing positive have had anosmia as their major presenting symptom in otherwise mild cases.”


Pink eye, or conjunctivitis, may also be a sign of a coronavirus infection, although it’s rare. According to the American Academy of Ophthalmology, 1% to 3% of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 also had viral pink eye. 


Another subtle symptom that was common among coronavirus patients is nausea or diarrhea. A study published in The American Journal of Gastroenterology analyzed the symptoms of over 200 people who were diagnosed with COVID-19. About half of these patients claimed to experience stomach issues, including either diarrhea, nausea, or both. 


If you’re having trouble tasting your food, it may also be a sign of a respiratory or viral infection such as coronavirus. A loss in your sense of taste, called dysgeusia, is related to losing your sense of smell, which is also a newly diagnosed symptom of the virus. While it’s not a primary symptom of coronavirus, Dr. Rachel Kaye, an assistant professor of otolaryngology at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, claims many patients she saw who later tested positive for coronavirus were complaining that “everything tastes like cardboard.” 

Generally, sinus congestion or a runny nose are signs you’re dealing with allergies, a common cold, or a sinus infection. A runny nose is generally not a symptom of coronavirus in adults. However, this mild symptom may be more common in children infected with the virus. According to the CDC, “Children with confirmed COVID-19 have generally presented with mild symptoms. Reported symptoms in children include cold-like symptoms, such as fever, runny nose, and cough.”


Body aches and muscle soreness commonly accompany a fever. If you know you have a fever, it’s no surprise that you’re also feeling some muscle weakness. According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of patients diagnosed with coronavirus experienced body aches or joint pain. Your body aches could be a sign that you’re dealing with another illness, such as the flu, or that you’ve been infected with the virus. If it’s accompanied by other symptoms, such as a fever and dry cough, contact your doctor.


Overall, coronavirus symptoms are similar to what you’d experience if you caught the flu. According to Dr. Jake Duetsch, founder and clinical director at Cure Urgent Care, “In terms of differentiating between flu and COVID-19, it can be almost impossible to distinguish. Fevers, body aches, coughing, sneezing could all be equally attributed to them both, so it really means that if there’s a concern for flu, there’s a concern for COVID-19.” 


Sore throats are very common with any respiratory infections. Although unpleasant, they usually settle as the infection settles. Most sore throats don’t need any treatment. If your sore throat is especially bad, do ask a doctor to check it out in case you have tonsillitis for example.

RELATED: Everything Dr. Fauci Has Said About Coronavirus


Around half of all people infected with COVID-19 have digestive symptoms; 18% present with diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain. Usually, this is just up to three loose stools per day. 


COVID patients around the world are suffering from a condition known as deep vein thrombosis. “Blood clots can form in the veins deep in the limbs, a condition called deep vein thrombosis or DVT,” explains the American Heart Association about the condition usually impacting the deep veins of the legs. “A blood clot in a deep vein can break off and travel through the bloodstream. If the clot travels to the lungs and blocks blood flow, the condition is called pulmonary embolism.”


Blood clotting is dangerous mostly due to the simple fact that it can cut off the blood flow in your body. Some patients, including Broadway actor Nick Cordero, are forced to undergo amputation as a result of “thrombotic events.” One recent study published in Thrombosis Research found that 31 percent of 184 patients suffered thrombotic complications. One of the first signs you are experiencing blood clots is if your limbs or fingers start feeling any pain, numbness, or experience any swelling.  


Dr. Alisa Femia, director of inpatient dermatology and a specialist in autoimmune connective tissue disease at NYU Langone, is just one of the many physicians who have reported skin manifestations—including strange rashes and discoloration—amongst coronavirus patients. In fact, the American Academy of Dermatology is keeping a symptom registry in order to record, research, and hopefully be able to explain why the virus manifests itself in the skin. Dr. Femia recently noted to Time that some preliminary research implies blood-flow issues may be behind these bizarre skin conditions. 


Some younger coronavirus patients have reported swollen, discolored lesions on their toes, a condition medical experts have dubbed “COVID toes.” Experts believe that the inflammatory condition is a result of blood clots. “It’s possible that this is a skin reaction or caused by a small clog or micro clots in the blood vessels found in the toes,” Cleveland Clinic pulmonologist Dr. Humberto Choi explained in a blog post on the medical center’s website. 


A headache is one of the official COVID-19 symptoms listed by the CDC, along with fever and chills, a dry cough, shortness of breath and others. Broadway actor Danny Burstein suffered coronavirus and wrote about the trauma: “My friend described the headaches like a hammer inside his head that was trying to chip its way out. That’s an understatement.”

At least four percent of COVID-19 patients studied by the University of Cincinnati had dizziness. This may be caused by lower levels of oxygen reaching your brain.

If you experience “a change in intellectual, emotional, psychological, and personality functioning, typically accompanied by behavioral changes,” as defined by ACP Hospitalist, you may have “encephalopathy,” a catch-all term for a disease that affects the brain. One real-life example: A COVID-19 patient, a female airline worker, reported the New York Times, “was confused, and complained of a headache; she could tell the physicians her name but little else, and became less responsive over time. Brain scans showed abnormal swelling and inflammation in several regions, with smaller areas where some cells had died.”


When your heart is having trouble working, it takes more effort for it to pump blood. You’ll also feel anxious. Hence the increased sweat.


This can be a sign of an irregular heartbeat—as can a racing heartbeat or a slow heartbeat, along with chest pain or shortness of breath. Not to mention, “Some of the medications utilized to treat COVID-19″—like hydroxychloroquine—”also have potential cardiac complications” related to your heartbeat, says the new research.


One sign of a blood clot is swelling in the leg—but usually not both legs.


With a blood clot, “the pain often starts in your calf and can feel like cramping or soreness,” says the Mayo Clinic.


Indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain are symptoms of COVID-19, but also of a heart attack.


Dr. Deborah Lee, who is a medical writer at Dr Fox Online Pharmacy, warns: “Look out for these emergency warning signs* for COVID-19. If someone is showing any of these signs, seek emergency medical care immediately

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion
  • Inability to wake or stay awake
  • Bluish lips or face.”

*This list is not all possible symptoms. Please call your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning to you—and to get through this pandemic at your healthiest, don’t miss these 37 Places You’re Most Likely to Catch Coronavirus.

Acute Nausea and Vomiting – What You Need to Know

  1. CareNotes
  2. Acute Nausea and Vomiting

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What is acute nausea and vomiting?

Acute nausea and vomiting starts suddenly, gets worse quickly, and lasts a short time.

What are some common causes of acute nausea and vomiting?

  • Food poisoning
  • Large amounts of alcohol
  • Certain medicines, too much of any medicine, or stopping a regular medicine too quickly
  • Early stages of pregnancy
  • Infection in the stomach, intestines, or other organs
  • Trauma to the head
  • Anxiety or stress
  • Gastroparesis (a condition that prevents your stomach from emptying properly)
  • Metabolic disorders, such as uremia or adrenal insufficiency

What causes acute nausea and vomiting with stomach pain?

  • Inflammation of the appendix, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, kidneys, or other organs
  • Gallstones
  • Bacteria or a parasite in the digestive system
  • Heart attack
  • Stomach ulcers, or bowel blockage or twisting

What causes acute nausea and vomiting with other signs and symptoms?

You may be sweating and have pale skin, problems with digestion, and more saliva than usual. These signs and symptoms may be caused by the following:

  • Problems with your heart rate, blood flow to your heart muscle, blood pressure, or stomach fluid
  • Increased pressure or bleeding in the brain
  • Swelling of the tissue covering the brain
  • Migraine or seizures
  • Inner ear disorders that cause problems with balance

How is the cause of acute nausea and vomiting diagnosed?

Your healthcare provider will examine you and ask about your medical history. Tell your provider about other signs and symptoms you have. Also tell your provider when you last had nausea and vomiting and how long it continued. Include if it happened before, during, or after a meal, and how much you ate. Your provider will need to know how much came out when you vomited, and if it was fast and forceful. Tell your provider if your vomit smelled like bowel movement or had blood or food in it. Tell your provider if the vomit was bright yellow. You may need any of the following:

  • Blood tests may be used to check for infection or inflammation.
  • X-ray, CT, or MRI pictures may be used to find an injury or blockage.

How may acute nausea and vomiting be treated?

The first goal of treatment for nausea and vomiting is to prevent or treat dehydration. Treatment also depends on the cause of the nausea and vomiting. Any medical condition causing your nausea and vomiting will also be treated. Treatment is also aimed at stopping or preventing your signs and symptoms. You may need one or more of the following:

  • Medicines may be given to calm your stomach and stop your vomiting. You may also need medicines to help you feel more relaxed or to stop nausea and vomiting caused by motion sickness. Gastrointestinal stimulants may be used to help empty your stomach and bowels. This can help decrease your nausea and vomiting.
  • IV fluids may be given to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. This may be needed it you cannot drink liquids.
  • Nasogastric (NG) tube: An NG tube is put into your nose, and passes down your throat until it reaches your stomach. Food and medicine may be given through an NG tube if you cannot take anything by mouth. The tube may instead be attached to suction if healthcare providers need to keep your stomach empty.

What can I do to prevent or manage acute nausea and vomiting?

  • Do not drink alcohol. Alcohol may upset or irritate your stomach. Too much alcohol can also cause acute nausea and vomiting.
  • Control stress. Headaches due to stress may cause nausea and vomiting. Find ways to relax and manage your stress. Get more rest and sleep.
  • Drink more liquids as directed. Vomiting can lead to dehydration. It is important to drink more liquids to help replace lost body fluids. Ask your healthcare provider how much liquid to drink each day and which liquids are best for you. Your provider may recommend that you drink an oral rehydration solution (ORS). ORS contains water, salts, and sugar that are needed to replace the lost body fluids. Ask what kind of ORS to use, how much to drink, and where to get it.
  • Eat smaller meals, more often. Eat small amounts of food every 2 to 3 hours, even if you are not hungry. Food in your stomach may decrease your nausea.
  • Talk to your healthcare provider before you take over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. These medicines can cause serious problems if you use certain other medicines, or you have a medical condition. You may have problems if you use too much or use them for longer than the label says. Follow directions on the label carefully.

When should I seek immediate care?

  • You see blood in your vomit or your bowel movements.
  • You have sudden, severe pain in your chest and upper abdomen after hard vomiting or retching.
  • You have swelling in your neck and chest.
  • You are dizzy, cold, and thirsty, and your eyes and mouth are dry.
  • You are urinating very little or not at all.
  • You have muscle weakness, leg cramps, and trouble breathing.
  • Your heart is beating much faster than normal.
  • You continue to vomit for more than 48 hours.

When should I contact my healthcare provider?

  • You have frequent dry heaves (vomiting but nothing comes out).
  • Your nausea and vomiting does not get better or go away after you use medicine.
  • You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.

Care Agreement

You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your healthcare providers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.

© Copyright IBM Corporation 2021 Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes. All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or IBM Watson Health

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Dumping Syndrome Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Examination

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  • 90,000 Myocardial Infarction Symptoms – Obvious to Unusual

    Myocardial infarction always presents with severe chest pain. If it doesn’t hurt, then there is no danger – but is it really so? According to the average statistics, typical anginal pain (pressing, squeezing behind the sternum in the region of the heart) appears in approximately 70% of patients. Think about this figure. This means that about a third of heart attack cases do not occur in the classic form – and time for assistance may be lost.

    What you need to know about pain in myocardial infarction
    Pain can manifest itself in different ways:

    1. Classic, or anginal variant.This is pain localized in the chest region (in the region of the heart)
    2. Atypical, or peripheral variant. The patient is worried about pain in the scapula, left arm; a heart attack in the initial period of development can be mistaken for osteochondrosis or confused with heartburn due to discomfort in the upper thoracic spine
    3. Atypical, or non-classical variant. This is pain in the abdomen, left and / or right hypochondrium, lower back. There are cases when the throat or ear, lower jaw and teeth are sore

    Patients with myocardial infarction describe the pain as burning, pressing, squeezing, tearing, bursting or pulling.Often there is irradiation, or the return of chest pain to other areas of the body: shoulder, scapula or interscapular region, neck, hand and fingers, left half of the head.

    The pain can be erased, muted (this is typical for patients with diabetes mellitus or elderly people, as well as with repeated heart attacks) or so severe that the patient cannot find a place for himself, groans, screams.

    Myocardial infarction pain lasts longer than 20 minutes.

    It can be constant or wave-like, dying down or growing – but long-term preservation makes it possible to suspect a heart attack, distinguishing it from another probable cause of a painful attack – angina pectoris.

    A typical picture of a heart attack
    The most striking symptom is pain – and, as you already know, it can manifest itself in different ways both in the area of ​​localization and in intensity.

    Companions of pain in myocardial infarction:

    • fear of death
    • agitation and anxiety
    • shortness of breath
    • severe weakness
    • dizziness
    • cold sticky sweat on the skin
    • instability of blood pressure increases (then and then falls) (it increases, then slows down)

    Probable, but not required, signs – bloating and upset stools.Many people complain of a feeling of numbness in the arms and legs, a feeling of freezing.

    Atypical forms of heart attack
    In most cases, they are observed in people over 60 years old, as well as in patients with diabetes mellitus and / or hypertension, already previously suffered from a heart attack.

    Thus, asthmatic is the most common among atypical forms. The leading symptom is difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, reaching the point of suffocation. There may be a cough with pinkish, frothy expectoration. Very often, these signs precede the onset of severe chest pain or occur simultaneously with it.

    Another difficult option for diagnosis is gastralgic (abdominal, abdominal). The patient has a stomach ache and swollen, there is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea – symptoms that make you think about problems with the digestive system, and not about a heart attack.

    It is worth remembering that with a heart attack, the body temperature can rise – up to 38-38.5 degrees Celsius.

    Sometimes there is a symptom complex:

    • headache
    • dizziness
    • nausea, vomiting
    • darkening in the eyes
    • darkening and loss of consciousness

    This form is called cerebral (cerebral).Symptoms can distract from the diagnosis of a heart attack, giving rise to suspicion of another emergency condition – acute cerebrovascular accident (stroke).

    Combined options are not excluded – when classic symptoms and signs of different atypical forms are combined with each other.

    Heart attack without pain – is it real?
    Not everyone knows about this, but there is a so-called painless form of myocardial damage. Sometimes they speak of it as a “dumb heart” – after all, pain, in addition to unpleasant experiences, has a protective function, becoming a signal to the body about the need for help.

    This is a special variant of the course of coronary heart disease, when the violation of blood flow in the coronary vessels is not accompanied by a feeling of pain, pressure, burning sensation behind the breastbone. A person is unaware of the pathology – and at some point, for example, with excessive physical exertion, stress, oxygen starvation of the heart muscle becomes critical, a heart attack develops.

    No pain does not mean no symptoms at all. Firstly, even if she is not at the initial stage of the development of a heart attack, she can join later.

    Secondly, as the pathological process progresses, a person feels weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath and other signs characteristic of acute heart failure.

    What form of myocardial infarction is more dangerous?
    Although atypical forms are less common than the classical variant, they are equally dangerous. The term “atypical” is used to emphasize unusual symptoms; it does not reflect the severity of the process.

    One should not overlook such a factor as the timeliness of seeking medical help.A heart attack can overtake suddenly, in the midst of seemingly complete health – or come after a pre-infarction state (also called unstable angina pectoris), lasting hours, days or even weeks.

    After myocardial infarction, each patient is shown rehabilitation – its duration depends on the severity of the condition.

    Rehabilitation is just as important as emergency medical care. Myocardial infarction is called a cardiac accident for a reason.This is a critical condition that can recur if the patient is not treated.

    Rehabilitation in the “Consilium” allows you to improve your well-being, returning the patient to a feeling of fullness of life – and in addition, to train a weakened heart, reduce the need for drugs and reduce the risk to health in the future.

    Why stomach pain and what to do about it

    Most often, stomach pain is not dangerous and goes away by itself within a couple of hours. At this time, you need to refuse food or limit yourself to light snacks (for example, a banana or a crouton), drink water, lie down.

    Just watch your well-being. If it does not feel better for you, and especially if the pain intensifies and acquires new symptoms, this may indicate a serious illness. You may need medical attention.

    When to call an ambulance

    Immediately call 103 if the abdominal pain is severe, acute, or lingering (lasts longer than a few minutes). The danger of such a condition increases if it appeared after a blow to the abdomen or if at least one of the additional symptoms is present.

    • Burning, tightness in the chest.
    • A sharp rise in temperature.
    • Signs of shock : tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), low blood pressure, cold clammy sweat, confusion.
    • Incessant nausea and vomiting, especially if blood is present in the vomit.
    • Abdominal distension.
    • Constipation or inability to release gases.
    • Black or bloody stools.
    • Yellowing of the skin.
    • Swelling in the abdomen.
    • A sharp increase in sensitivity: even the slightest touch on the abdomen causes a new attack of pain.
    • Forced position: the patient can only be in a certain position. Most often – on the side, with the knees tucked into the stomach.

    These symptoms can be signs of a life-threatening condition such as massive internal bleeding, peritonitis, or heart attack.

    When to see a doctor

    If pain, even if not very severe, persists after a few hours, contact your doctor.Such persistent discomfort can manifest itself, for example, developing appendicitis.

    It is also urgent to consult a doctor if :

    • pain increases;
    • Pain or bloating does not stop or recurs over and over day after day;
    • the urge to urinate began to appear much more often or less often than before;
    • it hurts when urinating;
    • You are a woman and have bloody or unusually heavy vaginal discharge;
    • diarrhea, which is accompanied by pain, does not go away within a couple of days;
    • The pain appeared against the background of the fact that recently you have been inexplicably losing weight.

    What not to do if your stomach hurts

    Here are some common mistakes that can be deadly.

    1. Make a diagnosis on your own, if you are not a doctor

    Dangerous diseases manifest themselves in different people in different ways: sometimes the symptoms are bright, and maybe even blurry, almost imperceptible. Only a professional doctor can determine the cause of lingering abdominal pain. Often this requires additional tests: blood, urine, ultrasound of the abdominal organs.

    2. Focus on the strength of pain

    “Yes, it hurts, but not much, it’s okay …” – this is the most dangerous delusion. The severity of pain has nothing to do with the complexity of the disease. For example, harmless gas in the intestines or relatively harmless intestinal flu can present with severe cutting pain. But really dangerous conditions (colon cancer or developing appendicitis) often make themselves felt only with mild discomfort.

    3. Apply a heating pad to the abdomen

    In principle, this is a common recommendation , which in some cases can really help.But you can make a warm compress only after consulting a doctor who will establish the cause of the ailment.

    In case of appendicitis and other inflammatory processes, do not use a heating pad ! Under the influence of heat, inflammation will begin to develop even more rapidly.

    4. Taking pain relievers, especially repeatedly

    In some cases – for example, if abdominal pain is associated with menstruation, OTC pain relievers can really help. But if you have not yet established the cause of the pain, it is still not worth taking drugs based on paracetamol or ibuprofen .They irritate the gastric mucosa, which is why the discomfort may only worsen.

    Re-use of painkillers is generally beyond good and evil. This means that the pain is severe enough for several hours, and you still have not consulted a doctor. Run to a specialist!

    Why does the stomach hurt

    It is sometimes difficult to answer this question exactly even for doctors . In about a third of patients, the cause of the ailment cannot be established at all .

    And all because there are a lot of options. The pain can even be psychogenic, that is, caused by stress or the psychological state of the patient.

    That is why it is so important not to engage in self-diagnosis, but to go to the doctor with alarming symptoms. The specialist will assess your well-being, take into account your lifestyle, eating habits, events that preceded the onset of pain. And also pay attention to the additional factors , which play an important role in the diagnosis.

    Where exactly the stomach hurts

    The abdominal cavity contains many internal organs and tissues.The intestines, stomach, liver, kidneys, gallbladder and bladder, uterus in women, as well as blood vessels and muscles covering the stomach can hurt. And sometimes the problem is not in them at all, but, for example, in the heart – then they talk about radiating (reflected) pain.

    To narrow down the possible diagnostic options, pain is divided into two types :

    • Generalized. This means that you feel discomfort in more than half of your abdomen. Generalized pain is characteristic of indigestion, flatulence, and rotavirus infections.
    • Localized. They talk about such pain if it manifests itself at a specific point where you can point your finger. As a rule, this is how a disease or malfunction of an organ located in this place makes itself felt.

    Find out more 🩺

    How the stomach hurts

    The pain can be sudden and severe, or it can be an unpleasant pulling sensation that appears only sporadically – for example, you notice it every few days.The nature of pain is also associated with specific diseases and disorders.

    For example, infections and kidney stones, cystitis (inflammation of the bladder), pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) often make themselves felt with acute pain. And the episodic pulling, which sometimes grows over time, manifests itself as chronic hepatitis, endometriosis, gastritis, inguinal hernia, irritable bowel syndrome, cancer.

    Symptoms other than abdominal pain

    Additional symptoms are not always present.And if they do exist, then they can be present both individually and in different combinations. Here are some common options.

    • Temperature. As a rule, an acute inflammatory reaction makes itself felt with fever. It can be caused by an infectious disease (for example, intestinal flu) or an exacerbation of some pathological process: appendicitis, hepatitis, colitis and others.
    • Nausea. This combination of symptoms often occurs with poisoning and intestinal infections.
    • Diarrhea (constipation). This indicates a very likely malfunction of the intestines. They can be caused by indigestion, an unbalanced diet, insufficient fluid intake, and other factors.
    • Bursting sensation. Perhaps you just have flatulence – an excess of gas in the intestines.
    • Unexplained weight loss. A dangerous combination of symptoms that can indicate oncological processes.

    What are the most common causes of abdominal pain

    Here are some of the options that are most common.

    1. Dyspepsia

    Translated from Latin, this is “indigestion.” Or just indigestion. Dyspepsia usually occurs when a person has eaten something unsuitable, such as too fatty or spicy food.

    The stomach aches with indigestion, usually in the upper part. In addition, belching, flatulence and diarrhea may appear. Fortunately, indigestion goes away on its own within a couple of hours.

    2. Flatulence

    Flatulence is often a symptom of other disorders, the same digestive disorder or, for example, irritable bowel syndrome.But it can also occur separately: for example, if a person swallowed air while eating or went too far with the use of carbonated drinks.

    When the excess gas leaves the digestive tract, the pain caused by flatulence will go away. But remember: if it is strong, acute and protracted, or if the pain attacks simply repeat day after day, a doctor’s consultation is required.

    3. Constipation

    Pain with constipation, as a rule, makes itself felt in the lower abdomen. This is a common situation.In most cases – in the absence of acute or lingering pain – constipation is not associated with dangerous diseases. And, to alleviate the condition, it is enough to drink more water or take an over-the-counter laxative (it would be more correct to consult a therapist or gastroenterologist before buying).

    4. Painful menstruation

    Many women experience a pulling pain in the lower abdomen shortly before and during menstruation. As a rule, this discomfort lasts no longer than a few hours and is quite tolerable.And if anything, OTC pain relievers help to cope with it.

    But if the pills do not work, and the pain drags on and spoils life, you need to contact a gynecologist. Painful periods can be a symptom of a number of diseases – endometriosis, cystitis, fibroids, fibroids and other tumors of the uterus, as well as inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs.

    5. Gastroenteritis

    According to some reports, this is the most common cause of abdominal pain, with which people seek medical attention.Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach or intestines. Rotavirus infection (intestinal flu) is one popular example of this condition.

    Rotating abdominal pain caused by gastroenteritis, accompanied by fever, diarrhea and vomiting. Treatment is symptomatic: patients are advised to drink more and rest. In most cases, the body copes with the same intestinal flu in a few days.

    But let us remind you again: only a doctor can diagnose and prescribe treatment! This is important because the symptoms of gastroenteritis can hide much more dangerous diseases.

    6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

    This chronic disease is poorly understood by science, but it occurs quite often. Up to 13% of all patients who visit doctors for abdominal pain suffer from irritable bowel syndrome.

    This diagnosis can be assumed if discomfort in the abdomen appears regularly for several months and is accompanied by flatulence, diarrhea, constipation, and bouts of unexplained nausea.

    Pills for IBS do not exist, and its exact cause is difficult to establish: it may be nutrition, malfunctioning of the immune system, genetics, and even the psychological state of the patient. Therefore, in each case, the doctor offers treatment individually. For example, someone will be helped by a correction of the diet, while someone will be advised to drink antidepressants or undergo a course of psychotherapy.

    7. Urinary tract infections (UTI)

    It is about inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis), bladder (cystitis) or urethra (urethritis).UTIs present with pain in the lower abdomen or lumbar region and are often accompanied by additional symptoms such as burning when urinating and blood in the urine.

    8. Acute cholecystitis

    This is the name of the inflammation of the gallbladder. It can be caused by infection or stones in the bile ducts.

    Acute cholecystitis manifests itself as a sharp, unbearable pain in the upper abdomen on the right (right hypochondrium). Sometimes such sensations occur under the right shoulder blade.Also among the symptoms are fever, cold sweat, nausea and vomiting.

    If there is pain in the right hypochondrium, but not sharp, but slight, sore, this is also a serious reason to visit a therapist or gastroenterologist. So stones in the gallbladder or problems with the liver located right there make themselves felt.

    9. Diverticulitis

    Diverticula are small bumps that appear on the surface of the intestine. They appear more often in older people. It is believed that the main cause of diverticulitis is a long-term lack of fiber in the diet.

    Often diverticular disease does not manifest itself in any way. But in some people, diverticula regularly become inflamed and have palpable pain in the lower abdomen. To reduce the discomfort, the gastroenterologist may prescribe pain relievers or antibiotics. And in any case, he will recommend that you carefully monitor your well-being: sometimes diverticula burst, intestinal contents enter the abdominal cavity, and this leads to the development of deadly peritonitis.

    10. Appendicitis

    Inflammation of the small appendix of the cecum is very dangerous.The appendix can burst, and this again leads to peritonitis.

    Most often, the first symptom of appendicitis is a slight pulling pain in the navel or right lower abdomen. It happens that it gives off to the thigh, which is why a person can drag his right leg a little. Symptoms increase gradually, sometimes over several hours, or even days: the temperature rises, nausea, weakness, and pallor appear. This continues until the appendix bursts, and only here, at the very threshold of peritonitis, the painful sensations become acute and unbearable.

    Therefore, we repeat once again: in no case should you ignore the lingering pain in the abdomen, even if it seems to you bearable. Be sure to consult with a therapist as soon as possible. It could save your life.

    This material was first published in June 2018. In July 2020, we updated the text.

    Read also 🩺💉💊

    Coronavirus: what is this dangerous syndrome found in British children and how is it related to Covid-19?

    • Michelle Roberts
    • BBC News online

    Photo author, Getty Images

    British physicians are urged to pay attention to a rare but very dangerous syndrome in children that may be associated with coronavirus …

    An emergency alert sent to British family physicians says that children are being admitted to intensive care units in London and other cities in the country in very serious condition and with unusual symptoms, which include multiple inflammations with signs of flu.

    At the same time, some, although not all sick children, tested positive for coronavirus.

    It is not yet known exactly how many children showed such a reaction, but most likely there will be few of them.

    According to the head of the National Health Service (NHS) England Stephen Powys, the authorities are aware of rare cases of severe illness among children.

    “Reports about this began to arrive only in recent days, and we have already turned to specialists so that they urgently study this issue,” Powis assured.

    The NHS statement expresses growing concern that children are developing coronavirus-related inflammatory syndrome or that it may be another infection, the nature of which has not yet been determined.

    Meanwhile, all sick children of different ages are in extremely serious condition. Their symptoms are similar to the so-called toxic shock syndrome, which is characterized by high fever, low blood pressure, rash, and difficulty breathing.

    Some children also show signs of gastrointestinal upset – abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea – as well as inflammation of the heart muscle and negative changes in the composition of the blood.

    According to experts, all these signs are observed when the body is overstrained, which is trying to fight infection.

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    Video caption,

    “Defeat the huge coronavirus!” How children see life in a pandemic

    The recommendation to physicians says that all such cases require urgent medical attention.

    At the same time, experts emphasize that very few children are seriously ill with coronavirus. According to data from all over the world, it is this category of the population that suffers the least from this infection.

    Cambridge Pediatric Intensive Care Consultant Dr. Nazima Patan points out that doctors in Italy and Spain are reporting similar symptoms in children in these countries.

    “Some children had signs of toxic shock and a rash, which is exactly what is usually seen with toxic shock syndrome or Kawasaki disease (which affects the blood vessels and heart),” says Dr. Patan. “But in general, children are better resistance to serious lung infection caused by coronavirus and the number of pediatric patients admitted to intensive care units is relatively small. “

    Fewer than 20 of these cases are known to the NHS in England, and although investigations into the link between the syndrome and the coronavirus are ongoing, no link has yet been established.

    The Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) believes this should reassure parents, but if they are concerned about their child’s health for any reason, they should seek immediate medical attention.

    As noted by Professor Simon Kenny, who is in charge of children’s health in the national NHS system, the advice to parents remains the same: if you are concerned about something, immediately call the dedicated hotline, your family doctor or directly to the emergency room, and if the doctors tell you go to the hospital – go there immediately.

    What should you pay special attention to?

    Photo author, Getty Images

    Although children can in principle be infected with the coronavirus, most of them are unlikely to have a serious illness. A child’s poor health is more likely to mean a cold or the common flu, not a coronavirus.

    However, RCPCH recommends that you immediately call an ambulance or take the child to the hospital yourself in the following cases:

    • The child has turned pale, blotchy and unusually cold to the touch
    • Pauses between breaths, breathes unevenly, or begins to wheeze
    • breathing, he is restless or faints
    • His lips turn blue
    • Cramps or seizures occur
    • Is in a distinctly distressing state (cries non-stop despite attempts to distract him), disoriented, overly sleepy (difficult to wake up) or not reacts to external stimuli
    • He has a rash that does not disappear when pressed (if, for example, pressing on the skin with the wall of a glass)
    • Experiencing pain in the scrotum, especially in the case of a teenager

    One of the main methods of controlling the spread the coronavirus is social distancing: quarantine.This is how it works.

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    Why should we stay at home? Simple Answer

    If you don’t have a sanitizer, you can make one at home.

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    Antiseptic is in short supply. How to make it at home?

    And, of course, it is important to keep clean not only your hands, but also your smartphone.Here are the instructions:

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    How to wash your smartphone and not ruin it

    Moscow Health Department – 7 reasons to call an emergency room for a child

    Hello, Ambulance? 7 reasons to call an “ambulance” for a child

    Urgently call “03” or wait any longer? – the parents of a sick child are often hesitant.Doctors are convinced: in such cases it is always better to “overdo it”

    Our expert is an assistant at the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, a surgeon at the Department of Emergency Surgery of the N.F. Filatov Children’s City Clinical Hospital, candidate of medical sciences Maxim Golovanev.

    You should go to the emergency room in the following situations:

    If the child complains of abdominal pain and at the same time he has severe vomiting and / or diarrhea mixed with blood.

    In case of acute abdominal pain, the child lies in an uncomfortable, forced position or walks, hunched over.

    Probable causes: trauma to internal organs, acute appendicitis or peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum), intestinal infections, poisoning, including drug poisoning, acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Do not give an enema or give any medication.

    If the child has severe vomiting, which is not accompanied by diarrhea. The presence of temperature in such cases is unimportant. Vomit is greenish or contains traces of blood, mucus.

    Probable causes: botulism, appendicitis, poisoning, including drug poisoning, some infectious diseases, intestinal damage or obstruction, concussion, meningitis.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Children are placed on their side so that in case of sudden vomiting, the secreted masses are not thrown into the upper respiratory tract. Completely exclude drinking and feeding until an accurate diagnosis is established.

    If the high temperature does not decrease after taking antipyretics or lasts more than three days.

    Probable causes: influenza, SARS, infectious diseases (including serious ones), heat stroke, poisoning with toxic substances.

    There is no clear relationship between the temperature of a child’s body and the severity of the disease. But babies at temperatures above 38.0–38.5 ° C must be called an ambulance.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Give the child a drink at room temperature – preferably boiled water, undress it, wipe it off with a damp towel. Remove the diaper from the baby.Change your baby to dry clothes if he sweats a lot.

    If your child has black stools and an unusual consistency, or you notice blood in the stool. Remember if you gave your child drugs that can cause a similar effect (activated charcoal and iron supplements, bismuth), or food (beets or treats with artificial colors) that is intensely red.

    Probable causes: peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, dysentery, polyps and fissures of the rectum.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Do not give an enema or give any medication.

    If a child has dry lips and tongue, urine flow stops, he cries, but without tears, he has sunken eyes, and the baby’s fontanel is a little squeezed.

    Probable causes: dehydration. Occurs with frequent diarrhea or vomiting. With angina, when it hurts the child to swallow and he drinks little, with heatstroke.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Give the child a sip, with pauses to prevent vomiting.

    Hydration solution: 0.5 tsp salt, 1 tsp. soda, 4-8 tsp. sugar per 1 liter of water. You can add 150-200 ml of any juice as a source of potassium. It is enough for a child under two years old to give 50-100 ml of this liquid after each bowel movement, for older children – 100-200 ml. If vomiting occurs, continue to drink 1 teaspoon every 2-3 minutes.

    If the child has difficulty (noisy, hoarse, intermittent) breathing, which lasts more than half an hour.

    Probable causes: asthma attack, swallowed foreign body, allergic edema, pneumonia, pleurisy.

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    Provide your baby with fresh air – put it on warmly and open the window, you can take it out to the balcony. Drink warm boiled water or sweet tea. If you cannot rule out the presence of a foreign body in the respiratory tract, you should refrain from drinking.

    If a child has unreasonable aggression or, conversely, excessive sleepiness, confusion of consciousness, convulsions (rhythmic jerking of the head or other parts of the body), the behavior differs sharply from usual.If he went to bed after falling and after an hour you cannot wake him up, if the child is sick …

    Probable reasons: brain contusion, high temperature, accidental intake of psychotropic drugs, household chemicals, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) or inflammation of the lining of the brain brain (meningitis).

    What to do before the doctor arrives?

    In case of seizures, do not give the child food and drink – he may choke. Lay the baby down, provide him with peace. If the child is already large, ask him to understand what caused this condition.


    Twists, cuts and whines? When abdominal pain cannot be ignored

    There is no such person who has not had a stomach ache at least once in his life. There can be many reasons, sometimes just one unwashed fruit or vegetable is enough. But, as Svetlana Dyatlova, a physician at one of the private medical centers in the capital, told the correspondent of the Minsk-Novosti agency, there are also several types of abdominal pain that can be a sign of a serious health problem and should not be ignored.

    – Belarusians as a whole are such people that it is better for them to be patient, intercepting a couple of tablets of activated carbon. And then, after a week of torment, a person goes to the hospital with acute appendicitis or worse, – the doctor shares his observations. – Therefore, I want to tell you about those cases when the visit to the doctor cannot be postponed in any case.

    1) The pain does not go away for a long time

    Any chronic stomach discomfort, that is, persistent or intermittent pain that lasts three months or longer, requires a visit to the doctor.Especially if you have symptoms such as diarrhea, constipation, pain after eating, feeling full after a few bites, bloating and gas.

    These conditions can be caused by anything from irritable bowel syndrome or lactose intolerance to something more serious. For example, gastroparesis, a condition in which the stomach does not empty properly.

    – It is important to see a doctor to rule out anything more serious, such as inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease.As soon as the doctor finds out what the problem is, you can make the correct diagnosis and prescribe the appropriate treatment, – S. Dyatlova notes.

    2) Pain accompanied by nausea or vomiting

    This pain can occur for a number of reasons. It can be an intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal infections, inflammation, kidney stones, ruptured ovarian cysts, ulcers, or even a heart attack. In such cases, it is better to call an ambulance immediately.

    Of course, sometimes the cause of nausea is simple overeating or food poisoning, in which case it goes away within a day or two. But it is necessary to see a doctor if the pain in the abdomen increases over time and at the same time the body temperature rises.

    3) Pain accompanied by blood in the stool

    Blood in the stool is often a very bad sign. However, keep in mind that the blood in your stool is not always red – it can also be black caked, which often indicates bleeding somewhere higher in the digestive tract, such as the stomach.Gastrointestinal bleeding can occur for a variety of reasons, including colitis, diverticulosis, hemorrhoids, bleeding stomach ulcers, and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Certain foods (such as blueberries or beets) and medications (such as those containing iron or bismuth) can also cause discoloration of stool.

    4) The pain is sudden and severe

    Specific and localized, shooting, paroxysmal pain may indicate stones in the gallbladder or in the kidneys.

    One of the causes of acute pain is appendicitis. Severe pain can also be caused by an ulcer, pancreatitis, or a blockage in the bile ducts.

    In any case, you should consult a doctor – in some cases, an operation may be required.

    5) Pain accompanied by unexplained weight loss

    Unexpected weight loss, of course, can bring joy to some of the fair sex. But if it is accompanied by abdominal pain, it can be a harbinger of very serious diseases such as cancer, chronic pancreatitis and others.

    6) Pain with fever

    If you are experiencing stomach discomfort and your body temperature is higher than normal, this could indicate an infection. Cold sweats, clouding of thoughts are serious reasons to see a doctor.

    – After all, you know your body better than anyone. If you think that something is wrong – even if you are not sure if it is serious – it is always better to seek qualified medical help than to search for your symptoms and their explanation on the Internet, – S.Dyatlov.

    90,000 The doctor told about the ways to combat alcohol poisoning | News | Izvestia

    Activated carbon is useless in case of alcohol poisoning, the best way to restore health is to clear the stomach and call a doctor. On December 20, the Moscow City News Agency was informed about this by Yulia Shevtsova, a leading researcher at the Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Narcology of the Moscow Health Department, Candidate of Medical Sciences.

    According to her, the symptoms of poisoning with a surrogate drink are different from typical alcohol poisoning.

    “Adults who are familiar with the effects of ethyl alcohol know what typical drunkenness is. The picture changes slightly in case of poisoning with low-quality alcohol or dangerous surrogates – nausea and vomiting occur, and with further use – abdominal pain, loose stools, cold sticky sweat, clouding of consciousness, a veil in front of the eyes, lethargy. With a deep state of poisoning with surrogates or low-quality alcohol, a coma is possible, which requires urgent medical attention, ”the expert noted.

    The first step in helping a poisoned person, Shevtsova emphasizes, is to let him drink 1.5 liters of warm water with a small amount of baking soda, salt and sugar, and then help him induce vomiting. If this helps the patient to recover, then independent actions can be limited. However, if the condition worsens, then professional medical attention is needed.

    Shevtsova also dispelled the myth that alcohol can help with surrogate alcohol poisoning.

    “This method is dangerous, since ethyl alcohol is an antidote for only one alcohol surrogate – for methyl alcohol. For all other low-quality or surrogate alcoholic beverages, further consumption of any alcohol-containing liquid can only lead to a worsening of the condition, and not at all to an improvement, ”she said.

    According to the candidate of medical sciences, poisoning can be caused by low-quality drinks bought in the store, during the production of which the ratio of alcohol, flavors, chemical dyes and fusel oils was violated.

    According to her, the surrogate alcohol includes tinctures of medicinal plants, as well as brake fluids, antifreezes or glass cleaners, which are the most dangerous, since even in small doses they can cause severe poisoning, toxic decompensation of internal organs and death.

    On December 18, nutritionist Elena Solomatina named ways to cope with a hangover after a festive feast. According to her, citrus fruits and sauerkraut brine are good for this.Green tea with a lemon wedge and alkalizing mineral water can also cope with this task. In addition, the doctor recommends not forgetting about absorbents. The nutritionist recalled that it is highly discouraged to mix different types of alcohol and ideally should be limited to one drink.


    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) – Polyclinic No. 1

    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT): how to recognize the enemy in time?

    A dozen organs participate in digestion, which grind food, assimilate nutrients and remove excess from the body.It is a “full cycle” system – from food absorption and processing to the removal of undigested residues. It is imperative that every element of it works clearly and does not fail.

    How the human gastrointestinal tract works

    The digestion process is a bit like descending a slide in a water park. The beginning of the journey is , the mouth cavity , where food is chewed, crushed, mixed with saliva and turns into a soft food lump.

    This is interesting

    The mucous membrane of the mouth has receptors that help to recognize the taste, temperature and texture of food.These sensors transmit signals to the brain, which turns on the salivary, fundic and pancreas.

    This is followed by pharynx – a funnel-shaped canal in which the digestive and respiratory tract intersects.

    The journey of food continues into the esophagus , a cylindrical muscular tube 22–25 cm long. The upper and lower esophageal sphincters at the ends serve as valves that prevent food from returning to the oral cavity.

    Stomach is a saccular muscular organ that connects the esophagus with the duodenum (duodenum). It is like a cauldron in which food is accumulated, mixed to a paste and digested by the action of gastric juice. Stomach juice consists of enzymes and hydrochloric acid, due to which it has a pronounced acidity (about 1.5–2.0 pH). Gastric juice breaks down proteins and other chemical compounds, after which they are transported to the small intestine for final digestion and absorption.

    Length of the small intestine , consisting of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and occupying most of the abdominal cavity, is about 4.5 m. The small intestine contains glands that produce intestinal juice for the main digestion of food and absorption of nutrients into the blood.

    Large intestine – the lower part of the intestine, in which water, electrolytes, fiber are absorbed and unsuitable food residues are formed into feces.The large intestine is 1.5 m long and is subdivided into the cecum, colon, and rectum. The rectum – the end of the digestive tract – ends with an opening (anus). Serves for the accumulation of feces and bowel emptying. This is where the “unprecedented journey” ends – the processed food debris leaves the body.

    The pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, gall bladder and liver are also involved in digestion.

    The pancreas is located in close proximity to the stomach and duodenum.It secretes pancreatic juice, which contributes to the complete digestion of food and the course of metabolic processes.

    Liver takes part in the metabolism of lipids, vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates, synthesizes blood proteins: globulins, albumin and fibrinogen. The organ is involved in immunological reactions.

    Functions of the gallbladder – store and supply as needed concentrated bile, which is constantly produced by liver cells.Bile is directly involved in human digestion and acts as a kind of antibacterial agent.

    It is worth mentioning the role in digestion of the kidneys and adrenal glands , related to the urinary system. They process the water coming from the colon, filtering it into suitable for the needs of the body and into urine containing unnecessary impurities and to be excreted.

    At each of the stages of the passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract, disruptions are possible, leading to incomplete assimilation of food, problems with the elimination of waste material and threatening the development of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Among the causes of problems with the digestive system, malnutrition, which has various forms, is in the lead. These are overeating and eating heavy food, malnutrition and starvation, irregular meals, quick snacks, scarcity and imbalance in the diet. Poorly purified water and harmful food additives negatively affect the digestive tract.

    Other factors: poor ecology, stress, harmful working conditions, addictions, congenital predisposition, autoimmune diseases and disruptions in the endocrine system, side effects of drugs (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, painkillers, hormonal drugs), violation of sanitary standards in the preparation and consumption of food, capable of causing infectious diseases and parasite infestation.

    Disruptions in the digestive system negatively affect the entire body, reduce immunity, disrupt metabolism, lead to a deterioration in the appearance of the skin, brittle hair and nails. They are fraught with numbness in the limbs, pain in muscles and bones, and sleep disturbances.

    Possible complications for the cardiovascular system: hypertension, arrhythmia, angina pectoris, risk of stroke and heart attack. Against the background of gastrointestinal diseases, anular stomatitis, glossitis, bleeding gums, eczema, neurodermatitis can develop.With advanced forms of gastrointestinal diseases, damage to the pituitary gland, adrenal glands, gonads, thyroid gland is possible.

    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: what the statistics say

    Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are among the most common pathologies in the world.

    Medical statistics Mortality from gastroenterological causes in Russia ranks third after cardiovascular and oncological diseases and is about 0.08% (80 cases per 100,000 people).An increase in deaths by an average of 0.003% is recorded annually.

    Men are 38% more likely to become victims of gastrointestinal diseases, which is associated with both uncontrolled alcohol consumption and late seeking medical help.

    Among fatal gastroenterological diseases, over 45% are liver diseases caused by alcohol. Twice as many men die as women (ratio 16: 7). Acute pancreatitis and other diseases of the pancreas are the cause of death in 17% of gastroenterologist patients.Death from peritonitis due to rupture of the gallbladder is less than 1%.

    Fatal bowel diseases are caused by advanced forms of inflammation and perforation (violation of integrity, formation of holes) of the walls of the small and large intestine. In particular, appendicitis (inflammation of the cecum) is responsible for up to 4% of all deaths associated with the gastrointestinal tract. The same amount falls on a heart attack (necrosis, necrosis) of the intestine.

    Despite its widespread prevalence, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer is the cause of death in no more than 10% in the gastroenteric group.

    Of the non-lethal diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the leading one is chronic gastritis . It affects up to 80-90% of patients in the world, which is facilitated by the pathogenic bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which causes inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In developing countries, infection with Helicobacter in people over the age of 40 reaches 95%.

    In Russia, the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach is noted according to various sources in 62–94% of adult patients.

    The consequence of gastritis – stomach ulcer is found in every 15th inhabitant of the Earth.In our country, the statistics are more optimistic – only 1 out of 40 Russians is sick. Men “earn” ulcers 2-4 times more often than women.

    The prevalence gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) reaches 50% among the adult population. Symptoms of the disease are noted equally often in both men and women.

    Duodenitis is a common duodenal disease that affects 5-10% of patients.In men, it is diagnosed twice as often due to alcohol abuse and poor lifestyle choices.

    Relatively frequent and colitis – inflammatory diseases of the walls of the large intestine. The cause of the disease is pathogenic microbes (streptococci, staphylococci, Escherichia coli).

    Appendicitis (inflammation of the cecum) occurs in 30% of Russians.

    Every tenth man and every fourth woman who complains of abdominal pain is diagnosed with chronic cholecystitis (cholelithiasis).

    Among children and adults, is widespread dysbiosis – an imbalance of the intestinal microflora, leading to disruption of the digestive system.

    Symptoms of the most common gastrointestinal diseases

    Typical signs of gastrointestinal pathologies: heartburn (burning from the throwing of stomach contents into the esophagus), flatulence and intestinal stenosis (bloating caused by the accumulation of gas in the intestines), belching (gas from the stomach or esophagus), nausea and vomiting, problems with stools (constipation or diarrhea), bad breath, plaque on the tongue.

    Less common: dysphagia (violation of swallowing, accompanied by pain and a feeling of stopping the food bolus), impurities in the feces (blood, mucus, undigested food residues), swelling of the tongue, bitterness in the mouth, itching and other allergic reactions. Diseases of a single pathogenesis have both general and specific features.

    Stomach diseases

    Pain in the epigastric (epigastric) region and dyspeptic syndrome (sour belching, heartburn, vomiting and nausea) may indicate a number of diseases of the stomach, esophagus and PrEP.

    With peptic ulcer , which is a wound of the wall of the PrEP or stomach, there are sharp periodic pains in the left hypochondrium, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, bloody impurities in the feces.

    The inflammatory processes of the stomach ( gastritis ) and the duodenum ( duodenitis ) are manifested in a similar way. The diseases are accompanied by sharp, aching or pulling pains in the upper abdomen, nausea, vomiting, and problems with stools.Patients experience a feeling of a full stomach and a heaviness in the abdomen even with little food intake.

    Hernia of the esophagus is also given by pain in the epigastric region when changing posture and after eating. Back pain and girdle pain are also possible. In 20% of patients (mainly over 60 years old), pain in the region of the heart is noted against the background of concomitant cardiac diseases.

    The intestine often suffers from inflammatory processes, infectious lesions.Inflammations of the large and small intestines ( enteritis and colitis ) are accompanied by stool disorder (up to 15 times a day). During and immediately after bowel movements, the patient experiences severe weakness, dizziness, nausea, and a drop in pressure. There is bloating, cold sweat, trembling limbs, tachycardia, as well as loud rumbling, splashing noise and tenderness on palpation.

    Signs of paraproctitis, or abscess (purulent inflammation) rectum – these are severe pains in the rectum or perineum.Against the background of an increase in the size of the abscess, the pain intensifies, the urge to defecate becomes painful, the temperature rises, and chills are possible.

    Dysbacteriosis is manifested by impaired stool, bloating, cramping pains, dyspeptic disorders and allergic reactions (itching and skin rashes).

    Hemorrhoids (varicose veins of the rectum) are characterized by bleeding or smearing with blood after the act of defecation, prolapse of hemorrhoids through the anus and pain during bowel movement, which continues for some time (when walking, in a sitting and lying position).

    Symptoms appendicitis is determined by the patient’s age, the area of ​​the appendix in the abdominal cavity and the presence of complications. Characterized by a dull pain in the right side, weakness and headache, which may be accompanied by pain in the legs, nausea in combination with a single vomiting, frequent loose stools, a temperature within 38 degrees.

    One of the most common and meanwhile mysterious pathologies should not be overlooked – irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) , accompanied by abdominal cramps, stool disorder, painful bloating.IBS has a negative effect on the entire body: the patient complains of headache, insomnia, increased fatigue, heart palpitations, even at rest. According to most experts, IBS has a psychosomatic nature and appears as a result of stress, severe emotional overload. However, to get rid of the problem, it is important not only to come to peace of mind, but also to apply complex medication. One of the solutions can be the intake of bismuth preparations, which simultaneously have a bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and protective effect.

    Liver diseases

    Acute hepatitis C (inflammatory viral liver damage) is marked by a whole spectrum of symptoms. Among them: weakness, decreased appetite and performance, sleep disturbance, aversion to food, a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen, pain in large joints, the appearance of a rash, fever, darkening of urine, yellowing of the skin (hence the popular name of the disease – jaundice).

    The first signs of liver cirrhosis are: a feeling of a full abdomen, decreased performance, pain in the right hypochondrium, a feeling of fullness in the stomach, bleeding gums and nosebleeds, fever, flatulence, nausea, vomiting.

    Diseases of the gallbladder and biliary tract

    Signs of cholecystitis (inflamed gallbladder) – acute pain in the right hypochondrium, intestinal distention, attacks of nausea and vomiting. The pain intensifies with a deep breath during palpation of the gallbladder zone. Many patients report a slight increase in temperature.

    Diseases of the pancreas

    Patients with pancreatitis often complain of acute abdominal pain, accompanied by nausea and vomiting with gastric juice, mucus, bile, etc.Bloating, dry mouth, belching are also present. Cyanotic spots often appear on the left side and in the navel area.

    Most common and life-threatening diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are caused by inflammatory processes against the background of a bacterial or viral infection. Digestion is a single interconnected system and diseases of its organs can consistently develop according to the domino principle. The source of the avalanche of problems is often in the stomach, which we put to the test of strength on a daily basis.Therefore, in the treatment of gastrointestinal tract pathologies, an integrated approach using gastroprotective (protective) and antiseptic gastrointestinal drugs is effective.