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Stomach Bug, COVID-19, or Flu: How to Tell

Stomach Bug, COVID-19, Flu, or Serious GI Issue?  How to Tell

 
COVID-19 cases around the country are increasing as we head into the winter months, a time when illnesses are on the rise – including stomach bugs (gastroenteritis) and seasonal flu. Symptoms of common winter bugs may include fever, cough, and gastrointestinal issues like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These can also be symptoms of COVID-19, which can lead people to wonder whether they have COVID-19 or another common infection.

 
Dr. Michael DeSimone, a Gastroenterologist with Concord Gastroenterology Associates, talks about common gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms found in winter bugs. As with any medical issue you experience, it is always best to contact your doctor or visit an Urgent Care Center if you need medical care or have questions about your health.  If you have any symptoms of a stomach bug, COVID-19, or flu, you should self-isolate until your symptoms resolve or you have a firm diagnosis from a medical professional.

 

How to Tell if You Might Have Gastroenteritis/Stomach Bug

Millions of people get gastroenteritis every winter. Here are some facts:  

  • Though it is sometimes referred to as “stomach flu,” viral gastroenteritis is not related to the influenza virus that causes the flu, it is caused by other viruses like Norovirus or Rotavirus.
  • Viral gastroenteritis is highly contagious and symptoms usually develop within 1-2 days after exposure to someone with the illness.
  • Typical symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Fever occurs in about half of patients. People are usually sick for approximately 2-3 days.
  • Milder infections in healthy people can often be managed at home, but people with more severe symptoms should seek medical attention.

How to Tell if Your GI issues Might Be COVID-19

If you experience new GI symptoms, follow these guidelines:

  • Research consistently shows that approximately 5-10% of adults with COVID-19 report GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Typically, patients who have GI symptoms of COVID-19 will also have the more common upper respiratory symptoms that accompany COVID-19, such as a dry cough or difficulty breathing. However, sometimes the GI symptoms will come first and the respiratory symptoms will follow a day or so later.
  • If you have new GI symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea – watch for fever, cough, or shortness of breath over the next few days. If you develop these respiratory symptoms, call your doctor and ask if you should be tested for COVID-19
  • Do not worry alone – call your doctor with any questions you have about your symptoms.

 

Symptoms Common in COVID-19 and Flu

Here are some symptoms that are common in both COVID-19 and seasonal flu:

 
If you have these symptoms, you should call your doctor to ask about COVID-19 and Flu testing. Remember to isolate yourself if you have any symptoms. Avoid public places and contact with others while waiting for testing and results.
 

How to Tell if You Might Have a Serious GI Issue

Some symptoms  are not expected with a stomach bug or COVID-19 and may indicate a more serious gastrointestinal condition like colon cancer, stomach ulcers, or Crohn’s Disease. Call your doctor or seek medical help if you experience any of these symptoms:

  • Blood in your vomit or your stool
  • GI symptoms that lead to weight loss
  • GI symptoms lasting longer than one week

Stomach Bug, COVID-19, Flu, or Serious GI Condition

Refer to this chart to compare symptoms associated with gastroenteritis, COVID-19, flu, and serious GI conditions. It is always best to contact your doctor to discuss any symptoms you are experiencing. Your primary care physician, gastroenterologist, or a local Urgent Care center can assess your condition and give you an order for a COVID-19 test if needed.
 












  Gastroenteritis/

Stomach Bug
COVID-19 Flu Serious GI Condition
Nausea Yes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Vomiting Yes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Abdominal Pain Yes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Diarrhea Yes Sometimes Sometimes Sometimes
Blood in Stool No No No Often
Fever Sometimes Yes Yes Sometimes
Fatigue Yes Yes Yes Yes
Body Aches Yes Yes Yes Sometimes
Weight Loss No No No Yes
Loss of Taste/Smell No Yes Rarely No

 

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Thank you for reading our article on COVID-19 symptoms. As a community hospital we rely on the support of our community to continue to provide our local health care needs. We welcome your help in fostering a healthy community. If this content has helped you in an way, please consider making an online gift to Emerson Hospital so that we can continue to support our community’s health needs.

 

Related Content

Is it stomach flu or food poisoning? | UCI Health

You’re feeling nauseated and your stomach is cramping. You wonder, was it something you ate or a stomach virus?  

The constellation of symptoms — nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting — are virtually the same whether the gastrointestinal distress is caused by a virus or a food-borne bacteria.

Doctors say it’s hard to pin down the cause by symptoms alone, and most people get better in a day or two without medical intervention.

When people do seek help, “it’s because they’re vomiting and haven’t been able to keep food down for a while or are dehydrated from severe diarrhea,” says UCI Health emergency medicine specialist Dr. Shahram Lotfipour. “But it’s really hard to know if it’s food poisoning or not — unless they come in and say, ‘Hey, I just had some bad chicken or bad salad,’ or multiple people who ate it came down with the same symptoms.”

Food poisoning is caused by bacterial contamination and usually comes on within two to six hours of eating, whereas a viral infection can appear within a few hours or a few days after exposure, according to the National Institutes of Health.

Gastroenteritis and norovirus

Stomach flu is not a flu, which is a respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. Rather it is a viral infection that attacks the gastrointestinal system.

Viral gastroenteritis is usually caused by one of four types: rotavirus, adenovirus, astrovirus and the caliciviruses, the most common of which is the highly contagious norovirus.

Norovirus can be spread from person to person and by contact with surfaces touched days or weeks earlier by an infected person. It also can be transmitted by food handled by an infected person. In fact, norovirus causes 48 percent of food-borne illness outbreaks compared to 46 percent caused by the usual bacterial culprits —  salmonella, E. coli, campylobacter, listeria and staphylococcus — put together, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Infection (CDC).

Related: Checking the spread of norovirus ›

A norovirus outbreak has been implicated in restaurant outbreaks and is frequently found to be the cause of mass illness on cruise ships. Infants, small child and the elderly, especially those in long-term care homes, are particularly vulnerable to norovirus.

Signs of food poisoning vs. a stomach virus

While it is hard to tell the difference between food poisoning and a stomach virus without a test, there are some tell-tale clues, says UCI Health infectious disease expert Dr. Shruti Gohil.

Acute stomach virus infections generally start with:

  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain or cramping
  • Low-grade fever

Sometimes people also experience head and muscle aches as the infection runs its course. Symptoms usually resolve in one to three days, although it may take up to 10 days to completely recover, Gohil says.

Food poisoning, on the other hand, is caused by bacteria and can come on within hours of eating contaminated food. Symptoms include:

  • Abdominal pain and cramping that can be severe
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever and chills

If you develop a fever above 101.5 F (38.6 C) and chills, “you should see your doctor immediately,” Gohil says. “Some bacteria can be serious and lead to dehydration, kidney failure and arthritis. Depending on the cause, you may need antibiotics.” 

Most food poisoning bouts clear up with a few days, although some can linger up to 10 days. Related: Should you go to the ER or urgent care? ›

Stay hydrated while the infection runs its course

Whether it is food poisoning or viral gastroenteritis, treatment is essentially the same:

  • Ride it out and stay hydrated, says the CDC. Drinking fluids that contain added electrolytes can be beneficial. Untreated dehydration can lead to severe health problems.
  • Once you’re able to hold food down, gradually add food to your diet. Start with bland foods such as saltine crackers, toast, gelatin, plain yogurt, bananas and fresh apples. Avoid fatty and sugary foods, milk products, caffeine and alcohol until you’ve completely recovered.

When it’s time to see your doctor

A viral stomach ailment is usually accompanied by a low-grade fever and sometimes head and muscle aches. Food poisoning may cause more severe belly pain or cramping.

Gohil recommends seeing a doctor immediately if your symptoms worsen, persist more than a few days or if you experience the following:

  • Frequent vomiting, inability to keep liquids down
  • Blood in vomit or stools
  • Diarrhea lasting more than three days
  • Extreme pain or severe abdominal cramping
  • Fever above 101.5 F (38.6 C) and chills
  • Severe dehydration — excessive thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, severe weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness

Take precautions to avoid spreading infection

Because viral gastroenteritis is contagious and can stay in the gut up to two weeks after recovery, it is important to avoid spreading the infection, according to the National institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, which recommends that patients and their caregivers take the following precautions:

  • Wash hands in warm, soapy water for at least 20 to 30 seconds after using the bathroom or changing diapers and before eating or handling food.
  • Clean contaminated countertops and other surfaces with a mix of one cup of household bleach to a half-gallon of water.
  • Avoid sharing food or drink.
  • Stay home from work or school until the illness has run its course.

To prevent future infections, health experts recommend:

  • Frequent hand washing
  • Thorough cleaning of vegetables and fruit before serving or eating
  • Cooking meat thoroughly

Related Stories

  • Norovirus Fact Sheet – Minnesota Dept. of Health

    Revised June 2009

    Download a print version of this document:
    Norovirus Fact Sheet (PDF)

        Spanish (PDF)

    What is norovirus?

    Noroviruses are a group of viruses (previously known as Norwalk-like viruses) that can cause gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in Minnesota.

    This infection is often mistakenly referred to as the “stomach flu”. Norovirus is not related to the flu (influenza), which is a common respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus.

    What are the symptoms?

    Common symptoms of norovirus infection include vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramping. Less common symptoms can include low-grade fever or chills, headache, and muscle aches. Symptoms usually begin 1 or 2 days after ingesting the virus, but may appear as early as 12 hours after exposure. The illness typically comes on suddenly. The infected person may feel very sick and vomit often, sometimes without warning, many times a day. Sometimes people infected with norovirus have no symptoms at all, but can still pass the virus to others.

    How long does it last?

    Most people recover in 1 or 2 days and have no long-term health effects. Dehydration can be a concern in the very young, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems. Occasionally infected people may experience milder symptoms for a week or more.

    How is it spread?

    Noroviruses are very contagious. They are found in the stool (feces) or vomit of infected people. From there, noroviruses are transferred to food, water, or surfaces by the hands of infected people who have not washed adequately after using the bathroom.

    People become infected with norovirus by:

    • Eating food or drinking liquids contaminated by an infected person.
    • Eating uncooked shellfish that has been harvested from contaminated waters.
    • Touching contaminated surfaces or objects and then touching their mouth or eating without washing their hands first.

    What should I do if I have symptoms?

    • Drink plenty of fluids so you don’t become dehydrated.
    • Wash your hands often and do not prepare food for others.
    • Contact your health care provider (but remember that antibiotics don’t treat viruses).

    How can I prevent norovirus infections?

    • Wash your hands with warm, soapy water for 20 seconds
      • After using the bathroom
      • After changing diapers
      • Before preparing foods
      • Before eating
        • Wash your hands more often when someone in your household is sick.
    • Clean and disinfect surfaces with a household bleach solution immediately after vomiting or diarrheal accidents.
    • Steam oysters before eating them.
    • Avoid preparing food for others while you have symptoms and for at least 3 days after you recover.

    To report a suspected foodborne illness, call the Minnesota Department of Health Foodborne Illness Hotline at
    1-877-FOOD-ILL (or 651-201-5655 from the Twin Cities).

    Feeling Sick? Use this Symptom Checker for Common Fall and Winter Illnesses

    As the weather cools, viruses have a tendency to spread with more ease. That’s because people tend to spend more time indoors, where germs can circulate from one person to another through the air or close contact. This fall or winter, if you find yourself sniffling and sneezing, or experiencing an upset stomach, you could have a common virus.

    We’ve created a symptom checker to help you tell the difference between cold and flu symptoms, COVID-19 symptoms and norovirus symptoms. Read on to learn more, and remember to always call your doctor if you have any concerns about your health.

    Cold

    What is it?

    A cold is a respiratory illness caused by different types of viruses, with rhinoviruses being the most common. Colds frequently circulate in winter and spring, but a person can become ill with a cold any time of the year.

    What are cold symptoms?

    Cold symptoms can be similar to flu symptoms, but they’re generally milder, and usually include the following:

    • Runny nose
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
    • Body aches
    • Coughing
    • Sneezing

    How long do cold symptoms last?

    Most people recover from a cold within seven to 10 days.

    When should you see a doctor about your cold symptoms?

    If you experience any of the following, you may want to consider calling a health care professional:

    • A fever lasting longer than four days, or, in babies younger than three months, a fever that is 100.4 or higher
    • Symptoms that lasts 10 days or more with no improvement
    • Fever, cough or other symptoms that improve but then return or become more severe
    • Dehydration
    • Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing
    • Chronic health conditions that worsen
    • Any other symptoms that cause you concern

    Influenza

    What is it?

    The flu, also known influenza, is a respiratory illness caused by different viruses. The flu can be mild or severe, and even lead to hospitalization or death. Certain groups of people, including young children, pregnant women, older adults and people with underlying health conditions may be at risk for serious complications. An annual flu vaccine can help prevent getting sick. The CDC recommends, with few exceptions, that everyone six months and older get a flu vaccine at the start of every flu season, ideally in September or October.

    What are influenza symptoms?

    Flu symptoms can be similar to cold symptoms, but they’re generally more severe; they can also be similar to COVID-19 symptoms. Common flu symptoms include:

    • Fever
    • Sore throat
    • Cough
    • Headache
    • Runny/stuffy nose
    • Muscle/body aches
    • Fatigue
    • Vomiting/diarrhea (more common in children)

    How long do influenza symptoms last?

    Some people with the flu will recover in a few days, while others may take closer to two weeks. If complications arise, recovery could take longer and require medical assistance.

    When should you see a doctor about influenza symptoms?

    There are many types of flu symptoms that demand medical attention, and while the following list includes a number of them, it’s not conclusive. Always call your doctor if you’re concerned about a symptom such as:

    • Fast breathing/trouble breathing
    • Chest pain/pressure
    • Severe muscle pain
    • Dehydration/not urinating
    • Not alert/interaction when awake; confused; dizzy
    • Seizures
    • Severe weakness
    • Fever or cough that improves but then return/worsens
    • Chronic medical conditions that worsen

    COVID-19

    What is COVID-19?

    COVID-19, which is a new type of coronavirus, is a respiratory illness that can impact people in different ways, with some people experiencing symptoms similar to the flu. Like the flu, COVID-19 symptoms can range from mild to severe, and older adults and people with underlying health conditions may be at greater risk of developing serious complications. Unlike the flu, there is not yet a vaccine for COVID-19.

    What are COVID-19 symptoms?

    Health care professionals are still learning about COVID-19. The following list includes a number of potential symptoms, but not all symptoms. Call your health care provider if you think you might have COVID-19 and arrange to get tested.

    • Fever/chills
    • Cough
    • Shortness of breath/difficulty breathing
    • Muscle/body aches
    • Fatigue
    • Headache
    • Loss of taste or smell
    • Sore throat
    • Runny/stuffy nose
    • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea

    How long do COVID-19 symptoms last?

    Mild cases tend to last one to two weeks, while more severe cases can last six weeks or more, and cause lasting damage.

    When should you see a doctor about COVID-19 symptoms?

    COVID-19 can lead to serious complications and even death. Call for help immediately if experiencing the following symptoms:

    • Difficulty breathing
    • Ongoing pain/pressure in the chest
    • A sense of confusion
    • Trouble staying awake or waking up
    • Blue tint to the lips or face

    Norovirus

    What is norovirus?

    Norovirus, sometimes referred to as a stomach bug or stomach flu, is a virus that can spread through contaminated foods and water, or contact with an infected person. It is one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis, and is the top cause of foodborne illness. Norovirus can strike at any time of year, but is most common November to April.

    What are norovirus symptoms?

    If you think you may have the stomach flu or a stomach bug, it could be norovirus. Common symptoms include:

    How long do norovirus symptoms last?

    A person usually develops symptoms 12 to 48 hours after being exposed to norovirus. Generally, people with norovirus recover in one to three days.

    When should you call a doctor about norovirus symptoms?

    You should call a doctor if you have any of the following:

    • Bloody stool
    • Severe vomiting
    • Stomach pain
    • Dehydration
    • Diarrhea that continues after several days

    In recent months, COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of frequent handwashing and social distancing to help stop the spread of disease. This fall and winter, remember those lessons, and more: get your flu vaccinations, find ways to manage stress, stay active, prepare food safely and see your health care provider for regular exams and screenings. With the proper precautions, you can strive to head into 2021 healthy and ready for a new beginning.

    Whipple Disease – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

    TEXTBOOKS

    von Herbay A. Whipple Disease. In: NORD Guide to Rare Disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA. 2003:297-98.

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    Berkow R., ed. The Merck Manual-Home Edition.2nd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 2003:737.

    Yamada T, Alpers DH, Owyang C, et al. Eds. Textbook of Gastroenterology. 2nd ed. J. B. Lippincott Company. Philadephia, PA; 1995:1634-40.

    Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R., eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone Inc. New York, NY; 1995:1030-32.

    REVIEW ARTICLES

    Muller SA, Vogt P, Altwegg M, et al. Deadly carousel or difficult interpretation of new diagnostic tools for Whipple’s disease: case report and review of the literature. Infection. 2005;33:39-42.

    Mahnel R, Marth T. Progress, problems and perspectives in diagnosis and treatment of Whipple’s disease. Clin Exp Med. 2004;4:39-42.

    Moreillon P, Que YA. Infective endocarditis. Lancet. 2004;363:139-49.

    Louis ED. Whipple disease. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2003;3:470-75.

    Khan A, Lightmen S. The eye in gastrointestinal disease. Hosp Med. 2003;64:548-51.

    Holden W, Orchard T. Wordsworth P. Enteropathic arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2003;29:513-30.

    Hill Gaston JS, Lillicrap MS. Arthritis associated with enteric infection. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2003;17:219-39.

    JOURNAL ARTICLES

    Nelson JW, White ML, Zhang Y, et al. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of Central Nervous System Whipple Disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29:320-322.

    Mahnel R, Kalt A, Ring S, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy in Whipple’s disease patients is the association with the appearance of gastrointestinal manifestations. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005;100:1167-73.

    Matthews BR, Jones LK, Saad DA, et al. Cerebellar ataxia and central nervous system whipple disease. Arch Neurol. 2005;62:618-20.

    Rossi T, Haghighipour R, Haghighi M, et al. Cerebral Whipple’s disease as a cause of reversible dementia. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:258-61.

    Friedmann AC, Perera GK, Jayaprakasam A, et al. Whipple’s disease presenting with symmetrical panniculitis. Br J Dermatol. 2004;151:907-11.

    FROM THE INTERNET

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    www.hmc.psu.edu/healthinfo/uz/whipple.htm

    Toxic Shock Syndrome – NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders)

    TEXTBOOKS

    Mandell GL, et al., eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:2080-82, 2110-13.

    Wyngaarden JB, et al., eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1992:780, 1629, 1650, 2301-02.

    Beers MH, et al., eds. The Merck Manual. 17th ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories; 1999:1149-50, 1152.

    Behrman RE, et al., eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 15th ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company; 1996:749-50.

    JOURNAL ARTICLES

    Baxter F, et al. Severe group A streptococcal infection and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Can J Anaesth. 2000;47:1129-40.

    Givner LB. Invasive disease due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococci: continued occurrence in children in North Carolina. South Med J. 1998;91:333-37.

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    Strausbaugh LJ. Toxic shock syndrome. Are you recognizing its changing presentations? Postgrad Med. 1993;94:107-08, 111-13, 117-18.

    Kain KC, et al. Clinical spectrum of nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS): comparison with menstrual TSS by multivariate discriminant analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 1993;16:100-06.

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    Covid 19 Symptoms And When To Seek Help

    Is your persistent cough a sign of seasonal allergies, influenza, or COVID-19?

    Mild cases of COVID-19 share plenty of symptoms in common with seasonal respiratory illnesses. For that reason, knowing whether you have contracted the disease and when you might need to get treatment can be confusing. 

    So, what does it actually feel like to have COVID-19? We asked  M Health Fairview Infectious Disease Physician Susan Kline, MD, MPH, to shed some light on the subject.

    “The most common symptoms people experience are cough, fever, and shortness of breath,” Kline said. “But not all these symptoms happen in every person. The disease quite variable and everyone is different. Many people who are infected show no symptoms, but can still spread the disease.” 

    Fever seems to be to one of the most common early markers of COVID-19, Kline noted. But you shouldn’t necessarily expect a high-grade fever with dangerously elevated temperatures. Many people with the disease run a low-grade fever for days, she said, and some may have no fever at all. 

    Other symptoms can include sore throat, nasal congestion, fatigue, myalgia or muscle aches, and headache – many of which are similar to cold and flu symptoms. People with COVID-19 might also experience gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Related symptoms include new loss of taste or smell.

    These symptoms can appear between two and 14 days after exposure. 

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) current list of identified symptoms includes: 

    • Fever or chills
    • Cough
    • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing 
    • Fatigue
    • Muscle or body aches
    • Headache
    • New loss of taste or smell
    • Sore throat
    • Congestion or runny nose
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Diarrhea

    COVID-19 testing may help you identify whether you have the disease, or simply have allergies or another respiratory illness. Learn how you can get tested for COVID-19.

    Not everyone will experience the same level of symptom severity, Kline noted. Some who have tested positive COVID-19 might only experience a mild or asymptomatic case. Others have reported having weakness and shortness of breath that was so severe they could barely sit up in bed.

    Though most people who contract COVID-19 will be able to recover at home, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of someone experiencing a more severe case, Kline said.

    Adults 65-74 years old are five times more likely to be hospitalized because of COVID-19 than people 18 to 29 years of age, according to CDC data.

    “People over 60 as well as those with underlying heart or lung disease are more at risk for developing more serious complications,” Kline said. People with other chronic medical conditions like cancer, type 2 diabetes, or chronic kidney disease may also be at higher risk, according to the CDC.

    “Though young people can still get a severe, life-threatening case of COVID-19, the risk appears to be much lower than in older adults,” Kline added.

    When should you consider seeking advanced care for yourself or a loved one? 

    “If you are having a hard time breathing, that is a sign that you or a family member should contact a medical provider,” Kline said. Other emergency warning signs can include persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion or inability to wake or stay awake, and a bluish lips or face.

    If you suspect you have COVID-19 and are seeking treatment, Kline recommends that you call the hospital or clinic before arriving so that healthcare workers know you are coming and can prepare.

    “If people have any questions, they should always contact their medical provider for advice,” Kline said. Those experiencing a medical emergency should always call 911.

    When will you be able to get one of the COVID-19 vaccines in Minnesota, and are they safe? Visit our COVID-19 vaccine resource for updates. 

    90,000 Six forms of coronavirus have been identified in terms of severity and symptoms – Rossiyskaya Gazeta

    Scientists at King’s College London have identified six different clusters, or types of COVID-19. According to Sky News, they differ in symptoms and severity of the disease.

    The first type is “flu-like” without fever. It has a headache, loss of smell, muscle pain, cough, sore throat, chest pain.

    The second – “flu-like” with fever – to the symptoms of the first type is added hoarseness, loss of appetite and fever – a rise in temperature.

    The third type is the gastrointestinal tract. Patients complain of headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, sore throat, chest pain, fever. In this case, there is no cough, but diarrhea occurs.

    The next three types are marked as heavy, and they are subdivided into three levels.

    Symptoms such as fatigue, headache, loss of smell, cough, fever, hoarseness, chest pain are named for severe first-degree levels. Second degree – headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain.Confusion and muscle pain are added to the overwhelming fatigue. Finally, the third severe level combines all these symptoms – headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhea, abdominal pain. Thus, confusion and abdominal pain are signs of its most severe forms.

    Scientists came to such conclusions after scrupulously examining data on the symptoms of 1600 patients in the USA and Great Britain.They collected information using the COVID Symptom Study mobile application, which was created specifically to study the symptoms of the disease.

    Based on the data obtained, the study participants were divided into six groups – according to the severity of the disease.

    Such an analysis by the presence of symptoms will allow predicting how difficult the disease will be in any given case. According to the co-author of the study, Dr.Clera Stevens, if in the first five days it is determined which category the patient belongs to, then you can act proactively and prevent the development of severe complications.This grading will help guide treatment decisions during a potential second wave of coronavirus.

    So, patients of the first or third type of COVID-19 disease needed respiratory support only in 1.5-4.4 percent of cases.

    In the fourth form, ventilators were needed in 8.6 percent of cases, in the fifth form – every tenth patient.

    In the sixth, most severe form, more than 50 percent of patients require hospitalization. Respiratory support was required for almost 20 percent of patients.It is noted that these are, as a rule, people of the older age category, or weakened and with concomitant diseases.

    Can COVID-19 be recognized by the first symptoms?

    With the approach of autumn and winter, and with them cold weather and the period of colds and flu, and at a time when the coronavirus pandemic reappears in many countries of the world, the question becomes more and more urgent: “How to distinguish the symptoms of these viral respiratory diseases?” … The answer to this question was sought by researchers in the United States, who showed: although the symptoms of these diseases overlap, the decisive factor in the definition is likely to be the sequence in which these symptoms occur, writes Radio Svoboda.

    As this study shows, in particular, the flu most often starts with a cough, while the first symptom of COVID-19 is fever. But both researchers and other doctors note that this is the most likely move – but not the only possible one, there are other cases.

    The study, published back in mid-August using data available at the time, concludes that, from a statistical point of view, the most typical sequence of onset of symptoms, which are easiest to recognize, with the coronavirus disease COVID-19 is different than with other significant viral respiratory diseases – in particular, with flu or with ARVI.

    After all, the symptoms of COVID-19, such as a fever or cough, are very similar to the symptoms of a number of other common illnesses, such as the seasonal flu or the common cold.

    A study by the University of Southern California in the United States has now determined that the symptoms of these diseases most often occur in a certain sequence – in each differently, according to the online publication Healthline .

    This can help people with COVID-19 to quickly go into self-isolation and receive the necessary treatment, which is important for the patients themselves and for their environment.

    COVID-19 and influenza

    Researchers studied data from about 57 thousand cases of this coronavirus disease from China, as well as data from almost 2500 cases of influenza from different parts of the world.

    And, according to the study, the most likely sequence of onset of syndromes in COVID-19 is as follows:

    • high temperature,
    • cough and muscle pain,
    • nausea or vomiting,
    • diarrhea (severe indigestion).

    And in the case of seasonal flu, the cough usually occurs before the fever.

    In more detail, the researchers present the sequence of symptoms in coronavirus disease as follows:

    • fever,
    • fever and cough;
    • fever, cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain;
    • fever, cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting;
    • fever, cough, sore throat, headache, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea.

    At the same time, according to the researchers, such a course is most likely, regardless of the severity of the disease.

    In the case of seasonal flu, the most common sequence is:

    • cough and muscle pain;
    • cough, muscle pain and headache;
    • cough, muscle pain, headache and sore throat;
    • cough, muscle pain, headache, sore throat and fever;
    • cough, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, fever, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

    At the same time, doctors pay attention that with COVID-19, the cough is often dry.

    Other variants are possible

    New York City Emergency Physician Robert Glatter commented on this study for Healthline, the results may be useful in assessing the condition of patients admitted to hospital in large numbers.

    But, he notes, the flu often begins abruptly with three symptoms at once – such as back pain, a feeling of frost and a dry cough. Likewise, he warned, a new coronavirus disease could start with other symptoms.

    According to the doctor, fever is really usually called the most common first symptom of COVID-19 – but, in the experience of his hospital, the reality is much more diverse: people who have been diagnosed with this disease have been admitted, and generally without fever, cough or other symptoms respiratory diseases.

    According to the specialist, among the important clinical signs by which COVID-19 can be distinguished from seasonal flu is an unexpected loss of smell and taste, as well as skin reactions such as itching or swelling and redness of the toes.

    Other researchers also compare the symptoms of COVID-19 and flu to those of common colds, that is, acute respiratory viral infections, as well as symptoms of allergies, which may also be similar. But, experts note, they are still somewhat different.

    In particular, the most important difference between COVID-19 and influenza is that influenza usually does not have such a strong feeling of shortness of breath as with coronavirus infection, writes Healthline.

    And a runny nose or eye irritation are common symptoms of allergies or the common cold, but they are atypical for COVID-19 – there it is primarily a fever, general fatigue and a dry cough.

    Also with allergies, symptoms such as sneezing or coughing are more chronic.

    Someone has symptoms, some don’t

    The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lists 11 main signs of coronavirus infection:

    • fever or cold sensation,
    • cough,
    • feeling short of breath or shortness of breath,
    • fatigue,
    • muscle or body pain,
    • headache,
    • sore throat,
    • loss of sense of smell and taste,
    • stuffy nose or runny nose,
    • nausea or vomiting,
    • diarrhea.

    But, pay attention to the World Health Organization, some are infected with the new coronavirus without any symptoms at all and do not feel bad at the same time. But such people can still transmit the virus to everyone around them, although they themselves do not feel sick.

    Symptoms of coronavirus disease do not appear immediately after infection: in different cases, they become noticeable 2-14 days after the virus enters the body.

    Be careful!

    At the same time, according to doctors, some signs of COVID-19 mean that you need to seek help immediately.In particular, this (but the list is not exhaustive):

    • difficulty breathing,
    • continuous chest pain or pressure,
    • loss of mental orientation,
    • inability to wake up and get out of bed or stay blindfolded,
    • blue lips or face.

    And it is also very important to realize, experts say, that the appearance of any symptoms of coronavirus disease means that a person with these symptoms must take all measures to prevent the spread of the disease.This is, first of all, self-isolation, or at least maintaining sufficient physical distance, wearing a mask and enhanced hygiene measures, frequent and thorough hand washing.

    As noted by physician Robert Glatter, it is important to remember that the new coronavirus is twice or three times more infectious than the flu virus.

    Coronavirus infection COVID-19

    Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 , formerly known as 2019-nCoV , was discovered in China at the end of 2019.

    It causes disease COVID-19 .In some cases, the course of the disease is mild, in others – with symptoms of colds and flu, including fever and cough. This can develop into pneumonia, which can be fatal. Most patients recover; predominantly people with weakened immune systems, in particular the elderly, die.

    On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization recognized the outbreak of the disease caused by the new coronavirus as a pandemic.

    90,000 Foodborne Illness Listed Pathogens

    Click on a pathogen name to get information on:

    • Food is commonly associated with each pathogen.
    • Symptoms of the victim’s illness.
    • controls or steps a food establishment can take to limit or prevent the spread of a pathogen.
    • Onset , that is, from the moment the victim is exposed to the pathogen until symptoms begin to appear.
    • Duration The amount of time that symptoms persist.

    Visit List of Foodborne Illnesses for Cooking Temperature, Pathogens and Control for Specific Foods.

    Exciters
      1. Exciter: Anisakis Simplex
        • Type: Parasite
        • Offset: One hour to two weeks
        • Duration: Up to three weeks
        • Meals:
          • raw or undercooked seafood, including
            • cod
            • haddock
            • fluke
            • Pacific salmon
            • herring
            • flounder
            • Monkfish
        • Symptoms most often:
            Diagnosed when the affected person feels a tingling or tickling sensation in the throat and coughs or manually pulls out the nematode.
          • In more severe cases, there is acute abdominal pain, very similar to acute appendicitis, accompanied by nausea.
        • Control:
          • Cook fish to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use fish from certified suppliers.
          • If the supplier has not treated the fish for parasites, freeze fish to -35 ° C (-31 ° F) or below for 15 hours, or to -20 ° C (-4 ° F) or below for seven days.

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      1. Causative agent: Bacillus cereus
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Onset: One to 15 hours
        • Duration 24 hours

        • Food:
          • dairy products
          • vegetables
          • fish
          • rice
          • potatoes
          • pasta
        • Symptoms:
          • watery diarrhea
          • abdominal cramps
          • pain
          • vomiting occurs mainly with emetic-type syndrome
        • Management:
          • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Hold, refrigerate, and reheat food properly.

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      1. Causative agent: Campylobacter
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offset: Two to five days
        • 10,029 Duration: -XNUMX days

        • Food:
          • raw and undercooked chicken
          • raw and improperly pasteurized milk
          • raw shellfish
          • unchlorinated water
        • Symptoms:
          • diarrhea that can be watery or sticky and may be watery or sticky contain blood
          • fever
          • abdominal pain
          • nausea
          • Headache
          • muscle pain
        • Administration:
          • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Provide adequate water treatment.

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      1. Causative agent: Cigarette poisoning
        • Type: Natural toxin
        • Onset: Six hours
        • Duration: Three
        • Food:
          • Marine fish most frequently involved in ciguatera poisoning include
            • perches
            • barracuda
            • perches
            • Nests
            • mackerel
            • triggerfish
        • Symptoms:
            and tingling in the mouth, which can spread to the limbs
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • diarrhea
          • Headache
          • temperature
          • sensory treatment
          • acute sensitivity to extreme temperatures
          • dizziness
          • muscle weak spine to prostration point
          • arrhythmia
          • bradycardia or tachycardia
          • blood pressure lowering
        • Control:
          • Obtain fish from approved suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Clostridium botulinum
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Onset: 18 – 36 hours
        • Causes death without antitoxin

        • Food:
          • Improperly canned food.
          • Reduced Oxygenated Food (ROP).
          • Temperature overused vegetables such as baked potatoes.
          • Unrefined garlic-oil mixtures.
        • Symptoms:
          • Weakness and dizziness, accompanied by double vision and progressive difficulty speaking, breathing and swallowing.
          • There may also be bloating and constipation.
          • The toxin eventually causes paralysis, which suppresses breathing and leads to death by asphyxiation.
        • Office:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Hold, refrigerate, and reheat food properly.
          • Inspect the cans for damage.

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      1. Pathogen: Clostridium Perfringens
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offensive: Eight to 2229 hours
        • hours
        • Food:
          • beef
          • pork
          • lamb
          • chicken
          • turkey
          • produces
        • Symptoms:
          • intense abdominal cramps
          • vomiting
          • diarrhea

          Office:

          • Provide good personal hygiene and handwashing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Hold, refrigerate, and reheat food properly.

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      1. Causative agent: Cryptosporidium parvum
        • Type: Parasite
        • Onset: Two to 1029 days
        • Usually two to four days, but can last up to two weeks.
        • Food:
          • Cryptosporidium parvumis is commonly associated with contaminated water, but because it is spread by the faecal-oral route, it can be transmitted through any contaminated food.
        • Symptoms:
          • frequent watery diarrhea
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • abdominal cramps
          • low fever
        • Management:
          • Ensure good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Avoid untreated water.

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      1. Causative agent: Cyclospora cayetanensis
        • Type: Parasite
        • Onset: Five to eight days
        • a few weeks to a month
        • Food:
          • Cyclospora cayetanensis is commonly associated with raspberries, but because they are spread by the faecal-oral route, they can be taken from any food contaminated by an infected person.
        • Symptoms
          • watery diarrhea
          • loss of appetite
          • weight loss
          • bloating and cramps
          • increased flatulence
          • nausea
          • fatigue
          • low fever
        • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
        • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Keep food at the correct temperature.
        • Wash food thoroughly.

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      1. Causative agent: E. coli 0157: H7
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Onset: Three to nine days
        • Duration: Eight days
        • Food:
          • Beef
          • Infected Vegetables
        • Symptoms:
          • Abdominal Pain
          • Diarrhea That May Be Bloody
          • Vomiting
          • Fever
        • Office:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and handwashing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Obtain products from approved suppliers.
          • Keep staff who have diarrhea or have been diagnosed with hemorrhagic colitis outside of surgery.

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      1. Exciter: Giardia duodenalis
        • Type: Parasite
        • Onset: One to three weeks
        • Two to six weeks
        • Food:
          • Giardia duodenalis is commonly associated with untreated water from lakes and streams, but because it is spread through the faecal-oral route, it can be transmitted through any contaminated food.
        • Symptoms:
          • diarrhea
          • gas or flatulence
          • fatty stools that float
          • stomach or abdominal cramps
          • indigestion or nausea
          • dehydration
        • Management:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Avoid untreated water.

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      1. Causative agent: Hepatitis A
        • Type: virus
        • Onset: 15 in 50 days
        • Duration: From one to two weeks
        • Food:
          • Hepatitis A virus has been detected in human feces and is associated with ready-to-eat foods and shellfish from contaminated water.
          • A person with hepatitis A is contagious before symptoms appear.
        • Symptoms:
          • fever
          • anorexia
          • nausea
          • lethargy
          • dark urine
          • jaundice
          • enlarged and painful liver
        • Management:
          • or diagnosed with hepatitis A.
          • Handwashing – It is very important to wash your hands.
          • Avoid bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
          • Obtain shellfish from approved suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Listeria
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Onset: Three days to three weeks
        • Duration: 10 -XNUMX days
        • Food:
          • raw or inadequately pasteurized milk
          • cheeses
          • ice cream
          • raw vegetables
          • raw and cooked poultry, meat and pork
          • raw and smoked fish
        • Symptoms:
          • Mild flu symptoms in healthy people.
          • Symptoms that may also occur include
            • fever
            • muscle pain
            • nausea
            • diarrhea
            • headaches
            • neck pain
            • confusion
            • loss of balance
          • May cause miscarriage in pregnant women …
        • Office:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Discard any product that has expired or expired.
          • Avoid using unpasteurized dairy products.

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      1. Causative agent: Mushroom toxins
        • Type: Natural toxin
        • Onset: 15 minutes to 15 days
        • From Duration: two hours to several months
        • Food:
          • Mushroom poisoning is caused by eating raw or boiled fruit bodies (mushrooms, mushroom mushrooms) of a number of higher mushroom species.
        • Symptoms:
          • Symptoms range from mild indigestion to diarrhea and vomiting to seizures, coma and death.
        • Management:
          • Obtain mushrooms from approved suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Norovirus
        • Type: virus
        • Offensive: 16 to 72 hours
        • Duration: 60 hours
        • Food:
          • Noroviruses are found in human feces and are associated with ready-to-eat foods and shellfish from contaminated water.
        • Symptoms:
          • Diarrhea
          • Nausea
          • Vomiting
          • Abdominal Cramps
          • Headache
          • Body Pain
          • Chills
          • Malaise
          • Anorexia
          • Low Fever Management
          • Avoid employees with diarrhea and vomiting or diagnosed with norovirus.
          • Hand Wash – It is very important to wash your hands.
          • Avoid bare hand contact with ready-to-eat foods.
          • Obtain shellfish from approved suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Salmonella
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offensive: 12 to 72 hours
        • Duration: up to seven days
        • Food:
        • Symptoms:
          • Salmonella gastroenteritis (caused by any type of Salmonella except salmonella typhi):
            • Mild, prolonged diarrhea.
          • Typhoid fever (caused by salmonella typhi ):
            • nausea
            • vomiting
            • abdominal cramps
            • diarrhea
            • fever
            • chills
            • low fever
            • muscle pain
            • Headache
          • Office:
            • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
            • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
            • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
            • Keep food at the correct temperature.

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      1. Causative agent: Scromboid poisoning
        • Type: Natural toxin
        • Onset: Immediately up to 30 minutes
        • Three hours to several days
        • Food:
          • Fish products implicated in the poisoning by fraudsters include
            • tuna (e.g. skipjack and yellowfin)
            • Mahi Mahi
            • blue fish
            • sardines
            • mackerel
            • Amberjack
            • abalone
        • Symptoms:
          • Initial symptoms may include
            • tingling or burning sensation in the mouth,
            • upper body rash and
            • drop in blood pressure.
            • Headaches and itching of the skin are common.
          • Symptoms may progress to nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and may require hospitalization, especially in elderly or debilitated patients.
        • Management:
          • Obtain fish from trusted suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Shellfish toxins
        • Type: Natural toxin
        • Onset: 30 minutes to two hours
        • Duration Three to five days

        • Food:
          • Shellfish poisoning is caused by a group of toxins created by the planktonic algae that shellfish feed on.
          • All molluscs (filter-fed molluscs) are potentially toxic.
            • PSP is commonly associated with mussels, clams, barnacles and scallops.
            • NSP is associated with shellfish harvested along the Florida coast and the Gulf of Mexico.
            • DSP is associated with mussels, oysters and scallops.
            • ASP is associated with mussels.
        • Symptoms:
          • In the case of PSP, the effects are predominantly neurological and include tingling, burning, numbness, drowsiness, incoherent speech and respiratory paralysis.
          • DSP is mainly observed as a mild gastrointestinal disorder.
          • Symptoms of NSP are tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue and throat, muscle pain, dizziness, changes in the sensation of heat and cold, diarrhea and vomiting.
          • ASP is characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances (vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain) and neurological problems (confusion, memory loss, disorientation, convulsions, coma).
        • Office:
          • Obtain shellfish from approved suppliers.

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      1. Exciter: Shigella spp.
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offensive: 12 to 96 hours
        • Duration: 14-XNUMX days
        • Food:
          • Salads (potatoes, tuna, shrimp, pasta, chicken)
          • raw vegetables
          • milk and dairy products
          • fruits
          • baked goods
          • ready meals
        • Symptoms:
          • diarrhea, which can be watery or bloody
          • fever
          • nausea
        • Management:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.

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      1. Causative agent: Staphylococcus aureus
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Onset: Four hours
        • Duration:

        • Nutrition:
          • Staph is common in the nasal passages, throat, hair, and skin.
          • Foodborne agents are the main source of contamination.
        • Symptoms:
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • urge to vomit
          • abdominal cramps
          • diarrhea
          • prostration (complete physical or mental exhaustion)
        • Management:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.
          • Reheat food correctly.

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      1. Exciter: Taenia saginata and Taenia Solium
        • Type: Parasite
        • Food:
          • or pork.
        • Symptoms:
          • Tapeworms are usually asymptomatic.However, severe infection often results in weight loss
          • dizziness
          • abdominal pain
          • diarrhea
          • headaches
          • nausea
          • constipation
          • chronic stomach upset
          • loss of appetite
        • obstruction, and this can be corrected with surgery.
        • Tapeworm can also expel antigens that can cause an allergic reaction in humans.
      2. Office:
        • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
        • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
        • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
        • Keep food at the correct temperature.
        • Obtain beef and pork from certified suppliers.

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      1. Causative agent: Toxoplasma gondii
        • Type: Parasite
        • Nutrition:
          • Toxoplasma gondii is discharged by felines.
          • It is spread by the faecal-oral route and can be transmitted through any contaminated food.
          • This is due to undercooked, contaminated meat (especially pork, lamb and venison).
        • Symptoms:
          • Healthy people infected with Toxoplasma gondii usually show no symptoms or have mild “flu-like” symptoms.
          • In newly infected pregnant women, this can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, or in a baby, vision loss, mental disability and seizures.
        • Office:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.

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      1. Exciter: Trichinella spiral
        • Type: Parasite
        • Onset: 12 hours up to two days
        • From a few weeks to a month
        • Food:
          • Usually associated with pork.
        • Symptoms:
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • sweating
          • diarrhea
          • Five to seven days after the onset of symptoms, facial edema and fever may occur.
          • After 10 days, severe muscle pain, shortness of breath, weakening of pulse and blood pressure, heart damage and various nervous disorders may occur, eventually leading to death due to heart failure, respiratory complications or kidney failure.
        • Control:
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Obtain pork from a certified supplier.

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      1. Exciter: Vibrio spp.
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offensive: four hours to five days
        • Duration: Three to seven days Vibro vulnificus can cause death within three days.
        • Food:
          • raw and undercooked fish
          • Shellfish / oysters
        • Symptoms:
          • nausea
          • vomiting
          • abdominal pain
          • diarrhea
          • fever
          • Headache
          • shock
          • sepsis
        • Control:
          • Obtain seafood from an approved source.
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.

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      1. Exciter: Yersinia spp.
        • Type: Bacteria
        • Offensive: 11 days
        • Duration: One to three days
        • Food:
          • meat
          • oysters
          • fish
          • raw milk
        • Symptoms:
          • Diarrhea and / or vomiting, but fever and abdominal pain are the hallmarks.
          • Yersinia infections mimic appendicitis, resulting in unnecessary surgery.
          • Yersiniosis is known to cause death in rare cases.
        • Office:
          • Provide good personal hygiene and hand washing.
          • Cook food to the minimum prescribed core temperature.
          • Use correct food handling to prevent contamination.
          • Keep food at the correct temperature.

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    There are six COVID-19 “types”. Which ones are more dangerous?

    The doctors now have a tool that will allow them to predict the risks for each individual patient on the fifth day of the onset of symptoms.

    Researchers from King’s College London found in a large study that COVID-19, which manifests itself as a whole bunch of symptoms, can be divided into six types.It was also found that such “non-classic” symptoms as blurred consciousness and abdominal pain indicate the most serious forms of the disease.

    The new data is expected to help save more lives during a possible second wave of COVID-19, due in Fall / Winter 2020.

    Scientists analyzed data collected using the COVID Symptom Study application, which was used by about 1,600 Britons and Americans. It was created and curated by researchers from King’s College London.It turned out that there are likely to be six different “types” of COVID-19, each of which causes its own distinct group of symptoms.

    In addition, the team found that the types differ in the severity of the disease and the need for respiratory support for patients during hospitalization. Accordingly, new data can help doctors choose the right treatment tactics for a patient showing certain symptoms. It will also be easier for doctors to predict which of the patients is at greatest risk and may need hospitalization during the second wave of coronavirus infection.

    The use of the app by people who have contracted COVID-19 has helped scientists collect extensive data on how the disease progresses and what results it leads to.

    As a reminder, the “classic” symptoms of COVID-19 are persistent cough, fever and loss of smell (anosmia). However, many people may also experience severe headaches, muscle aches, fatigue, and confusion. Some talk about the appearance of diarrhea and loss of appetite, shortness of breath and many other unusual symptoms.

    The course and outcome of the disease also differ significantly from person to person: someone gets off asymptomatically, someone discovers a simple rash, some experience a condition similar to that which occurs when infected with the flu, while others have a very difficult and even leads to the death of a person.

    The research team used a machine learning algorithm to analyze data from approximately 1,600 users in the United Kingdom and the United States with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19.They all logged their symptoms regularly with the app in March and April 2020.

    The analysis identified six specific groups of symptoms that occur during characteristic periods of the development of the disease. The algorithm was then tested on a second independent dataset from 1,000 users in the UK, USA and Sweden. They recorded their symptoms throughout May 2020.


    As a result, scientists have identified six types of COVID-19:

    • “Like the flu” without fever

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, muscle pain, cough, sore throat, chest pain, no fever.

    • “Like the flu” with fever

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, hoarseness, fever, loss of appetite.

    • Gastrointestinal tract affected

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, diarrhea, sore throat, chest pain, no cough.

    • Severe current level 1 plus fatigue

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, cough, fever, hoarseness, chest pain, fatigue.

    • Severe current level 2 plus confusion

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain.

    • Severe Current Level 3

    Symptoms: headache, loss of smell, loss of appetite, cough, fever, hoarseness, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, confusion, muscle pain, shortness of breath, diarrhea, abdominal pain.


    Knowing whether a person will need hospitalization already on the fifth day after the onset of symptoms is a serious handicap for doctors.

    Researchers from King’s College London also decided to find out if people with certain clusters of symptoms needed mechanical ventilation or supplemental oxygen support.

    Detailed results are described in the preprint that appeared on the medRxiv website. We only note that the help of doctors was more needed by the “owners” of types 3-6.Also, almost half of those who were unlucky more than the rest (type 6) ended up in the hospital. For comparison: only 16% of patients with the first type were admitted to hospitals.

    Typically, people with 4-6 types of COVID-19 symptoms were older and weaker, more prone to being overweight, and had “co-morbidities” such as diabetes or lung disease.

    This image shows viral particles exiting a cell towards a healthy cell to continue the infection cycle.

    Another important achievement of scientists: they developed a model that combines information about age, gender, body mass index and previous diagnoses, as well as symptoms collected in the first five days from the onset of the disease. She made it possible to predict what type of symptoms the patient would experience. In addition, the model predicted the risk that a person would need hospitalization and respiratory support.

    Today, most people with severe breathing problems arrive at the hospital about 13 days after the first symptoms appear.The extra eight days could have given the medics a head start and saved many lives. If on the fifth day it becomes clear that this particular patient needs to monitor the level of oxygen and blood sugar more often, doctors will be able to take all the necessary measures in time.

    “The ability to collect large datasets with an app and apply machine learning to them has a profound impact on our understanding of the magnitude and impact of COVID-19, and on human health in general,” explains lead author Sebastien Ourselin. Professor of Engineering in Health Care from King’s College London.

    Professor Tim Spector, known to us from numerous previous studies, adds:

    “Data is our most powerful tool in the fight against COVID-19. We encourage everyone to use the app on a daily basis to record their health parameters in the coming months and [thereby] help us know ahead of time about any local outbreaks or second wave of infection.”

    Note that the scientific article by researchers from the UK is still a preprint.That is, it did not pass peer review (the data and conclusions were not comprehensively verified by other experts).

    Earlier Vesti.Ru reported that the SARS-CoV-2 virus mutated and split into two types and that a vulnerability was found in it, as well as that a more aggressive form of coronavirus could be brought from abroad.

    90,000 Don’t miss the first signs of pneumonia

    Pneumonia or pneumonia is a lung disease of predominantly infectious origin with damage to the end portions of the lungs – alveoli and impaired gas exchange at their level.The alveoli fill with fluid or purulent material, causing coughing up phlegm, less often hemoptysis, fever, chills, and shortness of breath. A variety of microorganisms can cause pneumonia, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

    Pneumonia can range from mild to life-threatening, and is most dangerous for infants and young children, people over 65, and people with weakened immune systems.

    Pneumonia symptoms

    Signs and symptoms of pneumonia range from mild to severe, depending on factors such as the type of germ causing the infection, age, and general health.Mild signs and symptoms are often similar to those of a cold or flu, but they last longer.

    Signs and symptoms of pneumonia may include:

    • Chest pain when breathing or coughing
    • Cough with phlegm
    • Shortness of breath (shortness of breath) with less exertion, talking, at rest
    • Fatigue
    • Body temperature below normal (in adults over 65 years of age and people with a weak immune system)
    • Changes in mood, appetite, physical activity in the elderly (in combination with other factors)
    • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea (in rare cases)

    Neonates and infants may show no signs of infection.There may be vomiting, fever and coughing, restlessness, fatigue and lack of energy, and trouble breathing and eating.

    When to see a doctor

    See your doctor if you have trouble breathing, chest pain, persistent fever (38.5 C) or higher, cough, especially if you cough up phlegm.

    It is important that people from risk groups see a doctor:

    • Adults over 65 years old
    • Children under 2 years of age with signs and symptoms
    • Patients with exogenous intoxication (alcohol, drugs)
    • People with poor and satisfactory health conditions or weakened immune systems
    • Patients with chronic diseases, especially in the stage of decompensation (obstructive bronchitis, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis)
    • People receiving chemotherapy or drugs that suppress the immune system
    • Long lying in bed

    For some older adults and people with heart failure or chronic lung disease, pneumonia can quickly become a life-threatening condition.

    Causes of pneumonia

    Pneumonia can be caused by many microorganisms. The most common are bacteria and viruses in the air we breathe, especially in indoor air. human immunity usually prevents these microorganisms from contracting the lungs. But sometimes these microbes can suppress the immune system, even if your health is generally good.

    Pneumonia is classified according to the types of microorganisms that cause it and the location of the infection.

    Community-acquired pneumonia

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common type of pneumonia. This happens outside of hospitals or other health care facilities. This could be caused by:

    Bacteria: The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia is pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae). This type of pneumonia can occur on its own or after you have a cold or flu. May affect one part (lobe) of the lung.

    Bacterial-like organisms. Mycoplasma pneumoniae can also cause pneumonia. It usually causes milder symptoms than other types of pneumonia. Walking pneumonia is the informal name for this type of pneumonia, which is usually not severe enough to warrant bed rest.

    Fungi or mold: This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health problems or weakened immune systems, and in people who have inhaled large doses of organisms.The fungi that cause it can be found in soil or bird droppings and vary by geographic location.

    Viruses. Certain viruses, influenza virus, herpes viruses, adenoviruses that cause the common cold, can also cause pneumonia. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. But in some cases it can get very serious.

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    Some people get pneumonia during their hospital stay due to another illness.Hospital pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria that cause it can be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick and weakened. People who are on breathing apparatus (ventilators), often used in intensive care units, are at a higher risk of this type of pneumonia.

    Pneumonia associated with medical intervention

    This is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who are in long-term care facilities or are treated on an outpatient basis, including kidney dialysis centers.Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, it can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics.

    Aspiration pneumonia

    Aspiration pneumonia occurs when a patient inhales food, drink, vomit, or saliva into the lungs. Aspiration is more likely if something interferes with normal gag or cough reflexes, such as brain damage, excessive alcohol or drug use.

    Risk factors

    Pneumonia can affect anyone. But in two age groups, the risk is increased:

    1. Children 2 years old or younger
    2. People aged 65 and over

    Other risk factors include:

    • Hospital stay: increases the risk of pneumonia, especially in intensive care units of hospitals, especially with mechanical ventilation.
    • Chronic disease. Risks of getting pneumonia increase with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis.
    • Smoking. Smoking interferes with the body’s natural defenses against bacteria and viruses.
    • Weakened or suppressed immune system. People with HIV / AIDS, organ transplant, tuberculosis, chemotherapy or long-term steroid use.

    Complications of pneumonia

    Even with treatment, some people with pneumonia, especially in high-risk groups, may experience complications, including:

    • Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia). Bacteria that enter the bloodstream from the lungs can spread the infection to other organs, which can lead to dysfunction of these organs and further progression of the disease.
    • Difficulty breathing (shortness of breath). In severe pneumonia, especially against the background of chronic lung disease, problems arise with obtaining sufficient oxygen.Hospitalization and use of a breathing apparatus (ventilator) may be required during treatment.
    • Accumulation of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion). Pneumonia can cause fluid to accumulate in the thin space between the layers of tissue that line the lungs and chest cavity (pleura).
    • Lung abscess. An abscess occurs when pus builds up in the lungs. An abscess is usually treated with antibiotics. Sometimes surgery or drainage is required to remove the pus with a long needle or tube placed in the abscess.

    If you suspect pneumonia, consult a doctor!

    Not timely treatment, self-medication lead to late diagnosis, antibiotic resistance, various complications and even death.

    90,000 Search disease by symptoms -healthgate4all.gr

    Anemia (pallor)

    White spots on the tongue or mouth

    Pale or blotchy skin and blue lips

    Pale skin with spots

    Lighter cough (attacks become less frequent and finally go away completely)

    Soreness and inflammation of the joints

    Soreness and enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually the occipital)

    Joint pain

    Sore throat

    Chest pain

    Muscle pain

    Muscle and joint pain

    Pain in muscles, joints, and limbs (arms or legs)

    Pain in the lower abdomen

    Abdominal pain

    Joint pain (rare)

    Body pain

    Testicular pain in men

    Pain and burning sensation when urinating

    Stomach pain and cramps

    Pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen (less common)

    Pain or tenderness in the testicles or prostate (less common)

    Pain when urinating

    Pain, discomfort, or discharge from the anus

    Pain, swelling, irritation, and discharge from the eyes

    Pain, discomfort, discharge, or bleeding from the anus

    The person cannot bend the neck (muscle stiffness)

    Watery stool (like a decoction)

    Inflammation (swelling) of the foreskin (the skin covering the head of the penis)

    Sore throat with difficulty and pain when swallowing

    Discharge from the nose

    Heat

    A high fever with chills every 2 or 3 days

    Headache

    Jaundice (yellow color of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes)

    Jaundice (yellow color of the skin and eyes)

    Muscle stiffness in the abdomen

    Slow reactions or no reactions

    Constipation (in adults) or diarrhea (in children)

    Difficulty swallowing

    Difficulty breathing

    Blurred vision

    Changes in the cervix

    Catarrhal phenomena

    Cough

    Cough (usually dry)

    Conjunctivitis and discomfort from exposure to bright light

    A red spotted rash that does not go away or change color with pressure (not always)

    Red, puffy eyes with thick, purulent discharge in the first 2 weeks of life

    Bleeding between menstrual cycles or after sex in women

    Bleeding between menstrual cycles or menstrual irregularities (less common)

    A membrane that adheres tightly to the underlying tissues of the mouth, tonsils, throat and / or nose and interferes with breathing

    Sputum with blood

    Dark urine (like cognac)

    Muscle cramps

    Violations of the mental cycle in women

    Low temperature

    Low temperature (up to 38οC for 2 days, approximately)

    Malaise

    Unusually cold hands and feet or chills

    Unusual vaginal discharge that may be thick and green or yellow

    Unusual discharge from the penis, vagina, or anus

    Unusual discharge from the penis, which may be white, yellow, or green

    Low temperature (not always)

    Night sweats

    Dehydration (lack of fluid in the body, dry tongue and skin)

    Discoloration of feces (like putty)

    One or more, small or large, flat or cauliflower outgrowths on the genitals and around the anus (papillomas)

    One or more (usually painless) round small sores (chancres) that are usually located on the genitals, including the mouth, anus, or vagina

    Chills

    Swollen glands in the neck

    Swollen lymph nodes, such as in the neck, armpits

    Individual or grouped, small blisters of fluid in or around the genitals, anus, and mouth that burst and develop painful sores

    Lack of appetite

    Pressure rise

    Diarrhea

    Loss of appetite (in children)

    Loss of appetite and weight

    Weight loss

    Weight loss (rare)

    Hair loss in different places (rare)

    Sweating

    Swollen lymph nodes

    Spasmodic coughing attacks

    Irritable reactions

    A diffuse rash, most often on the palms and soles of the feet, although it can appear elsewhere

    Vomiting

    Vomiting (usually in children)

    Vomiting and refusing to eat

    Vomiting after a coughing fit

    Sharp pain when urinating

    Stiff neck

    Traffic phobia (sensitivity to bright light)

    Whistle when breathing

    Great weakness, fatigue

    Great fatigue

    Strong headache

    Bluish complexion

    Weakness

    Weakness and fatigue

    Drowsiness

    Sleepiness and refusal to wake up

    Cramping

    Spasms (rare)

    Chewing muscle spasms

    Confusion of consciousness

    Dry cough

    Dry cough at first at night

    Rash (face, cervix, upper limbs, body, lower limbs)

    Rash (for about 5 days, first on the face, then on the body and back, and then on the upper and lower extremities)

    Pale pink rash (roseola)

    Rash in the form of blisters with transparent contents and itching of the skin of the body, face and scalp (under the scalp)

    Rash on the body

    Temperature

    Temperature (rare)

    Temperature 38oC and above

    Temperature for several weeks

    Temperature rises at irregular intervals and does not decrease

    Nausea

    Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea

    Difficult to reduce high temperature (39-40oC)

    Enlargement of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid, on one or both sides of the head

    Fatigue

    Persistent diarrhea

    Persistent cough

    Rapid breathing

    Rapid breathing or difficulty breathing

    Hoarse voice

    Feeling of heaviness in the right upper abdomen

    The above catalog includes symptoms associated with a number of infectious diseases.Select one or more symptoms for information on relative infectious diseases. The results are by no means a diagnosis.

    Crohn’s disease, symptoms – Clinic Health 365 Yekaterinburg

    Causes of Crohn’s disease

    Crohn’s disease. Questions to the doctor

    Diagnosis of Crohn’s disease

    Crohn’s disease treatment

    Complications of Crohn’s disease

    Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).It causes inflammation of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which can lead to abdominal pain, diarrhea (diarrhea), nutrient malabsorption syndrome.

    Inflammation caused by Crohn’s disease often extends deep into the intestinal wall. Like ulcerative colitis, another common IBD, Crohn’s disease can cause significant pain, wasting, and sometimes even life-threatening complications.

    Although there are no known medications for a complete cure for Crohn’s disease, therapy can significantly reduce the symptoms of the disease and even lead to long-term remission.With these treatments, many people with Crohn’s disease can feel and function well for years.

    Manifestations and symptoms of Crohn’s disease differ in mild and severe course, may increase gradually or appear suddenly. There may also be periods when you have no symptoms (remission). With an exacerbation of the disease, the symptoms may be as follows:

    Diarrhea (loose stools). As a result of the inflammation of the intestinal wall that occurs in Crohn’s disease, the cells of the intestinal mucosa secrete large amounts of water and salts.Because the large intestine cannot completely absorb this excess fluid, diarrhea develops. The activation of intestinal contractions can also contribute to the appearance of loose stools. Diarrhea is the most common symptom in patients with Crohn’s disease.

    Abdominal pain and cramps . In places of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal wall, growth of scar tissue gradually occurs. This makes it difficult for food to move normally through the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to cramping pain.In mild Crohn’s disease, there is usually mild bowel discomfort, but in more severe cases, pain may be severe, and nausea and vomiting may occur.

    Blood in stool . The movement of food through the digestive tract may cause bleeding from inflamed tissue, or the bleeding may occur on its own. You may notice bright red blood in the toilet or dark blood mixed with stool. You may not always see bleeding on your own (there may be occult blood in the stool).

    Ulcers. Crohn’s disease can lead at first to small ulcers on the surface of the intestinal mucosa, but later these ulcers can increase in size, penetrate deep into the wall, and sometimes through the entire thickness of the intestinal wall. Similar sores can appear in the mouth.

    Decreased appetite and weight loss. Abdominal pain, cramping and inflammation in the intestinal wall can affect both your appetite and your ability to digest and absorb food.

    Patients with severe Crohn’s disease may also have the following symptoms:

    • fever
    • fatigue
    • joint pain (arthritis – inflammation of the joints)
    • eye inflammation
    • skin diseases
    • inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) or bile ducts (cholangitis)
    • growth retardation or puberty in children

    When should I see a doctor?

    See your doctor if you have long-term bowel problems or any signs and symptoms of Crohn’s disease, such as:

    • Abdominal pain
    • Blood in the stool
    • Frequent diarrhea that cannot be treated with conventional means
    • unexplained fever (fever) lasting more than two days

    .