Complications from hernia: Hernia truss: Can it help an inguinal hernia?
Hernia truss: Can it help an inguinal hernia?
Can a hernia truss help an inguinal hernia?
Answer From David G. Pearson, M.D.
An inguinal hernia occurs when tissue, such as part of the intestine, protrudes through a weak point or tear in the abdominal muscles. The resulting bulge can be painful, especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object. Inguinal hernias are more common in men.
A hernia truss or belt is a supportive undergarment for men designed to keep the protruding tissue in place and relieve discomfort. If you have an inguinal hernia, a hernia truss can help you feel more comfortable temporarily, but it doesn’t treat the hernia.
Talk to your doctor if you want to use a truss. It may help to improve some of your hernia-related symptoms. Your doctor can instruct you on proper usage of the truss.
Surgery is often needed to repair a hernia. Untreated hernias may remain without symptoms, or they may grow and become increasingly bothersome. Serious, even life-threatening, complications can occur. However, this is a rare problem.
If your hernia is small and isn’t bothering you, your doctor may recommend watchful waiting. If your hernia is causing discomfort, don’t rely on a hernia truss. See your doctor to discuss treatment options.
David G. Pearson, M.D.
April 08, 2021
- Groin hernia repair: Inguinal and femoral. American College of Surgeons. https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/education/patient%20ed/groin_hernia.ashx. Accessed Feb. 11, 2021.
- Brooks DC, et al. Classification, clinical features, and diagnosis of inguinal and femoral hernias in adults. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed Feb. 11, 2021.
- Shakil A, et al. Inguinal hernias: Diagnosis and management. American Family Physician. 2020;102:487.
- Pearson DG (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. Feb. 26, 2021.
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Inguinal Hernia | NIDDK
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What is an inguinal hernia?
An inguinal hernia is a bulging of the contents of the abdomen through a weak area in the lower abdominal wall. Inguinal hernias can occur at either of two passages through the lower abdominal wall, one on each side of the groin. These passages are called inguinal canals. Inguinal hernias can also occur through two deeper passages in the groin called the femoral canals. Hernias through these passages are also known as femoral hernias.
Inguinal hernias most often contain fat or part of the small intestine. In girls or women, inguinal hernias may contain part of the female reproductive system, such as an ovary. When an inguinal hernia occurs, part of the peritoneum—the lining of the abdominal cavity—bulges through the abdominal wall and forms a sac around the hernia.
Inguinal hernias may slide in and out of the abdominal wall. A doctor can often move an inguinal hernia back inside the abdominal wall with gentle massage.
Inguinal hernias typically develop on one side of the groin and form on the right side more often than on the left. Some people who have an inguinal hernia on one side will have or will develop a hernia on the other side.
An inguinal hernia happens when contents of the abdomen bulge through a weak area in the lower abdominal wall.
How common are inguinal hernias?
Inguinal hernias are relatively common. Researchers estimate that about 27 percent of men and 3 percent of women will develop an inguinal hernia at some point in their lives.1
Who is more likely to have an inguinal hernia?
Inguinal hernias are more common in certain age groups.
- Among adults, the chance of having an inguinal hernia increases with age, and inguinal hernias are most common in people ages of 75 to 80.2
- Among children, inguinal hernias are most common in those between the ages of 0 and 5 years.2
- Among infants, inguinal hernias are more common in premature infants. 3
Inguinal hernias are also more common in4
What are the complications of inguinal hernias?
Inguinal hernias may become stuck, or incarcerated, meaning the contents of the hernia that bulge through the abdominal wall cannot be massaged back inside the abdominal wall.
If a hernia becomes stuck outside the abdominal wall, it may become strangulated, meaning the blood flow to the hernia is cut off. Lack of blood flow can cause the death of tissues inside the hernia.
If a hernia that contains part of the small intestine becomes stuck and strangulated, this can lead to intestinal obstruction and death of the strangulated part of the intestine.
What are the symptoms of an inguinal hernia?
Symptoms of an inguinal hernia may include
- a bulge in the groin—the area between the lower abdomen and thighs
- a bulge in the scrotum in a male
- feelings of discomfort, pain, heaviness, or burning in the groin
Your symptoms may get worse when you strain, lift, cough, or stand for a long time and may get better when you rest or lie down.
Seek medical help right away
If you have symptoms of a stuck or strangulated hernia, seek medical help right away. A strangulated hernia is a life-threatening condition.
Symptoms of stuck or strangulated hernias may include
- a hernia bulge that is suddenly larger than before
- a hernia bulge that used to go back inside the abdomen but no longer does
- redness in the area of the hernia
- sudden or severe pain or tenderness in the area of the hernia
- symptoms of intestinal obstruction, such as abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting
What causes inguinal hernias?
A weak area in the muscles and connective tissue of the lower abdominal wall at the inguinal canal allows an inguinal hernia to develop. A hernia can form in different ways, causing two types of hernias.
- Indirect inguinal hernias are related to a defect in the lower abdominal wall that is present at birth. In a developing fetus, the inguinal canals have openings inside the abdomen that typically close before birth. In some cases, one or both openings remain open. Contents of the abdomen may bulge through this opening, causing a hernia. While the defect is present at birth, an indirect inguinal hernia may not occur until many years later.
- Direct inguinal hernias are related to a weak area in the inguinal canal wall that develops later in life. Contents of the abdomen may bulge out through this weak area, causing a hernia. This type of hernia primarily occurs in men. Women and children rarely develop this type of hernia.
Researchers are studying other factors that might play a role in causing inguinal hernias. These factors include
- connective tissue that is weaker than normal or connective tissue disorders
- genes that increase the risk of inguinal hernias
- health conditions that cause increased pressure inside the abdomen, such as chronic cough or chronic constipation
- regular or repeated activities that cause increased pressure inside the abdomen, such as heavy lifting and standing or walking for many hours each day at work
How do doctors diagnose inguinal hernias?
To diagnose an inguinal hernia, your doctor will ask about your medical history and symptoms and perform a physical exam. In some cases, doctors also order imaging tests.
During a physical exam, the doctor will examine your abdomen. The doctor may ask you to stand, cough, or strain while he or she checks for a bulge caused by the hernia. The doctor may try to gently massage the contents of the hernia back into the abdomen.
To diagnose an inguinal hernia, your doctor will ask about your medical history and symptoms and perform a physical exam.
What tests do doctors use to diagnose inguinal hernias?
If the diagnosis is not clear after a physical exam, your doctor may order imaging tests to check for an inguinal hernia. Doctors may also use imaging tests to check for complications.
Imaging tests may include
How do doctors treat inguinal hernias?
Most people with inguinal hernias will need surgery to repair the hernia. Several different types of open and laparoscopic hernia surgery are available. The type of surgery your doctor recommends may depend on factors such as the size of the hernia and your age, health, and medical history.
Open hernia surgery
In open hernia surgery, a surgeon makes a cut in your groin to view and repair the hernia. After repairing the hernia, surgeons typically use stitches and a piece of mesh to close the abdominal wall. The mesh strengthens the weak area where the hernia occurred. In some cases, surgeons may use stitches alone to close and strengthen the weak area in the abdominal wall.
Patients most often receive local anesthesia and a sedative for open hernia surgery. In some cases, doctors may give patients general anesthesia or a spinal block to make the body numb from the waist down.
Laparoscopic hernia surgery
In laparoscopic hernia surgery, a surgeon makes several small cuts in your lower abdomen and inserts special tools to view and repair the hernia. The surgeon uses a piece of mesh to close and strengthen the abdominal wall.
Patients most often receive general anesthesia for laparoscopic hernia surgery. Recovery time after laparoscopic surgery may be shorter than after open hernia surgery.
During hernia surgery, surgeons may use a piece of mesh to close and strengthen the abdominal wall.
Research suggests that men with inguinal hernias that cause few or no symptoms may be able to safely delay surgery, an approach called watchful waiting.4,5 Men who delay surgery should watch for symptoms and see a doctor regularly. About 70 percent of men who delay surgery will develop new or worsening symptoms and will need surgery within 5 years.4
How do doctors treat the complications of inguinal hernias?
If an inguinal hernia causes complications, such as becoming stuck or strangulated, you will need emergency surgery to repair the hernia and treat the complications.
What can I expect after surgery to treat an inguinal hernia?
You may have some pain or discomfort after hernia surgery. The pain is typically mild and goes away within 2 weeks after surgery.4 Your doctor will recommend medicines to relieve pain.
Talk with your doctor about when you can safely return to your usual activities after hernia surgery. Many people can go back to work and resume daily activities within 3 to 5 days after hernia surgery.4
What are the risks of hernia surgery?
Surgery to repair an inguinal hernia is quite safe. However, possible complications of hernia surgery include
- urinary retention
- swelling in the area you had surgery due to a buildup of blood, called a hematoma, or a buildup of blood plasma, called a seroma
- chronic or severe pain
- return of the hernia, which may require another surgery
Serious complications, such as damage to blood vessels or organs, are rare.
Talk with your doctor about the risks of hernia surgery and symptoms you should watch for after surgery. For example, you should call your doctor right away if you have
- bleeding, drainage, or redness in the area where you had surgery
- fever or chills
- nausea or vomiting
- pain or swelling in your abdomen
- pain or swelling in your groin that gets worse
- pain that is severe or doesn’t get better when you take pain medicines
- problems breathing
- problems urinating
Clinical Trials for Inguinal Hernia
The NIDDK conducts and supports clinical trials in many diseases and conditions, including digestive diseases. The trials look to find new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease and improve quality of life.
What are clinical trials for inguinal hernia?
Clinical trials—and other types of clinical studies—are part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.
Researchers are studying many aspects of inguinal hernias, such as
- the safest time to perform surgery in premature infants born with inguinal hernias
- the likelihood that infants born with an abdominal wall defect will develop an inguinal hernia during childhood
- ways to manage pain without opioids after hernia surgery
- strategies to reduce hernia surgery complications, such as urinary retention
Find out if clinical studies are right for you.
Watch a video of NIDDK Director Dr. Griffin P. Rodgers explaining the importance of participating in clinical trials.
What clinical studies for inguinal hernias are looking for participants?
You can find clinical studies on inguinal hernias at www.ClinicalTrials.gov. In addition to searching for federally funded studies, you can expand or narrow your search to include clinical studies from industry, universities, and individuals; however, the NIH does not review these studies and cannot ensure they are safe. Always talk with your health care provider before you participate in a clinical study.
 Oberg S, Andresen K, Rosenberg J. Etiology of inguinal hernias: a comprehensive review. Frontiers in Surgery. 2017;4:52.
 Burcharth J, Pedersen M, Bisgaard T, Pedersen C, Rosenberg J. Nationwide prevalence of groin hernia repair. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(1):e54367.
 Ramsook C. Inguinal hernia in children. UpToDate website. Updated November 21, 2018. www.uptodate.com/contents/inguinal-hernia-in-children. Accessed May 9, 2019.
 The HerniaSurge Group. International guidelines for groin hernia management. Hernia. 2018;22:1–165.
 Fitzgibbons RJ, Ramanan B, Arya S, et al. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial of a nonoperative strategy (watchful waiting) for men with minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias. Annals of Surgery. 258(3):508–515.
Department of Surgery – Inguinal Hernia
In an inguinal hernia, abdominal fat or a loop of small intestine enters the inguinal canal, a tubular passage through the lower layers of the abdominal wall. A hernia occurs when part of an internal organ (usually the small intestine) protrudes through a weak point or tear in the peritoneum, the thin muscular wall holding the abdominal organs in place resulting in a bulge. In men, inguinal hernias typically develop in the groin area near the scrotum, on one or both (double hernia) sides.
Hernia repairs are common—more than one million hernia repairs are performed each year in the U.S. Approximately 800,000 are to repair inguinal hernias and the rest are for other types of hernias. Repair of Inguinal hernias is among the most frequently performed surgeries in the U.S.
Image Credit: “Blausen 0560 InguinalHernia” by BruceBlaus
Signs and Symptoms
Symptoms of an inguinal hernia include:
- A small bulge in one or both sides of the groin that may increase in size and disappear when lying down; in males, it can present as a swollen or enlarged scrotum
- Discomfort or sharp pain-especially when straining, lifting, or exercising-that improves when resting
- A feeling of weakness or pressure in the groin
- A burning, gurgling, or aching feeling at the bulge
An inguinal hernia may arise at any time from infancy to adulthood. However, it is far more common in males with a lifetime risk of 27% in men and 3% in women. Some individuals are born with weak abdominal muscles and are more likely to develop a hernia. Others are caused by excessive strain on the abdominal wall from heavy lifting, weight gain, coughing, or difficulty with bowel movements and urination.
Direct Inguinal Hernias
Direct inguinal hernias are caused by connective tissue degeneration of the abdominal muscles, which causes weakening of the muscles during the adult years. Direct inguinal hernias occur only in males. The hernia involves fat or the small intestine sliding through the weak muscles into the groin. A direct hernia develops gradually because of continuous stress on the muscles.
Any activity or condition which increases pressure in the intra-abdominal cavity may contribute to the formation of a hernia, including:
- Heavy lifting
- Straining with urination or defecation
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Peritoneal dialysis
- Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Indirect Inguinal Hernias
Indirect inguinal hernias are congenital hernias and are much more common in males than females because of the way males develop in the womb. In a male fetus, the spermatic cord and both testicles-starting from an intra-abdominal location-normally descend through the inguinal canal into the scrotum, the sac that holds the testicles.
Sometimes the entrance of the inguinal canal at the inguinal ring does not close as it should just after birth, leaving a weakness in the abdominal wall. Fat or part of the small intestine slides through the weakness into the inguinal canal, causing a hernia. In females, an indirect inguinal hernia is caused by the female organs or the small intestine sliding into the groin through a weakness in the abdominal wall.
Indirect hernias are the most common type of inguinal hernia. Premature infants are especially at risk for indirect inguinal hernias because there is less time for the inguinal canal to close.
“Incarcerated” and “Strangulated” Inguinal Hernias
An incarcerated inguinal hernia is a hernia that becomes stuck in the groin or scrotum and cannot be massaged back into the abdomen. An incarcerated hernia is caused by swelling and can lead to a strangulated hernia, in which the blood supply to the incarcerated small intestine is jeopardized. A strangulated hernia is a serious condition and requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a strangulated hernia include:
- Extreme tenderness and redness in the area of the bulge
- Sudden pain that worsens in a short period of time
- Rapid heart rate
Left untreated, nausea, vomiting, and severe infection can occur. If surgery is not performed right away, the condition can become life threatening, and the affected intestine may die. Then that portion of the intestine must be removed.
To diagnose inguinal hernia, the doctor takes a thorough medical history and conducts a physical examination. The person may be asked to stand and cough so the doctor can feel the hernia as it moves into the groin or scrotum. The doctor checks to see if the hernia can be gently massaged back into its proper position in the abdomen.
In adults, inguinal hernias that enlarge, cause symptoms, or become incarcerated are treated surgically. In infants and children, inguinal hernias are always operated on to prevent incarceration from occurring. Surgery is usually done on an outpatient basis. Recovery time varies depending on the size of the hernia, the technique used, and the age and health of the patient. The two main types of surgery for hernias are as follows:
Open Hernia Repair
In open hernia repair, also called herniorrhaphy, a person is given local anesthesia in the abdomen or spine to numb the area, general anesthesia to sedate or help the person sleep, or a combination of the two. Then the surgeon makes an incision in the groin, moves the hernia back into the abdomen, and reinforces the muscle wall with stitches. Usually the area of muscle weakness is reinforced with a synthetic mesh or screen to provide additional support-an operation called hernioplasty.
Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair
Laparoscopic surgery is performed using general anesthesia. The surgeon makes several small incisions in the lower abdomen and inserts a laparoscope-a thin tube with a tiny video camera attached to one end. The camera sends a magnified image from inside the body to a monitor, giving the surgeon a close-up view of the hernia and surrounding tissue. While viewing the monitor, the surgeon uses instruments to carefully repair the hernia using synthetic mesh.
People who undergo laparoscopic surgery generally experience a somewhat shorter recovery time. However, the doctor may determine laparoscopic surgery is not the best option if the hernia is very large or the person has had pelvic surgery.
Most adults experience discomfort after surgery and require pain medication. Vigorous activity and heavy lifting are restricted for several weeks. The doctor will discuss when a person may safely return to work. Infants and children also experience some discomfort but usually resume normal activities after several days.
Surgery to repair an inguinal hernia is generally safe and complications are uncommon. Knowing possible risks allows patients to report postoperative symptoms to their doctor as soon as they occur.
Risk of general anesthesia. Before surgery, the anesthesiologist-a doctor who administers anesthesia-reviews the risks of anesthesia with the patient and asks about medical history and allergies to medications. Complications most likely occur in older people and those with other medical conditions. Common complications include nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, sore throat, and headache. More serious problems include heart attack, stroke, pneumonia, and blood clots in the legs.
Getting out of bed after surgery and moving as soon as the doctor allows will help reduce the risk of complications such as pneumonia and blood clots.
Hernia recurrence. A hernia can recur up to several years after repair. Recurrence is the most common complication of inguinal hernia repair, causing patients to undergo a second operation.
Bleeding. Bleeding inside the incision is another complication of inguinal hernia repair. It can cause severe swelling and bluish discoloration of the skin around the incision. Surgery may be necessary to open the incision and stop the bleeding. Bleeding is unusual and occurs in less than 2 percent of patients.
Wound infection. The risk of wound infection is small-less than 2 percent-and is more likely to occur in older adults and people who undergo more complex hernia repair.2 The person may experience a fever, discharge from the incision, and redness, swelling, or tenderness around the incision. Postoperative infection requires antibiotics and, occasionally, another procedure requiring local anesthesia to make a small opening in the incision and drain the infection.
Painful scar. Sometimes people experience sharp, tingling pain in a specific area near the incision after it has healed. The pain usually resolves with time. Medicine may be injected in the area if the pain continues.
Injury to internal organs. Although extremely rare, injury to the intestine, bladder, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels leading to the legs, internal female organs, and vas deferens-the tube that carries sperm-can occur during hernia surgery and may lead to more operations.
For More Information
Inguinal and Femoral Hernia Repair (American College of Surgeons)
Inguinal and Femoral Hernia Repair (American College of Surgeons) español
5 Signs You Have Hernia Mesh Complications | by MedTruth
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Did you (or a loved one) have hernia mesh (physiomesh) installed via laparoscopic surgery?
Year mesh installed:20182017201620152014201320122010200920082007200620052004 or earlier
Was an additional surgery or follow-up procedure performed?
Engaging in bending, lifting and folding are the most well-known causes of a hernia. But whether it develops from truck driving, moving, or even a C-section, hernias are extremely common.
Anyone can develop a hernia, and the majority of hernias are treated with a surgical hernia mesh implant. More than one million U.S. hernia repairs are performed each year, but not all surgeries are successful.
Many people are left with a serious set of hernia mesh complications, which could require additional surgeries.
About Hernia Repair
What are the different types of hernias?
A hernia develops when an intestine or tissue squeezes through a weak section in the surrounding muscle area. The most common types of hernias develop in the abdominal wall, sometimes appearing as a visible bulge.
Hernias are caused by a consistent pressure directly impacting a weakened or open space in the tissue wall. There are many different types of hernias, but some are more common than others.
Inguinal hernias are the most common type of hernia, which generally occurs in men. They develop in the inner groin, where the intestine or bladder pushes through the muscle in the abdomen.
Umbilical hernias develop during the postpartum period, or after a woman has had many children. An umbilical hernia occurs at the belly button or naval when part of the small intestine passes through a weak spot.
Hiatal hernias occur inside the upper stomach, near the diaphragm. It develops when the stomach begins to push through the hiatus, which is an opening in the diaphragm connected to the esophagus.
Hernia bulges may be as small as a quarter or as large as a basketball. Pain, reduced quality of life and physical insecurities lead to a high rate of hernia repairs, which are often performed with surgical mesh.
Hernia mesh is considered a standard treatment.
By 2000, 90 percent of hernia repairs used mesh.
In the past few decades, there has been an increase in the use of polypropylene or plastic meshes. Studies show these synthetic meshes are associated with a higher failure rate.
Hernia Mesh Complications
What is hernia mesh?
Hernia mesh, also known as surgical mesh, is a medical device implanted into the upper stomach, abdomen or groin. It’s used to support weakened tissue, or the close an opening within the damaged muscle that allows a hernia to pass through.
Studies have linked surgical mesh to a lower rate of hernia recurrence. For some, however, the risk of failed mesh significantly increases and causes serious, life-changing hernia mesh complications.
Hernia Mesh Failure Symptoms
- Skin Rash
- Chronic Infection
- Difficulty urinating
- Erectile Dysfunction
Studies show more than one-third of hernia surgeries may result in complications.
Severe pain and continuing infections are two side effects commonly associated with hernia mesh complications. In some cases, people may experience more than one symptom of hernia mesh complications.
How can I tell if I have failed hernia mesh?
Hernia mesh complications may be easy or difficult to identify, depending on the severity of the issue.
1. Pain & Discomfort
The most common sign of hernia mesh complications is pain and discomfort, which may be accompanied by bruising or swelling. These symptoms may linked to a skin rash, usually occurring near the bulge or incision.
Depending on the type of hernia, pain may occur near the stomach, abdomen, groin, leg, or testicle. In some cases, tenderness and pain may be the only indicator of hernia mesh complications.
2. Bleeding & Infection
Chronic infections are a clearly identifiable complication of hernia mesh. Some infections may be severe, causing patients to see redness and feel heat coming from the area of repair.
Hernia mesh may also lead to an increased risk of seroma, which is when fluid builds near the implant site. The buildup of fluid may cause secretions, which potentially could potentially indicate an infection.
3. Bowel Obstruction
An inability to use the bathroom, caused an obstruction, could be linked to hernia mesh complications. Bowel obstruction is blockage that develops in the large or small intestine, causing difficulty with urinating or defecating.
A bowel obstruction may be caused by an adhesion, which occurs when scar-tissue or loops of the intestines adhere to mesh. In more severe cases, a removal of the bowel may be necessary.
4. Erectile Dysfunction
People with hernia mesh complications may experience a change in sexual functions, characterized inability to become physically aroused. More specifically, men with mesh repair for inguinal hernias report erectile dysfunction, loss of sensation and difficulty achieving orgasm.
Some patients also reported swelling, slight pain, harness and a reduction in testicle size. Research published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information shows hernia mesh complications may reduce blood supply to the testicles, which may have to result in testicular removal.
5. Hernia Recurrence
Research shows hernia recurrence is less likely when hernias are repaired with mesh, but it is possible for a hernia to return. A variety of hernia mesh complications, such as migration, adhesion, fistula and perforation, may lead to recurrence.
There are a number of long-term risks associated with hernia mesh, according to a study published in JAMA. After a hernia mesh surgery, a non-healing wound may develop and the following surgeries could require longer recovery times.
FDA Hernia Mesh Recall
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) received a number of adverse event reports linked to hernia mesh complications, causing the agency to initiate device recalls for manufacturers marketing flawed or dangerous mesh.
Recalled Hernia Mesh Devices Bard Composix Bard Ventralight Bard Ventralex ST Bard Davol Covidien Parietene Atrium CQUR Ethicon Physiomesh Ethicon J&J Proceed
In 2014, the FDA issued a safety update to warn patients about packaging issues, poor performance, and adverse events. The agency has overseen the recalls to in an attempt to reduce harmful effects of hernia mesh complications.
Hernia Mesh Revision Surgeries
Hernia mesh complications can be mild, moderate or severe. Regardless of pain levels, hernia mesh removal or revision surgeries may be recommended.
For many patients without insurance or a steady income, medical bills from hernia mesh complications can be costly. Though additional surgeries may be necessary to improve quality of life, patients can’t always afford necessary scan to justify the hernia mesh revision.
Hernia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis
A hernia occurs when a portion of tissue in your body bulges into or penetrates a weakened muscle area. Theoretically, hernias can happen anywhere in your body, but most occur in the abdomen between the rib cage and the groin.
There are several types of hernias, some are described below:
- Hiatus or diaphragmatic hernias occur when a piece of your stomach protrudes through the diaphragm (the muscle that separates the chest region from the abdominal area) via the opening through which the esophagus (food tube) passes into the stomach. Hernias may also occur in infancy because of a weakness in the abdominal wall. They occur more frequently in premature babies.
- Inguinal or groin hernias occur when part of the abdominal contents (usually part of the intestine or a piece of bowel) protrudes into the groin area. This is the most common type, accounting for around 70% of all hernias. Men are 8 times as likely as women to get them. They often occur after age 50 (on one side of the groin or both). The hernia operation is one of the most common surgery procedures. Inguinal hernia occurs in up to 5% of all newborns and 9% to 11% of premature babies.
- Umbilical hernias are similar to inguinal hernias but are found in the area of the umbilicus (the navel or belly button area). This occurs most commonly in infants and children. The belly button may bulge outwards, especially when they are crying.
- Incisional hernias occur when a piece of intestine protrudes through a weakness in the abdominal wall in an area where surgery has been performed.
- Femoral hernias occur when a piece of intestine protrudes though the passage that is normally used by large blood vessels as they pass between the abdomen and leg.
- Paraesophageal hernias are uncommon, but can be life threatening because in some cases they can cause the entire stomach to slip into the chest cavity.
The cause of some hernias cannot be pinpointed, but many result from increased pressure within the abdomen, a weak spot in the abdominal wall, or a combination of the two. The weakened abdominal wall may be present as a birth defect or develop over time from injury or surgery. Age also plays a factor as hernias are more likely to develop over the age of 50.
In adults, hiatus hernias commonly develop in pregnant women and overweight people due to the increased pressure on the abdominal wall. Other stressors may include constipation (straining while having a bowel movement), lifting heavy weights, or prolonged coughing or sneezing.
In men, an inguinal hernia will commonly develop in the groin, specifically in a region called the inguinal canal. This is where the spermatic cord and blood vessels to the testicles pass out of the abdominal cavity and into the scrotum. A weakness in the abdominal tissues at this point can allow a loop of bowel to pass out of the abdomen by following the path of the spermatic cord (indirect inguinal hernia) or between the opening into the inguinal canal and the pubic bone (direct inguinal hernia).
In women, inguinal hernias are rare, but can develop where the tissue that binds the uterus exits from the abdomen and joins with the tissue surrounding the vaginal opening.
Umbilical hernias may be present at birth. In adults, they may develop when there is a weakness in the tissue in the umbilical area combined with increased pressure on the abdominal wall.
Symptoms and Complications
If you have a hiatus hernia, you usually don’t have any symptoms unless the sphincter muscles around the lower end of the esophagus become weak. When this occurs, the valve between the stomach and esophagus (gullet) won’t stay closed, and stomach acids will spill into the esophagus. As a result, you may experience heartburn, sharp pain, regurgitation, belching, and sometimes bleeding. At night, you may experience coughing, breathlessness, or a choking sensation.
Signs and symptoms of an inguinal (groin) hernia include discomfort while bending over or during lifting. You may feel a small egg-like lump in your groin that may become more prominent with certain activities such as coughing. It will usually disappear when you lie down. Coughing or straining may make it uncomfortable or painful. If the bulge persists and is accompanied by nausea and vomiting or abdominal pain, this can be a sign that the hernia has become obstructed or strangulated.
Although rare, an untreated hernia that strangulates may result in gangrene (death of tissue), which is a life-threatening condition and requires emergency surgical attention. Symptoms of strangulation include pain, swelling, discoloured bluish or red skin, vomiting, and an inability to urinate.
Children with strangulated inguinal hernias may have fever and vomiting and should be seen immediately by a doctor.
Inguinal hernias may not make themselves known until your abdominal wall is weakened after years of straining during bowel movements or from heavy coughing or lifting. Smokers are prone to such hernias. Physical exertion such as lifting may exacerbate a hernia by suddenly causing the weakened abdominal lining to give way.
Paraesophageal hernias usually have no symptoms, but if symptoms do occur, the most common are pain, indigestion, nausea, and retching.
Making the Diagnosis
A hiatus hernia may be diagnosed using X-rays and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy (looking at the stomach via a fiberoptic tube), esophageal manometry (using a special instrument to measure your sphincter pressure), and tests to measure your esophageal acidity.
During a routine physical examination your doctor may discover an inguinal hernia. Your doctor will usually diagnose it by feeling the area of the internal inguinal ring, deep in the groin. If there’s a bulge in the area, then there’s a good possibility that it’s due to a hernia and imaging studies are not required.
Treatment and Prevention
General hernia prevention strategies include avoiding activities that cause abdominal strain (e.g., lifting heavy weights), and if you’re overweight, losing weight.
In most hiatus hernia cases, treatment consists of relieving the accompanying heartburn with medication and modifying the diet. Losing weight is also recommended as a way to help relieve pressure. If you experience discomfort at night, it may help to sleep with the upper part of your body propped up on pillows or with the head of your bed raised. It is important not to eat for several hours before lying down, so that the stomach has time to empty. Standing straight rather than slouching is also a good idea. Surgery is uncommon and is reserved as a last resort for severe cases if medical and dietary management hasn’t helped.
If you have an inguinal or umbilical hernia, it is generally repaired by surgery that places the protruding mass back where it belongs and reinforces the weakened area by sewing the muscles together. This is a simple operation that is sometimes performed under local anesthetic. If you have minimal symptoms, your surgeon may suggest waiting to see if your symptoms progress before completing surgery.
It’s important to go for regular medical follow-up after surgery because of possible complications. Some surgeons recommend restricting exercise; however, most will encourage a speedy return to activities. Hospital stays of 2 or 3 days for surgery have been reduced in the last few years to a same-day discharge.
Laparoscopic hernia repair is done through a tiny incision and avoids the need for invasive open surgery. A television screen enables the surgeon to clearly see inside the person’s body. Studies have shown that this method of treatment promotes faster healing with less likelihood of recurrence.
Wearing a truss is no longer considered an acceptable form of treatment for hernias. In fact, it can even make your hernia worse by weakening tissues.
Paraesophageal hernias are generally treated with surgery.
All material copyright MediResource Inc. 1996 – 2021. Terms and conditions of use. The contents herein are for informational purposes only. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Source: www.medbroadcast.com/condition/getcondition/Hernia
Hernia – causes, symptoms, surgery
A hernia occurs when contents of the abdomen (such as part of the intestines) push through a weakened area of the muscle and connective tissue. Common types include umbilical and inguinal hernias. Less common are epigastric and femoral hernias.
Symptoms may range from a painless bulge to considerable pain, swelling, and discolouration. Treatment will normally involve surgery to push the herniated tissue back into the abdominal space, and repair the weakened abdominal wall.
Serious complications can occur when hernias become incarcerated or irreducible (ie: can’t be pushed back through the abdominal wall) which can lead to a strangulated hernia, where the blood supply to the hernia is cut off. A strangulated hernia is a surgical emergency requiring an urgent operation.
Approximately 75-80% of all hernias are inguinal hernias, which can occur in people of any age. Approximately 90% of all inguinal hernia repairs are performed on men.
Inguinal hernias occur as a result of a defect in the inguinal canal – a tubular passage that runs through the lower abdominal muscles in the groin, close to where the abdomen and the thigh join. The defect allows abdominal tissue (usually a short length of intestine) to push out.
Symptoms of an inguinal hernia can vary from person to person. The most common sign of an inguinal hernia is a bulge or lump in the groin. Men may also have a lump, and sometimes swelling, in the scrotum.
The bulge or lump may be painful and the pain may worsen when coughing, sneezing, lifting, or standing for a long time. The lump may become bigger when coughing, bending, or straining. The lump may become smaller with less pain when lying down.
The skin over the hernia may become swollen and red. When the hernia restricts blood flow to the area the skin may look grey or blue.
An inguinal hernia can occur because of an inguinal canal defect that is present at birth (congenital) and/or because of increased pressure within the abdomen. Factors that increase pressure within the abdomen include:
- Excessive, long-term coughing
- Excessive, long-term sneezing
- Strenuous activity
- Straining due to constipation
- Trauma or lifting heavy objects (this causes less than 5% of hernias).
Factors that increase the chances of developing an inguinal hernia include getting older (because muscles weaken with age), having family members with hernias, or previously having an inguinal hernia yourself.
Umbilical hernias most commonly occur in infants but may also develop in adults. They are characterised by bulging around the belly button and may be more pronounced when the infant cries or coughs.
In infants, umbilical hernias are normally painless but they may cause discomfort for adults. Most infants’ umbilical hernias will close of their own accord by age 1 or 2 years. However, surgical repair may be required if they haven’t disappeared by age 4 years, or if they develop in adults.
A femoral hernia occurs when abdominal tissue is forced out of the abdomen through the femoral canal – a tube-shaped channel in the groin near the top of the thigh – forming a bulge that’s usually the size of a grape.
Femoral hernias tend to occur in older people. They are also more common in women, thought to be related to the weakening of the abdominal tissues during pregnancies. The triggers of femoral hernias are similar to those of inguinal hernias – heavy lifting, straining and coughing. All femoral hernias require surgical treatment because they have a high risk of becoming strangulated.
Epigastric hernias appear in a line between the base of the breastbone and the belly button where fatty tissue is pushed through the hernia. Epigastric hernias are often small with few if any symptoms, but may gradually grow larger and become painful. This type of hernia will not go away by itself so worsening symptoms are likely to lead to surgery.
When abdominal tissue protruding through the hernia cannot be gently pushed back in, the hernia is said to be incarcerated or irreducible. This can lead to the blood supply to the intestinal tissue being cut off. When this occurs, the hernia is said to be strangulated.
Strangulation can cause the tissue to die and cause severe pain at the site of the hernia. This may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting due to obstruction of the intestines. This situation is a surgical emergency requiring an urgent operation because of the risk of gangrene.
Hernia repair surgery is one of the most commonly performed types of general surgery and often will not involve an overnight stay in hospital. The purpose of the surgery is to return bulging tissue to its proper place, and then repair the defect in the abdomen with stiches or a mesh patch to prevent the hernia returning.
For umbilical, femoral and epigastric hernias this will likely involve the traditional “open” surgical method where a small incision is made over, or next to, the hernia so the surgeon can see and repair the problem through that incision.
In the case of inguinal hernias, it is now common to have laparoscopic (minimally invasive) surgery.
This “closed” surgical technique involves three small incisions being made in the groin and lower abdomen. A small and narrow telescope (laparoscope) is inserted through one incision and surgical instruments through the other incisions. The surgeon is able to see the hernia on a television screen and uses the surgical instruments to repair the inguinal hernia with a synthetic mesh patch.
Postoperative care, and guidelines for returning to normal activity, should be discussed with your surgeon prior to surgery and before discharge from hospital.
Mayo Clinic (2019). Inguinal hernia (Web Page). Rochester, MN: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inguinal-hernia/symptoms-causes/syc-20351547 [Accessed: 31/03/20]
NHS(2016). Hernia (Web Page). Redditch: National Health Service (NHS) England. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Hernia/ [Accessed: 31/03/20]
O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2017). Inguinal hernia. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professionals. (10th ed.) St. Louis, MI: Elsevier.
O’Toole, M.T. (Ed.) (2017). Umbilical hernia. Mosby’s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professionals. (10th ed.) St. Louis, MI: Elsevier.
Rather, A.A. (2019). Abdominal hernias (Web page). Medscape Drugs and Diseases. New York, NY: WebMD LLC. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/189563-overview [Accessed: 31/03/20]
Last Reviewed – March 2020
Why It’s Done, Risks, What to Expect
Knowing what to expect can help make your road to recovery after a hernia repair as smooth as possible.
How long will it take to recover?
You will stay in the recovery room after surgery until your vital signs are stable. You may have a sore throat if a tube was placed in your windpipe during surgery. This is usually temporary, but tell your care team if you are uncomfortable.
You may be able to go home on the same day if you are recovering well. You may need to stay in the hospital longer if you cannot urinate on your own or you are having nausea and vomiting. In addition, a hospital stay of one day may be required for infants or if your hernia was incarcerated.
Recovery after surgery is a gradual process. Recovery time varies depending on the specific procedure, type of anesthesia, your general health, age, and other factors. Full recovery times range from two to six weeks.
Will I feel pain?
Pain control is important for healing and a smooth recovery. There will be discomfort after your surgery. Your doctor and care team will manage your pain so you are comfortable and can get the rest you need. Contact your doctor if your pain gets worse or changes in any way because it may be a sign of a complication.
When should I call my doctor?
It is important to keep your follow-up appointments after a hernia repair. Call your doctor if you have questions or concerns between appointments. Call your doctor right away or seek immediate medical care if you have:
Bloating, swelling or pain in your abdomen or belly
Breathing problems, such as shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, labored breathing, or wheezing
Change in alertness, such as passing out, dizziness, unresponsiveness, or confusion
Fever. A low-grade fever (lower than 101 degrees Fahrenheit) is common for a couple of days after surgery and not necessarily a sign of a surgical infection. However, you should follow your doctor’s specific instructions about when to call for a fever.
Inability to urinate or pass gas
No bowel movements for three days after surgery
Pain that is not controlled by your pain medication
Unexpected drainage, pus, redness or swelling of your incision
Tingling or numbness in the groin
Worsening pain or swelling of a testicle
How might a hernia repair affect my everyday life?
A hernia repair may cure your condition or significantly reduce your symptoms so you can lead an active, normal life. For example, a hernia repair may help you resume your daily activities without pain. However, it will not prevent hernias from coming back. You can make changes in everyday life that may help prevent or delay recurrence of hernias, such as:
Avoiding constipation and chronic straining
Avoiding sudden strains, pulls or twists of your abdomen
Drinking plenty of fluids
Eating a high-fiber diet
Getting regular exercise
Maintaining a healthy weight
Practicing abdominal exercises only as directed by your healthcare provider
Taking fiber supplements as directed by your healthcare provider
90,000 Infringement of a hernia – symptoms, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment
Infringement of a hernia is a sudden or gradual compression of the abdominal organ in the hernial orifice. Infringement leads to impaired blood circulation and tissue necrosis. The danger is provided by both internal and external hernias. A strangulated hernia can be fatal if left untreated, especially in older people.
Among the main reasons for hernia infringement: physical activity, non-compliance with diet, weight lifting, lack of treatment for an enlarging hernia.People who wear a bandage for several years may miss the moment of complications of the disease, as they get used to pain discomfort. In the presence of a hernia, the patient should see the attending physician at least twice a year.
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The course of the disease and the features of the symptoms depend on the degree of infringement.
When the first signs of hernia infringement appear, the patient should be immediately hospitalized in a surgical hospital. To avoid complications, calling a doctor is mandatory.
A strangulated hernia requires urgent surgical intervention.
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Advantages of the Hospital Center
Individual treatment regimen for each patient
For each patient, without fail, even at the prehospital stage, an individual treatment regimen is developed, taking into account all the characteristics of the body: age, health status, medical history, etc.- this approach allows you to minimize risks both during the operation and in the postoperative period, and as a result, to ensure the fastest possible rehabilitation with a minimum period of hospitalization.
The medical staff of the Hospital Center is a single team made up of doctors – experts of different specializations, which allows for a multidisciplinary approach.We treat a patient, seeing in front of us not a list of the diseases he has, but a person whose problems are interrelated and interdependent. The therapeutic measures taken are always aimed at improving the overall health, well-being and quality of life of the patient, and are not limited to eliminating the symptoms of a specific disease.
Surgical treatment of any level of complexity
The operating doctors of the Hospital Center possess advanced and high-tech methods of performing operations.The combination of highly qualified doctors and innovative equipment allows for surgical treatment of the highest level of complexity.
High-tech, minimally invasive treatment methods
The basis of the methodology of treatment carried out in the Hospital Center is the principles of minimizing risks for the patient and the fastest possible rehabilitation.
Implementation of such an approach is possible only with the use of the most high-tech techniques, modern equipment and the application of the latest achievements of medical science.
The qualification of doctors in combination with modern equipment allows us to successfully implement this approach to treatment.
Fast-track is a comprehensive technique that allows you to minimize the patient’s stay in the hospital without compromising the quality of treatment.
The approach is based on minimizing surgical trauma, reducing the risk of postoperative complications and accelerating recovery from surgery, which ensures our patients have a minimum hospital stay.
Even such complex operations as, for example, cholecystectomy, thanks to this approach, require a hospital stay of no more than 3 days.
Personal medical supervision in the postoperative period
To completely exclude the development of possible complications, the early postoperative period, all patients, regardless of the complexity of the operation, are carried out in the intensive care unit under the individual supervision of an intensive care physician.
Transfer of the patient to the ward is carried out only in the complete absence of even the smallest possible risks.
Informing relatives 24/7
We are as open as possible and take care not only of the patient, but also of those close to him. Patient health information is provided to relatives seven days a week, 24 hours a day.
Visiting patients is also possible at any convenient time.
Highly comfortable single and double rooms
At the service of patients are spacious comfortable wards for single and double occupancy, equipped with everything necessary for rest and recovery.
In the pediatric department, our little patients are accommodated together with their parents.
According to the tax legislation of the Russian Federation, each patient has the right to compensation up to 13% of the amount spent by him on his treatment, as well as the treatment of close relatives.
Our specialists will prepare for you a package of documents for the tax office for a refund of 13% of the cost of treatment, as well as give recommendations on various ways of interacting with the tax office.
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90,000 Abdominal hernia.Symptoms of a hernia of the abdomen. Treatment and surgery.
A hernia is the exit under the skin of the contents of the abdomen through an opening in the muscles of the abdominal wall. In general, structurally, a hernia of the abdomen resembles a hernia on a car wheel, when through the torn cord of the lateral part of the tire, under the influence of loads, the rubber begins to bulge out from the inside out. Abdominal hernias are classified as common:
and more rare:
- Hernia of the Spigelian line;
- Lumbar hernia;
- Paracolostomy hernia.
We should also mention diaphragmatic hernias, which are internal hernias. With her, the abdominal organs through the holes in the diaphragm go into the chest cavity. That is, with this type of hernia, there is no characteristic protrusion under the skin.
Symptoms of a hernia of the abdomen
The most basic symptom is the presence of a typical protrusion in the area of the hernia. With an unrestrained (uncomplicated) hernia, this protrusion will be painless, have a soft-elastic consistency, and may increase in the standing position and against the background of physical exertion.In the supine position, the hernia may completely disappear (reposition), but this does not mean that such hernias should not be eliminated. Also, the symptoms of a hernia may be due to which organ enters it. Those. in the presence of a hernia of the bladder, there may be problems with urination, and in the presence of a large intestine, with a bowel movement. A very formidable complication of a hernia is its infringement. It is the risk of this complication that determines the need to operate on all, even the smallest hernias. With infringement, pain develops in the area of the hernial protrusion.The protrusion itself becomes dense, hot, and becomes red. If no assistance is provided at this stage, necrosis of the contents of the hernia develops, its suppuration, which can lead to the most unpleasant, including deaths.
Treatment of abdominal hernia
Considering that a hernia is precisely an anatomical and not a functional disorder, it becomes obvious that the treatment of a hernia can only be surgical. For each type of hernia, there are separate operations with many technical nuances.Nevertheless, there are general principles for the operation of all types of hernias. The meaning of the operation for any type of hernia is to reposition the contents into the abdominal cavity and eliminate the defect in the abdominal wall. So, to close defects in the overwhelming majority of cases, “patches”, polypropylene nets are used, which strengthen the fabrics in the elimination of the defect. However, the use of these grids does not imply a standardized patch installation. Only correct and competent separation of the components of the abdominal wall, their transfer and stitching in a certain order, and reinforcement with a mesh endoprosthesis can provide reliable plastic surgery and minimize the risk of recurrence.It is also necessary to use modern mesh endoprostheses of sufficient size and the desire to install the mesh from the inside, not outside the abdominal cavity (“sublay” plastic). A similar principle is used in the repair of car tires, when the master seeks to install a large patch from the inside, which pressure will press and hold, and not tear off, as with plastic from the outside. All these principles can be observed using laparoscopy, which is done in our clinic in the treatment of hernias of various localizations.Moreover, we are the authors of one of the modifications of laparoscopic repair of incisional hernias. Naturally, a specific type of operation is selected in each individual case after an in-person consultation, taking into account the size and location of the hernia, its size, complexion, weight and age of the patient, the presence of concomitant diseases and many other factors.
90,000 Abdominal hernia !!!
Hernias: clinic, diagnosis, treatment.
A hernia of the abdomen is a very common condition.It can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender. This pathology develops in many mammals due to the weakening of the muscle and connective tissue of the abdominal wall. Therefore, those who have pets may have seen a hernia on the stomach of a kitten or dog. Why does a hernia appear and how is it treated?
The abdominal wall is a complex anatomical structure, formed mostly by connective and muscle tissue. Its function is to support the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.A certain balance is developed between intra-abdominal pressure and the resistance of the abdominal wall. Sometimes this balance is disturbed, and internal organs begin to leave the abdominal cavity through weak points under the skin, a hernia of the abdomen is formed, the photo or appearance of which eloquently speaks of the presence of the disease. It is almost impossible to confuse it with another pathology.
The causes of hernias are:
Hereditary or acquired weakness of the abdominal wall;
· Connective tissue diseases;
· Age-related changes;
· Prolonged fasting;
· Physical overvoltage;
· Attempts at childbirth;
· Lifting weights.
Injuries and postoperative scars can also contribute to the development of a hernia. The cause of internal hernia is anomalies of embryonic development and chronic perivisceritis.
Types of abdominal hernias
Depending on what kind of weak hernial point, unable to withstand the intra-abdominal pressure, allowed the internal organs to go beyond the abdominal wall, the following types of abdominal hernias are distinguished:
Inguinal hernia – abnormal protrusion of organs under the skin through weakened muscles in the groin.Most often found in medical practice. As a rule, men over 40 years old are susceptible to this type of hernia. In this case, in a man, the spermatic cord or loop of the intestine can go beyond the limits of the spermatic cord, in women – the uterus, ovary or bladder.
· Perineal – located in the pelvic floor with a protrusion under the skin. Passing through muscle tissue, a hernia can protrude into the anterior wall of the rectum or vagina, the perineal fossa, or the lower part of the outer labia.This type of hernia is most often diagnosed in women.
· Hernias of the white line of the abdomen – the exit of the omentum and other internal organs of the peritoneum beyond through the opening, which is formed in the midline of the abdomen. Pathology originates from the pubis and passes through the navel to the chest area. The disease is rarely asymptomatic.
· Femoral – occurs in women over 30 years of age. Such a hernia reaches an impressive size, although less often it is infringed.In most cases, its contents are an omentum or a loop of the intestine. The provoking factors for the occurrence of a femoral hernia are excessive physical activity, pregnancy and chronic constipation.
Umbilical – occur when the internal organs leave the abdominal cavity beyond the umbilical ring. The reason for this pathology is a decrease in the tone of the abdominal muscles. Umbilical hernia occurs quite rarely and mainly in women, more often in those who have given birth.
Lateral – can appear in the vaginal area, and in case of injury – anywhere.The cause of their occurrence is obesity, violation of muscle innervation, and inflammatory processes. Fat penetrating into the openings of blood vessels promotes their expansion, which makes it possible to create excellent conditions for the development of hernial formation.
Signs of a hernia of the abdomen
The clinic of a hernia of the abdomen is nonspecific, but quite recognizable. When determining a hernia of the abdomen, the most obvious symptom of the disease is pain syndrome, which is accompanied by a bursting sensation.There may also be cramping pains that differ in severity and frequency.
Soreness can appear only with physical exertion, after which it subsides a little. Constipation, nausea and vomiting are common. The appeared hernia is clearly visible to the patient and at first may disappear when the body takes a horizontal position.
The most obvious symptoms and signs of the disease are pulling pain and protrusion.Therefore, the question of how to determine a hernia of the abdomen is not particularly difficult. Patients often make this diagnosis on their own.
Pathological swelling in the early stages protrudes more strongly with exertion, coughing, sneezing, and at rest it can disappear. Later, when the hernia orifice is expanded even more, the hernia increases significantly in size, there is a risk of its infringement and the development of various complications. Therefore, any hernia is considered dangerous and requires treatment.
Possible complications of a hernia
The main danger posed by a hernia of the abdomen is infringement. This condition can occur when the intestinal loop enters the hernial sac. The process of infringement is associated with the contraction of the abdominal muscles, which helps to reduce the hernial ring. Ultimately, there is a deterioration in blood circulation, against which intestinal necrosis can form – tissue death. When a hernia is infringed, the following complications are possible:
· Serious intoxication of the body;
· Peritonitis – an inflammatory process of the abdominal cavity;
· Disruption of the kidneys and liver.
How to treat abdominal hernia
In very rare cases, a hernia lends itself to conservative treatment and correction with physiotherapy exercises and massage. More often it requires surgical intervention. And if the infringement of vital internal organs has already occurred, then the operation is carried out on an emergency basis.
The choice of surgical methods for removing a hernia is quite wide today. Depending on the type of hernia and the technical complexity of the operation, the doctor may recommend hernioplasty using the method of tension or implantation of a mesh implant to close the hernial orifice.
There are categories of patients for whom surgery is contraindicated or is prescribed only in emergency cases, when the risk associated with complications of a hernia significantly outweighs the risk of surgery. Such patients include children under the age of 1 year, pregnant women, people suffering from chronic or infectious diseases, diseases associated with metabolic disorders, for example, diabetes mellitus.
Operation to remove hernia
As easy as the hernia situation may seem, the only way to deal with such a problem is to have surgery.Such pathologies do not disappear on their own. Over time, the amount of protrusion only increases and creates a danger to human health and life.
Moreover, if the hernia is in the body for too long, deformation of the adjacent tissues occurs. And this, in turn, can have a direct impact on the outcome even after surgery. Even a special bandage and reduction are not able to solve problems with a hernia. Wearing a bandage will not diminish the likelihood of pinching in any way.
There is only one type of hernia that can disappear on its own – an umbilical hernia in a child under five years old. In other cases, surgical intervention is indispensable.
A specialist should be consulted immediately at the first suspicion of a hernia. The sooner the patient is operated on, the more chances of an easy recovery without complications. As soon as the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient will have to undergo additional examination, including testing.These measures are necessary in order to assess the overall health of a person. A detailed analysis of all parameters of the patient and the presence of concomitant diseases allows the surgeon to determine the appropriate treatment option, adapted to the characteristics of the organism of a particular person.
The modern possibilities of medicine are simply amazing
In the process of hernia surgery, a kind of patch is placed, which is made of mesh material. Subsequently, it will grow into the tissue, which will further prevent the appearance of a hernia.The percentage of recurrent hernias in this case is minimal.
The operation is performed under local or general anesthesia. It all depends on the severity of the disease and on the condition of the patient. But surgeons accept intravenous pain relief, because in this case all the patient’s muscles are relaxed. This makes it easier for the doctor to carry out the necessary manipulations. Under local anesthesia, the patient is under tension, which only aggravates the surgical process, and this can negatively affect the outcome after the operation.
The duration of the surgical intervention is from 1 to 2 hours. Moreover, after the operation, the patient does not lose the ability to move independently, and after a few days he can already go home.
In the surgical department of the round-the-clock hospital of the Pervomaisk central regional hospital, operations are performed for all types of external abdominal hernias, plastic surgery is performed using a mesh implant. During the application period, this medical device has proven itself very well – there were no cases of mesh rejection, discomfort in the late postoperative period is very rare.The operation is performed by experienced surgeons with the highest qualification category, with a smooth postoperative period, the duration of stay in the surgical department is from 7 to 10 days, depending on the type and size of the hernia. The mesh implant is provided absolutely free of charge to citizens with a medical insurance policy.
Come to us for treatment. Remember: a timely performed operation saves you from many health troubles !!!
90,000 Types of hernias.Diagnostics and treatment.
With the help of pulping, it is possible to determine the density of the hernia and the condition of the nearby organs. After the examination, the doctor prescribes instrumental examination methods, which method will be used depends on the type of hernia.
Instrumental examination methods:
- Computed tomography.
- Magnetic resonance imaging.
Each type of hernia is characterized by certain symptoms. Today the most common abdominal hernias are . Symptoms: recurring pain while walking, coughing and during physical exertion. When a person is in a calm state, the pain may become weaker or disappear altogether.
Femoral hernia most often occurs in the female half of humanity.Symptoms: sharp, severe pain, more like spasms, an oval-sized tumor is visible. It becomes quite difficult for the patient to move.
Due to the divergence of the muscles of the abdominal cavity, a hernia of the white line can form . This is a very unpleasant and painful disease. Symptoms: severe, sharp pain, similar to pain in a peptic ulcer.
A strong half of humanity most often has inguinal hernia .It can be divided into two types – straight and oblique. Symptoms depend primarily on the location of the hernia and its size. The larger the tumor, the more difficult it is for a person to move, pain can be given not only to the groin area, but also to the sacrum and lower back.
In the region of the navel, there may be umbilical hernia . The swelling can be clearly seen by pressing the abdomen with your fingers. Such a hernia is not prone to infringement. Symptoms: May not cause discomfort at all.As it increases, adhesions may form, and recurrent pain, nausea, and constipation may occur.
Herniated disc may result from premature wear of the intervertebral discs. Symptoms: at the very beginning of the disease, a hernia may not manifest itself in any way. Over time, pain and swelling may appear in the area of the hernia.
One of the most serious complications that can arise is a strangulated hernia .As a rule, pinching occurs in the presence of an old hernia, which gradually increases. Symptoms: acute pain, nausea and vomiting, constipation, intoxication of the body.
Postoperative hernia is formed after surgical intervention against the background of suture divergence. Symptoms: acute pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation.
Today, there is only one way to treat a hernia – surgery.
Most of the Krasnoyarsk medical centers are equipped with all the necessary equipment for safe surgical intervention. The wearing of special bandages is indicated only in cases where the patient is inoperable. At the appointment, the doctor will tell you how the operation will be performed – open or endoscopic, through a puncture. In Krasnoyarsk, quite a few clinics offer endoscopic surgeries, it is not only less dangerous, but also more aesthetically pleasing, since the scar after the operation remains quite small.The surgical method is the most effective and guarantees a cure in 90% of cases. 15 days after the operation, the patient can return to a fulfilling life.
Herniated disc – Noosphere Clinic
Many people experience back pain. And most often the cause is a disease such as an intervertebral hernia. This disease affects people of all ages. But most often those who have crossed the thirty-year line are faced with it.
What is hidden under a hernia of the spine
Discs are located between the vertebrae, which are responsible for the flexibility and strength of this section. Each disc consists of a hard shell, which is an annulus fibrosus and a nucleus pulposus.
Sometimes, due to careless movement or vigorous physical activity, the annulus fibrosus breaks. Then, fluid begins to flow from the nucleus pulposus, which pinches the nerve endings located in the spinal cord.The disc begins to protrude in different directions, provoking the occurrence of a hernia.
There are several types of this disease:
- Lumbosacral region. This is the most common type of vertebral hernia, it occurs in 80% of cases of the disease.
- Cervical spine. This type of herniated disc is less common, in 19% of cases.
- Thoracic department. A rare form of the disease, about 1% of cases.
Symptoms of the disease
For treatment to be effective, it should be started in the early stages of the disease.It is important to know what symptoms may indicate a herniated disc. And they largely depend on what kind of disk was damaged. If we are talking about the lower back, then the person may be disturbed by the following symptoms:
- pain in the lower back;
- numbness in the legs;
- discomfort in the lumbar region.
With a vertebral hernia of the cervical spine, a person feels unpleasant symptoms in the shoulders and neck. He is often tormented by dizziness.The pressure rises regularly, there is a noise in the ears, and the fingers become numb.
If a herniated disc develops in the sternum, then severe pain arises in this place, from which even heart medications cannot save.
Causes of the disease
The causes of herniated discs are varied. The disease is often a complication of diseases such as osteochondrosis, scoliosis, excessive kyphosis, or lordosis. A hernia can develop as a result of an injury to the spine – a fall on the back or a strong blow.
The disease can occur due to malnutrition of the discs. There are no blood vessels in the intervertebral discs. They feed on the movement of the deep back muscles. If the muscles do not receive sufficient load, the nutrition of the discs deteriorates, they become weaker. Then one sharp movement is enough to rupture the fibrous ring of the disc.
Risk factors for a herniated disc include:
90 093 90 094 age over 30 years old, height above 170 cm;
90 094 jerky movements: blows, falls, turns;
The danger of such a disease
If a herniated disc occurs, it is important to start treatment in a timely manner. Otherwise, later you will be faced with serious complications. The possible consequences of such a disease include:
- impaired work of the heart muscle;
- development of gastritis;
- chronic bronchitis;
- sciatica, which is difficult to treat.
This disease significantly disrupts the process of normal blood circulation in the brain.This subsequently contributes to the development of strokes. In some cases, a herniated disc can provoke an inflammatory process in the pancreas.
But the most dangerous is the stage at which the intervertebral hernia begins to compress the spinal cord. This leads to disruption of the functioning of many important internal organs, to impaired sensitivity and even to paralysis of the upper and lower extremities.
Only qualified specialists should be engaged in the treatment of intervertebral hernia.These are the doctors who work in the Noosphere clinic. Our doctors are trying to cope with this disease and relieve pain in the lumbar spine without surgery.
For this, an individual course of therapy is selected for each patient. In this case, the doctor always takes into account the very cause of such a disease, the gender and age of the patient, as well as the characteristics of his body.
The duration of such therapy can take from three to six weeks. But a noticeable positive result is felt after the first week of treatment.A complete course consists of the following procedures:
- Resonance-wave therapy is a method of therapeutic action on the aquatic environment of the body with low-intensity high-frequency electromagnetic waves.
- Fermatron intra-articular injections are an effective method of treating various diseases of the musculoskeletal system by injecting a drug (chondroprotector) into the affected joint.
- Treatment of the spine and joints with the Thera-Band will restore limb mobility in a short period of time without expensive treatment in specialized sanatoriums.
- Joint blockade is a type of medical treatment of the spine and joints, aimed at relieving acute pain, relieving inflammation and muscle spasms.
- Medical treatment of joints and spine in the Noosphere clinic is used in a wide range and in combination with physiotherapy. Intra-articular injections, blockages and droppers.
Upon completion of the treatment course at the Noosphere clinic, each patient will receive the following results:
- muscle spasms and unpleasant pain sensations will disappear;
- will decrease the compression of nerve endings in the area of the affected area;
- the work of all internal organs is stabilized;
- muscle corset will become stronger;
- the disturbed range of motion will be restored;
- blood pressure is normalized;
- will solve the problem with the existing stagnation in the tissues;
- the structure of the muscular system will improve several times.
90 094 puffiness will become less pronounced;
Treatment in our clinic can have a positive effect on the general well-being of a person. All recovery processes will be stimulated, which will increase efficiency and restore disturbed sleep.
After the entire treatment course, our specialists try to support their patients. They are given recommendations that make it possible to preserve the result obtained and to protect themselves from the repeated return of the disease.
Operation and rehabilitation
In most cases, treatment of a herniated disc without surgery will help cure the disease.However, if the hernia progresses, the doctor may order surgery. After surgical removal of the hernia, the patient immediately feels relief. However, this method has serious disadvantages:
- As a result of the operation, the spine is injured, loses its flexibility;
- there is a high probability that the hernia will appear again.
Surgical treatment of a herniated disc eliminates the complication, but not the main cause of the disease – osteochondrosis. According to statistics, in 98% of cases, patients feel better after surgery for a short time.Then their condition worsens and the disease progresses.
Surgery is a last resort treatment. Successful removal of an intervertebral hernia does not yet guarantee a complete victory over the disease. After the operation, the patient is forced to move a little. Complications are not excluded, due to which a herniated disc may appear again. To prevent this, experts advise to undergo a course of rehabilitation conservative treatment.
The doctors of our clinics will compose a complex of procedures for the patient that will help to recover from the operation and consolidate its positive effect.
For therapy to have a prolonged result, patients need to adhere to medical recommendations. The following tips will help you to avoid a spinal hernia:
- should regularly engage in moderate sports, which include callanetics, pilates or yoga;
- while walking, you need to monitor the position of the head and back, which should be kept straight;
- for sleeping it is best to use an orthopedic mattress;
- working at a laptop or computer, you need to lean your back on a chair, and your feet should touch the floor surface.
90 094 every six months you should undergo a course of therapeutic massage;
It is also recommended to quit smoking and bend your spine so that your back is rounded. These guidelines will help reduce the risk of herniated discs.
Correctly composed nutrition for such a disease also has its own special meaning. The main points of drawing up a medical menu include:
- Sufficient use of steamed or boiled dishes;
- Most of the diet should be taken by vegetables, cereals, milk soups, chicken and bread with bran;
- it is imperative to eat foods containing useful amino acids, namely cheese and milk, fish and beef;
- it will be necessary to give up hot spices, canned foods, fatty foods and broths;
- Strong tea and coffee are best replaced with herbal tea.
Such recommendations will allow you to normalize nutrition, which will promote good health and prolonged results after the treatment course of intervertebral hernia.
ABDOMINAL HERNIA COMPLICATIONS
Abdominal hernia surgery ¦ Complications of abdominal hernias
Infringement of a hernia of the abdomen is considered the most frequent and most dangerous complication that can occur with this pathology.In this case, the internal organs released into the hernial sac are usually compressed in the area of the hernial orifice, although it can occur in the neck of the hernial sac, and directly in the sac itself, or rather in one of its chambers (with multi-chamber hernias). The main clinical sign of a sudden infringement of a hernia is the appearance of acute pain at the site of its exit. The situation requires immediate surgical resolution.
An unreducible hernia is a hernia, the contents of which are not adjusted back into the abdominal cavity.This problem arises as a result of the formation of connective tissue adhesions between the walls of the hernial sac and the internal organs that have emerged into its lumen. Often, such hernias are multi-chambered. An irreducible hernial protrusion (as opposed to a strangulated one) is painless or gives a slight intensity of unpleasant sensations, is not tense and is not accompanied by symptoms of intestinal obstruction. When straining, an irreducible hernia may slightly increase in volume. It can be complicated by coprostasis and partial intestinal obstruction.Hernia repair is carried out in a planned manner, however, if an infringement is suspected, an urgent operation is indicated.
Coprostasis, or, in other words, fecal stagnation in the hernial sac develops as a result of weakening of intestinal motility and is usually observed in the elderly and old people suffering from a tendency to constipation. The predisposing factors here are a sedentary lifestyle, obesity and abundant food. Symptoms build on slowly. Patients complain of persistent stool retention, general malaise, unexpressed pain, nausea.The hernial protrusion has a doughy consistency and slowly increases in size. Such patients are conducted conservatively, prescribing a light massage of the hernial protrusion, enemas with vaseline oil or glycerin and emptying the stomach with a probe. Laxatives are contraindicated due to the fact that, due to the overflow of the adductor loop, they contribute to the transition of coprostasis into the so-called fecal form of infringement.
Inflammation of a hernia of the abdomen occurs against the background of infection of the hernial sac and its contents.By the way, it is from the side of the latter that, as a rule, this pathological process begins. However, the penetration of infection can occur from the abdominal cavity and from the skin. Inflammation of a hernia usually proceeds in an acute form as serous, serous-fibrinous, purulent or putrefactive. Treatment of inflammation of a ventral hernia, if infection from the hernial contents has led to it, involves performing urgent surgical intervention with the removal of the source of infection.If the cause is inflammation of the skin, the tactics are conservative.
Hernia tuberculosis is rarely encountered in practice. Basically, it is of a secondary nature and is expressed either in an isolated lesion of the walls of the hernial sac, or the internal organs contained in it, or a mixed version develops. During the examination, special attention is paid to the condition of the lymph nodes of the mesentery and ileocecal region. If a tuberculous process is detected during an operation for restrained or non-restrained hernias, the intervention is performed according to the usual plan, followed by complex antibiotic therapy.
Foreign bodies (calculi, detached parts of the omentum and fatty deposits of the colon) in the hernial sac, damage to it and its contents, tumors (fibromas, lipomas, fibrolipomas, sarcomas and carcinomas) are very rare.
(495) 506-61-01 – where it is better to operate on abdominal hernia
Hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm – (Clinic Di Center)
Hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm
A hiatal hernia is a displacement into the chest cavity through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm of the lower part of the esophagus, part of the stomach, and sometimes intestinal loops.Normally, the ligamentous apparatus of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm, subphrenic adipose tissue and the natural anatomical arrangement of the abdominal organs prevent the movement of organs lying under the diaphragm into the chest cavity. The disease promotes the throwing of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus, so heartburn is its main symptom. A hernia exists in every twentieth adult, and over the age of 50 – in every second.
What are the causes of a hernia?
The cause of a hernia may be a weakening of the ligamentous apparatus.It is present in 5% of the entire adult population and in about 50% over the age of 50 (age-related weakening of the ligamentous apparatus), more often found in untrained, asthenic people. Another factor provoking the development of this disease is a significant increase in intra-abdominal pressure due to severe flatulence, pregnancy, trauma or large tumors of the abdominal cavity, bouts of indomitable vomiting or persistent cough (for example, in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis).Dyskenisia (disturbances of peristalsis) of the digestive tract, in particular the esophagus, which are often observed against the background of chronic inflammatory diseases, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastroduodenitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis), can also lead to the development of a hernia. In rare cases, it is caused by malformations of embryonic development (short esophagus, pectoral stomach).
What are the symptoms?
A hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm leads to insufficiency of the obturator mechanisms located at the border of the stomach and esophagus, which means that it provokes the throwing of the acidic contents of the stomach into the esophagus and the development of reflux esophagitis.A small hernia may not show any symptoms and is usually detected during a diagnostic examination associated with another disease.
In cases where the hernia is large, but the obturator mechanisms at the border of the esophagus and stomach are still functioning adequately, the main manifestation of the disease is pain in the chest, in the heart or in the epigastric region. Pain occurs immediately after eating, when lifting weights or against a background of stress, and can last from several minutes to several days.Dysphagia (violation of food swallowing) is often noted. If the hernial sac is compressed, then there are dull aching pains in the epigastric or epigastric region or behind the sternum.
In case of insufficiency of the obturator mechanisms, the main symptom of a hiatal hernia is heartburn. It occurs after eating, a sharp change in body position, more often at night, which is explained by an increase in the tone of the vagus nerve. Starting as burning heartburn, discomfort can turn into painful sensations.
What complications can a hernia cause?
A hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm can indeed cause coronary pain due to irritation of the vagus nerve and subsequent spasm of the coronary vessels of the heart, this situation is fraught with the development of serious cardiovascular complications up to myocardial infarction. Another extremely unpleasant symptom is belching of stomach contents or air. If a large volume of gastric contents is regurgitated, especially at night, this can lead to the development of aspiration pneumonia.Regurgitation is not preceded by nausea or stomach contractions; it occurs by contraction of the esophagus.
Diagnosis of a hiatal hernia is difficult, since its symptoms are very diverse, it is often combined with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and proceeds with complications. No wonder this disease is figuratively called “masquerade of the upper abdomen.” To make a diagnosis, an X-ray of the esophagus is performed with barium sulfate construction, the motility of the esophagus is examined using esophagomanometry, and daily pH-metry is performed.
Hernia treatment and prevention
Since the clinical picture of the disease in the overwhelming majority of cases is determined by reflux of gastric contents, then the treatment is the same as for reflux esophagitis.