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Vertigo contagious: Attack, Symptoms, Medications & Causes


Feeling Dizzy? One of These Culprits Could Be to Blame – The Cove at La Jolla

Bouts of dizziness are common for seniors, with 30 percent of people over age 60 and 50 percent of people over age 85 experiencing dizziness. But while this issue is common, that does not mean it can be shrugged off as a natural part of aging.


With the right care, dizziness can often be treated. Here are five things that can cause dizziness and what can be done to treat it.



You may think vertigo and dizziness are the same thing, but vertigo is a specific kind of dizziness in which individuals feel like their world is spinning. The most common kind of dizziness for seniors is benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), which is caused by crystals in the inner ear becoming dislodged. If BPPV is the cause of your dizziness, it can be treated with some simple maneuvers that help the crystals move back into place.


“Vertigo can not only be frustrating for seniors, but it can also be deadly,” says Clay Gardner, executive director at Vista Knoll Specialized Care Facility. “Untreated, dizziness can lead to falls, which can cause broken bones and even death. Getting appropriate treatment can help cure vertigo and avoid dangerous complications.”



Sudden vertigo that lasts up to a week could be the result of a prior infection. Vestibular neuritis is often caused by a viral respiratory illness like the flu that causes the nerve cells in the inner ear to become inflamed. Vertigo caused by infections can be treated with anti-nausea medication or physical therapy. Steroids for inflammation can also help bring down the swelling in the inner ear.



Some medications can cause dizziness, especially among elderly patients. For people with high blood pressure, hypertension medication could be to blame for dizziness that happens when they get up too quickly. Other medications like salicylates and some cancer drugs can cause permanent damage to the inner ear, affecting a person’s hearing and balance. Unfortunately, people who are taking medicine for dizziness could actually end up with more dizziness, as some sedatives can worsen the symptoms.


Meniere’s Syndrome

If you have dizziness along with ringing in your ear, distorted hearing, and nausea, you may have Meniere’s syndrome. These attacks can last for a few minutes or for several hours. Meniere’s can be treated on several fronts, including diet and medication. Limiting salt and caffeine can help, and anti-nausea medication might provide some relief.


Stroke or TIA

Strokes, or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), aren’t the most common reasons for dizziness in seniors, but they are one of the most serious. Because time is of the essence when treating a stroke, it is important to rule stroke out when sudden dizziness occurs. Symptoms of a stroke can be similar to vestibular neuritis, so you should seek medical attention the first time you experience dizziness to figure out what is causing it. People who are having a stroke often have other symptoms like confusion, numbness, or slurred speech. Even without other symptoms, someone with dizziness could still be having a stroke or TIA, which can lead to a stroke.


Dizziness is a common complaint among seniors, but it does not need to be a fact of life. If you are experiencing dizziness, get medical attention. Your doctor can help determine what is causing your dizziness and figure out the best treatment.


Amebiasis (for Parents) – Nemours KidsHealth

What Is Amebiasis?

Amebiasis (am-uh-BYE-eh-sis) is an infection of the intestines with a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). The parasite is an amoeba (uh-MEE-buh), a single-celled organism. People can get this parasite by eating or drinking something that’s contaminated with it.

What Are the Signs & Symptoms of Amebiasis?

In many cases, the parasite that causes amebiasis lives in a person’s large intestine without causing any symptoms. Other times, it causes:

  • diarrhea (which may be bloody)
  • stomach pains
  • cramping
  • nausea
  • loss of appetite
  • fever

In rare cases, it can spread into other organs such as the liver, lungs, and brain.

For some people, symptoms of amebiasis can begin within days to weeks of swallowing contaminated food or water. For others, symptoms can take months to appear.

How Does Amebiasis Spread?

Amebiasis is contagious. People with amoebas in their intestines can pass the infection to others through stool (poop) even if they have no symptoms. When infected stool contaminates food or water supplies, amebiasis can spread quickly to many people at once. This is especially true in developing countries, where drinking water may be contaminated.

Amebiasis also can spread between people when hands aren’t washed well, contaminated objects are shared, and by sexual contact.

Amebiasis usually happens in areas where living conditions are crowded and unsanitary. The illness is common in parts of Africa, Latin America, and Asia. It is rare in the United States, but is sometimes seen in people who have immigrated from or traveled to countries where amebiasis is more common.

How Can Amebiasis Be Prevented?

Because amoebas may contaminate food and water, you can help prevent the illness by being careful about what you eat and drink, especially in developing countries. In those areas, a good rule regarding food is to cook it, boil it, peel it, or forget it. Ice can also be contaminated and should be avoided in these countries.

Everyone should wash their hands well after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food.

How Is Amebiasis Treated?

Doctors can treat amebiasis with

antibiotics. Some people need more treatment, such as extra fluids.

When Should I Call the Doctor?

Call your doctor if anyone in your family has signs or symptoms of amebiasis, such as:

  • diarrhea with blood or mucus
  • diarrhea that lasts longer than 2 weeks
  • belly pain
  • a fever
  • a swollen belly
  • pain or tenderness in the area of the liver (below the ribs on the right side)

This is especially important if you have recently traveled to a part of the world where amebiasis is common. Also call the doctor if your child has diarrhea and shows signs of being dehydrated, such as a dry or sticky mouth, peeing less than usual, no tears when crying, dizziness, or drowsiness.

Infection Exposure Questions

Copyright 2000-2021 Schmitt Pediatric Guidelines LLC.

Skin Infections/Rashes:
Chickenpox 10-21 2 days before rash until all sores have crusts (6 – 7days)
Fifth disease (Erythema infectiosum) 4-14 7 days before rash until rash begins
Hand, foot, and mouth disease 3-6 Onset of rash until fever gone. If widespread blisters, return after blisters are dry (6-7 days).
Impetigo (strep or staph) 2-5 Onset of sores until 24 hours on antibiotic
Lice 7 Onset of itch until 1 treatment
Measles 8-12 4 days before rash until 4 days after rash appears
Roseola 9-10 Onset of fever until fever gone for 24 hours
Rubella (German measles) 14-21 7 days before rash until 5 days after rash appears
Scabies 30-45 Onset of rash until 1 treatment
Scarlet fever 3-6 Onset of fever or rash until at least 12 hours on antibiotic and fever is gone
Shingles (contagious for chicken pox) 14-16 Onset of rash until all sores have crusts (7 days) (Note: No need to isolate if sores can be kept covered. )
Warts 30-180 Minimally contagious
Respiratory Infections:
Bronchiolitis 4-6 Onset of cough until 7 days
Colds 2-5 Onset of runny nose until fever gone
Cold sores (herpes) 2-12 Footnote 1
Coughs (viral) or croup (viral) 2-5 Onset of cough until fever gone
Diphtheria 2-5 Onset of sore throat until 4 days on antibiotic
Influenza 1-2 Onset of symptoms until fever gone
Sore throat, strep 2-5 Onset of sore throat until at least 12 hours on antibiotic and fever is gone
Sore throat, viral 2-5 Onset of sore throat until fever gone
Tuberculosis 6-24 months Until 2 weeks on drugs (Note: Most childhood TB is not contagious. )
Whooping cough 7-10 Onset of runny nose until 5 days on antibiotic
Intestinal Infections:
Diarrhea, bacterial 1-5 Footnote 2 for Diarrhea Precautions
Diarrhea, giardia 7-28 Footnote 2 for Diarrhea Precautions
Diarrhea, traveler’s 1-6 Footnote 2 for Diarrhea Precautions
Diarrhea, viral (Rotavirus) 1-3 Footnote 2 for Diarrhea Precautions
Hepatitis A 14-50 2 weeks before jaundice begins until jaundice resolved (7 days)
Pinworms 21-28 Minimally contagious, staying home is unnecessary
Vomiting, viral 2-5 Until vomiting stops
Other Infections:
Infectious mononucleosis 30-50 Onset of fever until fever gone (7 days)
Meningitis, bacterial 2-10 7 days before symptoms until 24 hours on IV antibiotics in hospital
Meningitis, viral 3-6 Onset of symptoms and for 1-2 weeks
Mumps 12-25 5 days before swelling until swelling gone (7 days)
Pinkeye without pus (viral) 1-5 Mild infection, staying home is unnecessary
Pinkeye with pus (bacterial) 2-7 Onset of pus until 1 day on antibiotic eyedrops

Streptococcal Infections (invasive group A strep, GAS)

Last Reviewed: November 2011

What is group A Streptococcus (GAS)?

Group A streptococci are bacteria commonly found in the throat and on the skin. The vast majority of GAS infections are relatively mild illnesses, such as strep throat and impetigo. Occasionally, however, these bacteria can cause much more severe and even life threatening diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (occasionally described as “the flesh-eating bacteria”) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). In addition, people may carry group A streptococci in the throat or on the skin and have no symptoms of disease.

How are group A streptococci spread?

These bacteria are spread by direct contact with nose and throat discharges of an infected individual or with infected skin lesions. The risk of spread is greatest when an individual is ill, such as when people have strep throat or an infected wound. Individuals who carry the bacteria but have no symptoms are much less contagious. Treatment of an infected person with an appropriate antibiotic for 24 hours or longer eliminates contagiousness. However, it is important to complete the entire course of antibiotics as prescribed. Household items like plates, cups and toys do not play a major role in disease transmission.

What is invasive group A streptococcal disease?

Invasive GAS disease is a severe and sometimes life-threatening infection in which the bacteria have invaded parts of the body, such as the blood, deep muscle and fat tissue or the lungs. Two of the most severe, but least common, forms of invasive GAS disease are called necrotizing fasciitis (infection of muscle and fat tissue) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (a rapidly progressing infection causing low blood pressure/shock and injury to organs such as the kidneys, liver and lungs). Approximately 20 percent of patients with necrotizing fasciitis and 60 percent with STSS die. About 10-15 percent of patients with other forms of invasive group A streptococcal disease die.

What are the early signs and symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome?

Early signs and symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis include fever, severe pain and swelling, and redness at the wound site. Early signs and symptoms of STSS may include fever, dizziness, confusion, low blood pressure, rash and abdominal pain.

How common is invasive group A streptococcal disease?

Approximately 9,000-11,500 cases of invasive GAS disease occur in the United States each year resulting in 1,000-1,800 deaths. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that less than 10% of these are cases of necrotizing fasciitis and STSS. In contrast, there are several million cases of strep throat and impetigo annually. Clusters of cases or outbreaks of invasive GAS have not been reported in any schools or communities in New York State.

Why does invasive group A streptococcal disease occur?

Invasive group A streptococcal infections occur when the bacteria gets past the defenses of the person who is infected. This may occur when a person has sores or other breaks in the skin that allow the bacteria to get into the tissue. Health conditions that decrease a person’s immunity to infection also make invasive disease more likely. In addition, there are certain strains of GAS that are more likely to cause severe disease than others. The reason why some strains will cause more severe illness is not totally clear but may involve the production of substances (toxins) that cause shock and organ damage and of enzymes that cause tissue destruction.

Who is most at risk of invasive group A streptococcal disease?

Few people who come in contact with a virulent strain of GAS will develop invasive GAS disease; most will have a routine throat or skin infection and some may have no symptoms whatsoever. Although healthy people can get invasive GAS disease, people with chronic illnesses like cancer, diabetes and kidney dialysis, and those who use medications such as steroids, are at higher risk. In addition, breaks in the skin, like cuts, surgical wounds or chickenpox, may provide an opportunity for the bacteria to enter the body.

Can invasive group A streptococcal disease be treated?

Group A streptococcus bacteria can be treated with common, inexpensive antibiotics. Penicillin is the drug of choice for both mild and severe disease. For penicillin-allergic patients with mild illness, erythromycin can be used, although occasional resistance has been seen. Clindamycin may be used to treat penicillin-allergic patients with more severe illness and can be added to the treatment in cases of necrotizing fasciitis or STSS. Certain other antibiotics also are effective. In addition to antibiotics, supportive care in an intensive care unit and sometimes surgery are necessary with these diseases. Early treatment may reduce the risk of death although, unfortunately, even appropriate therapy does not prevent death in every case.

Should contacts of individuals with invasive group A streptococcal disease be tested and treated?

The risk of secondary cases of invasive GAS disease among persons with casual contact to a case is very small. However, there are occasional reports of close contacts such as family members developing severe disease. In general, it is not necessary for all persons exposed to someone with an invasive group A streptococcal infection to be tested or receive preventive antibiotics. If household contacts are in good health, they should be watched for signs of GAS infection, but will not need to take preventive antibiotics. However, those who are at higher risk of invasive disease if infected (for example, persons with diabetes, cancer, chronic heart disease or alcoholism) should discuss the benefit of preventive antibiotics with their healthcare provider.

What can be done to help prevent invasive group A streptococcal infections?

The spread of all types of group A streptococcal infections may be reduced by good hand washing, especially after coughing and sneezing, before and after preparing foods and before eating. Persons with sore throats should be seen by a physician who can perform tests to find out whether it is strep throat; if so, one should stay home from work, school or daycare for 24 hours or more after taking an antibiotic. All wounds should be kept clean. Wounds should be watched for possible signs of infection which include increasing redness, swelling and pain at the wound site. If these signs occur, especially in a person who also has a fever, consult a doctor immediately.

COVID long-haulers: Questions patients have about symptoms

Most people with COVID-19 recover completely within a few weeks, but some experience lingering symptoms. Those individuals are often referred to as “COVID long-haulers” and have a condition called COVID-19 syndrome or “long COVID.” For COVID long-haulers, persistent symptoms often include brain fog, fatigue, headaches, dizziness and shortness of breath, among others.

While more still needs to be known about COVID long-haulers, AMA member Devang Sanghavi, MD, an intensivist and medical director of the medical intensive care unit at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, took time to answer questions patients might have about long-term symptoms.

What are the most common long-term symptoms of COVID-19?

What are the most common long-term symptoms of COVID-19?

“Long-term COVID—or post-acute COVID—affects a multitude of organ systems,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “Starting from head to toe, it leaves behind multiple symptoms in a large proportion of patients who have recovered from COVID-19.”

“From the neuropsychiatric perspective, you have patients with brain fog or cognitive impairment,” he said, adding that there are also patients with fatigue, anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and headaches.

“Then, from a lung perspective, patients have persistence of shortness of breath, or dyspnea, and require ongoing oxygen treatment even after discharge and for weeks to months because of permanent damage to the lungs,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “As far as the cardiac system is concerned, there’s chest pain and shortness of breath.”

Additionally, patients can experience persistent kidney dysfunction as well as newly diagnosed diabetes or worsened control of diabetes.

If I tested positive for COVID-19, but did not have any symptoms, will I have symptoms later?

If I tested positive for COVID-19, but did not have any symptoms, will I have symptoms later?

The short answer is “likely, yes,” said Dr. Sanghavi, adding that “there were a significant number of patients who were initially asymptomatic … but then they subsequently developed symptoms, which are particular to COVID long haulers or long COVID.”

“And that’s why COVID-19 is a very intriguing disease. It’s not just a simple virus affecting the body, there are immune and inflammatory mechanisms which affect the patient’s body,” he added. Additionally, “the patient may be initially asymptomatic, but subsequently develops symptoms like anxiety, depression, fatigue and so on.”

What are some possible lingering mental health effects of COVID-19?

What are some possible lingering mental health effects of COVID-19?

“One of the most common mental health effects and challenges has been depression and anxiety,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “The pandemic itself has brought about a lot of challenges to the patients’ life, be it financial or personal, and add to it the recuperation from an illness like COVID.

“The other symptoms you would notice is brain fog, which is akin to cognitive impairment that you see in patients who have post intensive care unit syndrome,” he added, noting that other mental health effects might be insomnia and PTSD.

Find out why depression and anxiety are prevalent during COVID-19.

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Is COVID-19 poised to become an annual seasonal infection?

Can COVID-19 cause neurological symptoms?

Can COVID-19 cause neurological symptoms?

“COVID-19 causes a variety of neurological symptoms, which can stay behind in a patient after initial recovery or can develop later,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “One of the most common neurological symptoms in COVID patients, which can still persist after the initial disease, is loss of smell and taste sensation.

“A lot of other patients have had headaches, fatigue and myalgia, which is similar to some other viral diseases,” he added.

Discover the six things doctors wish patients knew about coronasomnia.

How long do neurological symptoms from COVID-19 last?

How long do neurological symptoms from COVID-19 last?

“That’s the part that we don’t know. If you focus on the loss of smell and taste sensation, on average, that symptom lasts two to three weeks in most patients, but in some it can last for months,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “Similarly, a recent study found that 25% of patients had depression, anxiety, PTSD and sleeping difficulties.

“And those were lingering on for months on end,” he added. “But in some patients, it was reported that those symptoms disappeared after getting vaccinated.”  

If someone is experiencing neurological symptoms from COVID-19, what should they do?

If someone is experiencing neurological symptoms from COVID-19, what should they do?

“For most of the post-COVID neuro symptoms, we use a symptomatic approach,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “For example, for a headache, the approach is usually symptomatic treatment except for if the headache becomes intractable. In that case, you need further imaging and consultation with a specialist.

“For symptoms such as anxiety, depression and PTSD, the diagnostic approach usually starts with standard screening tools to see if that patient would need help from a therapist and treatment of this condition with pharmacological agents,” he added.

What are the most common long term lung problems after COVID-19?

What are the most common long term lung problems after COVID-19?

“Some of the most common pulmonary symptoms post COVID-19 infection are dyspnea, decrease in exercise capacity and long-term oxygen requirements,” said Dr. Sanghavi, adding that a lot of patients are discharged from the hospital on oxygen and continue getting that oxygen at home.

“The way we diagnosis this is through pulmonary function tests like measuring the lung capacity or the diffusion capacity of gas to see how effective the gas exchange is in the lungs,” he added. “You might also need high resolution CT scans to see changes post COVID in the lungs to further classify and define the problems.”

Why does COVID-19 cause brain fog?

Why does COVID-19 cause brain fog?

A neurological symptom that people with COVID-19 commonly report is brain fog, which is not a medical diagnosis. Instead, COVID brain fog is a term used to describe the feeling of being mentally slow, fuzzy or spaced out.

“Post COVID brain fog can appear in patients who are severely deconditioned and weak or have PTSD-like syndrome,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “The other type of brain fog is due to the long ICU stay, leading to post-ICU syndrome.”

“A lot of these COVID patients stay in our health care system for quite a while, so the brain fog in some may be from staying in a hospital setting where their days and nights are getting mixed up and they have a lack of sleep, which leads to cognitive impairment,” he said.

If I lost my smell or sense of taste, will I get it back?

If I lost my smell or sense of taste, will I get it back?

“According to one study, 95% of the patients recover their sense of taste and smell eventually,” said Dr. Sanghavi, adding that “it may take months, but their sense of taste and smell sensation would come back.”
“Initially it was thought that it is a direct invasion of virus into the olfactory cells or the neurons, but now, as we understand the process more, it seems like this impacts the helper cells and not the neurons directly,” he said. “And as the helper cells recover, the sense of taste and smell recover too.”

“People may ask if they can do anything to get it back and re-sensitization with aromatherapy is one way that could potentially work, but there is no clear proof that anything works right now,” said Dr. Sanghavi.

Related Coverage

Which COVID-19 vaccine should I get? What to tell your patients

Why is my friend is experiencing different long-term symptoms from me?

Why is my friend is experiencing different long-term symptoms from me?

“The reason behind the different long-term symptoms between two individuals are manifold,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “First and foremost, the exposure duration and the viral load you are exposed to is a determinant of the initial illness.

“After the virus entry, there are multiple patient-related factors which are nonmodifiable and determine the severity of the disease,” he added. “This includes past medical history, body habits and age of the person.”

“The final determinant of the disease is how a patient’s immune and inflammatory cascade would respond to the virus,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “As the criteria to develop COVID-19 and the initial severity of the disease are unique, different patients will be experiencing different long-term symptoms.”

Does getting a COVID-19 vaccine help reduce symptoms?

Does getting a COVID-19 vaccine help reduce symptoms?

“What is exciting is that there are anecdotal reports that for these initially asymptomatic patients who tested positive and develop long COVID symptoms, after they got the vaccine, their symptoms went away,” said Dr. Sanghavi. “So that gives us a glimmer of hope and is why it’s imperative that anybody who’s eligible should take the vaccine.”

“You may see less COVID-19 around you, but it’s still there, so I strongly encourage everyone to get vaccinated,” he said. “It doesn’t matter which vaccine you get, but what we have seen is that all three vaccines protect against severe disease and hospitalization.

“Get vaccinated and until the pandemic is over, we should continue doing our personal hygiene hand-washing and wearing masks to protect ourselves and the broader population in general,” said Dr. Sanghavi.

Discover what doctors wish patients knew about COVID-19 vaccination.

The AMA has developed a COVID-19 resource center as well as a physician’s guide to COVID-19 to give doctors a comprehensive place to find the latest resources and updates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization.

Dizziness from COVID-19? Exploring the Connection

The ongoing coronavirus pandemic has changed society as we know it. We have social distancing requirements and stay at home in orders in place. This is a new world that none of us are accustomed to. This virus is now widespread, contagious, and has the capability of causing a multitude of unusual symptoms. Most of us are aware of the more common respiratory symptoms and fever; however, there have also been reports of rarer symptoms including loss of smell and even stroke in young individuals without risk factors for stroke.

In addition to a growing body of evidence of a connection between hearing loss and COVID-19, several studies are now showing that dizziness symptoms are also associated with COVID-19 infection.


Is Dizziness and Vertigo a Symptom of COVID-19?


Most cases of dizziness associated with COVID-19 seem to be related to central nervous system involvement (the brain and spinal cord). A study from three special care centers for COVID-19 in Wuhan, China showed over a third of patients exhibited abnormal neurological symptoms. They found that 17% of patients reported dizziness and 8% reported impaired consciousness. Out of this same data set, 62% had a fever and 50 % had a cough. This would suggest that while fever and cough are the most common symptoms associated with this virus, abnormal nervous system impairments are relatively common and dizziness is the most commonly reported nervous system abnormality.

Another study from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China found that 8% of patients with confirmed COVID-19 reported dizziness symptoms. Of those patients reporting dizziness only half recovered from the virus.

It is important to note that both of these studies were performed in special treatment facilities for patients hospitalized with known COVID-19. This does not account for those in the population that may have had mild or no symptoms at all. Due to these factors, it is likely that this data more closely reflects those with more severe cases of COVID-19.


Coronavirus: Possible Impact on Central Nervous System


Other members of the coronavirus family have been found capable of affecting the central nervous system. Members of the coronavirus family have been associated with neurological diseases including optic neuritis, encephalitis, meningitis, and Guillain-Barre.

It also appears that COVID-19 shares the ability to adversely impact the nervous system, but how it impacts the nervous system is not fully understood at this time.


Dizziness from COVID-19 that is not from a neurologic cause


Some members of the coronavirus family can impact individual cranial nerves, as evidenced by optic neuritis secondary to a coronavirus infection; therefore, it would seem possible that COVID-19 could cause a vestibular neuritis. To date, this has not been investigated.

It is also possible that those suffering from hypoxia due to the virus’s effects on the lungs could experience confusion or dizziness.

There is currently a limited understanding of how this virus affects the human body and more research will have to be completed to gain a better understanding, but according to the limited data, dizziness can be a symptom of COVID-19.


Marek’s disease | The Poultry Site


Marek’s disease is a Herpes virus infection of chickens, and rarely turkeys in close association with chickens, seen worldwide. From the 1980s and 1990s highly virulent strains have become a problem in North America and Europe.

The disease has various manifestations: a) Neurological – Acute infiltration of the CNS and nerves resulting in ‘floppy broiler syndrome’ and transient paralysis, as well as more long-standing paralysis of legs or wings and eye lesions; b) Visceral – Tumours in heart, ovary, tests, muscles, lungs; c) Cutaneous – Tumours of feather follicles.

Morbidity is 10-50% and mortality up to 100%. Mortality in an affected flock typically continues at a moderate or high rate for quite a few weeks. In ‘late’ Marek’s the mortality can extend to 40 weeks of age. Affected birds are more susceptible to other diseases, both parasitic and bacterial.

The route of infection is usually respiratory and the disease is highly contagious being spread by infective feather-follicle dander, fomites, etc. Infected birds remain viraemic for life. Vertical transmission is not considered to be important.

The virus survives at ambient temperature for a long time (65 weeks) when cell associated and is resistant to some disinfectants (quaternary ammonium and phenol). It is inactivated rapidly when frozen and thawed.


  • Paralysis of legs, wings and neck.
  • Loss of weight.
  • Grey iris or irregular pupil.
  • Vision impairment.
  • Skin around feather follicles raised and roughened.

Post-mortem lesions

  • Grey-white foci of neoplastic tissue in liver, spleen, kidney, lung, gonads, heart, and skeletal muscle.
  • Thickening of nerve trunks and loss of striation.
  • Microscopically – lymphoid infiltration is polymorphic.


History, clinical signs, distribution of lesions, age affected, histopathology.

Differentiate from Lymphoid leukosis, botulism, deficiency of thiamine, deficiency of Ca/Phosphorus/Vitamin D, especially at the start of lay.




Hygiene, all-in/all-out production, resistant strains, vaccination generally with 1500 PFU of HVT at day old (but increasingly by in-ovo application at transfer), association with other strains (SB1 Sero-type 2) and Rispen’s.

It is common practice to use combinations of the different vaccine types in an effort to broaden the protection achieved. Genetics can help by increasing the frequency of the B21 gene that confers increased resistance to Marek’s disease challenge.

Latest information

In 2018, Aviagen published their comprehensive brief “Marek’s disease control in broilers birds” on The Poultry Site. It includes details of transmission, diagnosis, vaccinations, vaccine administration and causes of the disease.

Dizziness | Dizziness Causes | Surdovest

There are symptoms and conditions that people often do not attach importance to. Unfortunately, dizziness also belongs to them. Meanwhile, it may indicate a serious illness. That is why it is necessary to know about the reasons that can cause this unpleasant reaction of the body.

The disorder in question is very common and has been experienced by every person more than once, regardless of gender or age.For some, it rarely occurs, for others it occurs regularly. In either case, you need to listen to your body and ask yourself about the reasons for the appearance of this reaction. The most common ones are:

– Dizziness is a consequence of changes in the pathological nature of the vestibular apparatus, which in turn may be associated with ear diseases. It is most commonly seen in patients with Meniere’s disease.

– The cause is also inflammation of the middle and inner ear.

– Often caused by unpleasant head trauma and swelling.

– Toxic vertigo are disorders of the vestibular apparatus caused by the action of drugs, alcohol and antibiotics (for example, streptomycin, kanamycin, etc.).

– Dizziness may regularly appear in patients with congenital or acquired eyeball movement disorders.

– Cardiovascular diseases, including low or high blood pressure, are also common causes of the problem in question.

– Neurological diseases often cause an unpleasant feeling of dizziness. For example, encephalitis or concussion.

– In sensitive people, a state in which it seems that they are dizzy appears when traveling by car, flying, as well as when riding amusement rides, etc.

I want to emphasize that this condition can also occur in people who seem to be completely healthy. For example, while diving.When diving to a depth of 10 meters, the pressure rises to 2 atmospheres. If the person has no problems with the hearing aid, then the discomfort may not arise. But if there is even a small, mild runny nose (it does not matter for what reason it has arisen) and the sinuses are inflamed, then the pressure equalization function is impaired, as a result of which dizziness appears. And this is extremely dangerous during extreme sports activities.

Another point that cannot be ignored is the risks for the elderly and children.Children often do not know and cannot express what they feel, it is difficult for them to formulate, explain to adults their condition. This is especially true for babies. If they feel dizzy, they often try to hold onto the nearest object, for example, wrap their arms around their mother’s leg, close their eyes, cry, complain of nausea, etc. You cannot scold a child if something similar happened to him on the playground – due to the fact that his head is spinning, he can grab the baby standing next to him and they can fall, we must remember that this is not happening on purpose, your child is not guilty here.

As for the elderly, they, as a rule, do not attach importance to this symptom. Many consider dizziness to be a completely natural state of retirees, since at an advanced age people often get sick and the cardiovascular system is already malfunctioning. However, it is very important to find out what exactly the disorders of the vestibular apparatus are connected with. Perhaps they indicate the appearance of diseases that did not exist before.

Prevention of ARVI and influenza | Surgut City Clinical Polyclinic No. 4

Influenza – is an acute infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract, easily and quickly transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person.The only source of influenza infection is a sick person.

The causative agents of influenza – viruses (type A, B, C), the smallest organisms – when coughing, sneezing, talking with the smallest droplets of mucus, get into the air, settle on the floor, walls and surrounding objects, therefore, influenza refers to airborne infections.

Susceptibility to influenza is general, any person of any age can get sick, but the most severe course of the disease is observed in children, elderly people, patients suffering from chronic diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, etc.).

Influenza begins with sudden general malaise, headache, aches throughout the body, chills, fever up to 39-40 degrees, sweating, dizziness, nosebleeds are possible.

Cough and runny nose are not always present. Influenza is only a seemingly harmless disease. It is dangerous for its complications, most often such as bronchitis, pneumonia, heart and kidney damage. Do not self-medicate, do not get carried away with antibiotics: they do not protect against the flu or cure it.

Take medication only as directed by your healthcare professional and follow their advice.


Influenza – is a highly contagious disease.

At the first sign of influenza, the patient should be put to bed and a medical worker should be called at home. The room where the patient is located should be often ventilated, thoroughly cleaned, washed the floor and wiped the furniture with water with the addition of disinfectants.

When coughing and sneezing, the patient should cover his mouth and nose with a handkerchief, and the surrounding healthy people should wear disposable masks.

The patient should be given separate linen, dishes, handkerchiefs, masks after use should be boiled and then washed. Treat the dishes with boiling water.

The most effective remedy against influenza – – is vaccination. Modern vaccines are effective because they change every year and protect against three types of the virus at once.Vaccination not only protects you, but prevents the spread of the flu.

Observe flu regulations,

demand that others follow them.

This will help you to the fastest

Eliminate the outbreak of influenza!

Based on materials prepared by BU “Center for Medical Prevention”, branch in the city of Surgut.

News – Attention, FLU!



Human symptoms of influenza A (H1N1) virus disease are similar to those of seasonal flu and include: fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle pain, headache, chills and weakness … A significant number of people infected with the virus also have diarrhea and vomiting. People who are at increased risk of serious complications include people 65 and older, children under 5 years of age, pregnant women, people of any age with chronic conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease), and people with reduced immunity (for example, persons taking immunosuppressive drugs, HIV-infected).

If you are sick and you have symptoms of the disease, immediately consult a doctor!

You should also urgently seek medical help if you experience the following alarming symptoms of the disease in children:

– Fast or labored breathing;

– Bluish or gray skin;

– Severe or persistent vomiting;

– Drowsiness;

– Painful sensitivity in which the child does not want to be held in his arms;

– Flu symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough.

For adults, you should seek help if you experience any of the following troubling symptoms:

– Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath;

– Pain or a feeling of heaviness in the chest or in the abdominal cavity;

– Sudden dizziness;

– Confusion of consciousness;

– Severe or persistent vomiting;

– Flu symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough.

If you have the above manifestations of the disease, you should immediately call a doctor at home!

Daytime – registration:

– adult – tel. 20-60-50;

– for children – tel. 20-60-61.

In case of a conflict situation, contact:

– Head of the therapeutic department Ludmila Olegovna PETROVA, tel. 27-06-53;

– Head of the pediatric department Svetlana Veniaminovna KANONINA, tel. 27-28-57.

AT NIGHT – ambulance, tel. 03:


In case of deterioration, it is necessary to call the ambulance team at home!

Avoid contact with other people.

If you are sick, you may be ill for a week or more. You should stay at home and avoid contact with other people, unless you need to seek medical attention. If you leave home to seek medical attention, wear a mask or carry a handkerchief to cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. You should avoid contact with other people as much as possible so as not to infect them. Studies have shown that people can be contagious for 8 days, from 1 day before the first symptoms of the disease and up to 7 days after the onset of the disease. Children, especially young children, can remain infectious for a longer period of time.

Protect yourself, your family and society:

– Cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief (tissue) when you sneeze or cough. Throw the handkerchief (napkin) into the trashcan after use;

– Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after covering your mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective;

– Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth with your hands.It is in this way that microbes spread;

– Try to avoid close contact with sick people;

– If you have a flu-like illness, stay at home for 7 days after you show symptoms. Avoid contact with other family members as much as possible. This is necessary so that you do not infect other people and further do not spread the viral infection;

– Follow public health guidelines for school closures.Avoid crowded areas and other measures of social isolation.

It should be remembered that timely seeking medical help reduces the risk of complications and leads to

to a quick recovery!

90,000 Quarantines of the Apocalypse. Special project RIA “New Day” Pagan / 18 November 2021 | Chelyabinsk, News of the day 11/18/21

A pagan, like all earthlings of the 21st year of the 21st century, is practically depressingly trying to survive pandemic misfortunes, including the ones practiced by the administrations (thank God, not on an ongoing basis) quarantine , supplanted in our time by Anglicism lockdown .In order to distract ourselves from endless health problems, QR codes, vaccinations and read promotions, we decided to figure out: where, in fact, this quarantine came from. The philologist Emma Pruss came to the rescue, as always. The historian Ekaterina Istritskaya also contributed.

Italian Prelude

“Initially quarantine was Italian and not a word, but an expression that meant“ time consisting of forty days ”- quaranta giorni, that is,“ forty days ”, which gradually mutated into quarantena. The word ran to us from French, where it sounded very similar to the modern Russian version of of quarantine, and it was written – quarantaine.

The modern meaning of the word from the symmetrical 2020 is known to everyone. The semantics of the word expanded significantly, and then lost some of the nuances. But its main “focus” – to break all the transmission mechanisms of the infection – has retained.

“Quarantina” as a word first sounded in Venice (there is a version that in Genoa) in the third quarter of the XIV century: for 40 days all ships were isolated from entering the port and unloading.In order to protect the trading Mecca of Europe from the “black death” – a plague that raged in Egypt and Byzantium. It did not work: from the end of the 1340s, the plague, with short pauses, began to dominate all over Europe. In Venice in 1348, every tenth inhabitant died of this disease. In other cities and countries, the situation was even more deadly: in London one in three died, in Paris – one in four. Plague – without exaggeration – shook human civilization. In the first four-year outbreak alone, it claimed 200 million lives around the world, a quarter of the deaths occurred in Europe.Against this background, the most stringent quarantine looked more than a justified measure to prevent a new pandemic.

Despite the fact that the very word quarantine was born in Venice , quarantine as a measure was first applied in Sicily. And it was 10 days shorter than the Venetian (or Genoese). In 1377, the seaport of Ragusa introduced restrictions on arriving ships, which were obliged to stay away from the coast for 30 days before disembarking – unloading. After this period, all healthy on board were considered safe for the rest and could go ashore.Then the quarantines were extended to 40 days.

Over time (in fact, very soon), all the ports of the Adriatic and the Mediterranean began to apply isolation practices in relation to the Cairo and Constantinople ships.

And although the Old Testament was the first to recognize the rationality of quarantine measures (Leviticus, ch. 13): “All the days, as long as there is an ulcer on him … he must live separately, outside the camp of his dwelling,” a set of quarantine laws appeared in one of the towns of Modena in the end of the third quarter of the XIV century and quickly became a pan-European legal norm.And, alas, for three centuries of use with gloomy constancy doomed (by severity and fear of the plague) many European cities to impenetrable need and severe famine, whose residents did not receive food and other essential goods for months. The Swiss authorities were especially harsh in relation to the violators of the quarantine: both illegally imported goods and their owners were burned in Geneva. In the small towns of this tiny confederation in the 17th century, residents were regularly forbidden from leaving the city walls.And also – on pain of execution.


An extraordinary example of the conscious self-sacrifice of that era was the small town, not to say, the large village of Eyam in the English Derbyshire, whose inhabitants “isolated themselves” during the next outbreak of the plague. This was in 1666. More precisely, it started back in 1665. When a local tailor was brought (from London, which had already fallen into a plague coma), a bale of deadly tissues – as the legend of “infected with fleas” says (projecting this tragic past into 2019, how not to remember the legendary Wuhan bat).Pandora’s textile drawer was opened by a tailor’s assistant, who unrolled a wet parcel. Soon the poor little tailor died, and after that his household fell ill and died. The inhabitants of the town quickly realized that they needed to somehow fight the spread of the plague. With the help of a local moral authority – a priest, as well as his friend – a Puritan in exile, the Eyamites (or Eyamovites) began to adhere to a certain strict routine: services were conducted in the fresh air; the dead were buried only by family members; but most importantly, the village has quarantined itself.Voluntarily and unanimously. For empirically found out: the disease is transmitted by a non-contact route – through the air. The town was surrounded by large stones, which became a kind of border between the plague town and adjacent uninfected territories. Neighbors – peasants and traders from the surrounding area – left food and other items of basic or seasonal necessity for fellow countrymen who got into trouble. In certain places, as a rule, on large “border” boulders. Honest Eyamists even paid (until the money ran out) for food and things: they left coins disinfected in vinegar in the holes near the boulders.The plague has mowed down the villagers for over a year. There were 273 deaths registered at the church. However, there are alternative data – both upward and downward in mortality in Eyam. Less than half (according to other sources, a third) of the townspeople survived. And even then, eyewitnesses drew attention to the “randomness” of survival during the epidemic. So the tailor’s wife, the unwitting initiator of the outbreak of a fatal disease, survived. The woman buried her husband, six children in a week, and after the situation stabilized, she remarried and gave birth to several more children. Almost a similar story happened to another resident of Eyam. The main gravedigger of the town also survived, having buried almost three hundred infected bodies during the quarantine.

But most importantly, the selfless inhabitants of the town, by their competent decision to “go” to quarantine, prevented the spread of the plague to nearby villages. And thus they saved hundreds, if not thousands, of the lives of compatriots and went down in history. And two centuries later, their descendants began to celebrate the so-called plague resurrection in memory of the intelligent and heroic behavior of their ancestors.And they still celebrate. Little Eyam is now home to a little less than a thousand people. By the way, in 1666 there were almost the same number.


But back to the quarantine chronology. By the beginning of the 16th century, Italians and French (following neighbors who imposed quarantine for those who came from an area where plague or smallpox raged, or for the crew of a ship where an “infected” was found) not only isolated overseas guests arriving from infected places , but also took care of the sailors – foreigners of the then merchant fleet. They began to build special houses for them, which were called “quarantine hospitals” or simply “hospitals”.

And this is again a reference to the first “anti-plague” quarantines of Venice: ships arriving from infected countries anchored four kilometers from the city port in the bay of St. Mark is on the island of Lazaretto.

The island later gave the name not only to the barracks, where sailors and merchants huddled during the period of many days of isolation, who sailed with their cargo to the main port of the Old World, but also to any institutions in Europe “in which visitors from infectious places should have their own stay.”

Cui bono?

Not only the “plague” quarantine lasted 40 days. The same number of “marinated” crews and passengers who arrived from countries where there was an epidemic of smallpox and leprosy. Later – cholera, typhus …

After “40 days, 40 nights” the local inspection – doctors and a representative of the doge (in the Republic of Venice) – went aboard the ship. If no patients were found on board – welcome to the berth of the coveted bay and the sale of the brought goods.

By the way.The procession of doctors ascending to the dubious ship was even that spectacle. Half a dozen incomprehensible creatures in masks with beaks (in the beak there was a cloth moistened with antibacterial essential oils and herbal tinctures – supposedly to protect against infection) and in hooded robes, armed with sticks and … sickles (with sticks the doctors touched the patient with a sickle while examining They “bleed off” blood pressure and generally treated everything in such a “bloody” way).

However, let’s not be distracted by the history of Renaissance medicine, let’s turn to another – the fatal alignment of quarantine cards.

If, after all, the plague struck the crew and merchants for 40 days of isolation, they were ordered to enter the Venetian port, and the long-awaited goods were not shipped to customers. Doctors refused to treat the infected – for fear of catching the plague. And to be honest, there was no cure for this scourge (not to mention the pharmaceutical utopia of that time – vaccination). The dead were buried all on the same Lazaretto, where later quarantine houses – infirmaries were located next to the cemetery.

On their principle, colonies for lepers were later established.Only the quarantine was “eternal” there.

Quarantine quickly became fertile ground for corruption. The establishment of a quarantine period was left at the mercy of officials. And … abuses rained down, primarily related to bribes to officials in order to “knock off” the term and thereby prevent the goods from rotting in the holds.

Some officials (often they were “company” were doctors – obligatory members of the quarantine commission) became an intermediary link (naturally, with a good margin) between the merchants languishing in quarantine and local merchants and artisans.For the intractable and principled naval and merchants, officials and doctors arranged endless (in the literal sense) tests: after an indefinitely long anchorage in a remote bay, they were sent to a quarantine infirmary for at least 18 days. Particularly unpopular was the quarantine services of Marseille, which in the 18th century sent passengers and sailors from Algeria or Tunisia to quarantine for a period of 50 plus days. By the next century, the situation only worsened. Not only doctors and port services, but also politicians began to cash in on quarantine measures.Quarantines have become a very effective means of political pressure. They could really undermine the industry and trade of a quite prosperous power.

Without alternative

Eventually, the Europeans began to discuss the need for standards for the introduction of quarantines. Basically, against the spread of cholera, which was brought to Europe from different colonies. The first international conference on this matter was held in Paris in 1851–52, the second in Constantinople in 1866, the third in Vienna in 1874, and the fourth in Rome ten years later.And the last one was in March 1893 in Dresden.

The Vienna Conference on International Sanitary Standards has become productive. Its participants came to a common opinion and did not vote for the introduction of land quarantines, recognized sea quarantines in the Red and Caspian Seas and recommended the creation of a sanitary inspection system in the ports of the Black and Mediterranean Seas and in all river ports. The states were left with the right to introduce quarantines in the event of an emergency, lasting from one to ten days.

Epidemics, pandemics have not spared any country. Diseases were different – from cholera and typhus to all sorts of fevers. But the methods of preventing epidemics were similar – quarantine. Americans, for example, have suffered from outbreaks of yellow fever since the end of the 18th century; to combat it, Congress even passed new laws, including strict quarantines.

Cholera quarantine, the fight against cholera and the meanings and realities generated by this become one of the themes of García Márquez’s 1985 novel, along with other eternal themes: love, immortality, fidelity, and so on. Moreover, the name of the disease is included in the heading “Love in the Time of Cholera.” Although, in some versions, the Russian title was postmodernist “coordinated” with Pushkin’s masterpiece from “Little Tragedies”, calling the work “Love during the Plague”.

How about us?

Russia has also gone through its quarantine path. What is significant, there have been quarantines in the country since the time of fragmented Russia, but the word itself was fixed in the language – rightly, in the Peter the Great era. The very first quarantines – as measures for isolating infectious patients (plague) – are known from scant sources, starting only from 1521.As the author of the First Pskov Chronicle records: “the prince … ordered Petrovskaya Street (where the plague appeared) to be locked at both ends.”

Thirty years later, in the Second Novgorod Chronicle, another monk again speaks of an outbreak of plague in Pskov, and at the same time paints a picture of a harsh quarantine, similar in ferocity to the Swiss one: one hour from Novgorod with whatever goods you wake up; but they will catch the guest of Pskovitin the next day in Novgorod, and otherwise take him out of the city and burn him with the goods; and in Novgorod they will take out in the courtyard of the Pskovitin, beat the janitor with a whip, and burn the Pskovitin. And there was an outpost on the Pskov road, so that they would not go to Pskov, or from Pskov to Novgorod. ” There it is! And then it was no less severe.

General instructions regarding the introduction of quarantines in Russia were published in 1712. Under Peter the Great. The governors and commanders of military garrisons, “having received news of the epidemic abroad,” had to detain the visitors at the outposts. The quarantine period was not clearly defined – they say, at the discretion of the first officials. It was necessary to do the same with the inner territories, “in which there was a wind.”Namely, “every communication should have been interrupted … houses in which an illness occurred – to burn them with horses and cattle and all kinds of junk, leading people out of them to special and empty places … to anyone who sneaks through the outposts – a gallows.” Refinements to this document were made fifteen years later – during the next epidemic in Astrakhan.

In 1755, the Senate issued a decree establishing permanent quarantines with medical personnel at all border customs offices. But … “You can’t understand Russia with your mind, you can’t measure it with a common yardstick (in this case, the European one)”: for fifteen years, officials of either the Elizabethan call or the times of Catherine II did not bother to implement this decree.As a result, when the plague appeared in the Polish provinces adjacent to Turkey in 1771, the road to Moscow was open for her. Where, as you know, the “black death”, after making the rounds in the border regions of Russia, quickly ran.

Well, almost like in 2020, the coronavirus “took” the capital, “thanks” to the irresponsibility of Russians – foreign travelers and the connivance of sanitary legislation regarding those arriving home from countries “in which there was a wind” …

In 1800 – already under Paul the First – the “Charter of Border and Port Quarantines” was developed and published.By the way, this is a very adequate and detailed document.

In pre-revolutionary Russia, the most powerful quarantines “happened” in Odessa (in 1837) and in Astrakhan (1878-79).

But in other cities and provinces they happened with unpleasant regularity.

“So, praise you, Plague!”

However, according to the laws of dialectics, there is always something good in the worst. It is to quarantines that we owe the appearance of Pushkin’s masterpieces. The energetic Alexander Sergeevich was just a passionate traveler and in his contagious time often fell into long isolation.

So in 1830 he wanted to quickly deal with economic affairs and finances, having entered into the inheritance rights of his Nizhny Novgorod estate Boldino and lived there for a maximum of a month. And then go to Moscow and get married. But due to the cholera epidemic in the province (which again quickly reached Moscow), I got stuck there for a whole block.

In the bottom line – the completed “Eugene Onegin”, a bunch of romantic poems and poems, “Belkin’s Tale” and, of course, “Little Tragedies” with “Feast in Time of Plague” purely according to Freud:

There is rapture in battle,

And the dark abyss at the edge,

And In The Raging Ocean,

Amid formidable waves and stormy darkness,

And in the Arabian hurricane,

And in the breath of the Plague . ..

In Soviet times – already under Brezhnev – because of cholera, quarantine was introduced in Odessa and Astrakhan.Even entire trains, which found themselves in the “contagious” zone as they moved, were stopped for quarantine (literally, in an open field). Well, it’s too early to talk about modern times with its inconsistent coronavirus quarantine – it still needs to be lived through.

However, it has already spawned – through the efforts of an academic lady – a historian – a new word QUARANTEE, inspired by the realities of the educational process, when, due to quarantine, modern gymnasium students, lyceum students and other schoolchildren, and at the same time students, began to be sent on holidays.

Moscow, Emma Pruss, Ekaterina Istritskaya

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