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Crabs symptoms male: Pubic lice symptoms & treatment


Pubic lice symptoms & treatment


  • Pubic lice are tiny insects found on coarse human body hair, such as the hair around your genitals.
  • They are passed on through close bodily contact with someone who has pubic lice and are usually sexually transmitted – which is when they move from one person to another during sex.
  • Pubic lice cannot be prevented from spreading during sex – even by using condoms.
  • A simple examination by a healthcare provider can easily tell if you have pubic lice.
  • Pubic lice can be treated at home with insecticide cream, lotion or shampoo.

If you’ve had unprotected sex, or you’re worried about pubic lice or other STIs, get tested as soon as possible – even if you don’t have symptoms.

What are pubic lice?

Pubic lice, also known as crabs – are tiny parasitic insects that live on coarse human body hair, such as pubic hair (the hair around your genitals). They can also sometimes be found in other body hair such as underarm hair and beards, but don’t live in the hair on your head. They are also called crabs because they have two large front legs that look like the claws of a crab.

Adult pubic lice and lice eggs are very small (2mm long) and can be seen in coarse hair. They are a yellow-grey or dusky red colour and have six legs. The lice lay their eggs (nits) in sacs that stick to hair and are a pale brownish colour. When the eggs hatch, the empty egg sacs are white.

Pubic lice need human blood to survive, so will only leave the body to move from one person to another. They crawl from hair to hair, they can’t fly or jump.

Are pubic lice serious?

Infestation is not usually serious, but it’s important to get treatment to avoid minor complications such as an infection from scratching or eye irritation.

How do you get pubic lice?

Pubic lice can be passed on easily and you can get them if you:

  • are in close contact with the body of someone who has pubic lice – most commonly sexual contact, including vaginal, anal or oral sex.
  • hug and kiss someone who has lice.
  • share clothes, towels and bedding – although this is much less common. 

Pubic lice, HIV and sexual health

  • Pubic lice don’t carry other diseases, and although they feed on blood, pubic lice cannot pass on HIV or other STIs.
  • If you are taking antiretrovirals, it is important to discuss with your doctor how treatment for pubic lice may interact with your HIV drugs.

If you’re worried about HIV infection, find out everything you need to know in our HIV Transmission and Prevention section

How do I protect myself against pubic lice?

  • To prevent infestation, avoid having sexual or other close contact or sharing bedding or clothing with anyone who has lice.
  • Using condoms and other methods of barrier contraception don’t protect you.

Ask your doctor or healthcare worker for advice.

What do pubic lice symptoms look like?

It can be several weeks before any symptoms appear.

Symptoms for women and men include:

  • itching – the most common symptom – and usually worse at night
  • inflammation and irritation caused by scratching 
  • black powder in your underwear 
  • blue spots or small spots of blood on your skin, such as on your thighs or lower abdomen (caused by lice bites).

Can I get tested for pubic lice?

Yes – pubic lice are usually easy to diagnose. A healthcare professional will examine you and may use a magnifying glass to look for signs of the lice or their eggs.

If you have pubic lice, you should be tested for other STIs . The lice don’t transmit HIV or other STIs, but a check-up is a good idea as a precaution. It’s also important that you tell the people you live with, other people you have been in close bodily contact with and your recent sexual partner/s so that they can be checked and treated. This is important to stop the lice being passed on, and can stop you from getting them again.

How are pubic lice treated?

  • Pubic lice can be treated at home with insecticide cream, lotion or shampoo without a prescription. A pharmacist can provide advice.
  • Some treatments only need to be applied to the affected area, but sometimes the whole body must be treated, and treatment usually needs to be repeated after three to seven days.
  • Certain groups, such as young people under 18 years of age and pregnant or breastfeeding women, may require a specific type of treatment. Your healthcare provider can advise on this.
  • Wash all clothes, towels and bedding in hot water (50°C or higher) when you start treatment. If there are some things that you can’t wash, put them in an airtight bag for three days.

Whether you can see the lice and their eggs or not, don’t have sex or close body contact with other people until you and your current sexual partner/s have finished your treatment and have been checked to make sure the lice have gone.

Complications of pubic lice

Occasionally, a pubic lice infestation can lead to minor complications, such as skin or eye problems.

  • Scratching can lead to an infection such as impetigo (a bacterial skin infection) or furunculosis (boils on the skin).
  • Eye infections, such as conjunctivitis, and eye inflammation, such as blepharitis, can sometimes develop if your eyelashes have been infested with pubic lice.
  • Untreated, long-standing infestations can cause you to feel generally unwell.


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Pubic Lice (“Crabs”) | Young Men’s Health

Pubic lice are tiny, round, wingless insects that live on the skin. They’re also called crabs because they have “claws,” which they use to hang on to hair. They’re light brown and the size of a pinhead. Pubic lice feed on the blood of a human; however, they can live up to 24 hours away from the person. Crabs infect hairy parts of the body, especially around the pubic area but they can also be found in eyebrow, armpit, mustache, or beard hair. They can be very hard to see because they are tiny. If you do see them, you will notice they look like small scabs. A female louse can lay up to 26 eggs (also called nits) over 3-4 weeks’ time. The eggs then take about 8 days to hatch. The nits look like little white dots that are close to the hair root.

Am I at risk for getting pubic lice?

Anyone can get pubic lice. However, pubic lice are usually spread by sexual contact. People with more sex partners have a greater risk of getting infected with pubic lice.

What are the signs and symptoms of pubic lice?

If you have pubic lice, you may not have any symptoms. If you do get symptoms, they usually start 5 days to several weeks after getting the lice. You may get lots of itching around your pubic hair or genital area. The itching is because of an allergic reaction to the bites. If you scratch a lot, you’re putting yourself at risk of getting a skin infection.

How are pubic lice diagnosed?

Pubic lice are diagnosed by a health care provider who can carefully look at the infected area and prescribe medicine. It’s important to see your health care provider because pubic lice can be confused with other skin problems. Also, you should be tested for other sexually transmitted infections.

How are pubic lice treated?

There are several options, both over the counter and prescription medications, for treatment that you can talk about with your health care provider. These include special creams, lotions, or shampoos that you can buy in a drug store, as well as prescription lice medicines. The most common treatments are: Permethrin (Nix®, Rid) and Pyrethrin (A-200, Pronto, Tisit)

Things to know about treatment include:

  • Follow the directions that come with the medicine. Treatments may need to be applied more than once.
  • You should not shave your pubic hair to remove the lice or (crabs).
  • Apply the lotion or cream to the skin that is covered with hair.
  • Even after you finish treatment, you could have itching for a while.
  • If you scratch a lot, it may cause a skin infection.
  • If you have sign(s) of an infection such as redness or swelling of the skin in your pubic area, you should see your health care provider.

How can I prevent spreading pubic lice?

If you have pubic lice:

  • Avoid close body contact with others.
  • Get treatment right away to prevent spreading them to others.
  • Make sure you wash your clothes and bed sheets in hot water and dry them in a hot dryer. If you can’t wash them, either dry-clean them or place them in a sealed bag for 2 weeks.
  • If you find out you have pubic lice or “crabs”, you’ll need to tell your sex partner(s) or anyone you have had close contact with or has shared your bed sheets, clothes, or towels. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that anyone with confirmed pubic lice should be treated and other people living in the same home should get checked. Some doctors may also prescribe treatment for those who are sleeping with someone with confirmed pubic lice.

How can I avoid getting pubic lice?

You are unlikely to get pubic lice if you do not have sexual contact. You have a much lower chance of getting pubic lice if you have only one sex partner. Condoms don’t protect from pubic lice. Try not to use other people’s clothing or bed sheets. If you think you have pubic lice, see your health care provider as soon as possible to get treated!

If you’re concerned about pubic lice, here’s a tip on how to bring it up with your health care provider: “My groin is itchy. Could I have crabs?”

Crabs and scabies | Island Sexual Health

Crabs (pubic lice) and scabies

Crabs are tiny lice that live in pubic hair or other coarse body hair. Scabies are tiny mites that burrow under the skin of the hands or genital area to lay eggs. Both types of parasitic insect can be easily spread to another person.

Make an appointment at any of our clinics in Greater Victoria to have a healthcare provider check you for crabs and scabies, or to find out more.

  • How crabs and scabies are spread
  • Preventing crabs and scabies
  • Crabs and scabies symptoms
  • Risks of untreated crabs and scabies
  • Crabs and scabies tests and diagnosis
  • Treatment of crabs and scabies

More information from BCCDC on crabs and scabies

How crabs and scabies are spread

  • from close physical contact such as sexual activity, however they are not only sexually transmitted
  • you can also get them from sharing towels, bedding or clothing with an infected person
  • these insects can only survive for 24-48 hours off the body (their host) so it is unlikely that you would get them from a toilet seat

Preventing crabs and scabies

Condoms do not protect against crabs and scabies, because they are spread simply by close contact. Your best protection is to limit your sexual partners, and get regular STI testing.

Crabs and scabies symptoms

Scabies causes a rash with red, scratch-like lines or small bumps on the genitals or other parts of your body such as the hands and wrists. They cause intense itching which is worse at night.

Pubic lice (crabs) also causes itchiness which is often worse at night. Sometimes you can see the eggs (nits) at the base of the hair. It is possible to be infected with pubic lice and not have any symptoms.

Risks of untreated crabs and scabies

There are no serious complications or long term effects associated with pubic lice or scabies.

Crabs and scabies tests and diagnosis

Crabs and scabies are diagnosed by visual inspection. Make an appointment to see a doctor at any of our clinics in Greater Victoria.

Treatment of crabs and scabies

  • Crabs and scabies are easily treated with a special shampoo or lotion which can be purchased over the counter at a drug store; ask a pharmacist for help.
  • All bedding, towels and clothes used in the last 3 days must be laundered using the hot cycle for both washer and dryer.
  • You may need to repeat treatment in 7 – 10 days.

Public Lice


Common Name Pubic or Crab Louse


Scientific Name Phthirus pubis
Size 1-2 mm
Colour Immediately after oviposition they are shiny, round and transparent
Description The dorso-ventrally flattened body of the louse is
divided into head, thorax and abdomen. A pair of eyes and a pair of
antennae are clearly visible on the head. The mouthparts are adapted to
piercing the skin and sucking blood. The second and third pair of legs,
with their terminal claws are adapted to holding the hair-shaft, while
the first pair of leg holds the skin during feeding. Abdominal
protuberances on the side of the body are characteristic of this
species. Males are slightly smaller than females. The eggs are
oval-shaped and ca. 0.8 mm in length. Immediately after oviposition they
are shiny, round, and transparent. Pubic lice are 1-2- mm in size,
varying according to the stage of their development. They are usually
whitish-grayish in color though they become reddish-brown for some time
after a blood-meal.


Head Lice

Head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are about the size of a
sesame seed, and can easily be seen, although they hide quickly when
exposed to light. Their eggs, called nits, are barely visible whitish
ovals cemented to hair shafts.

Head lice are spread by personal contact and by shared brushes, combs,
hats and other personal items. The infestation sometimes extends into
the eyebrows, eyelashes, and beard. Head lice are a common scourge of
school children of all social strata.

Body Lice

Body lice (Pediculus humanus corporis) look very much like those
found on the head, but are actually a different species. While they
aren’t as easily transmitted as head lice are, they are more difficult
to spot, hiding in the seams of clothing and folds of bedding when not
actually feeding.

Body lice infestation is usually found in people who have poor hygiene
and those living in close quarters or crowded institutions. These lice
can carry diseases such as typhus, trench fever and relapsing fever.

Public Lice

Pubic lice (Phthirius pubis) are yellow-grey insects found in the
pubic region, and are typically spread during sexual contact. The size
of a pinhead, they are slightly translucent and barely visible against
light-coloured skin. With their shorter, rounder body shape and
crab-like claws with which they cling to hair, they resemble crabs –
hence their popular name. The eggs, which are barely visible, are tiny
white particles glued so firmly to hair shafts that they cannot be
removed by normal washing.


Habitat Although any part of the body may be
colonized, crab lice favor the hairs of the genital (Fig. 1) and peri-anal
region. Especially in male patients, pubic lice and eggs can also be
found in hair on the abdomen (Fig. 2) and under the armpits as well as
on the beard and mustache, while in children they are usually found in
eye-lashes (Fig. 3). Infestation with pubic lice is called Phthiriasis
or Pediculosis pubis, while infestation of eye-lashes with pubic lice is
called Phthriasis palpebrarum.

Lifecycle Pubic lice are insect parasites, spending their entire
life on the host’s hair and skin and feeding exclusively on blood, 4-5
times daily. The life-cycle from egg to adult is 22-27 days. The egg
hatches producing the first nymphal stage, which after three moltings
develops to nymph 2, nymph 3 and subsequently to either a male or female
louse. The incubation period of the egg is 7-8 days, while the rest of
the cycle is taken up with the development of nymphal stages. The
average adult female lives for 17 and the male for 22 days.

Disease Transmitted Several species of Culicoides spp are also important as
intermediary hosts of Onchocerca cervicalis, and as vectors of certain
viral diseases such as horse sickness in Africa.

Symptoms The main symptom is itching, usually in the pubic hair
area. This itch is frequently worse at night. It results from
hypersensitivity to louse saliva, and it becomes strong enough two or
more weeks following initial infestation. Sometimes the bite can cause
an inflammatory skin reaction that is bluish gray in color. Although the
lice do not cause a rash, the constant scratching and digging can cause
the skin to become raw, and secondary infections can develop.

In the majority of infestations a characteristic grey-blue or slate
coloration appears (maculae caeruleae) at the feeding site, which may
last for days and is also characteristic for the infestation. Pubic lice
are primarily spread through sweat and body contact or sexual contact.
Therefore, all partners with whom the patient has had sexual contact
within the previous 30 days should be evaluated and treated, and sexual
contact should be avoided until all partners have successfully completed
treatment and are thought to be cured. Because of the strong association
between the presence of pubic lice and classic sexually transmitted
diseases (STD), patients diagnosed with pubic lice should undergo
evaluation for other STDs. Infection in a young child or teenager may
indicate sexual abuse.

Head Lice:
Intense itching on the scalp, especially behind the ears and at the
nape of the neck. Children may hardly notice head lice or may have only
a vague scalp irritation in the beginning. With advanced infestation,
the scalp may become red and inflamed, with swollen glands near the area
where the lice are living.

Body Lice:

Itching is generally most intense on the shoulders, buttocks and
abdomen. Signs of lice include unexplained scratch marks on the body,
hives, eczema, or small red pimples on the shoulders or torso. If the
lice are not treated, welts may develop.

Pubic Lice:
Pubic lice cause continual itching around the penis, vagina and
anus, and perhaps a rash.


Type of Damage These parasites cause infection in humans that produces
dermatitis and skin lesions because the adult worms are located in the

Prevention Prevention of head lice is difficult, especially among
children, since lice spread quickly from head to head. To help prevent
lice, prevent children from sharing hats, hooded coats, scarves, combs,
brushes, pillows, and soft toys. If you discover lice on your child,
notify school or day-care authorities immediately, since classmates are
likely to be infected. Infected children should be kept home from school
until they are treated.

The best way to prevent lice in the genital area is monogamy or
avoidance of intimate sexual contact. Condoms are not a good protection
against lice because they do not cover the hairy areas where the lice
live. You should also avoid contact with contaminated clothing, bed
linen and toilet seats. Avoid sexual or intimate contact with infected
people. If sexually active, use safer sex behaviours to avoid getting
lice. Good personal hygiene is always recommended. If possible, avoid
trying on bathing suits. However, if you must, be sure to wear your
underwear while trying them on. This may prevent transmission.


Permethrin 1% cream rinse and pyrethrins can be used for this purpose
and are the drugs of choice for pregnant or lactating women. These
agents should be applied to the affected areas and washed off after 10
minutes. Shaving off or grooming any hair in the affected areas with a
fine-toothed comb is necessary to ensure full removal of the dead lice
and / or nits, though it does not suffice as treatment on its own.
Resistance of pubic lice to pyrethroids must be if at all very rare. A
second treatment after 10 days is recommended. Pubic lice on the
eyelashes can be treated with a permethrin formulation by applying the
solution to the infested hair with an applicator. It is dangerous to
remove lice or eggs in the eyelashes by plucking or cutting the hairs.

Lindane shampoo (1%), a pediculocide, is FDA approved as safe and
effective when used as directed for the second-line treatment of pubic
lice (crabs). While serious side effects have been reported, they are
considered to be rare and have almost always resulted from misuse of
medication, such as excessive application and oral ingestion. To
minimize this risk, Lindane medications are now dispensed in small
single-use bottles. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
notes that lindane should not be used immediately after a bath or
shower, and it should not be used by persons who have extensive
dermatitis, women who are pregnant or lactating or children aged under 2
years. The FDA similarly warns against use in patients with a history of
uncontrolled seizures disorders and premature infants, and recommends
cautious use in infants, children, the elderly, and individuals with
other skin conditions (e. g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and in those
who weigh less than 110 lbs (50 kg).

Head Lice

The most common treatment for head lice is to kill the adults with an
insecticidal shampoo and to clear out the nits with a special
fine-toothed comb. Of the medications for lice, permethrin is the
safest, most effective, and most pleasant to use, and is available over
the counter. For best results, follow the directions exactly. Other
family members should be treated too – about 60% of infected children
have relatives who carry lice.

To eliminate all lice and successfully prevent reinfection, wash all
clothing, towels and bed linen in hot, soapy water, and dry them in a
hot dryer. You can also disinfect bedding and other items such as hats
and clothing by placing them in a sealed plastic bag for 14 days; the
nits will hatch in about a week and die of starvation. Brushes and combs
can be disinfected by soaking them in hot, soapy water for 10 minutes.

If you prefer to avoid the use of insecticides, try a “combing only”
technique. Wash the hair with an ordinary shampoo and conditioner and
leave wet. With a fine-toothed comb, stroke slowly outward from the
roots through one lock of hair at a time. Lice will land on the back of
the comb, get caught between the teeth, or fall off. Space at least 30
strokes over the head. Repeat every three days. Because new-born lice do
not lay eggs for the first week, all lice should disappear after about
two weeks of combing.

Body Lice
To treat body lice, wash the entire body with soap and water. If
this is not effective, you may have to use an insecticidal preparation,
which usually kills all the lice. Wash all clothing and bedding in hot
water and dry them in a hot dryer. Store clothes for two weeks in sealed
plastic bags or place them in dry heat of 60 C for three to five days.

Pubic Lice
Pubic lice can be treated with non-prescription medications
containing pyrethrins (natural insecticides). Sexual partners will also
have to be treated. “Crabs” are sometimes found on eyelashes and
eyebrows, where they are difficult to treat. Remove them with tweezers,
or use an ophthalmic ointment such as physostigmine. Ordinary petroleum
jelly may kill or weaken lice on eyelashes too.


Crab Louse – an overview

Pediculosis pubis and scabies

Vulvar pruritis may be caused by animal parasites, the two most common being the crab louse and the itch mite. Ideally, early diagnosis and treatment are of the utmost importance in controlling parasitic infection.

Pediculosis pubis is an infestation by the crab louse, Phthirus pubis, which is a different species from the body or head louse. Lice in the pubic hair are the most contagious of all STIs, with more than 90% of sexual partners becoming infected after a single exposure, and although usually transmitted by close contact, nonsexual transmission of pubic lice via towels or bedding has been documented. P. pubis is generally confined to the hairy areas of the vulva. The incubation period for pediculosis is approximately 30 days.

The predominant clinical symptom is constant pubic pruritus caused by allergic sensitization. Initial sensitization typically takes several weeks to develop but may occur as rapidly as 5 days after initial infection. After a reinfection, pruritus may occur within 24 hours. Examination of the vulvar area without magnification demonstrates eggs and adult lice and pepper grain feces adjacent to the hair shafts (Fig. 23.3). The vulvar skin may become secondarily irritated or infected by constant scratching. For definitive diagnosis, one can make a microscopic slide by scratching the skin papule with a needle and placing the crust under a drop of mineral oil. The louse’s body looks like that of a miniature crab, with six legs that have claws on them (Fig. 23.4).

Scabies is a parasitic infection of the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, also transmitted by close contact. Scabies is widespread over the body, without a predilection for hairy areas. Unlike the crab louse, an itch mite travels rapidly over skin and may move up to 2.5 cm in 1 minute. Mites are able to survive for only a few hours away from the warmth of skin.

The predominant clinical symptom of scabies is severe but intermittent itching. Generally, more intense pruritus occurs at night. Initial symptoms usually present approximately 3 weeks after primary infestation. Scabies may present as papules, vesicles, with the pathognomonic sign of scabies the burrow in the. Although any area of the skin may be infected, the hands, wrists, breasts, vulva, and buttocks are the most common (Fig. 23.5). A handheld magnifying lens is helpful for examining suspicious areas. Microscopic slides may be made using mineral oil and a scratch technique Mites lack lateral claw legs but have two anterior triangular hairy buds. Scabies has been termed the great dermatologic imitator, and the differential diagnosis includes almost all dermatologic diseases that cause pruritus. The treatment of pediculosis pubis or scabies involves an agent that kills both the adult parasite and the eggs.

Treatment for pediculosis pubis and scabies can change, so consult the CDC treatment guidelines for updates. The therapy recommended by the CDC’s 2015 guidelines for pediculosis pubis involves the use of permethrin 1% cream rinse, applied to affected areas and washed off after 10 minutes, or pyrethrins, with piperonyl butoxide applied to the affected area and washed off after 10 minutes. None of these should be applied to the eyelids. Retreatment may be necessary if lice are found or if eggs are observed at the hair-skin junction. Patients with pediculosis pubis should be evaluated for other STIs and evaluated after 1 week if symptoms persist. Those who do not respond to one of the recommended regimens should be retreated with an alternative regimen.

To treat scabies, the CDC recommends permethrin 5% cream applied to all areas of the body from the neck down and washed off after 8 to 14 hours or ivermectin, 200 μg/kg orally, repeated in 2 weeks, if necessary. Alternative regimens include lindane 1%, 1 oz of lotion or 30 g of cream applied thinly to all areas of the body from the neck down and thoroughly washed off after 8 hours. Resistance to lindane has been reported in some parts of the United States. Lindane is not recommended as first-line therapy because of toxicity. It should only be used as an alternative if the woman cannot tolerate other therapies or if they have failed. Lindane should not be used immediately after a bath or shower and should not be used by persons who have extensive dermatitis, women who are pregnant or lactating, or children younger than 2 years. Patients with scabies have intense pruritus that may persist for many days after effective therapy. An antihistamine will help alleviate this symptom. Similar to pediculosis pubis, women should be examined 1 week after initial therapy and retreated with an alternative regimen if live mites are observed.

To avoid reinfection by pediculosis pubis or scabies, treatment should be prescribed for sexual contacts within the previous 6 weeks and other close household contacts. Those with close physical contact should be treated at the same time as the infected woman, regardless of whether they have symptoms. Bedding and clothing should be decontaminated (i.e., machine washed, machine dried using the heat cycle, or dry cleaned) or removed from body contact for at least 72 hours. Fumigation of living areas is not necessary. Importantly, women and physicians should not confuse the 1% cream rinse of permethrin dosage recommended for pubic lice with the 5% permethrin cream recommended for scabies.

Pubic Lice – STI

Is this your symptom?

  • Pubic lice, a sexually transmitted infection (STI)

Some Basics…

  • Pubic lice are tiny wingless insects that live only on human beings. They are also called “crabs.”
  • Pubic lice are very easy to spread to others. They are mainly spread through skin-to-skin contact during sex. If you have pubic lice, there is a 95% chance of spreading them during sex. It is possible that they can be spread through things like infected bed linens or toilet seats. But this is very rare.
  • Pubic lice are annoying but cause no serious health problems.
  • Up to 30% of people with pubic lice also have another sexually transmitted infection (STI).


  • Itching of the pubic area is the main symptom.
  • Pubic hair has gray bugs (lice) 1/16-inch (2 mm) long. They move quickly and are hard to see. Sometimes pubic lice spread to other hairy body areas such as armpits, chest, thighs, eyelashes and eyebrows.
  • Nits (white or tan eggs) stuck to hair shafts near the skin. Unlike dandruff or sand, nits can’t be shaken off the hair shafts.

When to Call for Pubic Lice – STI

Call Doctor or Seek Care Now

  • You feel weak or very sick

Contact Doctor Within 24 Hours

  • Pubic area looks infected (pus, soft scabs, or open sores)
  • Moving lice in pubic hair and it has been more than 12 hours since treatment
  • Pubic lice or nits come back within 1 month
  • Yellow, green, or gray vaginal discharge
  • White or yellow discharge from penis
  • You think you need to be seen

Contact Doctor During Office Hours

  • Pubic lice
  • You have other questions or concerns

Care Advice

Pubic Lice

  1. What You Should Know:
    • Pubic lice are tiny wingless insects that live only on human beings. They are also called “crabs.”
    • Pubic lice are annoying but cause no serious health problems.
    • Pubic lice are spread easily. They are spread by skin-to-skin contact during sex. They cannot jump.
    • You can treat pubic lice at home.
    • Here is some care advice that should help.
  2. Treatment – Shampoo Area with Nix: Buy Nix (permethrin) anti-lice creme rinse. Follow these instructions:
    • Pour about 2 ounces (60 mL) of the cream onto washed and towel-dried pubic hair. Add a little warm water to work up a lather. Be sure to work the cream into all the hair down to the roots. Also treat any hairy areas that are infected, such as the thighs, chest or armpits. Caution: do not use Nix on the eyebrows or eyelashes.
    • Leave the Nix on for a full 20 minutes (10 minutes is not long enough to kill all the lice).
    • Rinse the hair and dry it with a towel.
    • Use Nix again in 9 days to kill any nits that were missed.
    • Read and follow all package instructions and warnings carefully.
  3. Treatment – Using Other Lice Shampoos:
    • There are other over-the-counter lice shampoos made using pyrethrin. Examples include A-200 Clear, R&C, Pronto, and RID. Caution: do not use Nix on the eyebrows or eyelashes.
    • If this type of shampoo is used, it must be put on dry hair.
    • You should repeat the treatment in 7 days to kill and nits that were missed.
    • Read and follow all package instructions and warnings carefully.
  4. Special Treatment for Pubic Lice on Eyelashes and Eyebrows
    • If only a few lice or nits (eggs) are found, remove them. Pick them off or use a tweezers.
    • Sometimes lice and nits on the eyelashes can irritate the eyes.
    • Your doctor may recommend a petroleum ointment made just for eyes. You apply a small amount along the edge of the eyelid 2 to 4 times per day for 10 days. This loosens the nits and makes them easier to pull off.
    • Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully.
    • Caution: do not use Nix (permethrin) or other anti-lice shampoo near your eyes.
  5. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: The CDC says that women who are pregnant or breastfeeding can be treated with permethrin products (Nix).

  6. Sexual Contacts:
    • Sexual partners that you have had during the last month also need treatment. They still need to be treated even if they don’t see any lice.
    • Do not have sex until 2 weeks after treatment. All lice and nits should be gone before you have sex again.
  7. What to Expect:
    • With 2 treatments, all lice and nits should be killed.
    • If they come back, this can mean a few things. It most often means you have had another contact with an infected person. It can also mean the treatment was not left on long enough or repeated.
    • Even after treatment, itching may last for 1 to 2 weeks.
    • There are no lasting problems from having lice. They do not carry other diseases.
  8. Pregnancy Test, When in Doubt:
    • If there is a chance that you might be pregnant, use a urine pregnancy test.
    • You can buy a pregnancy test at the drugstore.
    • It works best first thing in the morning.
    • Follow all package instructions.
  9. Call Your Doctor If:
    • Pregnancy test is positive or you have trouble with the at-home test
    • Moving lice in pubic hair and it has been more than 6 hours since treatment
    • Pubic lice or nits come back within 1 month
    • You think you need to be seen
    • You get worse

How to Remove Dead Lice and Nits

  1. What You Should Know:
    • Only live lice can transmit lice to another person. Nits (lice eggs) do not transmit lice.
    • Most nits (lice eggs) are dead after the first treatment with Nix. The others will be killed with the 2nd treatment in 9 days.
    • Removing the dead nits is not essential. However, it may help with the anti-lice treatment and most people just find the notion of having nits in their hair unpleasant.
  2. Instructions:
    • Remove the dead nits and lice by combing with a special nit comb or pull them out one by one.
    • Repeat this every 2 to 3 days for 3 weeks, until you are sure all of the lice and nits are gone.
    • Wetting the hair with water makes removal easier.
    • Do not use any products that claim they loosen the nits. Here is the reason: they can interfere with the ability of Nix to stay on the hair and keep working.

And remember, contact your doctor if you develop any of the ‘Call Your Doctor’ symptoms.

Disclaimer: this health information is for educational purposes only. You, the reader, assume full responsibility for how you choose to use it.

Last Reviewed: 11/22/2021 1:00:41 AM
Last Updated: 10/28/2021 1:00:43 AM

Copyright 2021 Amazon.com, Inc., or its affiliates.

Crabs (Pubic lice) · Staying Negative

What is it?

Crabs (Phthirus pubis) are tiny mites that live on the skin at the base of hair follicles. Crabs lay eggs that are attached to the hairs and are usually seen in the pubic regions such as around your cock (penis) and arse (anus). Crabs can also be found in any body hair including beards, armpits, chest hair and eyelashes. 


Crabs cause intense itching of the affected areas. Close examination of the itchy area should find tiny born lice and white eggs attached to the hair.


Crabs are passed on through close skin-to-skin contact and sexual activity. Since they’re parasites, they’re able to move around in order to find a better place to live and can be transmitted through sharing clothes, bed sheets or towels. Transmission is difficult to avoid when fucking someone who has crabs as it’s likely you’ll have come into contact with an infected area, particularly due to the fondness crabs have for pubic hair.


You can treat crabs yourself with genital lice shampoos and creams available at pharmacies. These don’t require a prescription, so if you are feeling uncomfortable about going to a pharmacy (and big dark glasses won’t cut it), you can also order it online. At the time of treatment make sure you wash all your bed sheets, towels and clothing in warm, soapy water to get rid of any mites that may be hanging around. Sexual partners and anyone in close physical contact should also be treated. It is advisable to repeat the treatment after seven days because of how easily they are transmitted and the fact they can move around.

Shaving off your pubic and other body hair will not get rid of them!

Mark talks about his experience with crabs:

“The first thing I ever caught was crabs and that was a freak-out. I thought I had ants in my bed. When I realised what they were I sat in a hot bath with four buckets of salt in there trying to kill them. I didn’t know how to get rid of them. Eventually I had to slink into the chemist – with the hat and sunglasses on!”

Leo talks about his experience with crabs:

“I’m lucky that the only thing I ever picked up was crabs. I’ve had them probably five or six times. My flatmate, who was a lot more knowledgeable, sat me down on a piece of newspaper and sprayed me in the crutch with Mortein!” 

90,000 Crabs grow huge decorative claws

Large antlers betray a mature, strong deer, a large mane – a healthy and strong lion. But the alluring crab often bluffs openly: to replace broken claws, it grows “inflatable” ones, the size of which has nothing to do with their real strength.

Demonstrative manifestations of potential power by people, whether it be rocket launches, a military parade or muscle flexing in the literal sense – in bodybuilding competitions, often do not correspond to real possibilities.In the animal kingdom, size is also of paramount importance. Predators evaluate the potential strength of prey, and males fighting for the continuation of the genus – the capabilities of each other.

And of course, our smaller brothers are also not alien to simple tricks. Toads puff up, pheasants and owls open their feathers, bears stand on their hind legs, leaving claw marks on the trees as high as possible – and all just to impress a potential enemy. But cases of outright bluffing, when no adequate opportunities correspond to “large size”, have not been known to this day.



Simon Lelvoe of the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia and his colleagues uncovered a scam of a beckoning crab that uses its claw in all suitable and, as it turns out, inappropriate situations.

Males of several Uca sp. Species, themselves several centimeters in size, have a right claw, comparable to the whole body. With this formidable weapon, the male fights with others, hiding in a mink dug on the coast.With the same claw, the crab lures females to itself, for which the species got its name. The movements that the alluring males produce at the same time resemble the movement of a bow on a violin, hence the second name of almost a hundred species – “violin crab”.

Naturally, with such merciless use, the tool often breaks.In this case, the crab hides in its burrow and waits for a new claw to grow, outwardly no different from the old one. This is quite enough for bragging in front of the fair half. But for the fight, it is much less effective.

Scientists decided to check how the size corresponds to the real possibilities. The test males had to stand in a narrow tunnel from which they were pushed, and demonstrate the absolute strength of the claw.

The capabilities of the limbs that grew from childhood fully corresponded to their size: the larger the claw, the stronger the crab.

Regenerated grips, regardless of their size, were much inferior to even the most modest real paws in all respects.

And in general, their strength was almost independent of the size, which did not differ little from the size of the original claw.

The reason is insufficient muscle development, because the claw is just a strong external skeleton, a shell that, although it grows in the image and likeness of the old one, does not have time to restore muscle mass and good blood supply (or rather, hemolymph circulation).

Unfortunately, scientists have not figured out how the strength of the regenerated claws changes over time, so it is still impossible to say when a full recovery occurs, and whether it occurs at all. In addition, only one species of “violinist” Uca mjoebergi took part in the trials, as is typical for other species – additional research will show.

Authors of Functional Ecology publication are planning to test how effective this bluff is at luring females and “dancing” with other males, replacing crabs with real battles. And if the “inflatable” claws are effective, the next question will arise – why should crabs waste resources on real claws?

Ghost crab, aka Ocypode quadrata: description of the species

Contents of the article

Ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) belongs to the class of crustaceans.

Distribution of the ghost crab.

The habitat of the ghost crab is located in the range from 40 ° N. NS. up to 30 degrees, and includes the east coast of South and North America.

Ghost Crab (Ocypode quadrata)

The range extends from Island Santa Catarina in Brazil. This crab species also lives in the Bermuda region, larvae have been found far north near Woods Hole in Massachusetts, but no adults have been found at this latitude.

Habitat of the crab – ghosts.

Ghost crabs are found in tropical and subtropical regions. They are found in places with more protected estuary beaches. They live in the supralittoral zone (zone of the spring tide line), inhabit sandy beaches near the water.

External signs of a crab – ghosts.

The ghost crab is a small crustacean with a chitinous shell about 5 cm long. The color of the integument is either straw-yellow or grayish-white. The carapace is rectangular, rounded at the edges.The length of the carapace is approximately five-sixths of its width. There is a dense brush of hairs on the anterior surface of the first pair of legs. Unequal chelipeds (claws) are found on the limbs adapted for long walking. The eyes are clavate. The male is usually larger than the female.

A crab crawls out of the hole.

Breeding crab – ghosts.

Reproduction in ghost crabs occurs throughout the year, mainly in April – July, they can mate at any time after puberty. This feature is an adaptation to a terrestrial lifestyle. Mating occurs at a time when the chitinous cover completely hardens and becomes tough. Usually ghost crabs mate anywhere or near the male’s burrow.

Females are able to reproduce when the size of their shell exceeds 2.5 cm.

Carapax males in sexually mature crabs 2.4 cm. Usually ghost crabs give offspring at the age of about a year.

The female bears eggs under her body, during gestation, she constantly enters the water so that the eggs remain moist and do not dry out.Some females even roll over in the water to increase hydration and oxygen supply. In nature, ghost crabs live for about 3 years.

The crab crawls into the hole.

Features of the behavior of a ghost crab.

Ghost crabs are predominantly nocturnal. Crustaceans build new burrows or repair old ones in the morning. At the beginning of the day, they sit in their burrows and hide there until sunset. Burrows are 0. 6 to 1.2 meters long and about the same width.The size of the entrance is comparable to the size of the carapace. Young, small crabs tend to burrow closer to the water. While feeding at night, crabs can travel up to 300 meters, so they do not return to the same burrow every day. Ghost crabs hibernate in their burrows from October to April. This type of crustacean has an interesting adaptive feature to life on land.

Crabs – ghosts periodically rush to the water to wet their gills, they extract oxygen only when wet.But they are also capable of drawing water from wet ground. Ghost crabs use fine hairs located at the base of their limbs to channel water from the sand to their gills.

Ghost crabs burrow into wet sand in a 400 meter coastal zone.

Ghost crabs make sounds that occur when claws rub against the ground. This phenomenon is called stridulation (rubbing) and “gurgling sounds” are heard. This is how males warn of their presence in order to eliminate the need for physical contact with a competitor.

Crab feed – casts.

Crabs – ghosts are predators and scavengers, they feed only at night. The prey depends on the type of beach on which these crustaceans live. The crabs on the ocean beach tend to feed on Donax bivalve clams and Atlantic sand crabs, while on the more intimate beaches they feed on eggs and cubs of loggerhead sea turtles.

Ghost crabs hunt mostly at night to reduce the risk of being eaten by sandpipers, gulls or raccoons.When they leave their burrows during the day, they may slightly change the color of the chitinous cover to match the color of the surrounding sand.

The ecosystem role of the crab is ghosts.

Crabs are predators in their ecosystem and are part of the food chain.

Most of the food of these crustaceans is living organisms, although they also belong to the optional (optional) scavengers.

Ghost crabs are an important part of the food chain, playing an important role in the transfer of energy from organic detritus and small invertebrates to large carnivores.

This crustacean species has a negative impact on turtle populations. Attempts are being made to limit the consumption of turtle eggs by crabs.

Research has shown that ghost crabs consume up to 10% of turtle eggs when they hunt, and they also kill fish fry. In some cases, they destroy burrows and attract raccoons, which hunt crabs.

Crab – cast – indicator of the state of the environment.

Ghost crabs are used as indicators to assess the impact of human activities on sandy beaches.The population density of crustaceans can be fairly easily estimated by counting the number of holes dug in the sand in a certain place. Settlement density is always decreasing due to changes in habitat and soil compaction as a result of human activities. Therefore, monitoring the populations of ghost crabs will help to assess the impact of human activities on the ecosystems of the sandy beach.

Conservation status of the crab – ghosts.

Ghost crabs are not currently endangered. One of the main reasons for the decrease in the number of crabs is the decrease in the habitat due to the construction of residential buildings or tourist complexes in the upper littoral zone. A large number of ghost crabs die under the wheels of off-road vehicles, the disturbance factor disrupts the night feeding process and the reproductive cycle of crustaceans.

If you find an error, please select a piece of text and press Ctrl + Enter .

Mollies: breeding at home

As a rule, there are no difficulties with breeding mollies at home.After all, they belong to viviparous fish and give birth to ready-made fry, and do not lay eggs. Therefore, it remains only to select producers, create comfortable conditions for them, protect and feed the fry.

Simplicity of reproduction allows aquarists to try their hand at breeding, because by crossing different breeds of fish, fry with unusual body color and other characteristics can be brought out. It was in this way that all the variety of mollies that you can find on sale were obtained, for example, black mollies, yellow mollies, balloon mollies and many others.However, the breeding conditions for different breeds are completely identical.


mollies become sexually mature at the age of 8-12 months, and females are slightly
early – at 5-6 months.

Breeding mollies is quite possible in a common aquarium, and most often this is exactly what happens: in the presence of heterosexual individuals, one day you can find barely noticeable fry hiding among the ground, plants or decorations. But this method is only suitable if you do not want to keep the maximum number of offspring.After all, the fry can be easily eaten by both neighbors in the aquarium and their own parents. Also, in this case, the possibility of crossing the individuals you need is lost, because it is impossible to guess who fertilized a particular female in the general aquarium. Nevertheless, if you are not chasing breeding success, you can get offspring from fish regularly and in large numbers.

rational is the way in which you yourself select the best
producers and breed them in a separate aquarium.Percentage of fry survived
it will also be much higher.

Mollies can breed in separate and shared aquariums

Mollies do not lay eggs like most fish, but give birth to fully formed fry that can feed on their own. Scientists call this process ovoviviparity, and its essence is that eggs do not develop in the external environment, but in the abdominal cavity of the female. This is one of the evolutionary adaptations that increase the chances of survival of juveniles.

this mollies have an interesting feature – the male reproductive products can be preserved
in the body of the female for a long time, periodically fertilizing
newly formed eggs. Therefore, any female who was in the same aquarium with
male, in theory it can bring offspring, even if at the moment male
there are no individuals next to her.

Mollies do not require any specific conditions for breeding. A couple of fish can be spawned even in 10 liter aquariums.It is recommended that a small filter and aeration system be installed in the spawning tank. It will not damage the thermostat to maintain a comfortable temperature. However, you should not raise it above 28 ° C – this can provoke the birth of still premature fry. It is recommended to increase the proportion of plant food in the diet while in the spawning aquarium. Maintenance of the spawning aquarium is standard: regular water changes and filter cleaning. Always prepare tap water for a change with the Tetra AquaSafe conditioner, which will remove hazardous compounds from it and add useful vitamins and microelements.For example, B vitamins will reduce stress in a pregnant female.

spawning takes place in a common aquarium, then it should be placed inside as much as possible
more shelters as well as floating plants. In them, the fry will be able to hide up to
until a safe size is reached. You can also
use special jugs that will isolate
a pregnant female, and later fry, from neighbors in the aquarium.

Mollies balloon propagation occurs similarly to other breeds

ready to mate, chases the female until she responds to courtship,
after which the male individual with the help of a special cone-shaped organ – gonopodia –
introduces its reproductive products into the female’s body, where fertilization takes place.Caviar develops in the body of a female for about a month, fry are born, as
usually in the morning. It is worth noting that not all mating ends.
pregnancy of females, according to statistics, only one in ten ends successfully.

plant one male and 2-3 females, one male in the spawning aquarium
capable of fertilizing several female. If you’re in the mood to maintain
breeds, then females should be “virgin”, that is, from the moment of opportunity
sex determination, they are separated from males.This will eliminate the likelihood of the appearance
inappropriate offspring.

to distinguish a female from a male mollies

Sexual dimorphism in mollies is pronounced, which is associated with adaptation to live birth, so it will not be difficult to select producers. The main feature that distinguishes a male from a female is the presence of gonopodia. It is a modified anal fin and has the shape of a cone-shaped groove through which, when mating, the male’s milk enters the female’s body.There is also a hook on it, which allows you to better hold on during fertilization, greatly increasing the chances of having offspring. Male and female mollies differ in size – females are much larger and have a rounded abdomen.

Male and female mollies


understand that mollies is pregnant

A pregnant female mollies can be distinguished by a number of signs:

  • Increase in the size of the abdomen due to
    ripening caviar. This sign may be poorly visible in the balloon mollies;
  • The appearance of a dark spot near the anal
    fin, which is pronounced in light species;
  • Anal swelling in females;
  • Females ready for childbirth tend to hide
    in shelters or among dense vegetation.

How much
pregnancy lasts

Pregnancy of female mollies lasts about 30-45 days, after which the first batch of fry begins to appear. Most often, females do not give birth to all babies at once, and their appearance takes place in several stages.


How many
gives birth to fry

mollies depends primarily on the age of the female and the environment. More often
in total, the female gives birth to from 50 to 100 fry, although some
females are able to give birth and several hundred babies.

The fertility of mollies can reach 50-100 fry

determine the sex of the fry

Sex differences in mollies fry appear at the age of 1–2 months. Males can be distinguished by the presence of gonopodia. If necessary, keep “clean” females, at the same time they should be planted in different nursery aquariums separately from the males.

fry days

mollies are large, reaching a size of 7 mm. The first few days they
lie motionless on stones or on plant leaves, and then float to
surface to take a breath of air and fill the swim bladder, and
then begin independent swimming around the aquarium.

Mollies fry grow very quickly

it is important to maintain good water quality in an aquarium with fry, because babies
extremely sensitive to the content of ammonia. You can not overfeed the fish, but
small water changes are made daily.

Farm for growing mollies

feed the fry

Mollies fry are large enough to consume quality dry food, so TetraMin Baby is an excellent option to provide the fry with all their nutrients and promote healthy growth and strong immunity.

for growing fry, ciliates, brine shrimp nauplii, cyclops can be used.

How many
fry growing

under suitable conditions, the fry grow very quickly. A few months after
when they are born, they already have a body length of 2-4 cm.
separate females and males as soon as possible to determine
floor. If there are a lot of fry, then you will need a spacious rearing aquarium,
so that the fish do not “drag on”.

90,000 50 interesting and curious facts about crabs – Society

2.There are about five thousand species of crabs on Earth. Outwardly, they can be completely different, but the structure of the body remains unchanged: all members of the order have eight legs and two claws.

3. Crabs are found almost everywhere in the ocean. They can be seen on rocks far from water, under ice in Antarctica, some species can climb trees and even live in hot springs at the bottom of the ocean.

4. Most often, crabs live in the seas or oceans, at considerable depths.Some representatives go ashore, climb over stones and sand. Crabs move sideways, on 4 pairs of limbs located in front of the abdomen.

5. Most crabs have a flat body that allows them to squeeze into very narrow crevices. Outwardly, their body is covered with a dense and strong shell, which is the outer skeleton of the crab. A similar external skeleton is found in spiders and insects.

Japanese spider crab

6. The largest crab in the world is the Japanese spider crab, which reaches 50 centimeters in size and has a leg span of 4 meters.Large representatives of this species can weigh up to 20 kilograms. And also this crab is a long-liver: its life expectancy reaches 50 years. Also, the Japanese spider crab is the oldest crab species in the world.

7. It is believed that this species prefers to live at a depth of 200-300 meters, however, there were individuals that felt good at depths of 800 meters and above.

8. The shell of the crab does not grow during its life, and when it gets too tight, the crab just throws it off. Such molting occurs 6 or 7 times during the first year of a young crab’s life, and already adults, as a rule, molt only once or twice a year.

9. Some species of crabs camouflage themselves by growing sea anemone on their shells. These live decorations perfectly camouflage the crab, and the bites of the anemones scare away predators well.

10. Crabs lead a rather secretive way of life.

King crab

11. King crab (aka panther, leopard) – orange with brown specks of chocolate color.

12. The distance between the claws of the largest crab ever caught was greater than the tallest man in the world.

13. The body of most crabs is flat, which allows them to climb even into the narrowest crevices.

14. To attract females, crabs perform intricate dances, during which they tap their claws and clatter their shells.

15. It is known that decapods, that is, crabs, lived on Earth during the Jurassic period.

Marble crab

16. Marble crab is the most land crab. He himself gets out on land and is able to be without water for a long time.

17. Crabs can be on land for quite a long time: the main thing is that the gills remain moist, since they, like fish, receive oxygen from the water.

18. Aquarium crabs, live in water and do not need land.

19. Crabs are very aggressive towards each other. Males often fight for the right to possess a female.

20. In battle with other individuals or as a result of an attack by predators, crabs can lose a claw or leg, which will grow back over time.

Crab Yeti

21. Crab Yeti is the fluffiest. Its pincers have thick, light, feather-like bristles, which is why it resembles a Bigfoot Yeti. He lives in the Pacific Ocean. The bristles are home to bacteria that purify the air and serve as food.

22. People began to eat crabs in prehistoric times. Now, seafood lovers around the world eat about one and a half million tons of crabs a year.

Red Earth Crab

23.Crab meat is rich in protein, making it an extremely nutritious food. In addition, it contains vitamin B12 and anti-inflammatory substances.

24. Crab meat is recommended to be eaten to prevent heart disease and reduce blood pressure.

25. Communication in crabs – swinging claws and tapping.

Crab species Grapsus grapsus

26. One of the most common crab species is Grapsus grapsus, which lives along the Pacific coast.Young representatives of this species have a black color, which allows them to camouflage themselves well among stones, and adults are colorful and very bright.

27. Crabs become capable of reproduction at the age of 8-10 years.

Red mangrove crab

28. Breeding of crabs is as follows: the male attaches his sperm to the female’s abdomen, covered with a water-insoluble coating.

29. After that, the female lays eggs and attaches it to the lower part of the body, under a special protective plate, where it mixes with sperm and fertilization takes place.

30. After an incubation period of approximately 11.5-12 months, the hatched crab larvae fall to the bottom. In the process of growth, the larva molts up to 5 times.

Dutch crab

31. The Dutch crab is light brown, unpretentious, small, only 3 centimeters in diameter, but with very strong short claws. With their help, he buries himself in the sand.

32. There is a legend according to which crabs once made an agreement with insects.The first inhabited the water, and the second took over the dominion over the air.

Aquarium Crab

33. The smallest crab in the world is the pea crab, whose body size reaches only a few millimeters.

34. The strongest – the hairy “strong man” crab has yellowish bristle villi along its shell.

35. Also among the largest is the king crab, which is not really a crab.

Green grass crab

36.The fastest crab moves at a speed of 1 m / s. It lives in the Black Sea and is called the Green Grass Crab.

37. Sea crabs are unusual creatures that have aroused interest in humans for a long time. The ancient Greeks perceived them as messengers from above, something similar to the scarab beetles among the ancient Egyptians.

38. In Ancient Egypt itself, thanks to the frequent change of the shell, they personified rebirth.

39. In the Inca Empire in South America, there were special beliefs – crabs live in the sky and little by little bite off part of the moon, so that it decreases thanks to them.

40. Crabs can feel pain.

Crabs on tattoos

41. The crab is a popular symbol of tattoos, the personification of mystical powers. It is not only made by those born under the sign of Cancer. It is often chosen by representatives of the maritime profession – sailors, cabin boys, boatswains.

42. In the traditional technique, they make colored tattoos with a crab on the back, on the chest, on the forearm. The pincers raised up should mean belligerence, knows how to stand up for themselves, keep the defense.

43. Eastern beliefs differ from European ones. In China, they believe that the crab portends deception, in Thailand it is turned into a full participant in the ritual of calling the rain.

44. Buddhist beliefs attributed to them signs of posthumous reincarnation of the soul. In general, in the East, crabs were perceived favorably: they protected from the hardships of the sea and were signs of its favor.

45. The crab’s teeth are in its stomach.

Coconut Crab

46.The most carnivorous – the coconut crab – is so named because it feeds mainly on coconuts. However, it is omnivorous and eats, including carrion. Reaches 40 centimeters in diameter. He is a “palm thief”, he can hide stolen objects in his holes, especially shiny ones.

47. Young individuals of crabs become more or less similar to a crab at the age of three years.

48. The crab’s shell is its outer skeleton. Spiders and some types of insects have a similar body structure.

49.The weight of the crab is 40% of its meat.

50. The palatability of crabs has made them a favorite prey in many countries, and some of their species are on the verge of extinction, in part due to the destruction of coral reefs caused by global warming.

Sand crab

photos from the Internet

Prolapse of the cloaca, intestines and genitals – Turtle.ru

Page 1 of 2

Symptoms: a red ball from the cloaca (not to be confused with the male)
Turtles: water and land
Treatment: with a veterinarian, surgery is required

Cloacitis (prolapse or trauma of the cloaca)


Inflammation of the cloacal tissue usually accompanies a delay in the caudal part of this organ of dry uric acid salts, bodies (including branches and wool) or is a complication of cloacal organ prolapse with helminthic, protozoal invasions or diarrhea. When turtles are kept in captivity for a long time and when they are fed with food that is poor in vitamins, weakness of the connective tissue occurs, and the mucous membrane of the cloaca, as it were, slides down the submucous layer.


The process may involve paracloacal glands (odor), penis (in males), shell glands (in females). The infection can penetrate into the higher parts of the intestine, into the urinary tract and oviducts.
In land turtles, unless cloacitis is caused by diarrhea, bowel movements stop rapidly.Traces of scarlet blood are found in the urine.
The opening of the cloaca is gaping, the tissues are inflamed and reddened, foreign objects can be seen sticking out of the anus, there is blood and pus in the feces. Terrarium soil adheres to the caudal part of the plastron, gluteal region and tail. The forelimbs look edematous, but in reality it is the subcutaneous coelomic sacs that swell as a result of intestinal flatulence and tympania.
A prolapsed cloaca differs from the intestine by the presence of only one hole in it.

ATTENTION : The treatment regimens on the website may be obsolete ! A turtle can have several diseases at once, and many diseases are difficult to diagnose without tests and examination by a veterinarian, therefore, before starting self-treatment, contact a veterinary clinic with a proven herpetologist veterinarian, or our consultant veterinarian on the forum.


Quite difficult and is carried out by a veterinarian, depending on the complexity of the disease.

Bowel prolapse or trauma


The reasons may be sand swallowed by the turtle, which damages the intestinal mucosa. Constipation and enteritis can also be the cause.


Externally, the prolapsed intestine looks like a large red ball protruding from the anus of the turtle. In the prolapsed intestine, you can find several holes flowing into it from various organs.


Surgically performed by a veterinarian.The intestine is cut out and set back.

In some cases, reduction with fixation of the organ in the cloaca can help.

Prolapse (prolapse) or trauma to the penis in males


Temporary insignificant appearance of organs from the cloaca is a normal condition of animals of both sexes. Males can stick out their penis for no apparent reason when they are picked up or during a bowel movement. Adult females also have internal organs in the cloaca, and in the case of hyperplasia of the clitoris, they may be visible.In a healthy sexually mature male, the penis leaves the cloacal cavity only during sexual activity and easily adjusts back on its own.

Permanent cloacal prolapse in both sexes can be a symptom of low calcium (hypocalcemia), parasites, or other problems, especially if there are any other symptoms of the disease.

Other causes of organ prolapse that does not go away for a long time:
– general weakness
– neurological dysfunctions
– damage or formations in the coelomic space: constipation, egg retention, abnormal ovarian position, cystic formations.
– metabolic diseases: hypocalcemia, ketoacidosis, increased estrogen levels, secondary cloacal hypertrophy.
– obesity
– increased libido
– infections of the genitourinary and digestive system

Factors causing prolapse:
– bladder stone
– infection of the penis, trauma during mating, forced separation of individuals during mating

Prolapse can also occur secondarily against the background of another disease and is usually a sign of the terminal stage of a disease.The cause may be an inflammatory process in the cloaca, dehydration, hypocalcemia, septicemia.

In a healthy male, the penis may not be adjusted only due to trauma to the organ itself. The prolapse can go away on its own if its root cause disappears. In some cases, the loss is chronic, i.e. the member is drawn in and falls out again. Most often, the penis constantly gapes from the lumen of the cloaca.


Externally, the prolapsed penis resembles a rosette or something cone-shaped.There should be no holes.


Treatment depends on the cause and degree of secondary changes in the prolapsed organ. It is necessary to know which organ has fallen out, what is necessary to clarify further treatment tactics and possible amputation. To do this, you need to check the sex of the turtle, check the fallen organ for holes, possibly take an x-ray. If the organ does not respond to touch and does not remove, it is necessary to show the turtle to the veterinarian for an early appointment of treatment.

At the stage without necrosis, you can try to hold the turtle for several days without soil, or on wet paper.If it falls out again, insert a gauze napkin, folded in a cone and smeared with levomekol, into the turtle’s cloaca and secure with a plaster for 3-4 days. After removing the tampon, place it immediately in warm (32-35 about C) water for 30-40 minutes. Treatment may also include lubricating the organ with an ointment (preferably with an antibiotic), treating it with chlorhexidine or dioxidine. To relieve edema, hypertonic solutions (solutions of glycerin, glucose) are used. If it is not possible to set the penis back down using conventional means, surgical intervention can be used

Surgical intervention may be necessary to reduce prolapse, reposition or amputate the necrotic organ.In veterinary practice, amputation of the fallopian tubes and prolapse of the penis in the case of extensive trauma are common.
Increased libido may be reduced by lowering the temperature in the enclosure and shortening the daylight hours.

The treatment process is also described in the article by A.A. Kazakov.

* in males

Females, like males, can show something from the cloaca. And this is an enlarged or otcheny oviduct, or a shell gland. It appears during sexual activity or a week before oviposition.

90,000 Practical guidance on diseases of warm-water fish in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia

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  • FAO
  • A practical guide to warm water fish diseases in Central and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia
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    Species of aquarium crabs.

    Freshwater crab (potamon potamios)

    One of the funniest and most original aquarium pets is the crab. Its owners can watch for hours how skillfully and funny he moves at the same time, how funny he eats and warms himself under the lamp, how he takes care of and protects his territory in a businesslike manner.

    The areoles of crabs can be different. There are more than 200 species inhabiting both the Pacific coast, the Caribbean region, the western coast of Africa, and fresh river reservoirs of the Caucasus, Don, Black Sea, etc.e. This type of crustacean lives in natural conditions for about 7 years. When creating conditions as close as possible to natural, he will be able to live at least 3-4 years.

    Crabs are distinguished by their peculiar appearance: bulging eyes, four pairs of walking legs and one pair of limbs in the form of pincers. With the help of pincers, the crab collects food, digs trenches and burrows, fights with “enemies”. Unwanted neighbors can be not only males of the same subspecies, but also aquarium fish, turtles. You should be very careful when choosing “neighbors” for the crab, as it is a territorial and aggressive animal.Crabs in the course of battles for territory, shelter, food, the female often lose their limbs, which eventually grow back.

    Crabs, like shrimps, grow during molting. They increase in size during that short period of time when the old shell has been discarded, and the new one has not yet hardened.

    Crab species

    There are many types of crabs. Some individuals live exclusively in fresh water, and some only in sea water. Aquarists should be aware that there are only two types of crabs that are adapted to live in both sea and fresh water.These are erioheir and helice.
    The following types of crabs are most popular among aquarists in our country:

    • royal leopard crab;
    • red mangrove crab;
    • freshwater dutch crab;
    • rainbow crab;
    • milavian crab;
    • Black Sea Ritropanopeus crab.

    The colors and sizes of different types of crabs are different. So, for the first type of crabs, a characteristic leopard color and a body length of about 10-12 cm.Its key difference from congeners is the ability to constantly live in water without the need to go on land.

    The red mangrove crab, brought to us from Southeast Asia, is the smallest (only 4-5 cm) and inexpensive. Its distinguishing characteristic is its bright red claws, which can also be orange, yellow or lemon. It makes the least demands on its owners, therefore it is suitable even for novice aquarists.

    Hollanda crab can be dark brown or black in color.He is very small and not picky about food or conditions of detention. The rainbow crab, which has won the love of aquarists due to its bright color and impressive size (about 16 cm), on the contrary, is quite difficult to keep in captivity.

    Generally it is not difficult to care for crabs in captivity. The main thing is that the water temperature does not exceed 25 ° C (and it can be fresh or sea – depending on the type of crab), the acidity was in the region of 7, and the hardness is not lower than 10. It is also important that, in addition to a purely reservoir, the “shore “.On land, they rest and bask in the sun, so you have to take care of the presence of a special lamp. The temperature should not be too high so that the crab does not molt too often.

    Water crabs need to be salted – you will need about 1 teaspoon of table or sea salt per 10 liters of water.

    For all crabs, except for the royal leopard, you will have to equip not an aquarium, but an aquaterrarium. The layer of the water part is usually 10-15 cm, while the coastal zone should be at least a third of the total area of ​​the “apartment”.When arranging housing for crabs, you can implement the most original designs by using a variety of decorative elements: large stones, grottoes, caves.

    As a soil, experts recommend using coral chips, coarse sand, zeolite. Crabs prefer very pure alkaline water, so you should take care of the filtration and aeration system and change the water at least once a week.
    When choosing vegetation, preference should be given to Javanese moss, Vallisneria, Thai fern.They withstand salt water well, and also perfectly saturate it with oxygen.

    The “house” of the crab must be covered with a lid, otherwise it will easily climb out to freedom through the wires of equipment and decorations. You can catch the fugitive by placing a saucer of water on the floor – he will surely find moisture.

    With whom to settle?

    Do not worry that the crab will be bored in splendid isolation. On the contrary, a territorial and aggressive male will not tolerate the proximity of congeners.He is lodged separately or paired with a female. It is quite simple to distinguish between males and females: in females, the abdomen (abdomen) is wide, in males, it is narrow. In addition, male crabs are larger and brighter.

    If, nevertheless, there is a need for the joint stay of crabs in the same aquarium, each male should be provided with his own “living space” with dimensions of at least 35 x 30 cm. It is advisable to separate the areas with decorative elements. But even this cannot be a guarantee of peaceful coexistence.

    Crabs can live with small and calm aquarium fish like the guppy endler.They will perceive larger fish as food and will definitely try to catch and eat their “neighbors”. Better not to risk it!

    What to feed?

    The meal of crabs is simply touching – they gently take pieces of food with two claws at the same time and bring it to their mouths. Feeding these crustaceans is easy. Their diet can be special food rich in calcium, as well as vegetable, live and animal food, seafood.

    Animal food (tubifex, bloodworms, snails, pieces of fish, squid, shrimp, chicken) should make up no more than a third of the diet.Crabs can be given any vegetables (except potatoes), boiled or scalded with boiling water and cut into small pieces. Your favorite greens will be very happy – scalded lettuce, nettle, spinach, dandelion.


    In captivity, crabs do not always breed willingly. But if they are kept clean, well fed and looked after, then it is quite possible to breed new offspring of crabs in a home reservoir. Crabs breed with caviar, usually in the summer months.

    The female bears eggs on the abdomen, and when the incubation period comes to an end, dumps them into the salty sea water.The eggs hatch into tiny planktonic larvae, which molt many times over 6-8 weeks, gradually becoming similar to adults.

    Contact “Aqua-STO”!

    As you can see, an ordinary aquarium is not suitable for the normal life of the crab. The specialists of the Aqua-STO company will help to create the most favorable conditions for crabs of any kind. You can get more detailed advice by calling tel.

    Aquarium crabs are popular inhabitants of home aquariums. Many types of crabs are not recommended to be kept with fish and other crustaceans. Crabs live mainly in the salt water of the oceans and seas. There are also freshwater species that you can breed at home.

    Crabs rarely breed in captivity. To find out where the male is and where the female is, turn the animal upside down and examine the abdomen. Females have a wide abdomen; males have a narrow one. Males have a bright color, unlike females, and they themselves are larger. Life expectancy in captivity is 3-4 years.

    Quick jump to article

    Species diversity

    Freshwater crabs are divided into species, most often they are representatives of the Decapoda genus, the Potamonidae family, which includes more than 100 species. They are found in temperate and tropical latitudes.

    Freshwater crab Potamon Potamonis (Dutch) is found in the Black Sea. Feels great in water with low pH and hardness. Like all amphibian arthropods, it lives partly in water and on land.In aquarium conditions, it is recommended to keep it in fresh water.

    There are only 2 species of crabs in their natural environment, which take root in fresh and salt water. These are freshwater Erioheir and Helita. They came to us from the Far Eastern countries, and belong to the Grapsida family. They can move from the sea to rivers, they can also be kept in home aquaterrariums. They need clean and oxygenated water, otherwise they die.

    Tropical aquariums often contain a crab with a special name – “vampire”.His homeland is Malaysia and Thailand. The body color is purple-violet, the eyes are red, most likely, it got its name from the appearance. The vampire leads a land-based lifestyle, in an aquarium it can live with a group of congeners. The vampire crab feeds on peat and protein supplements.

    See what the vampire crab looks like.

    In hobbyist nurseries, you can often see the small Sesarmida crab, which is native to tropical rainforests. Inhabits mangroves, where there is an abundance of sandy and silty soil.It feeds on small crustaceans and insects.

    Red claw crab – native to the Indochina Peninsula. Bulging eyes are noticeable on a 4-centimeter body, the body is red, oval and flattened at the sides. It is recommended to settle in tanks with driftwood, twigs and stones. Does not eat plants, but often digs up from the ground.

    Thai microcrab Limnopilos niyanetri – found in the freshwater rivers of Thailand. The body is only 1 centimeter in size. The carapace is light gray, the pincers are brown.Easily adaptable to the aquarium.

    New Zealand spider crab Amarinus lacustris – with a brown or dark green body color 2 cm long. Loves aquaterrerium with abundant vegetation, many snags, branches and labyrinth tunnels. Leads a nocturnal lifestyle, in itself peaceful and slow.

    How to keep domestic crabs

    The content of shells is acceptable in an aquarium with a volume of 50 liters or more with a water height of 10-15 cm. Tropical crabs that live in fresh water are accustomed to constant movement.It is desirable that the tank has many entrances and exits. For example, a “vampire” likes to have sphagnum moss at the bottom of the house for convenience. Many crustaceans need clean water, free of heavy metals, ammonia and nitrates. There must be a slow flow in the tank. Water parameters for the nursery: temperature 24-26 degrees in water and 25-28 on land, water acidity 7.0-7.5 pH, hardness – 10-20 o on average.

    For each type of crab, individual decorations and type of ground cover should be selected.Some arthropods prefer sand, others prefer a muddy bottom. Tropical representatives like vampire and redclaw can live in a thin layer of sand. Rocks and driftwood, hard-leaved plants should be present, as crabs are used to taking food from them.

    See how the Geosesarma sp. Crab aquarium is set up. Vampire and Red Devil.

    Fish compatibility is possible, but you need to experiment. Active fish species, such as cichlids and tetras, are more suitable.And they are unlikely to get along with bottom fish.


    Crabs are not used to taking food from the ground, it is better to spread it on another surface of the aquarium. Eating food looks funny: with both claws, the crab puts food in its mouth. The diet is varied, both plant and live feeding, seafood.

    You can feed vegetables (except potatoes). They eat fruits, chicken fillets, mussels, shrimps, squids. They love greens: lettuce leaves, dandelion leaves, nettles, pre-treated with boiling water.It is advisable to add calcium-fortified feed for normal shell growth. Having accumulated enough nutrients in it, the freshwater crab molts and sheds its old shell.

    Breeding in aquarium

    Favorable content in clean water and nutrition enriched with nutrients does not guarantee the appearance of offspring. This is due to the fact that crabs are territorial animals prone to conflicts. They can even pinch the owner’s finger.

    In the natural environment, arthropods breed for three summer months, when the weather becomes warm and comfortable.Spawning females simultaneously watch the older brood, carrying new eggs. Fry often molt in the first months of life. They breed in prepared shelters. By their nature, during this period they are very sensitive and aggressive.

    Crabs are very funny creatures, and you can watch their leisure for a long time and with interesting interest. However, these pets require special conditions of keeping, and most of them live in sea water. Rare, but still there are freshwater crab species, this is the type of Potamon potamios.

    These crabs do not have such juicy colors as their marine relatives, but they are still quite cute. Most often, these crabs have a blue back color, which shimmers in different shades in the rays of the sun, from blue to gray. the rest of the body (head, claws and abdomen) have a tarracotta shade, sometimes dark brown.

    Habitat of freshwater crab in living environment

    Many crabs of the type Potamon potamios can be found in the mountain waters of the Caucasus, as well as on the coasts of the Crimea and the Mediterranean.This means that they live in rather cold and hard water. They lead an amphibious species of life.

    Different conditions have their own kind of crab. For example, the Tavrian potamon (Rotamon tauricium) is often found in the South of Crimea and in the humid forests of the Caucasus. They dig their burrows in the damp ground.

    The nature of river crabs suggests that they live in rather cool water, about 10 to 22 degrees. You can also use a regular aquarium to keep them, but an aquaterrium is better suited – a low aquarium with a large bottom area.The volume is calculated based on the number of individuals, 50 liters per pair is the minimum. There must be a sufficient number of land areas. The driftwood will successfully and functionally fit into the interior. On large stones, the crab will be able to rest basking under the lamp. It is better to place half of a clay pot on the ground so that the pet is interested in digging a hole under it. The height of the water should be small 10-15 cm. The presence of soil is not necessary, but if it is not there, there must be a good water filtration system with which an external filter must cope. Freshwater crab has no special requirements for water, it must be hard, at least 10GH, and not very acidic, no more than 7.5 pH.

    It should be remembered that it can be dangerous to settle two males in the same territory, because they often have fights that can end fatally for one of the males. The male differs from the female by examining the lower segments of the abdomen, in females they are wide and round, in males they are pointed and narrow. Crabs can live excellently alone, but if there is a need to keep several males in one area, it should be large enough, with enough vegetation and snags so that the pets can hide from each other and find a place for a mink.For one male, you need at least 35 per 30 bottom area.

    It is very important to securely insulate and hide all the wires in the aquarium. Firstly, the crab can simply bite them with its claws, and secondly, it will definitely take the opportunity to escape from the house along these wires, and not along them, so along snags or plants. Therefore, it is very important to cover the aquarium with a lid.
    If you are worried that the crab may be bored alone, you can add several small fish to its territory.

    Feeding freshwater crabs

    Eating crabs is easy.They eat a lot of fish food. They also love algae, filamentous fibers, small worms, larvae of aquatic insects. In order to prevent crabs from encroaching on algae, you need to saturate their diet with dandelions, scalded nettle leaves, lettuce and cabbage leaves. And they will also gladly enjoy protein food in the form of white fish meat, small pieces of beef or chicken liver. Pellets, bloodworms, bananas, and boiled carrots are also good options. It is better to place large meals on land areas.


    Moulting is a very important process in the life of crabs.The entire growth of animals occurs exactly at the moment when he takes off the old shell, and the new one has not yet hardened. This process must be approached with all seriousness, because it is during this period that diseases and death of crabs most often occur.

    Frequent molting (once a month or more) negatively affects the health of the crab. This is due to exposure to high temperatures and lack of nutrients. Additional mineralization of water with the addition of a small amount of table salt to it can have a beneficial effect on this process.A teaspoon of 10 liters is sufficient. The water temperature should not be higher than normal.

    Breeding freshwater crabs

    Freshwater crabs practically do not breed under artificial conditions. Their life expectancy in the vacaterrarium is no more than 4 years.

    The freshwater crab, which is also called the Caucasian freshwater crab and potamon, lives in the Mediterranean, Caspian and Black seas.

    Also freshwater crabs are widespread on the islands of the Aegean Sea: Samos, Naxos, Crete, Ikariy, Rhodos, Kos, Karpathos.In addition, freshwater crabs live in Turkey, Syria, Cyprus, Palestine and Israel.

    Description of freshwater crab

    Freshwater crab is up to 10 centimeters wide. Weight reaches 72 grams.

    The carapace is strongly bent in the longitudinal direction. In potamons, it is easy to distinguish the sex: in males, the abdomen is pointed and narrow, and in females it is rounded. The upper part of the carapace is dark brown, and the lower part is light.

    Potamon habitat

    Freshwater crabs live in rivers, ponds, lakes with clean groundwater.Only slightly alkaline and hard water is suitable for them.

    Freshwater crabs are found at depths of up to 50 centimeters. They can live in damp ground and near water bodies in forests. Sometimes freshwater crabs are found in artificial ditches and irrigation systems. They can live in water with a salinity of 0.5%. And they do not tolerate water with high acidity.

    Freshwater crab lifestyle

    Caucasian freshwater crabs are solitary. They lead a partially amphibious lifestyle, they can live both in water and out of water.Freshwater crabs are active in the evening and at night.

    These crabs spend most of their time in the water. The most favorable water temperature for these crabs is 10-22 degrees. They often climb over plants or rocks to the surface of the water. Freshwater crabs can live without water for 2-3 days, and if the air humidity is high, then 3-4 days.

    Freshwater crabs live in their own areas, which actively protect from intruders. They hide under stones or in burrows on the shore, the length of which can range from 50 to 300 meters.These holes lead into the water.

    Adult crabs molt every year. At a water temperature of 2-3 degrees, they hibernate. Wintering lasts 4-5 months.

    The diet of freshwater crabs is varied: amphipods, fry, small fish, molluscs, worms and algae. The diet changes seasonally.

    The enemies of potamons are hedgehogs, jays, martens, otters. Young individuals are attacked by large fish such as barbel and trout. The lifespan of freshwater crabs reaches 10-15 years.

    Reproduction of potamons

    The breeding season for freshwater crabs occurs in the spring, when the water temperature is 18 degrees or more. The mating season can be extended. Males actively search for females near burrows and arrange fights with competitors. These fights are pretty serious, they can even end in death. When the male catches a newly shed female, he turns her belly up and glues the spermatophore to her. The female has eggs on its legs.The number of eggs is 70-500.

    The incubation period is 20-30 days. During this time, the female hides in a secluded place that is well aerated. There are no planktonic larva stages in freshwater Caucasian crabs.

    Newborn individuals are 2-3 millimeters in size. By about day 25, they can independently feed on brown and green algae. The larvae molt once and turn into miniature crabs. From that time on, they creep along the bottom and begin to lead an adult life.Freshwater crabs are in the Red Book of Ukraine.

    Freshwater crabs are easy to keep in captivity. They should live in aquariums with constant filtration and aeration. From above, the aquarium is covered with glass or aluminum mesh. They are also kept in aquaterrariums, where the water level reaches 20 centimeters. One male with 5-6 females is kept in aquariums, the size of the day of which ranges from 100×45 centimeters.

    Aquarium gravel, flat stones, pebbles and driftwood are used as substrates.Heating is carried out using an incandescent lamp, which is hung high from the surface of the water.

    Strong plants such as anubias gigas are planted in the aquarium. The water temperature is maintained at 10-25 degrees, pH 7-7.5, and dH 10-20 degrees.

    For an aquaterrarium, land is made from a mixture of sand, earth, stones, roots, moss and bark. The exit from the water should be gentle. There must be shelters: caves, grottoes and the like.

    Freshwater crabs feeding

    Freshwater crabs can be fed with earthworms, tubifex, bloodworms, shrimps, gammarus, aquatic snails, insect larvae, mealworms, frogs, butterflies, fish, grasshoppers, moss and lettuce. They are also given fish fillets and beef heart. They do not eat carrion. The diet of freshwater crabs should contain vitamins and mineral supplements, for the shell they need calcium.

    Social life of potamons

    Male freshwater crabs exhibit extremely territorial behavior. It is not recommended to keep freshwater crabs with fish, as crabs can hunt them.

    Freshwater crabs are aggressive and cannibalistic.It is worth considering that freshwater crabs are good climbers and run away as soon as possible.

    Breeding of freshwater crabs

    Preparing crabs for breeding, they are kept in winter at a temperature of 16-20 degrees, and in spring the water level is reduced to about 15 degrees.

    The volume of a raised aquarium should be 150-200 liters. The water temperature in it is maintained up to 22-24 degrees, dH up to 20 degrees and pH 8-10. In a raised aquarium, increased filtration is created, which creates an imitation of the flow.

    The larvae are transferred to a new aquarium immediately after birth. The offspring are kept in separate shallow water bodies. The water in it must be clean and hard. The water level is 2-4 centimeters. Young people are fed with live dust, detritus, small tubules, molluscs, bloodworms, fish food and filamentous algae.

    If you find an error, please select a piece of text and press Ctrl + Enter

    People have been breeding fish for a long time, and this activity is no longer perceived as some kind of exotic.But time, like fashion, does not stand still, and today more and more 90,031 aquariums come across in pet stores
    . They compare favorably with the rest of the crustaceans in their variegated color and exciting behavior. That is why we decided to talk about aquarium crabs and the nuances of their maintenance p.

    Aquarium crab

    are very popular pets found in. Many of them are rather quarrelsome arthropods that cannot stand any neighbors, including their relatives.They live mainly in salt water, although there are freshwater species that take root well at home.

    Most popular crabs that take root well at home:

    • Rainbow. It can grow up to 15 cm in diameter.
    • Leopard print. Completely freshwater crustacean. Very aggressive, can only be kept in pairs (male-female).
    • Mango. Small, 4-5 cm in diameter, unpretentious pet.
    • Freshwater Dutch.Small (2-3 cm), grayish, omnivorous, peace-loving crab.

    Conditions for a marine inhabitant

    Many inexperienced aquarists prefer to keep crabs in a tank with fish or other aquatic inhabitants. But soon they come to the conclusion that for these crustaceans it is better to purchase a separate reservoir (or rather, an aquaterrarium), because the conditions of their keeping are somewhat different.

    Water Requirements

    Most aquarium crabs require salted water.

    The water level should not be deeper than 15 cm. Ideal – 10-15 cm.

    It is useful to remind that the purity of water must be at a high level. In addition, the water must be running. This can be done using filtration and additional aeration.

    If the content of nitric acid and ammonia in the water is increased, crabs may wither. Therefore, these parameters must be monitored systematically by analyzing the composition of the water.

    To reduce the level of nitrates and ammonia, it is recommended to add some salt to the water (2-5 g per 1 liter of water). This procedure is performed during the moulting period of crustaceans.

    It is better to salt the water with sea salt, but if it is not available, you can mix baking soda, calcium chloride and ordinary table salt.

    Water should not be softer than 10 °, especially during the molting period, and with an acidity of 7.2-7.5. The water hardness directly affects the adaptation period.

    The temperature regime also needs to be monitored – the water should be around + 25-26 ° C.Moreover, non-observance of these parameters can lead to the death of the pet.

    Soil and plants

    Many people ask the question: do you need soil in an aquarium? Experts say that the soil is essential for the crab. And if you remember what crabs eat, then this question will simply disappear. Indeed, it is in the soil that nitrifying bacteria, vital for stabilizing the biological balance, can multiply.

    The ideal soil for crabs is zeolite mixed with coral chips.But you can use a composition with tuff granules and granite gravel.

    Granules cannot be fine. Acceptable size is 3-5 mm. The fact is that the soil must be siphoned periodically, and during this process, small and too light particles will be carried away by the flow, therefore, cleaning will be difficult.

    Somewhere 10-14 days before the crabs are colonized, nitrifying bacteria (Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter) should be placed in the tank and several small fish should be introduced, which can easily tolerate alkaline salt water.

    Did you know?
    There is such an unusual representative of crabs as the Yeti crab. Its paws and claws are covered with “fur”. Researchers have not yet revealed what such a fur coat is for.

    Experts say that it is possible to cope without soil, but at the same time you need to take care of a powerful external canister filter to ensure microbiological water purification.

    Do not forget that the crab eats in nature and try to recreate an analogue at home.To do this, it is advisable to plant aquatic plants in the aquarium. In this case, it is better to use algae that float above or in a layer of water:

    • Elodea;
    • wolfia rootless;
    • pemphigus;
    • vallisneria;
    • floating Riccia;
    • water fern;
    • duckweed;
    • Indian nayas;
    • hygrophile;
    • water hyacinth;
    • javanese moss.

    It is undesirable to use algae, the roots of which will be located in the ground – crabs dig them up and throw them away.

    Requirements for aquarium

    First, the crabs in the aquarium need dry land. Without a shore, these crustaceans will simply die, because they spend about 90% of their time on land. At the same time, some processes (shell dumping) cannot take place without water.

    The land should not be flat – there should be a slight rise along which the crab can easily climb up. Steps can be made of sand or stones. Special conditions should be in the water itself, because crabs are inhabitants of mainly salt water bodies.

    The aquarium should be quite spacious, because some crabs grow up to 15-17 cm. Therefore, the optimal dimensions of their home are 50×40 cm, and if you plan to keep several pets, then the length of the aquarium should be at least one meter.

    Home furnishing

    In order to provide a comfortable home, you need to consider how the crab looks and how it behaves in natural conditions. The best environment is not water, but a moist substrate and a bath in which he can shed and wet his gills.

    At the same time, you do not need to buy any filters and siphons – the water simply changes to fresh water as it gets dirty. The bathing suit can be a regular plastic food container, another small aquarium with an entrance, or a ready-made bathing suit for reptiles. The main requirement is that the crab must be completely immersed in the container.

    The absence of different filters and heating pads allows avoiding the danger of wires. Often, there were cases when crustaceans died due to a short circuit – the crabs simply bit the wires with their claws.
    Since crabs lead a burrowing-digging way of existence, they often dig holes with embankments in the ground and destroy the shore. To prevent this from happening, on land, at an angle, you need to put a pipe, which in cross section will be slightly larger than the diameter of the shell. In this case, you need to ensure that water does not stagnate in this pipe and that there is always air there (arrange ventilation).

    Did you know?
    The largest known crab is the giant spider crab. Adults of this species reach a weight of 20 kg, and the claws in the open state are almost 4 meters long.

    What do crabs eat: food

    Many are interested in what crabs eat at home. As experts say, they can eat any food for fish (dry and dried gammarus, daphnia, bloodworms, mealworms), as well as:

    These crustaceans also do not disdain carrion, and they are looking for food both in the water and on the shore.

    It is useful to give crabs a kind of omelet made from paprika, dried nettle and chopped calcium salt (calcium glycerophosphate).

    To prevent pets from destroying algae, plant foods can be included in their diet:

    • oranges;
    • apples;
    • pumpkin;
    • dandelion foliage;
    • nettle;
    • green peas;
    • sweet pepper;
    • bananas;
    • boiled carrots;
    • spinach;
    • Brussels sprouts;
    • salad;
    • pears.

    It is advisable to pour over all greens and vegetables with boiling water or lightly boil and cut into small pieces.
    The food should be laid out in a dry place suitable for the crab. At the same time, it should be remembered that food should not be in the water, since food, decomposing, strongly poisons it and can lead to an outbreak of serious diseases that will simply kill the pet.

    It is not worth feeding crabs – 1/3 of body weight is enough, but not more than half of its weight.

    Did you know?
    In fact, crab claws do not have enough power to fight the enemy. Battles are won only because of their fearsome appearance.

    Can crabs be bred in captivity?

    If you regularly monitor how the crabs are kept and feed them well, they will feel great at home.

    In nature, these crustaceans reproduce throughout the summer, when the weather is warm and comfortable. Crabs breed by laying eggs.

    Unfortunately, the ocean is indispensable, since the offspring must go through the plankton stage.

    In captivity, crabs breed rather difficult (by the way, there is very little evidence of this), although mating behavior is present.

    Fish Compatibility

    It is better to buy a crab alone and not worry that he will be bored. The fact is that the males of these crustaceans are quite territorial. The appearance of another representative of this species may end sadly – they will certainly fight, defending food, females, territory, etc. In these battles, opponents will be injured (lose claws and other limbs), which then recover during the next molt.

    It is also worth noting that crabs do not get along well with other neighbors.For example, if there are leisurely fish swimming in the aquarium, they will often be “pinched”. They get along well with crabs (at least these crustaceans will not eat them) such fish: