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Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 911 for High Blood Pressure
A hypertensive (high blood pressure or HBP) crisis is when blood pressure rises quickly and severely with readings of 180/120 or greater.
The consequences of uncontrolled blood pressure in this range can be severe and include:
An elevated reading may or may not be accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms:
- Severe headache
- Shortness of breath
- Severe anxiety
Know the two types of high blood pressure crisis to watch for
There are two types of hypertensive crises—both require immediate attention as early evaluation of organ function is critical to determine an appropriate course of action.
If your blood pressure is 180/120 or greater, wait about five minutes and try again. If the second reading is just as high and you are not experiencing any other associated symptoms of target organ damage such as chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness/weakness, change in vision, or difficulty speaking, this would be considered a hypertensive urgency. Your healthcare provider may just have you adjust or add medications, but rarely requires hospitalization.
If your blood pressure reading is 180/120 or greater and you are experiencing any other associated symptoms of target organ damage such as chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness/weakness, change in vision, or difficulty speaking then this would be considered a hypertensive emergency. Do not wait to see if your pressure comes down on its own, Call 911.
If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, track your blood pressure and medications. If possible during an emergency, having these logs with you can provide valuable information to the medical team providing treatment.
Things you need to know about blood pressure and hypertension
This document contains recommendations that can help you talk to your doctor and other health care professionals about your blood pressure.
High blood pressure is one of the leading causes of death in Canada. High blood pressure can cause strokes, heart attacks, and heart and kidney failure; it is also related to dementia and sexual dysfunction. These problems can be prevented if they are well treated and controlled.
A normal blood pressure allows blood to flow and deliver oxygen and food to different parts of the body. We measure blood pressure with two numbers (ie, 124/84 mmHg). The first number is called the systolic blood pressure and the second is called the diastolic blood pressure. These two numbers are written as ‘systolic/diastolic’ followed by the unit of measurement. Systolic blood pressure is your highest blood pressure measurement and is recorded when your heart contracts. Diastolic blood pressure is your lowest blood pressure measurement and is recorded when your heart relaxes and fills with blood. The higher your systolic or diastolic pressure is, and the longer it stays high, the more damage is made to your blood vessels. Strokes and heart attacks are caused by damaged blood vessels.
Have your blood pressure measured regularly
Have your blood pressure measured regularly and know what your blood pressure is. Remember that both numbers are important. If either the systolic or diastolic number is high (more than 135/85 mmHg when measured at home or more than 140/90 mmHg when measured in a doctor’s office), then your doctor will need to further check your blood pressure. A blood pressure measurement of less than 120/80 mmHg is very good unless it causes dizziness.
Stop high blood pressure and stop your blood pressure from increasing
There are several things you can do to stop hypertension and keep your blood pressure lower. Blood pressure increases with age, and more than nine in 10 Canadians will develop hypertension unless they follow a healthy lifestyle.
Be physically active for 30 to 60 minutes on most days of the week. Try walking, biking, swimming, cross-country skiing or any other physical activity that you enjoy. Remember that even a little bit of physical activity is better than no activity at all.
Eat a lot of fresh fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy products and other foods low in fat and salt. Avoid fast foods, canned foods or foods that are bought prepared, as well as any foods where you can see the fat in them.
Eat less salt in your diet. This is made easier by eating the diet described above, by avoiding eating at restaurants and by not adding salt to your cooking or keeping salt at the table. Most of the salt we consume is from packaged or prepared foods and from food cooked in restaurants.
If you drink more than two alcoholic drinks each day, drinking less will help to lower your blood pressure. A regular-sized bottle or can of beer, 1.5 ounces of hard liquor or a regular-sized glass of wine are each equal to a single alcoholic drink.
Keeping your body weight within a healthy range also prevents high blood pressure. If you are overweight, losing about 10 lbs (5 kg) will lower your blood pressure, and reducing your weight to within a healthy range will lower your blood pressure even more.
It is important to stop smoking if you have high blood pressure. Smoking increases the risk of developing heart problems and others diseases. Ensuring that you live and work in places that are smoke-free is also important.
One high blood pressure reading is not enough for a diagnosis of hypertension. Most people will have higher readings when under physical or emotional stress. Blood pressure should be measured when you are relaxed and rested. Listed below are several ways to find out whether you have hypertension.
A doctor will diagnose hypertension right away if your blood pressure is extremely high (higher than 200/120 mmHg). If your blood pressure is higher than 180/110 mmHg, then your doctor will be able to diagnose you with hypertension after just two visits over a short period of time. If your blood pressure is higher than 160/100 mmHg, then three visits are enough. If your blood pressure is higher than 140/90 mmHg, then five visits are needed before a diagnosis can be made. If either your systolic or diastolic blood pressure stays high, then the diagnosis of hypertension can be made. The diagnosis can also be made if you have diabetes or kidney disease and a blood pressure higher than 130/80 mmHg.
Measuring your blood pressure at home
You can also diagnose yourself with hypertension by measuring your blood pressure at home. If readings are high over two visits at the doctor’s office, and if your blood pressure is higher than 135/85 mmHg when properly measured at home, then the diagnosis of hypertension can be made. This requires you to measure your blood pressure twice a day, in the morning and evening, for one week. Pay no attention to the measurements from the first day. Measuring blood pressure at home requires accurate equipment and proper measuring techniques. Measure the blood pressure of others in your house; their blood pressure may also be high.
Buying a blood pressure instrument to measure your blood pressure at home
Blood pressure instruments can be purchased in most pharmacies. Buy a blood pressure instrument that has been approved by the Association for the Advancement in Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), the British Hypertension Society (BHS) or the International Protocol (IP). These labels will be marked clearly on the box. If you are unsure whether an instrument is approved, ask your pharmacist for help. Once you have bought the instrument, ask your doctor or pharmacist to check it to make sure the instrument measures your blood pressure accurately.
Measuring ambulatory blood pressure
High blood pressure can also be diagnosed through a special device called an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. A doctor, nurse or pharmacist will get you to wear the device for a full day. The device measures blood pressure every 20 to 30 minutes and gives the doctor an average of your blood pressures during the day and while you are sleeping. These devices are not available everywhere and can be uncomfortable to wear.
SO YOU HAVE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE –WHAT ELSE COULD BE WRONG?
If you have high blood pressure, get checked for diabetes and high cholesterol. Most people who have high blood pressure also have some of the other risks for heart disease and stroke, such as not getting enough physical activity, having unhealthy eating habits, smoking, being overweight or drinking too much alcohol. Ask your doctor to test your kidney function through a blood and urine test, and through the electrolytes (salts) in your blood; kidney problems can cause high blood pressure.
Target your high blood pressure
Once you have been diagnosed with hypertension, remember that high blood pressure can be lowered. For most people, blood pressure readings should be lower than 140/90 mmHg when measured in the doctor’s office. At home, your blood pressure should generally be below 135/85 mmHg. For those people with diabetes or kidney disease, lower blood pressure is even more important and should be below 130/80 mmHg when measured in the doctor’s office.
Most people who lead healthy lifestyles do not suffer from high blood pressure. For those with hypertension, following the steps outlined above (‘Stop high blood pressure and stop your blood pressure from increasing’) will lower their blood pressure.
Taking your medication
Most people with high blood pressure will need two or more medications, together with lifestyle changes, to lower their blood pressure. In many cases, two medications can be taken as a single tablet with both medications in it. It is usually best to start treatment with a single medication. There are many drugs that last over a full day and need to be taken only once a day. Keep in mind that many of these drugs need up to six weeks before they take full effect. In general, these drugs will not make you feel worse or better, but will simply lower your blood pressure. Every drug can have side effects, and you need to keep an eye on these and report them to your doctor. The pamphlets on side effects provided by many pharmacies are often overstated.
It is very important that you take your prescribed drugs regularly and as instructed on the pill bottle. Keep in mind that medications will not work if you do not take them! Place your medication next to something you use regularly and at the same time that you are supposed to take your medication – that way, you are more likely to remember to take it. For medications taken in the morning with food, for example, you could store the pill in the cup or bowl you plan to use for breakfast. If you occasionally forget to take your medication, it may help to keep a second bottle in your car or at work. For those who are already taking many drugs, a plastic medication dosette is inexpensive and can be found at your local pharmacy. Measuring your own blood pressure can also help you remember to take your medication. A lower blood pressure when you are taking your medication is a good reminder, as is a high blood pressure when you forget. Mark on your calendar when your prescription is due to be refilled; if you have pills left on that date, you will know you are having problems remembering to take your medication.
If you are having trouble taking your medication, or if you are forgetting to take your medication altogether, tell your doctor or pharmacist about it. If you do not inform your doctor, he or she will think the drug is not working and may increase the dose of medication or add more medications.
Many drugs that lower blood pressure also prevent heart attacks and strokes. The drugs include diuretics (water pills), beta-blockers in those younger than 60 years of age, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers. All of these drugs reduce blood pressure by just about the same amount on average, but some people have better results with one drug than with another. These drugs have different costs and different possible side effects. If you have diabetes or kidney disease, an ACE inhibitor or an ARB is usually recommended first. Often times, diabetes or kidney disease patients also take diuretics. If you have heart disease, then a beta-blocker and ACE inhibitor is commonly used. It is best to ask your doctor or pharmacist what type of medication you are on if you are unsure.
If you need two medications
Many types of blood pressure drugs work best when taken together. When taking two drugs together, diuretics have been shown to lower blood pressure with a beta-blocker, ACE inhibitor and an ARB. A calcium channel blocker lowers blood pressure with the same drugs that work well with a diuretic. Other drug combinations are necessary when taking three or more blood pressure medications. There may be other reasons why your doctor may prescribe two blood pressure medications. For example, after heart attacks, doctors will prescribe a beta-blocker and an ACE inhibitor, but this is not primarily to reduce blood pressure.
This information will be updated yearly. The recommendations provided to you here are the same as those provided to doctors, nurses and pharmacists.
Complications When Blood Pressure Is 100 on the Bottom Level
A man is clutching his chest.
Image Credit: tungphoto/iStock/Getty Images
Blood pressure measures the force that blood places against the artery walls as it’s pumped through the body. It’s an indicator of how hard the heart is working to supply the body with blood and oxygen it needs. Blood pressure is recorded as a fraction, such as 120/80mmHg. The top number is the systolic and represents the heart beating. The bottom is the diastolic, representing the heart at rest. When blood pressure gets too high, health problems can result. To help prevent serious illness, be aware of the complications that can occur when the bottom number is 100 or higher.
When blood pressure numbers reach between 120/80mmHg to 139/89mmHg, it’s considered prehypertension. A level of 140/90mmHg or higher is considered high blood pressure or hypertension. A bottom reading of 100 or higher means the heart is working harder than it should. This may be due to coronary artery disease or another underlying condition. When the heart has to work that hard, the risk for a heart attack increases.
Because high blood pressure can exist without causing any symptoms, it’s important to have it tested regularly so it can be caught in the early stages when it’s easier to treat. Diastolic blood pressure or the bottom number is of more concern in younger people, because diastolic tends to naturally decrease with age and systolic tends to get higher with age, says the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
When the top number reaches 180 or higher or the bottom number reaches 110 or higher, it’s considered a hypertensive crisis, warns the American Heart Association. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. A hypertensive crisis may or may not cause nosebleeds, headaches, anxiety and trouble breathing. If left untreated, a hypertensive crisis can lead to fainting, seizures, swelling in the brain, memory loss, organ damage and many other health problems.
Having high diastolic blood pressure can raise the risk of a stroke. High blood pressure may be a signal that the arteries that supply the brain are blocked, meaning there is less blood and oxygen reaching the brain. In addition, untreated high blood pressure can cause bleeding within the brain–called a subarachnoid hemorrhage–which can also cause stroke, aneurysm and even dementia, the Mayo Clinic says. High diastolic blood pressure is even more of a concern if other chronic conditions exist such as diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, or in patients who smoke or are overweight.
According to Merck, high diastolic or systolic blood pressure that goes untreated can also cause bleeding and swelling of the retina. The retina is the portion of the eye that sends signals to the brain so vision can be interpreted. When the retina swells, vision may be distorted or blurry. Blindness can occur in severe cases.
Blood Pressure: Treatments
Reading Blood Pressure Numbers.
What is blood pressure?
Your blood pressure is a measurement of the pressure/force inside your arteries with each heartbeat. Each time your heart beats, blood is pumped out of the heart into arteries that carry the blood throughout your body.
How is blood pressure measured?
A special cuff is used to measure your blood pressure. The cuff inflates and deflates, and during the process, your pressures are measured. Many times, a stethoscope is also used.
Blood pressure readings
Blood pressure is recorded as two measurements: systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the top/first number, and diastolic blood pressure is the bottom/second number. The numbers are expressed as millimeter of mercury (mmHg)
Systolic blood pressure
The pressure in the arteries when the heart is beating and the arteries are filled with blood
Diastolic blood pressure
The pressure in the arteries when the heart is resting between beats
What do the numbers mean?
Your blood pressure can be normal, elevated, or you may have Stage 1 or 2 hypertension (high blood pressure).
Normal blood pressure is <120/<80 mmHg
Elevated blood pressure is 120-129/<80 mmHg
Stage 1 hypertension is 130-139 (top number) OR 80-89 (bottom number)
Stage 2 hypertension is 140 or higher (top number) OR 90 or higher (bottom number)
Two or more readings are needed to determine if you have high blood pressure.
GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION!
IF YOUR TOP NUMBER IS EVER 180 OR HIGHER AND/OR YOUR BOTTOM NUMBER IS EVER 110 OR HIGHER, GET EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT OR HAVE SOMEONE TAKE YOU TO THE HOSPITAL RIGHT AWAY!
Your blood pressure does not stay the same at all times. When you are exercising or excited, your blood pressure goes up. When you are resting, your blood pressure is lower. Your blood pressure can also change due to age, medications you take, and changes in position.
Tips for measuring your blood pressure
- Sit for at least 5 minutes before your blood pressure is measured.
- Do not smoke or drink caffeine 30 minutes before you measure your blood pressure.
- If you are nervous when you go to the doctor, you could have a false high blood pressure reading. This is called “white coat syndrome.” If this happens, your doctor may ask you to: Use a blood pressure monitor to check your blood pressure throughout the day. You can bring a record of your readings to your appointments.
Some people are asked to wear a blood pressure monitor for 24 hours. The monitor is usually set to take blood pressure every 15 to 30 minutes as you go about your normal activities.
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?
High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. It is often called the “silent killer” because it can damage your heart, kidneys and brain without you even knowing anything is wrong.
Who is at risk of getting high blood pressure?
Your risk of high blood pressure is higher if:
- You have a family history of high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease or diabetes
- You are African American
- You are age 60 or older
- You take oral contraceptives
- You are overweight
Management and Treatment
What treatments are available for patients with high blood pressure?
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Without treatment, you can have a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, heart attack, enlarged heart, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (such as poor circulation and pain in your legs), aneurysms, kidney disease, and broken blood vessels in your eyes. Treatment includes making changes recommended by your healthcare provider.
Diet and lifestyle changes:
- Reach and stay at your ideal body weight
- Get regular exercise
- Eat a well-balanced, heart healthy diet that is low in salt, fat and cholesterol, and contains lots of fresh fruits and vegetables*
- *Your diet is an important part of blood pressure control. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan and limiting sodium (salt) help control blood pressure. Ask your doctor to refer you to a dietitian for a more personalized eating plan. More information is available from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute at www.nhlbi.nih.gov or the American Heart Association at www.americanheart.org*
- Having no more than two alcoholic drinks per day (for most men) and no more than one drink per day for women and lighter-weight men. One drink is considered to be 12 ounces of beer or wine cooler, 5 ounces of wine or 1. 5 ounces of 80-proof liquor
- Control stress and anger
- Avoid all tobacco and nicotine products
- Other lifestyle changes, such as controlling lipid levels (LDL, cholesterol, triglycerides) and managing other health conditions, such as diabetes
Medications and follow-up care:
- Take all medications as prescribed. Do not stop or start taking any medication without talking to your doctor. Blood pressure medication does not keep working after you stop taking it
- Some over-the-counter medications, such as decongestants, can change the way your blood pressure medication works
- Keep all follow-up appointments so your doctor can monitor your blood pressure, make any needed changes to your medications and help control your risk of cardiovascular disease
Your doctor may ask you to record your blood pressure at home. Follow your doctor’s instructions for recording your blood pressure.
High blood pressure (hypertension) – Illnesses & conditions
Treatment for high blood pressure will depend on your blood pressure levels and your associated risk (after taking account of several factors) of developing a cardiovascular disease, such as a heart attack or stroke.
There are seven main risk factors for developing a cardiovascular disease. These are:
- high blood pressure
- smoking (or a previous history of smoking)
- lack of exercise
- having a high level of cholesterol in your blood
- having a family history of cardiovascular disease (conditions of the heart or blood vessels).
If your blood pressure is slightly high
If your blood pressure is slightly higher than the ideal level (120/80mmHg), and your GP feels that the risks of cardiovascular disease are low, then you should be able to lower your blood pressure by making simple lifestyle changes (see more below).
If your blood pressure is moderately high
If your blood pressure is moderately high (140/90mmHg or higher), or your GP feels that your risk of developing cardiovascular disease in the next 10 years is more than one in five, then you will be advised about changing your lifestyle and may also be prescribed medication.
If your blood pressure is very high
If your blood pressure is very high (180/110 mmHg or above) you should be referred to a hypertension specialist (a doctor who specialises in treating high blood pressure).
The following lifestyle changes are known to reduce high blood pressure:
- regular exercise of at least 30 minutes a day, a minimum of five times a week (e.g. walking, cycling or swimming)
- cutting your alcohol intake to recommended levels (less than 21 units a week for men, and less than 14 units a week for women)
- eating a healthy, low-fat, balanced diet, and restricting your salt intake to less than 6g (0.2oz) a day
- losing weight if you are overweight or obese
- restricting your caffeine consumption to less than five cups of coffee or tea a day
- relaxation therapies, such as yoga and meditation
Even if you achieve a relatively low decrease in your blood pressure, it can still have significant health benefits.
More about preventing high blood pressure
A number of medications can be used to treat high blood pressure. You may need to take more than one type of medication to lower your blood pressure because a combination of treatments is sometimes needed to successfully treat the condition.
If you have high blood pressure, you may need to take blood pressure-lowering medication for the rest of your life. However, if your blood pressure levels stay under control for several years, you should ask your GP if you could come off your treatment and have your blood pressure monitored.
Most medications that are used to treat high blood pressure have some side effects (see below for details of the specific side effects of each type of medication). Consult your GP immediately if you have any of the following common side effects while taking medication for high blood pressure:
- feeling drowsy
- pain around your kidney area (on the side of your lower back)
- a dry cough
- dizziness, faintness or light-headedness
- a skin rash
Research has shown that different blood pressure lowering medications work better for different ethnic groups. For example, ACE inhibitors are more effective as a first-choice medication for treating high blood pressure in white people, whereas calcium channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics, tend to work better for black people.
It is thought that this is because black people tend to have a lower level of renin in their blood. Renin is an enzyme that helps to regulate blood pressure. ACE inhibitors are most effective when there is a high amount of renin in the blood, so they are not as effective in treating black people with high blood pressure.
Therefore, your GP will consider your ethnic background when making a treatment plan.
The most widely used medications for treating high blood pressure are described below:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers
- Thiazide diuretics
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors work by blocking the actions of some of the hormones that help to regulate blood pressure.
By stopping these hormones from working, the medication helps to reduce the amount of water in your blood, and it widens your arteries, decreasing your blood pressure.
ACE inhibitors are not suitable for:
- pregnant or breastfeeding women
- people with conditions that affect the blood supply to their kidneys
ACE inhibitors have been known to reduce the blood supply to the kidneys, which can reduce their efficiency. Therefore, blood and urine tests may be carried out before you start taking ACE inhibitors to make sure that there are no pre-existing problems with your kidneys.
You may need to have annual blood and urine tests if you continue to use ACE inhibitors.
Side effects of ACE inhibitors include:
- tiredness or weakness
- a persistent dry cough
Most of these side effects should pass in a few days, although some people find that they continue to have a dry cough.
If side effects become particularly troublesome, a medication that works in a similar way to ACE inhibitors, known as an angiotensin-2 receptor antagonist, may be recommended.
ACE inhibitors can cause unpredictable effects if taken with other medications, including some over-the-counter (OTC) ones. Therefore, as with any prescribed medication always check with your GP or pharmacist before taking any ‘over the counter’ medication in combination with those prescribed for you.
Calcium channel blockers
Calcium channel blockers work by relaxing the muscles that make up the walls of your arteries. This widens your arteries and reduces your blood pressure.
Examples of calcium channel blockers include:
Every calcium channel blocker acts differently. Common side effects of calcium channel blockers should pass within a few days once your body gets used to the medication, these include:
- flushed face
- swollen ankles
- skin rashes
- abnormally fast, slow or uneven heart rate
Certain brands of calcium channel blocker may also cause constipation in some people.
Do not drink grapefruit juice if you are taking calcium channel blockers because it can lower your blood pressure.
Thiazide diuretics, work by reducing the amount of water in your blood and widening the walls of your arteries. They are not recommended for pregnant women, or people who have gout (a type of arthritis where crystals develop inside the joints).
Thiazide diuretics have been known to reduce the level of potassium in your blood, which can interfere with your heart and kidney functions. They can also raise the level of sugar in your blood, which could lead to diabetes.
Therefore, you will probably be recommended to have blood and urine tests every six months so that your potassium and blood sugar levels can be monitored.
Example of thazide diuretics include:
The side effects of thiazide diuretics include:
- muscle cramps
- going to the toilet more during the day and possibly night
A few people have reported that they could not get or maintain an erection while taking thiazide diuretics. However, this particular side effect was resolved once the medication was withdrawn.
There are two other types of diuretic available which you may be prescribed these are:
- Loop Diuretics
- Potassium-sparing diuretics
Alpha-blockers are effective in reducing high blood pressure. However, they are not usually prescribed unless you are already taking other medication and your blood pressure is still high.
Alpha-blockers, work by preventing the muscles that line your blood vessels (alpha receptors) from being activated and tightening the muscles in the walls of your blood vessels. This enables the blood vessels to relax and open, making it much easier for blood to flow through them and lower your blood pressure.
Examples of alpha-blockers include:
Common side effects of alpha-blockers include:
- fainting spells when you first start the treatment
- swollen ankles
Beta-blockers used to be a popular treatment for high blood pressure, but now they only tend to be used when other treatments have not proved successful. This is because beta-blockers have more potential side effects than the other medications that are used to treat high blood pressure.
Beta-blockers, work by slowing down your heart rate and the force of your heart. This reduces the pressure at which the blood is pumped out of your heart and around your body.
Examples of beta-blockers include:
Common side effects of beta-blockers include:
- cold hands and feet
- slow heartbeat
Less common side effects of beta-blockers include:
- sleep disturbances
Although beta-blockers are not the preferred method of treatment for high blood pressure, they may be considered for younger people if:
- other treatments, such as ACE inhibitors, have not been effective
- a woman is fertile (can become pregnant)
Beta-blockers can also interact with other medications, causing possible adverse side effects. Therefore, as with any prescribed medication always check with your GP or pharmacist before taking any ‘over the counter’ medication in combination with those prescribed for you
Do not suddenly stop taking beta-blockers without first consulting your GP. Stopping this medication suddenly will lead to serious side effects, such as a rise in blood pressure or chest pain caused by reduction in oxygen to your heart muscle (angina).
High Blood Pressure/Hypertension | Cedars-Sinai
Not what you’re looking for?
What is high blood pressure?
Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the
artery walls. The force is made with each heartbeat as blood is pumped from the
heart into the blood vessels. This is called systolic blood pressure. Blood
pressure is also affected by the size of the artery walls and their elasticity. Each
time the heart beats (contracts and relaxes), pressure is created inside the
arteries. When the heart is relaxed, the arteries stay at a lower resting tone to
maintain some pressure in the artery. This is called diastolic blood pressure.
High blood pressure is when the force of the blood is too high
during heart contraction or relaxation within the arteries. The arteries may have
increased resistance against the flow of blood. This causes your heart to pump
harder to circulate the blood.
What causes high blood pressure?
These factors may cause high blood pressure:
- Being overweight
- Having lots of salt in your diet
- Not getting much physical activity
- Family history of high blood pressure
- High stress levels
- Not getting enough sleep
- Excessive alcohol use
- Kidney disease
Who is at risk for high blood pressure?
More than half of all adult Americans have high blood pressure.
You are at risk for it if you:
- Have diabetes, gout, or kidney disease
- Are African American, especially if you live in the
- Are middle-aged or older
- Have a family history of high blood pressure
- Eat a lot of high-salt foods
- Are overweight
- Drink a lot of alcohol
- Take birth control pills (oral contraceptives)
- Have depression
- Are pregnant
- Smoke or use e-cigarettes
- Use stimulant drugs such as cocaine or methamphetamine
What are the symptoms of high blood pressure?
High blood pressure often has no symptoms. But you can find out if
your blood pressure is higher than normal by checking it yourself or by having it
checked regularly by your healthcare provider.
Very high blood pressure can cause symptoms. These include
headache, changes in vision, or chest pain.
How is high blood pressure diagnosed?
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and
stethoscope by a nurse or other healthcare provider. You can also take your own
blood pressure with an electronic blood pressure monitor. You can find one at most
Two numbers are recorded when measuring blood pressure:
The top number is the systolic
This is the pressure inside the artery when the heart
contracts and pumps blood through the body.
The bottom number is the diastolic
This is the pressure inside the artery when the heart is at
rest and is filling with blood.
Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are recorded as mm Hg
(millimeters of mercury). This recording represents how high the mercury column in
the blood pressure cuff is raised by the pressure of the blood.
Blood pressure is rated as normal, elevated, or stage 1 or stage 2
high blood pressure:
- Normal blood pressure is systolic of less than 120 and
diastolic of less than 80 (120/80).
- Elevated blood pressure is systolic of 120 to 129 and
diastolic less than 80.
- Stage 1 high blood pressure is when systolic is 130 to 139
or diastolic is 80 to 89.
- Stage 2 high blood pressure is when systolic is 140 or
higher or diastolic is 90 or higher.
Even higher blood pressure (with the systolic blood pressure 180
or higher, the diastolic blood pressure more than 120, or both) is called a
hypertensive urgency if there are no related symptoms. Or it’s called a hypertensive
emergency if there are symptoms indicating damage to the brain, heart, or kidneys.
If you have a hypertensive urgency, you may need a change in your medicine right
away or be evaluated in an emergency room. If you have a hypertensive emergency, you
will need to be evaluated in an emergency room; and likely have a stay in the
A single higher blood pressure measurement does not always mean
you have a problem. Your healthcare provider will want to see several blood pressure
measurements over a number of days or weeks before diagnosing high blood pressure
and starting treatment. Ask your provider when you should call if your blood
pressure readings are not in the normal range.
How is high blood pressure treated?
Treatment for high blood pressure may involve:
These healthy steps can help you control your blood
- Choose foods that are low in salt (sodium).
- Choose foods low in calories and fat.
- Choose foods high in fiber.
- Stay at a healthy weight, or lose weight if you are
- Limit serving sizes.
- Get more exercise.
- Drink fewer or no alcoholic beverages.
- Reduce stress.
- Get enough quality sleep.
- Quit Smoking.
Sometimes you may need to take 1 or more daily medicines to
control high blood pressure. Take it exactly as directed.
If you have high blood pressure, have your blood pressure
checked routinely and see your healthcare provider to watch the condition.
What are possible complications of high blood
High blood pressure raises your risk for:
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Kidney failure
- Loss of eyesight
How do I prevent high blood pressure?
You can help prevent high blood pressure with many of the same
healthy steps used to treat it. These are:
- Cut back on salt (sodium) in your diet.
- Eat foods that are low in calories and fat, and high in
- Stay at a healthy weight, or losing weight if you are
- Exercise more.
- Stop smoking tobacco and e-cigarettes.
- Drink fewer or no alcoholic beverages.
- Get enough sleep.
- Don’t use stimulants or illegal drugs.
Key points about high blood pressure
- High blood pressure is when the force of the blood pushing
against the artery walls is too high. This causes your heart to pump harder to
circulate the blood.
- Risk factors include being overweight, having a family
history of the disease, and being older.
- There are often no symptoms.
- Two numbers are recorded when measuring blood pressure. High
blood pressure is when the top number (systolic pressure) is 130 or higher or
the bottom number (diastolic pressure) is 80 or higher.
- Lifestyle changes and medicines may help treat high blood
Tips to help you get the most from a visit to your healthcare
- Know the reason for your visit and what you want to
- Before your visit, write down questions you want
- Bring someone with you to help you ask questions and
remember what your provider tells you.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and
any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions
your provider gives you.
- Know why a new medicine or treatment is prescribed, and how
it will help you. Also know what the side effects are.
- Ask if your condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the
results could mean.
- Know what to expect if you do not take the medicine or have
the test or procedure.
- If you have a follow-up appointment, write down the date,
time, and purpose for that visit.
- Know how you can contact your provider if you have
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© 2000-2021 The StayWell Company, LLC. All rights reserved. This information is not intended as a substitute for professional medical care. Always follow your healthcare professional’s instructions.
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Understanding blood pressure reading and charts
Updated: January 2020
How to measure blood pressure?
Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury, mmHg. It consists of two numbers, such as 130/80, which we say as “130 over 80”. The first is your systolic blood pressure, the maximum pressure your blood attains as your heart beats and pushes it around your body. The second is your diastolic pressure, the minimum level it reaches between beats.
And what’s the definition of high blood pressure?
High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, puts a strain on your heart and blood vessels and makes you more susceptible to heart attacks and strokes.
Normal blood pressure is regarded as being between 120-129 (systolic) and 80-84 (diastolic).
The definition of high blood pressure, according to 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines, is anything above 140/90 mmHg. If you measure it in the comfort of your own home, where you’re likely to be more relaxed, the limit is slightly lower at 135/85.
If your blood pressure is between 120/80 and 140/90, you may be at risk of developing hypertension at some stage in the future unless you take action to bring it under control. This is called prehypertension.
A blood pressure reading of over 180/120 is dangerously high. Doctors call this a hypertensive crisis, and it requires immediate treatment.
Systolic blood pressure, the top number, is more important than diastolic blood pressure in people over 40. That’s because it’s a better predictor of stroke and heart attack. And only one of the two numbers has to be higher than it should be to count as high blood pressure.
All this can be summarised in a blood pressure chart, like this:
To check your blood pressure against the chart, start from your systolic pressure on the left-hand side, and move your finger to the right until you reach your diastolic pressure. The colour will tell you whether you have normal or abnormal blood pressure.
Tracking blood pressure over time
Bear in mind that a single reading doesn’t tell you very much – you need to take an average of multiple readings, for example morning and evening for a week. Here’s how you can track your measurements over time using blood pressure diary (free download) and the ‘OMRON connect’ app.
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Williams B, Giuseppe M, Spiering W, et al. (2018). 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 36(10). doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001940
Bupa (2018). High blood pressure. Retrieved from www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/heart-blood-circulation/high-blood-pressure-hypertension
Blood Pressure Association (2018). Blood pressure chart. Retrieved from www.bloodpressureuk.org/BloodPressureandyou/Thebasics/Bloodpressurechart
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pressure per cm 2 Blood pressure with indicators of 110/100 (110/90) is called isolated diastolic hypertension, since only lower diastolic pressure (DBP) is above normal.Such pressure is quite adequate for people who are professionally involved in sports and in this case does not bring with it serious health problems. AD 110/90 can be considered an easier option. However, if such pressure occurs in ordinary people, this is a reason for an urgent visit to a doctor. Norms. In some cases, a pressure of 110 to 90 is a normal indicator, and you do not need to run to the pharmacy for pills right away. Systolic pressure 110-118 within normal limits, if you do not suffer from hypertension.But the diastolic pressure should not exceed 85, 90 indicates the onset of hypertension. What does the pressure of 110 to 90 mean, you cannot say right away, because all people are unique. In a person, depending on gender, age, physical fitness and stress, emotional state and concomitant diseases, normal pressure will be his own. For one BP, 115 to 85 is good, for another 120 to 70. To understand what BP 110 to 90 is talking about, you need to understand the reasons for the indicators. Prevention of deviations in blood pressure. Blood pressure is one of the most important indicators of the state of the body, and even slight fluctuations in it can be associated with a health risk.That is why no basic examination takes place without measuring it. It should be borne in mind that normal blood pressure indicators are rather arbitrary and individual in nature. Blood pressure – what is it. During normal operation, the heart muscle constantly pumps blood into the arteries. In turn, when the blood flow passes through the vessels, it puts pressure on them. Accordingly, blood pressure is conditional. Why does lower blood pressure rise and what to do if normal values are exceeded for a long time? How dangerous is arterial hypertension, how to recognize its causes, what measures are necessary to eliminate it?If the upper pressure is a systolic indicator of the force of blood pressure during heart contraction (systole), then the lower one is a diastolic value during the period of relaxation of the heart muscle (the aortic valve is closed) and filling of small vessels with blood. It rises in response to the resistance of the arterial walls. Normal blood pressure ranges from 90/60 to 120/80 mm Hg. The numbers 90 and 120 are systolic, and 60 and 80 are diastolic. If the readings are less than 90/60, the pressure is considered low.This condition is called hypotension. Is low blood pressure dangerous? Many – most often skinny women – live with hypotension for years and feel great. Doctors believe that these people are lucky: they are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases. However, if the pressure suddenly drops below normal levels, unpleasant symptoms may appear: blurred vision Blood pressure (BP) is not a constant value. Pressure readings can vary depending on a number of factors. Even in the same patient, fluctuations in blood pressure are observed during the day.For example, in the morning after waking up, your blood pressure may be low, and in the afternoon it may start to rise. Children have lower blood pressure than adults. Normal pressure is considered to be blood pressure 120 to 70, 130 to 80. A stable increase in blood pressure 140 to 90 even in older patients should be considered as the upper limit of the norm, requiring competent medical measures. Stolichka pharmacies have a wide range of high blood pressure medicines at affordable prices. Interesting. blood pressure is a significant factor, by studying which a specialist concludes whether the body’s circulatory system is working normally or there are abnormalities.The value of blood pressure denotes the volume of blood that the heart pumps over in a certain unit of time, characterizes the resistance of the vascular bed. If the upper or systolic pressure exceeds 140/90 mm Hg, then the person is diagnosed with arterial hypertension. When the lower or diastolic blood pressure falls below 110/65 mm Hg, irreversible changes in internal organs and tissues occur, since blood supply and oxygen saturation of the body deteriorate. High blood pressure is when the reading is consistently over 140 mm.Hg for systolic and diastolic more than 90 mm Hg. Art. Measures must be taken to control this condition. Hypertension of 1 degree. 1 degree of hypertension is when blood pressure constantly fluctuates systolic within 140-159 and / or diastolic above 90-99 mm Hg. Art. During this stage of high blood pressure, doctors may recommend lifestyle changes and may consider taking blood pressure medications. Consultation on the topic – Pressure 110 90 – Hello, pregnancy 28 weeks, pressure 110/90 fourth day, ecg sinus tachycordia 110 all tests are normal, there is no edema and protein.how can the lower pressure be reduced? Hello, pregnancy 28 weeks, pressure 110/90 fourth day, ecg sinus tachycordia 110 all tests are normal, there are no edema and protein. How can the lower pressure be reduced? Maltseva Lyubov Evgenievna answers. cardiologist. What blood pressure is considered normal. Pressure has a linear relationship with age – the older a person is, the higher his normal value. But there are certain numbers, exceeding which is considered dangerous at both 30 and 70 years. If its value is higher than 145/90, it is a symptom of hypertension at any age.An abnormally low value for adults is 100/60 and below. Normally, blood pressure in an adult is between 110/65 – 120/75 mm Hg. Art. Blood pressure norms for people of different ages. Children and adolescents: 0-2 weeks – 90/45. 3-4 weeks – 105/65. 2-12 months – 1. coursework on hypertension inexpensive pills for high blood pressure price vasodilator drugs for blood pressure
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Contraindicated in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis.If these conditions are mild, your doctor may prescribe a low dose of high cardioselective beta-blockers. It is undesirable to prescribe to patients with atherosclerosis of the arteries of the lower extremities, decreased erectile function, athletes. If you need treatment with this particular group of drugs, your doctor may prescribe you a low dose of highly cardioselective beta-blockers. Contraindicated in patients with impaired cardiac conduction (AV block II and III degree). Prescription for pregnant women is possible. I took the capsules strictly according to the instructions.It was possible to normalize blood pressure in a month, restore sleep. If before the pressure was 150/105, now it is stable 125/85. If you want to buy Cardilight from pressure, do not look for it in pharmacies. It is not for sale there. To apply for the purchase of this product, visit our official website of the manufacturer. During the promotion, you will be able to purchase capsules at a significant discount. Low blood pressure (sometimes called hypotension) is a condition in which arterial blood pressure drops to an abnormally low level.Blood pressure is a measure of the force your heart uses to pump blood throughout your body. The heart is a muscular organ that is designed to pump blood efficiently throughout the body. If you are taking medication and your health care provider suspects it may be the cause of your low blood pressure, he or she will likely recommend a change in your regimen or dose of your medication. Medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and to treat Parkinson’s disease often cause hypotension.Causes of low pressure Symptoms of low pressure Classification of arterial hypotension Treatment of low yes. Low pressure: ways to normalize. What is hypotension? Low blood pressure reasons. Low blood pressure symptoms. Classification of arterial hypotension. Low pressure treatment. Pharmaceuticals for the normalization of low blood pressure. Folk remedies for the normalization of low blood pressure. Often one has to deal with some general signs of malaise that could be associated with the disease, but the main symptoms are lacking.Why does low blood pressure occur and how does it manifest? How to provide first aid? What should an ambulance do in case of hypotension? How is a decrease in pressure manifested in a person? What are the reasons for the pressure drop most often? Hypotension treatment. First aid. Emergency actions. Conclusions. How is a decrease in pressure manifested in a person? Regardless of the cause of arterial hypotension, this condition is characterized by impaired vascular tone and a sharp weakening of cardiac activity. As a result, the blood supply to the brain cells, which begin to experience oxygen deprivation, decreases.Low blood pressure symptoms. If low blood pressure is natural to you, it is unlikely that it will cause you any symptoms or require treatment. However, sometimes low blood pressure can mean that there is not enough blood flow to your brain and other vital organs, which can lead to symptoms such as. If you experience symptoms of low blood pressure after a change in body position, such as standing up on your feet, this is called postural or orthostatic hypotension.Symptoms shouldn’t last longer than a few seconds until your body adjusts to your new position and your blood pressure returns to normal. Order From low blood pressure on the website of the Gorzdrav online pharmacy in Moscow. Free delivery of medicines to the nearest pharmacy. You can place an order on the website or by phone number. On the Gorzdrav website, you can order and order medicines that help with hypotension at competitive prices. Highly effective low blood pressure medications are available that can improve immediate well-being and are suitable for use as an express measure.We offer medicines manufactured by Hungarian, Polish, Russian, German and other companies. Using the capabilities of the bonus program, you can purchase them at discounted prices. Is low blood pressure dangerous? Many – most often skinny women – live with hypotension for years and feel great. Doctors believe that these people are lucky: they are less likely to suffer from cardiovascular diseases. If you take certain medications. Sometimes hypotension is a side effect of anti-anxiety medications, diuretics, pain relievers, or blood pressure pills.In order to solve the problem, the doctor usually only needs to adjust the dose of the medication. If your blood pressure is consistently below normal, but you feel good, you do not need to do anything. If you are concerned about nausea, dizziness, or fainting, you need to see a doctor. Therefore, it is better to take into account that any pressure less than normal (individual) by 20% is hypotension. Causes and signs of low heart pressure. Hypotension can occur acutely or persist chronically. Hypotension is diagnosed with a chronic decrease in blood pressure.Causes of acute hypotension: myocardial infarction, profuse bleeding, traumatic or anaphylactic shock, pulmonary embolism, peritonitis, arrhythmia attack. Chronic hypotension can be symptoms of low blood pressure. What to do with low pressure. Physiological causes of low blood pressure. For an adult, blood pressure of less than 95/65 mm is considered excessively low. Low blood pressure can be a sign of a lack of ascorbic acid, vitamins B12, A and E. A difficult pregnancy: with frequent bouts of toxicosis, dehydration, and a decrease in hemoglobin levels.Malnutrition: strict diets, fasting. When the state of health stabilizes, it is recommended to take a contrast shower. The alternation of cool and hot water gently stimulates the vascular tone, helping to avoid new attacks. Askofen increases blood pressure if it is lowered. It should be taken in case of hypotension in the amount of 2 tablets, but it does not help everyone, and its effect is short-lived (it concerns an increase in pressure). Continuous use of the drug is not recommended. Does Kofitsil plus increase the pressure?If the pressure is normal or below the norm, when taking Pentalgin, the values on the tonometer will not change. Since the drug contains caffeine, the blood vessels can narrow, which means that the pressure will not increase by much. In severe hypertension, the drug is contraindicated.
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Hypertension is dangerous not only for its clinical manifestations, but also for serious consequences, which can be prevented by the new Cardilite remedy.Headaches, tinnitus, increased heart rate, weakness, hot flashes – all these symptoms indicate the development of hypertension, which is usually chronic in nature. According to the manufacturer, his remedy can not only eliminate the unpleasant symptoms of the disease, but also improve the work of the entire cardiovascular system, thereby reducing the risks of complications to a minimum. But is it? And is it safe to take this drug? To answer these questions, you need to study in detail the composition of the drug and its mechanism of action.4J / kg. Help solve everything in the photo. The installation for obtaining Newton’s rings is illuminated with monochromatic light incident perpendicular to the surface of the plate. 10-5 pascals equals 0.075006 millimeters of mercury 10-5 millimeters of mercury equals 1,333.220 pascals. Units of measurement: Pressure. Convert pascals to millimeters of mercury. New calculation. 10. Kilogram-force per square meter. 9.80665. 9.80655×10-3. 9.80655×10-6. 1.0.0001. 0.0735559. 1.98.0665×10-6. Kilogram-force per square.centimeter. 98066.5. 98.0665. 0.0980665. These days, sharp changes in atmospheric pressure are observed in the European territory of Russia. Over the weekend, as the North Atlantic cyclone passed through the center of the country, atmospheric pressure dropped sharply. And at the beginning of this week, the cyclone replaced the anticyclone, the atmospheric pressure on Tuesday will rise sharply and will remain elevated for several days. Earlier EUobserver reported that an anonymous source from Russia handed over the internal documents of Rospotrebnadzor about deaths after vaccination to the European regulator.Director of NITsEM named after Gamalei told RBC that he was not aware of these cases. lisinopril dihydrate 10.88 mg, which corresponds to the content of lisinopril 10 mg, amlodipine besylate 6.94 mg, which corresponds to the content of amlodipine 5 mg. Excipients: magnesium stearate 1 mg. Detailed instructions for use Equator, tablets 5 + 10 mg, 30 pcs., Certificates Equator, tablets 5 + 10 mg, 30 pcs. Form of release 0. Equator, tablets 10 + 20 mg, 30 pcs. Pressure is the force per unit area perpendicular to it.Any body in still air experiences pressure from the latter, which is the same for all. AERODYNAMICS OF AIRCRAFT. parties (Pascal’s law). Consider a pipe (Fig. 10) of variable diameter (1, 2, 3), in which an air stream moves. Pressure gauges are used to measure the pressure in the sections under consideration. blood pressure 110 90 . inexpensive pills for high blood pressure price. Reviews, instructions for use, composition and properties. Arterial hypertension. RCHD (Republican Center for Healthcare Development of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan) Version: Clinical Protocols of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan – 2019.Resistant hypertension – treatment with optimal (or maximum tolerated) doses of drugs, including a combination of three classes of first-line drugs, including a diuretic (ACE inhibitor or ARA II in combination with CCB and a thiazide / thiazide-like diuretic), does not lead to a decrease in SBP and DBP up to values of 140 mm Hg. and / or 90 mm Hg, respectively (IC). Diagnostics and treatment of arterial hypertension in tables and diagrams. Educational and methodical recommendations. Ryazan 2019 1. UDC LBC. Reviewers:N. Abrosimov, MD, DSc, Professor, Head. Department of Therapy FPDO with a course of family medicine; M.A. Butov, MD, DSc, Professor, Head. Department of Internal Medicine Propedeutics. GB hypertension. DBP is diastolic blood pressure. Ischemic heart disease. ISAG. isolated systolic arterial. hypertension. HDL high density lipoproteins. A frequent increase in blood pressure (BP) indicators is the cause of the development of serious diseases (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.). Hypertension in Russia is diagnosed in every third person of advanced age.To combat hypertension, many patients have to take medications throughout their lives to rule out complications. Is arterial hypertension a syndrome of increased systolic blood pressure (SBP)? 140 mmHg Art. and / or diastolic blood pressure (DBP)?. The pathogenesis of hypertension is not fully understood. The hemodynamic basis for an increase in blood pressure is an increase in the tone of arterioles due to hyperactivation of the sympathetic nervous system. In the regulation of vascular tone, at present, great importance is attached to mediators of nervous excitement, both in the central nervous system and in all links in the transmission of nerve impulses to the periphery, i.e.e. to the vessels. Modern strategy and tactics of arterial hypertension treatment. Baranova Elena Ivanovna 2020.30-45% of the adult population has hypertension. ⚫ Simple treatment regimen ⚫ Careful metabolic control ⚫ It is necessary to take into account risk factors, POM and ACS, concomitant pathology ⚫ Combination therapy (2-3 drugs) is often necessary. The recommended treatment for hypertensive crises is IV labetalol or nicardipine and magnesium. I. For preeclampsia associated with pulmonary edema, nitroglycerin is recommended as an intravenous infusion.Arterial hypertension (AH) is a disease that has a genetic predisposition and is characterized by a persistent increase in systolic (140 mm Hg) and diastolic (90 mm Hg) blood pressure (BP). It is estimated that more than 1 billion people in the world have hypertension, and approximately 7.1 million deaths per year are associated with this pathology. Sympatholytics are contraindicated in persons with peptic ulcer disease. AK are contraindicated in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), as they cause relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter and thus may exacerbate the symptoms of GERD.Verapamil can aggravate constipation and is therefore contraindicated in this category of patients. Arterial hypertension (AH) refers to the syndrome of increased blood pressure (BP). Distinguish between primary hypertension (hypertension – GB) and secondary (symptomatic hypertension). Hypertension is usually understood as a chronic disease, the main manifestation of which is a persistent increase in blood pressure, not associated with the presence of pathological processes in which the increase in blood pressure is due to known, in modern conditions, often eliminated causes of symptomatic hypertension.Arterial hypertension (AH) is a syndrome of increased clinical blood pressure (BP) in hypertension and symptomatic AH above threshold values determined as a result of epidemiological and randomized controlled trials that have demonstrated an association with an increase in cardiovascular risk and the feasibility and benefits of treatment aimed at reducing BP is below these BP levels. Evidence-based medicine is the appropriate, consistent and meaningful use of current best evidence (clinical trial results) combined with individual clinical experience and taking into account.DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION Clinical guidelines. Developed on behalf of the Ministry of Health of Russia, approved by the Russian Medical Society for Arterial Hypertension and the profile commission on cardiology. Moscow 2013. List of abbreviations and symbols. – arterial hypertension – blood pressure – antihypertensive drugs – antihypertensive therapy – antagonists. Blood pressure is considered elevated if its value is 140/90 mm Hg. Art. or higher, regardless of the person’s age.Most often, an increase in pressure is an independent disease, which is called hypertension. But sometimes hypertension is a symptom of some other disease (for example, kidney, thyroid, adrenal gland diseases). In this case, in addition to reducing the numbers, the underlying disease must be treated. Symptoms
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Arterial hypertension: how to recognize it?
Arterial hypertension is a widespread disease in the world.In Russia, over 40% of men and women suffer from arterial hypertension. Mortality from complications of arterial hypertension is increasing. Thus, in Russia, morbidity and mortality from such a formidable complication of arterial hypertension as cerebral stroke remain one of the highest in the world. At the same time, the awareness of our patients about the symptoms and complications of this disease is insufficient for its early detection.
Insufficient awareness of arterial hypertension leads to an underestimation of the severity of this disease, to low referral to doctors at an early stage of the disease, when serious complications can still be avoided.All this together, unfortunately, leads to insufficiently effective treatment: it is possible to normalize the level of blood pressure only in 17% of women suffering from this disease, and in men this figure is even lower – less than 6%!
Therefore, in order to overcome a disease, it is necessary to have knowledge of the causes of its occurrence, manifestations and methods of fighting it.
Increased blood pressure is the main manifestation of arterial hypertension. A single increase in blood pressure after emotional stress, hard physical work and some other influences does not mean that arterial hypertension has developed.Only with a steady and prolonged increase in blood pressure, doctors talk about the disease of arterial hypertension. Arterial hypertension is a chronic disease.
Blood pressure is characterized by two indicators: upper – systolic pressure is determined by the effort with which, when the heart contracts, the blood presses on the walls of large arteries. Lower – diastolic blood pressure corresponds to the relaxation of the heart when the pressure of blood inside the arteries decreases.
The presence of arterial hypertension is evidenced by the level of arterial pressure over 140/90 mm Hg.
The presence of arterial hypertension is evidenced by the level of arterial pressure over 140 \ 90 mm Hg. These limits apply to adults of both sexes.
In the majority of patients (90-95%), arterial hypertension is a primary disease, which is called “essential hypertension” in our country, and is called “essential hypertension” abroad.In hypertension, an increase in blood pressure is not associated with primary damage to any organs. An important role in the development of hypertension is assigned to the overstrain of the main nervous processes. Hypertension is a chronic disease. A prolonged increase in blood pressure as a result of complex changes in the body leads to a dysregulation of the heart and an increase in the thickness of the smooth muscles of blood vessels, their spasm, which in turn leads to malnutrition of such important organs as the brain, heart and kidneys.
According to the level of blood pressure (BP), 3 degrees of hypertension are distinguished:
- 1 degree (mild hypertension) – BP 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. Art.
- 2nd degree (moderate) – HELL 160-179 / 100-109 mm. rt. Art.
- 3 degree (heavy) – AP equal to or exceeding 180/110 mm. rt. Art.
Often, with 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease
1 degree of hypertension, also called “mild” form, is by no means harmless.This form of the disease is the most common: about 70% of patients suffer from it, and it is in such patients that the risk of developing cerebral strokes increases 2-4 times compared to the risk in people with normal blood pressure.
Therefore, the attitude towards 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension should be vigilant and no less serious than about 3 degrees.
Often, at 1 and 2 degrees of hypertension, patients underestimate the severity of the disease, do not know what subjective sensations should be paid attention to.The disease gradually progresses. At first, there is only a tendency to increase blood pressure, its increase may be unstable, but over time, if the disease is not treated, blood pressure becomes very stable and causes severe disorders of the state of internal organs.
As already mentioned, the most common cause of arterial hypertension is hypertension. However, in some patients, arterial hypertension is a consequence of a disease of a number of organs, i.e.that is, an increase in blood pressure is a secondary manifestation against the background of initial damage to the kidneys (for example, with their inflammation), arteries supplying the kidneys (with their narrowing), as well as with dysfunction of some endocrine organs (adrenal glands, thyroid gland).
This form of arterial hypertension is called symptomatic or secondary. Identification of the true cause of the disease and proper treatment can in such cases lead to full recovery and normalization of blood pressure.
For the timely detection of arterial hypertension, it is necessary to know what its manifestations are, or, as doctors say, the symptoms.
The manifestations of the central nervous system and heart are most characteristic of high blood pressure.
It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur
Frequent neurotic symptoms are headache, fatigue, nervousness, irritability, and poor sleep.
With a prolonged course of the disease, changes occur in the heart, which are manifested by attacks of pain in the heart, palpitations, disturbances in the rhythm of the heart, shortness of breath. Heart failure develops.
It should also be remembered that with an increase in blood pressure, nosebleeds may occur, therefore, if they recur, it is imperative to measure blood pressure and consult a doctor.
Headache, usually in the occipital region, often accompanies high blood pressure.In some cases, the severity of the headache increases with the increase in blood pressure. However, it also happens that patients, even with high blood pressure, do not feel a headache and feel well, which makes it difficult to identify the disease. It depends on the characteristics of the psychological makeup of the person and on the gradual adaptation to the disease.
Therefore, you should be attentive to your feelings, but you cannot rely only on them: regular visits to a doctor and blood pressure control will allow timely detection of arterial hypertension
90,000 Treatment of arterial hypertension
The main goal of treatment of patients with arterial hypertension is to maximize the risk of developing cardiovascular complications
Tatyana Aleksandrovna Nechesova, Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Arterial Hypertension, Republican Scientific and Practical Center “Cardiology”, Candidate of Medical Sciences
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Today, all publications that cover issues of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as a rule, begin with statements such as “Arterial hypertension is the main risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality”, “Hypertension due to its high prevalence is a global health problem ”. World Health Organization documents indicate that “high blood pressure is one of the most important manageable causes of premature death worldwide.”
How true are these statements?
Modern science has armed us with knowledge that makes it possible to seriously understand many complex problems of medicine. First, arterial hypertension (AH) is a widespread condition in the world. Currently, more than 1 billion people on our planet have high blood pressure, and given the demographic trend towards an increase in the number of people over 65, the number of “hypertensive” patients will increase. It has been proven in the process of many years of observation that people with high blood pressure (BP) develop coronary heart disease 3-4 times more often and acute cerebrovascular accident 7 times more often.The Seventh Report of the US Joint National Committee for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of Hypertension indicates that starting from a blood pressure level of 115/75 mm Hg. Art. increase in blood pressure for every 20/10 mm Hg. increases the risk of developing CVD by 2 times. Thus, the numbers convincingly indicate that having high blood pressure means putting yourself at risk of developing a heart attack, stroke, in other words, shortening your life.
What do you need to know, be able to and most importantly do to feel good?
1.Know what hypertension is and how to control it.
In modern medicine, arterial hypertension is usually understood as a persistent increase in blood pressure to 140/90 mm Hg . and higher in the absence of taking drugs that reduce blood pressure. It is important to remember that an increase in blood pressure must be recorded at least twice with an interval of two weeks. There are three degrees of increase in blood pressure.
Systolic blood pressure, mm HgArt.
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg
180 and above
110 and above
Isolated systolic hypertension
However, in addition to the degree of arterial hypertension, the doctor in the diagnosis indicates the degree of risk of developing cardiovascular complications (myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke, etc.)). There are four levels of risk of developing cardiovascular complications: low, medium, high and very high. Low risk means that in the next 10 years the likelihood of developing cardiovascular complications is less than 15%, and if very high, more than 30%. In other words, out of 100 hypertensive patients with a low risk of developing cardiovascular complications, no more than 15 people will go to the hospital with these complications within 10 years, and among people with a very high risk, more than a third of patients will suffer cardiovascular accidents.In order to correctly determine the risk of arterial hypertension, it is necessary to undergo an examination that helps to clarify the disorders of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the degree of damage to target organs (blood vessels, heart, kidneys, brain).
It is important to know that each patient’s awareness of their own risk factors is necessary for more than predicting prognosis and sadness about their fate. Remember that by knowing the harm to the body of certain risk factors, they can be influenced.You yourself can change the prognosis of your illness and, consequently, life for the better. Many people know the sad epithet that hypertension has received – “the silent killer”. But it is better to remember another thesis – arterial hypertension – controllable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This means that any patient with arterial hypertension, together with a doctor, is able to cope with his illness.
Non-drug treatments (or, more precisely, lifestyle modification) are indicated to 90,045 for all 90,046 patients with arterial hypertension, regardless of its degree and medications taken.
A healthy lifestyle can lower your blood pressure and reduce the amount of medication you need. But very often, compliance with health-improving recommendations requires the patient to reconsider and overcome the usual daily routine, to show willpower.
First, you need to force yourself to give up bad habits and a sedentary lifestyle. First of all, quit smoking. Why is smoking dangerous? Because even one cigarette increases the pressure for 15 minutes, with constant smoking, the vascular tone increases, and the effectiveness of drugs decreases.If a person smokes 5 cigarettes a day – this is a 40% increase in the risk of death, if one pack a day – 400%, that is, there are 10 times more chances of dying!
A balanced diet is a balanced, regular (at least 4 times a day) diet with limited salt intake. Salt is harmful not only for hypertensive patients, but also for patients with other cardiovascular diseases. Research by scientists has shown that limiting salt intake can reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and other heart catastrophes by 25%.No more than 5 grams of table salt (a teaspoon without top) – this is the daily dose of hypertensive patients. It should be remembered that sausage contains 10 times more salt than natural meat. It is very useful to increase the consumption of foods containing potassium and magnesium (seaweed, raisins, beets, apricots, zucchini, pumpkin, buckwheat). It is important to control your weight. To estimate your weight, use the simple BMI formula (weight (kg) / height (m 2 ) = BMI). If the body mass index is more than 28 in women and 30 in men, we can talk about obesity.It is with the obesity epidemic that has hit many countries that scientists associate an increase in the number of people with high blood pressure.
Regular exercise is essential for both fighting obesity and lowering blood pressure. Even moderate, but constant physical training helps to lower blood pressure by 10-15 mm Hg. Brisk walking in the fresh air, cycling, swimming for 30-40 minutes 6-7 times a week are the most physiological types of stress for patients with arterial hypertension.Isometric loads such as barbell exercises are not recommended.
Before doing physical training, you need to consult a doctor, and even better, start working with a physical therapy methodologist.
Non-drug treatments for hypertension are now called lifestyle modification by doctors because only lifestyle changes, not short-term dietary interventions and occasional physical activity, will actually help lower blood pressure.And one more thing that we forget about. Dear parents and teachers, healthy lifestyle activities need to be taught already in childhood and adolescence, when the foundations of human behavior and lifestyle are laid. After all, it is no secret that the hereditary factor is of great importance in the development of hypertension, and in children, an increase in blood pressure can begin 10-12 years earlier than in their parents, if you do not take measures for a healthy lifestyle.
To what level should blood pressure be lowered?
After large clinical studies in which several tens of thousands of patients were observed and received drugs, scientists have determined target blood pressure levels, which should be striven for in the treatment of hypertension. Target level blood pressure – these are the BP figures at which the risk of developing complications, including fatal ones, will be minimal. The target blood pressure level largely depends on the comorbidities. For hypertensive patients, the target blood pressure should be below 140/90 mm Hg. If hypertension is combined with diabetes mellitus, the target blood pressure should be below 130/85 mm Hg. Of course, for the majority of hypertensive patients, in order to achieve such levels of blood pressure, it is necessary to take antihypertensive drugs continuously constantly.
So, we came to drug treatment of patients with arterial hypertension. Currently, the pharmaceutical market of our republic presents drugs of all five groups of drugs, which the European Society of Cardiology and the European League for Arterial Hypertension recommend for the treatment of patients with arterial hypertension. These are angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics, calcium channel antagonists, beta-receptor blockers, angiotensin II receptor antagonists.It should be noted that effective blood pressure control is rarely possible with just one drug. Most patients should receive 2-3 drugs for adequate blood pressure control. For the convenience of treatment, many fixed drug combinations are now offered, which contain two drugs with different mechanisms of action. The optimal drugs or drug combinations are those that act smoothly throughout the day, have a protective effect against target organs, do not worsen the carbohydrate and lipid profile, and also do not reduce the efficiency and quality of life of patients.Where can I get such a pill? They are available in our pharmacies, and in a wide economic range. The Belarusian pharmaceutical industry is actively involved in the production of domestic antihypertensive drugs, which made it possible to reduce their cost. It is only necessary to remember that every patient with hypertension has his own pill and only a doctor can correctly prescribe it. Therefore, dispensary observation of the patient is so important. During the selection of the dose of the antihypertensive drug, at least monthly visits to the doctor are recommended.It is very good if the patient keeps a diary of self-monitoring of blood pressure, measuring it twice in the morning and twice in the evening. The average results of these measurements must be recorded in a diary, and shown to the doctor at the visit. When the target BP level is reached, the doctor can be visited no more than once a quarter / six months. It is imperative to conduct a control examination of target organs once a year, because modern drugs can not only reduce blood pressure, but also reduce the thickness of the walls of the left ventricle of the heart, increase the elasticity of blood vessels, and prevent the development of renal and heart failure.
And remember, when choosing a medicine, you and the doctor are allies, not opponents. The effectiveness of treatment largely depends on the patient himself, his adherence to the prescribed treatment, since it must be long-term, often throughout his life.
Upper and lower – systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Blood pressure is measured in mmHg. The reference indicators are 120 to 80, but the options for the norm are not limited to these figures. Pressure is considered normal in the range: systolic (upper) 100 – 135 mm Hg.Art., diastolic 75 – 85 mm Hg.
When measuring pressure, it is imperative to take into account factors such as a person’s age, gender, weight, stress level, etc.
Blood pressure is a variable value – it changes with each heartbeat. In a healthy person, pressure fluctuations will be insignificant, in the absence of pathologies, the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is 40-50 mm Hg.
High blood pressure from 140/90 and above indicates arterial hypertension (hypertension) .
Hypertension is a common and very dangerous disease. As a rule, arterial hypertension is asymptomatic. That is why she is called the “silent killer.” People with hypertension are often unaware of the presence of the disease, do not control their blood pressure and do not start treatment.
Hypertension can be an independent disease, or it can be a symptom of a number of diseases of the cardiovascular and endocrine systems, kidney diseases, as well as a consequence of obesity, excessive salt intake, insufficient physical activity, stress, etc.
Hypertension is mistakenly considered a disease of the elderly, but it is not. Currently, hypertension has become very “younger”, therefore, it is necessary to control blood pressure not only for the elderly, remember the insidiousness of this ailment.
Arterial hypotension (hypotension), as well as hypertension, can be an independent disease or a symptom of other diseases. Acute hypotension is also distinguished – with dehydration or blood loss, myocardial infarction, allergic reactions, in such cases emergency care is required; and chronic.
It is believed that hypotension is not as dangerous as hypertension. Indeed, in hypotensive patients, the risk of heart attack and stroke is much lower, but the quality of life of hypotensive patients is lower, due to constant headaches and lethargy.
Hypotension should not be ignored. It can signal a variety of causes, from brain injury to chronic sleep deprivation.
There are many ways to improve the quality of life of hypotensive patients – sound sound sleep, good nutrition, physical activity
With high and low blood pressure, everything is clear.But what if the systolic pressure is within the normal range, and the diastolic pressure is increased? Or, conversely, high systolic and normal diastolic?
First of all, don’t ignore.
Achievement of target blood pressure in patients with arterial hypertension on the background of antihypertensive therapy in real clinical practice | Shortage
Target. To evaluate the features of pharmacotherapy in achieving different levels of target blood pressure (BP) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) with the absence or presence of comorbid diseases in a real outpatient practice.
Material and methods. In an open multicenter observational study, outpatient doctors filled out original patient questionnaires, which reflected the demographic data of the patients, the presence of comorbid diseases and conditions in them, the prescribed antihypertensive drugs and the levels of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure achieved during their intake body mass index (BMI), creatinine and blood glucose levels, as well as information on tobacco use, recorded during the visit to the doctor.The data obtained were stratified into groups depending on the blood pressure level achieved in patients during therapy, as well as depending on the existing diseases. The frequency of prescribing classes of antihypertensive drugs, the number of components of therapy and prescribed tablet dosage forms (number of tablets) was assessed. The frequency of prescribing fixed combinations (FC) was also assessed.
Results. The study included data from 2073 patients.They were divided into six groups according to the level of BP achieved. The groups were comparable in terms of demographic and anthropometric indicators, as well as gender representation. In patients of the first group against the background of the therapy, the lowest blood pressure values were achieved – 120129 / <80 mm Hg. They were less likely to have comorbid diseases than in other groups, less frequently prescribed thiazide / thiazide-like diuretics (TD), and PK were prescribed in 33.8%. In patients of the second group, the blood pressure level was 130139 / <80 mm Hg.Art., the duration of hypertension was the shortest, they were most often prescribed angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and TD, and the proportion of FC was the highest among the compared groups - 42.3%. In the third group, the blood pressure level was 120139/8089 mm Hg. These patients were most often prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), but less often ARBs, the frequency of PK prescriptions was 37.8%. The blood pressure level in patients of the fourth group did not correspond to the target value of SBP (≥140 mm Hg), in the fifth group - to the target value of DBP (> 90 mm Hg).Art.), and in the sixth group – the target values of SBP and DBP (≥140 /> 90 mm Hg). Their shares in the total sample were 19.9%, 4.1%, and 41.2%, respectively. Patients from these groups more often had comorbid diseases, they were more often prescribed four or more components of therapy. BP level <130 / <80 mm Hg in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) it was achieved in 4.2%, in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in 8.3%. In these groups, there was a high frequency of prescriptions of beta-blockers (BB).In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the blood pressure level is 130139 / <80 mm Hg. recorded at 7.9%. Among patients with a history of stroke / transient ischemic attack (TIA), the recommended blood pressure level (120129 / <80 mm Hg) was achieved in 2%. In the total sample of patients, one component of antihypertensive therapy (AHT) was prescribed in 5.8%, two in 48.3%, three in 34.7%, four or more in 11.2%.
Conclusion. Target BP <140/90 mm Hg achieved in 34.8% of cases, and the blood pressure level is <130/80 mm Hg.Art. only in 11.5% of patients. In these patients, comorbid conditions were less often observed, of the antihypertensive drugs, ACE inhibitors, BB or TD were most often used, the predominant appointment of two-component AHT, which was most often presented in the form of two tablets, was noted.
In patients with concomitant diseases, an extremely low proportion of reaching the target blood pressure level was revealed: with diabetes mellitus 2 – 4.2%, with CKD – 7.9%, with ischemic heart disease –
8.3%, with stroke / TIA – 2%. Among the patients of the entire sample, two and three-component AHT were most often prescribed (48.3% and 34.7%, respectively).A greater number of AHT components were prescribed to patients with several comorbid conditions, and, therefore, with a more severe course of hypertension.
The way to the heart lies … through a cardiologist
To make the heart beat correctly
The heart is the “motor” that makes our body work without weekends and breaks. It is not surprising that this very body often needs current or even major “repairs”. The well-known cardiologist of Samara Mikhail Kachkovsky told the press center of Komsomolskaya Pravda about the consequences of heart disease and how to avoid them.
– Heart disease is dangerous because it is one of the main causes of death in the population. Moreover, if in the world every fourth person dies from these diseases, in Russia – every second, – Mikhail Arkadyevich announced the sad statistics.
If the pressure is not like that of the astronaut
– When I try to sleep on my left side, my heart starts to work like a puncher – at first I even thought that the neighbors below were crushing the wall. What could it be?
– Described as tachycardia or palpitations with left ventricular enlargement.It is necessary to be examined to determine the exact cause and correct the work of the heart. This in itself is not dangerous, but it can lead to heart failure and other complications. That is why, in case of hypertension, it is necessary to bring high blood pressure back to normal in a timely manner so that the heart does not increase in size and its functionality is not impaired.
– Please tell me how to protect yourself from heart disease? What examinations do you need to undergo?
– You need to start with a home blood pressure measurement.If you feel pain in the chest or in the area of the heart, you need to see a doctor, do an EKG. A biochemical blood test should be checked – cholesterol and its fractions to see if there is an indirect threat of coronary artery disease, which may be caused by atherosclerosis. For a more detailed examination of the heart, the use of echocardiography is effective, which allows you to check the structure of the heart, valve function, contractility and other parameters. Modern methods include CT coronary angiography, which determines the degree of blood flow disturbance.There are methods of functional diagnostics that can be intermediate – the first manifestations of violations can be checked using stress tests – for example, bicycle ergometry or a treadmill, daily ECG monitoring.
– When to start monitoring your blood pressure?
– If there is evidence, then from childhood. But even if there are no problems, you should undergo an annual medical examination. As a rule, in men, problems begin at the age of 40 – 45, in women – after 55.At this age, you need to begin to control the situation – to regularly measure blood pressure. But this does not mean that you cannot get myocardial infarction in your youth. For example, there is a high risk of developing myocardial infarction in young women with a combination of two factors – smoking and taking hormonal contraceptives. In addition, early heart attacks and strokes can be the result of a genetic predisposition, that is, hereditary.
– Everyone knows that smoking is bad for the heart. What about electronic cigarettes?
– Less information has been accumulated on electronic cigarettes, but the trend is the same – atherosclerosis and hypertension develop more often.Among smokers, the death rate from cardiovascular diseases is twice as high.
– I am 79 years old and have atrial fibrillation. I have been drinking three drugs for three years, but there’s no use …
– You are getting good treatment. Atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation gives dangerous complications – thrombosis and strokes. The fact that these diseases did not develop is just a consequence of the three-year use of these drugs. Since atrial fibrillation is more than three years old, it is a permanent form.In this situation, you need to reach a normal heart rate so that the heart rate is 60 – 70 beats per minute. If, with the prescribed medication, you manage to reach these numbers – well, the treatment is correct.
– I wore a holter * for 24 hours, which showed 8568 ventricular extrasystoles. Tell me, please, what does this indicator mean?
– You have more extrasystoles than a healthy person should have. It can be associated with emotional stress as well as functional heart disease.You definitely need to see a cardiologist to establish the exact cause. If the indicator persists, shortness of breath and other ailments may subsequently appear. To make an appointment with me or other doctors of the REAVIZ clinic, call (846) 321-21-21.
– There are people around me with heart disease. Please tell us how to provide first aid?
– It depends on what kind of heart disease your loved one has.The most common cases of poor health are high blood pressure, chest pain and tachycardia. With pain in the heart, especially if it is pressing, squeezing, burning, you need to immediately stop the load – let the person sit down or, even better, get up. If the pain persists within 1 to 2 minutes, give a nitroglycerin tablet to dissolve. If pain persists, take 250 to 500 milligrams of aspirin. Five minutes after the first nitroglycerin tablet, you can take the second, after another five minutes – the third.If in 15 minutes the pain still does not go away, urgently call the ambulance team.
With an increase in blood pressure, you need to calm the person down, measure the pressure and pulse. Give a drug that can quickly lower blood pressure, but not more than 20-25%. Then, slowly and gradually, it is necessary to reduce the high blood pressure to the norm, which is less than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. You cannot take pill after pill – this can lead to a sharp drop in blood pressure and further worsen the patient’s condition.
If the condition is accompanied by shortness of breath, severe arrhythmia, you should immediately call an ambulance. If a person has lost consciousness, the heart has stopped, it is necessary to perform an indirect heart massage and artificial respiration before the arrival of doctors.
Of course, cardiac arrest is the most critical situation. Don’t want to run into her? There are several simple rules: prevention, early early detection of cardiovascular diseases, referral to a doctor and serious implementation of his recommendations.Be healthy!
– Hello, I was diagnosed with hypertension a year ago, my normal pressure is 135/80 pulse within normal limits, but it often rises to 160 and the lower pressure also rises to 90-100. I don’t really feel pressure, but there are unpleasant sensations, I was first prescribed andipal tablets, but they did not help me, can you advise good pressure pills? I am now 27 years old.
– Svetlana, good afternoon! An increase in diastolic or “lower” blood pressure requires further examination, primarily to exclude kidney disease.The drug Andipal for the treatment of hypertension is not optimal. There are a lot of medicines and they all have their own purpose, more often they are taken in combination. An adequate prescription should be made by a doctor, preferably a cardiologist, on the basis of a medical examination. At your age, it is especially important to do everything on time in order to avoid unnecessary consequences of the development of a serious illness.
– Hello, please tell me there is a burning sensation in my chest in the middle and how short of air I can’t stand the heat.There was tachycardia, drank magnesium B6, did ultrasound of the heart, without pathologies. is it dangerous? I’ve got a heart problem?
– Hello, Lyudmila! Burning sensation and shortness of breath are most typical for coronary heart disease, especially since you experience an increase in heart rate. This is a serious medical condition. At the initial stages of the disease, echocardiography (ultrasound of the heart) may not show significant abnormalities. In this case, complications such as myocardial infarction may develop. Therefore, you urgently need to consult a cardiologist.The doctor will prescribe an additional examination and make the right appointments to prevent the consequences.
– Tell me, examinations on the exam are coming soon, what drugs or folk remedies would you recommend?
– Good afternoon, Tatiana! Best of all, before the exams, the correct organization of the work and rest schedule will support. It is very important for the body to recover from the emotional stress of the day, a sufficient amount of sleep at night. If excessive excitement still remains, you can take the extract and tincture of valerian or tincture of motherwort at night.When nervousness persists in this case, you need to consult a doctor. I wish you successful exams!
– After taking alcohol, even in small amounts, I wake up at night and feel a rapid heartbeat 100-106 beats, in an hour or two everything goes away, tell me why such a reaction? This is dangerous?
– Hello, Anatoly! Everyone has their own idea of ”small” amounts of alcohol. For some, it may be completely contraindicated. Depending on the dose consumed, alcohol can cause symptoms of alcoholic cardiomyopathy.Even small doses can sometimes trigger the development of certain heart diseases. To control your own body, I can recommend that you do an ECG and consult a cardiologist. Moreover, if this has not been observed before, now is the time to prevent the development of heart disease.
– Hello, Conclusion of ultrasound of the heart: there is a zone of fibrosis along the posterior wall of the aorta. How dangerous is it?
– Good afternoon, Vladimir! Fibrosis itself is not dangerous.But the presence of such a wording in the conclusion of an ultrasound scan may indicate a sign of heart disease. But what kind of disease it is and at what stage the doctor will say, preferably a cardiologist, during the consultation and on the basis of additional research. Even if the disease is just beginning and the heart as a whole can be considered healthy, you are still shown systematic monitoring of blood pressure and cholesterol metabolism. Timely normalization of these indicators will be a good prevention of the development of the disease.
– Please tell me, I have constant tinnitus, maybe it is caused by heart problems?
– Hello Svetlana! Tinnitus can be caused by a variety of health problems. And they are, if the noise is really constant. First of all, you need to exclude ENT diseases. See an otorhinolaryngologist. If no pathology is detected, then it is necessary to consult with a therapist or cardiologist. Tinnitus can also be caused by high blood pressure.
* Holter is an apparatus that records an electrocardiogram of the heart rhythm during the day in order to identify disorders characteristic of coronary artery disease.
90,000 Hypertensive crisis. First aid methods.
Hypertensive crisis is a dangerous complication of hypertension that requires urgent care. Every person suffering from hypertensive disease should remember that a hypertensive crisis can occur almost at any time.Therefore, to know how to provide first aid with a sharp increase in blood pressure should be known not only to all hypertensive patients, but also to their loved ones. Hypertensive crisis is a significant, sudden increase in blood pressure with neurovascular and humoral disorders. The emergence of hypertensive crises is facilitated by acute neuropsychiatric stress, excessive alcohol consumption, sudden changes in the weather, the abolition of antihypertensive drugs, etc.
There are hypertensive crises of types I and II and complicated.
Type I hypertensive crisis develops quickly, there is a sharp headache, dizziness, nausea, flickering before the eyes, vomiting may occur. Patients are agitated, feel a feeling of heat, trembling all over the body. Red spots appear on the skin of the neck, face, and sometimes the chest. The skin is damp to the touch. There may be an increased heartbeat and a feeling of heaviness behind the breastbone. Tachycardia is noted. Blood pressure is increased, mainly systolic (up to 200 mm Hg.and higher). Often, a crisis ends with profuse urination.
Type II hypertensive crisis develops more often in patients with stage II-III hypertensive disease with insufficiently effective treatment or violation of the lifestyle. The symptoms of the crisis develop more slowly, but very intensely. The headache builds up within a few hours. Nausea, vomiting, lethargy appear, vision and hearing deteriorate. The pulse is tense, but not quickened; Blood pressure is sharply increased, mainly diastolic (up to 140-160 mm Hg.Art.).
Complicated hypertensive crisis can proceed according to cerebral, coronary or asthmatic variants. In contrast to uncomplicated hypertensive crisis, with complicated variants of a crisis against a background of high blood pressure, acute coronary insufficiency, acute left ventricular failure (cardiac asthma, pulmonary edema), acute cerebrovascular accident (hypertensive encephalopathy, transient cerebrovascular accident or stroke) can develop.
With the development of a hypertensive crisis, especially complicated, it is necessary to call an ambulance.
First aid for hypertensive crisis consists in the immediate adoption of the following set of measures.
Provide the patient with a state of complete rest. It is contraindicated for him to walk and show any physical activity, you need to put him in a comfortable semi-sitting position with the help of pillows.If the attack occurred on the street, you need to put rolled clothes and other improvised means under his back. The head should always be above the level of the body to prevent increased blood flow and reduce stress on the vessels of the brain.
Reduce the brightness of the illumination near the patient and, if possible, ensure maximum silence and the absence of external stimuli. Others should behave calmly and not give in to panic, since nervousness is instantly transmitted to the patient.
Since the crisis makes breathing difficult, it is necessary to unbutton tight clothing, relax the collar, scarf, tie, etc. If the patient is indoors, then you need to provide him with an influx of fresh air, however, it is important to ensure that he does not catch a cold.
The victim’s legs need to be well warmed: apply a heating pad, a plastic bottle of hot water to them, you can put mustard plasters on the calf muscles.
Ask the patient whether he suffers from high blood pressure, what medications are prescribed by the doctor to reduce it, and give him this medication.If the pressure does not decrease within an hour, the drug must be taken again, but care must be taken not to reduce the pressure too much – this can provoke loss of consciousness and further complicate the patient’s condition, especially in the elderly.
If it is impossible to give the patient his usual medicine or, if he has not previously taken antihypertensive drugs at all, he can be given a 10 mg Nifedipine tablet (but only if he does not have severe tachycardia and angina pectoris).The drug effectively reduces blood pressure. In the presence of heart disease or information about the patient’s intolerance to nifedipine, the drug can be replaced with captopril 12.5-25 mg, it normalizes blood pressure, protects the heart and prevents the development of nephropathy. In addition, unlike nifedipine, captopril does not cause drowsiness, dizziness, or tachycardia. In case of a hypertensive crisis of the first type, it is advisable to use anaprilin 40 mg orally or under the tongue in a crushed form. For hypertensive crisis of the second type, diuretics are used, for example, furosemide 20-40 mg.
It is advisable to give the patient 40 drops of Corvalol to relieve anxiety, panic and fear of death, which usually cover a person in a state of hypertensive crisis. Valocordin, valerian or motherwort tincture is suitable instead of Corvalol.
In case of heart pain, give the patient validol or nitroglycerin, but the latter must be used very carefully: it dilates blood vessels and can provoke collapse.
If possible, you should organize monitoring of blood pressure, record the readings of the tonometer, pulse rate and respiration every 15-20 minutes until the doctor arrives.
Some patients mistakenly believe that a rapid decrease in blood pressure to the usual values will help to quickly get rid of the symptoms accompanying a hypertensive crisis. In no case should the pressure be sharply reduced, this can lead to a collapse, accompanied by loss of consciousness. In severe cases, this can lead to the development of ischemic changes in the brain and other organs as a result of depletion of blood flow.
Health workers stop a hypertensive crisis, guided by a medical protocol.It describes the standard of care for each specific disease. Patients with intractable or complicated hypertensive crisis, as well as patients with uncomplicated, but newly emerged hypertensive crisis, after providing them with emergency medical care, should be hospitalized in the cardiology or therapeutic department.