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Infection: Types, causes, and differences

How an infection spreads and its effects on the human body depend on the type of pathogen.

The immune system is an effective barrier against infectious agents. However, pathogens may sometimes overwhelm the immune system’s ability to fight them off. At this stage, an infection becomes harmful.

Some pathogens have little effect at all. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from the body. This variation means that some infections are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening. Some pathogens are resistant to treatment.

Infection can spread in a variety of ways.

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are different types of pathogens. They vary in several ways, including:

  • size
  • shape
  • function
  • genetic content
  • how they act on the body

For example, viruses are smaller than bacteria. They enter a host and take over cells, whereas bacteria can survive without a host.

Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

Viral infections

Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules protects them.

Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells.

Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Some of them change the function of the cell. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can lead to cancer by forcing cells to replicate in an uncontrolled way.

A virus can also target certain age groups, such as infants or young children.

Viruses may remain dormant for a period before multiplying again. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates.

Viral infections include:

  • the common cold, which mainly occurs due to rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus
  • encephalitis and meningitis, resulting from enteroviruses and the herpes simplex virus (HSV), as well as West Nile Virus
  • warts and skin infections, for which HPV and HSV are responsible
  • gastroenteritis, which norovirus causes
  • COVID-19, a respiratory disease that develops after a novel coronavirus infection that is currently causing a global pandemic

Other viral conditions include:

Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes. They can either prevent the virus from reproducing or boost the host’s immune system to counter the effects of the virus.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. These drugs will not stop the virus, and their use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Most treatment aims to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without assistance from medication.

Bacterial infections

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, also known as prokaryotes.

Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. A nonillion is a 1 followed by 30 zeros. Much of the Earth’s biomass comprises bacteria.

Bacteria take three main shapes:

  • Spherical: These are known as cocci.
  • Rod-shaped: These have the name bacilli.
  • Spiral: Coiled bacteria are known as spirilla. If the coil of a spirillum is particularly tight, scientists call it a spirochete.

Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.

There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm.

Some “good” bacteria attack “bad” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly.

These include:

Some examples of bacterial infections are:

A doctor can treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. However, some strains become resistant and can survive the treatment.

Fungal infections

A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme. However, some types, such as yeasts, are single celled.

Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body.

There are approximately 5.1 million species of fungus.

Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body. These are also known as systemic infections.

The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms. These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body.

Those with a higher risk of developing a fungal infection include people who:

  • use antibiotics for a long time
  • have a weakened immune system, due, for example, to living with HIV or diabetes or receiving chemotherapy treatment
  • have undergone a transplant, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ

Examples of fungal infections are:

  • valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis
  • histoplasmosis
  • candidiasis
  • athlete’s foot
  • ringworm
  • some eye infections

A rash may indicate a fungal infection of the skin.

Prion disease

A prion is a protein that contains no genetic material and is usually harmless. Scientists do not class prions as living microorganisms. However, if a prion folds into an abnormal shape, it can become a rogue agent and cause infection.

Prions can affect the structure of the brain or other parts of the nervous system. They do not replicate or feed on the host. Instead, they trigger abnormal behavior in the body’s cells and proteins.

Prions cause degenerative brain diseases, all of which are rare but progress rapidly and are currently fatal. They include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which people typically refer to as mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

Researchers have also linked some cases of Alzheimer’s disease to prion infection.

Other infections

While the forms of infection that we have listed above are the main types, there are others that can have an effect on the body.

A single celled organism with a nucleus can cause a protozoan infection. Protozoa commonly show features similar to those of animals, such as mobility, and they can survive outside the human body.

They most commonly transfer to other humans through feces. Amebic dysentery is an example of a protozoan infection.

Helminths are larger, multicellular organisms that tend to be visible to the naked eye when fully grown. This type of parasite includes flatworms and roundworms. These can also cause infection.

Finally, ectoparasites — including mites, ticks, lice, and fleas — can cause infection by attaching or burrowing into the skin. Ectoparasites can also include blood-sucking arthropods, such as mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood.

The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible, as well as the site of the infection.

Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the genitals or upper respiratory tract. The rabies virus, for example, targets the nervous system. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts.

Others target a wider range of cells, leading to several symptoms. A flu virus can cause a runny nose, muscle aches, and an upset stomach.

A person with a bacterial infection will often experience redness, heat, swelling, fever, and pain at the site of infection, as well as swollen lymph glands.

A rash can indicate a fungal infection of the skin. However, viruses and bacteria may also cause skin conditions and rashes.

Common symptoms of prion diseases include rapid onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive difficulties. They can also trigger the buildup of plaque in the brain, causing this organ to waste away.

Infection: Types, causes, and differences

How an infection spreads and its effects on the human body depend on the type of pathogen.

The immune system is an effective barrier against infectious agents. However, pathogens may sometimes overwhelm the immune system’s ability to fight them off. At this stage, an infection becomes harmful.

Some pathogens have little effect at all. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from the body. This variation means that some infections are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening. Some pathogens are resistant to treatment.

Infection can spread in a variety of ways.

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are different types of pathogens. They vary in several ways, including:

  • size
  • shape
  • function
  • genetic content
  • how they act on the body

For example, viruses are smaller than bacteria. They enter a host and take over cells, whereas bacteria can survive without a host.

Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

Viral infections

Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules protects them.

Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells.

Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Some of them change the function of the cell. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can lead to cancer by forcing cells to replicate in an uncontrolled way.

A virus can also target certain age groups, such as infants or young children.

Viruses may remain dormant for a period before multiplying again. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates.

Viral infections include:

  • the common cold, which mainly occurs due to rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus
  • encephalitis and meningitis, resulting from enteroviruses and the herpes simplex virus (HSV), as well as West Nile Virus
  • warts and skin infections, for which HPV and HSV are responsible
  • gastroenteritis, which norovirus causes
  • COVID-19, a respiratory disease that develops after a novel coronavirus infection that is currently causing a global pandemic

Other viral conditions include:

Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes. They can either prevent the virus from reproducing or boost the host’s immune system to counter the effects of the virus.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. These drugs will not stop the virus, and their use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Most treatment aims to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without assistance from medication.

Bacterial infections

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, also known as prokaryotes.

Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. A nonillion is a 1 followed by 30 zeros. Much of the Earth’s biomass comprises bacteria.

Bacteria take three main shapes:

  • Spherical: These are known as cocci.
  • Rod-shaped: These have the name bacilli.
  • Spiral: Coiled bacteria are known as spirilla. If the coil of a spirillum is particularly tight, scientists call it a spirochete.

Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.

There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm.

Some “good” bacteria attack “bad” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly.

These include:

Some examples of bacterial infections are:

A doctor can treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. However, some strains become resistant and can survive the treatment.

Fungal infections

A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme. However, some types, such as yeasts, are single celled.

Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body.

There are approximately 5.1 million species of fungus.

Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body. These are also known as systemic infections.

The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms. These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body.

Those with a higher risk of developing a fungal infection include people who:

  • use antibiotics for a long time
  • have a weakened immune system, due, for example, to living with HIV or diabetes or receiving chemotherapy treatment
  • have undergone a transplant, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ

Examples of fungal infections are:

  • valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis
  • histoplasmosis
  • candidiasis
  • athlete’s foot
  • ringworm
  • some eye infections

A rash may indicate a fungal infection of the skin.

Prion disease

A prion is a protein that contains no genetic material and is usually harmless. Scientists do not class prions as living microorganisms. However, if a prion folds into an abnormal shape, it can become a rogue agent and cause infection.

Prions can affect the structure of the brain or other parts of the nervous system. They do not replicate or feed on the host. Instead, they trigger abnormal behavior in the body’s cells and proteins.

Prions cause degenerative brain diseases, all of which are rare but progress rapidly and are currently fatal. They include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which people typically refer to as mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

Researchers have also linked some cases of Alzheimer’s disease to prion infection.

Other infections

While the forms of infection that we have listed above are the main types, there are others that can have an effect on the body.

A single celled organism with a nucleus can cause a protozoan infection. Protozoa commonly show features similar to those of animals, such as mobility, and they can survive outside the human body.

They most commonly transfer to other humans through feces. Amebic dysentery is an example of a protozoan infection.

Helminths are larger, multicellular organisms that tend to be visible to the naked eye when fully grown. This type of parasite includes flatworms and roundworms. These can also cause infection.

Finally, ectoparasites — including mites, ticks, lice, and fleas — can cause infection by attaching or burrowing into the skin. Ectoparasites can also include blood-sucking arthropods, such as mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood.

The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible, as well as the site of the infection.

Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the genitals or upper respiratory tract. The rabies virus, for example, targets the nervous system. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts.

Others target a wider range of cells, leading to several symptoms. A flu virus can cause a runny nose, muscle aches, and an upset stomach.

A person with a bacterial infection will often experience redness, heat, swelling, fever, and pain at the site of infection, as well as swollen lymph glands.

A rash can indicate a fungal infection of the skin. However, viruses and bacteria may also cause skin conditions and rashes.

Common symptoms of prion diseases include rapid onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive difficulties. They can also trigger the buildup of plaque in the brain, causing this organ to waste away.

Infection: Types, causes, and differences

How an infection spreads and its effects on the human body depend on the type of pathogen.

The immune system is an effective barrier against infectious agents. However, pathogens may sometimes overwhelm the immune system’s ability to fight them off. At this stage, an infection becomes harmful.

Some pathogens have little effect at all. Others produce toxins or inflammatory substances that trigger negative responses from the body. This variation means that some infections are mild and barely noticeable, while others can be severe and life threatening. Some pathogens are resistant to treatment.

Infection can spread in a variety of ways.

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are different types of pathogens. They vary in several ways, including:

  • size
  • shape
  • function
  • genetic content
  • how they act on the body

For example, viruses are smaller than bacteria. They enter a host and take over cells, whereas bacteria can survive without a host.

Treatment will depend on the cause of the infection. This article will focus on the most common and deadly types of infection: bacterial, viral, fungal, and prion.

Viral infections

Viral infections occur due to infection with a virus. Millions of different viruses may exist, but researchers have only identified about 5,000 types to date. Viruses contain a small piece of genetic code, and a coat of protein and lipid (fat) molecules protects them.

Viruses invade a host and attach themselves to a cell. As they enter the cell, they release their genetic material. This material forces the cell to replicate the virus, and the virus multiplies. When the cell dies, it releases new viruses, which infect new cells.

Not all viruses destroy their host cell, however. Some of them change the function of the cell. Some viruses, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can lead to cancer by forcing cells to replicate in an uncontrolled way.

A virus can also target certain age groups, such as infants or young children.

Viruses may remain dormant for a period before multiplying again. The person with the virus can appear to have fully recovered, but they may get sick again when the virus reactivates.

Viral infections include:

  • the common cold, which mainly occurs due to rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus
  • encephalitis and meningitis, resulting from enteroviruses and the herpes simplex virus (HSV), as well as West Nile Virus
  • warts and skin infections, for which HPV and HSV are responsible
  • gastroenteritis, which norovirus causes
  • COVID-19, a respiratory disease that develops after a novel coronavirus infection that is currently causing a global pandemic

Other viral conditions include:

Antiviral medications can help relieve the symptoms of some viruses while the disease passes. They can either prevent the virus from reproducing or boost the host’s immune system to counter the effects of the virus.

Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. These drugs will not stop the virus, and their use increases the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Most treatment aims to relieve symptoms while the immune system combats the virus without assistance from medication.

Bacterial infections

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms, also known as prokaryotes.

Experts estimate that there are at least 1 nonillion bacteria on Earth. A nonillion is a 1 followed by 30 zeros. Much of the Earth’s biomass comprises bacteria.

Bacteria take three main shapes:

  • Spherical: These are known as cocci.
  • Rod-shaped: These have the name bacilli.
  • Spiral: Coiled bacteria are known as spirilla. If the coil of a spirillum is particularly tight, scientists call it a spirochete.

Bacteria can live in almost any type of environment, from extreme heat to intense cold, and some can even survive in radioactive waste.

There are trillions of strains of bacteria, and few cause diseases in humans. Some of them live inside the human body, such as in the gut or airways, without causing harm.

Some “good” bacteria attack “bad” bacteria and prevent them from causing sickness. However, some bacterial diseases can be deadly.

These include:

Some examples of bacterial infections are:

A doctor can treat bacterial infections with antibiotics. However, some strains become resistant and can survive the treatment.

Fungal infections

A fungus is often a multicellular parasite that can decompose and absorb organic matter using an enzyme. However, some types, such as yeasts, are single celled.

Fungi almost always reproduce by spreading single celled spores. The structure of a fungus is usually long and cylindrical, with small filaments branching from the main body.

There are approximately 5.1 million species of fungus.

Many fungal infections develop in the upper layers of the skin, and some progress to the deeper layers. Inhaled yeast or mold spores can sometimes lead to fungal infections, such as pneumonia, or infections throughout the body. These are also known as systemic infections.

The body usually has a population of good bacteria that help maintain the balance of microorganisms. These line the intestines, mouth, vagina, and other parts of the body.

Those with a higher risk of developing a fungal infection include people who:

  • use antibiotics for a long time
  • have a weakened immune system, due, for example, to living with HIV or diabetes or receiving chemotherapy treatment
  • have undergone a transplant, as they take medications to prevent their body from rejecting the new organ

Examples of fungal infections are:

  • valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis
  • histoplasmosis
  • candidiasis
  • athlete’s foot
  • ringworm
  • some eye infections

A rash may indicate a fungal infection of the skin.

Prion disease

A prion is a protein that contains no genetic material and is usually harmless. Scientists do not class prions as living microorganisms. However, if a prion folds into an abnormal shape, it can become a rogue agent and cause infection.

Prions can affect the structure of the brain or other parts of the nervous system. They do not replicate or feed on the host. Instead, they trigger abnormal behavior in the body’s cells and proteins.

Prions cause degenerative brain diseases, all of which are rare but progress rapidly and are currently fatal. They include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which people typically refer to as mad cow disease, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

Researchers have also linked some cases of Alzheimer’s disease to prion infection.

Other infections

While the forms of infection that we have listed above are the main types, there are others that can have an effect on the body.

A single celled organism with a nucleus can cause a protozoan infection. Protozoa commonly show features similar to those of animals, such as mobility, and they can survive outside the human body.

They most commonly transfer to other humans through feces. Amebic dysentery is an example of a protozoan infection.

Helminths are larger, multicellular organisms that tend to be visible to the naked eye when fully grown. This type of parasite includes flatworms and roundworms. These can also cause infection.

Finally, ectoparasites — including mites, ticks, lice, and fleas — can cause infection by attaching or burrowing into the skin. Ectoparasites can also include blood-sucking arthropods, such as mosquitoes, which transmit infection by consuming human blood.

The symptoms of an infection depend on the organism responsible, as well as the site of the infection.

Viruses target specific cells, such as those in the genitals or upper respiratory tract. The rabies virus, for example, targets the nervous system. Some viruses target skin cells, causing warts.

Others target a wider range of cells, leading to several symptoms. A flu virus can cause a runny nose, muscle aches, and an upset stomach.

A person with a bacterial infection will often experience redness, heat, swelling, fever, and pain at the site of infection, as well as swollen lymph glands.

A rash can indicate a fungal infection of the skin. However, viruses and bacteria may also cause skin conditions and rashes.

Common symptoms of prion diseases include rapid onset of brain damage, memory loss, and cognitive difficulties. They can also trigger the buildup of plaque in the brain, causing this organ to waste away.

Types of Infectious Disease | Tampa General Hospital

Infectious disease is a broad term that describes an illness caused by a specific type of bacterium, parasite, virus, or fungus. Most of these organisms don’t pose a threat to health, but those that do can cause an array of illnesses, which range from mild to life-threatening. Harmful organisms can be transmitted from person to person, through animal bites, or by consuming contaminated food or water. Infectious diseases can affect anyone, although people with compromised immune systems are at a greater risk of acquiring an infection.  

Here is a brief overview of the main infectious disease types:

  • Bacterial infections – Bacteria is responsible for a broad variety of infectious diseases, from strep throat and urinary tract infections to meningitis and tuberculosis. Many skin rashes are also caused by bacteria.
  • Bone infections – An infection that affects a bone is referred to as osteomyelitis. It is most commonly caused by bacteria that enters the body through a deep wound or surgical incision, but fungi may also be to blame for a bone infection.
  • Fungal infections – There are roughly 300 types of fungi known to cause infectious diseases. Commonly occurring fungal infections include ringworm, pneumocystis pneumonia, blastomycosis, and histoplasmosis. Localized fungal infections (such as toenail fungus) also occur frequently in the United States.
  • Joint infections – Bacterial joint inflammation, or bacterial/septic arthritis, most frequently affects the knee joint. Most cases are caused by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (staph), although viral or fungal infections can also cause joint infections.
  • Tropical diseases – Experienced largely by the world’s poorest populations, the most common tropical diseases include elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis), river blindness (onchocerciasis), snail fever (schistosomiasis or bilharzia), and trachoma. 
  • Parasitic infections – The majority of parasitic infections affect countries in the tropics and subtropics, but these infections also occur in the United States. Prevalent parasitic infections include malaria, Chagas disease, and toxocariasis.
  • Viral infections – Like bacteria, viruses can cause many different infectious diseases. The common cold develops from a virus, as does more complex diseases like the flu, mononucleosis, smallpox, and HIV/AIDS.

Led by experienced physicians who utilize the latest advances in medical technology, Tampa General Hospital provides individualized immunizations and treatment for a full range of infectious disease types. Please use our PhysicianFinder to identify an infectious disease specialist.

Overview of Bacteria – Infections

Some bacteria are naturally resistant to certain antibiotics.

Other bacteria develop resistance to drugs because they acquire genes from other bacteria that have become resistant or because their genes mutate. For example, soon after the drug penicillin was introduced in the mid-1940s, a few individual Staphylococcus aureus bacteria acquired genes that made penicillin ineffective against them. The strains that possessed these special genes had a survival advantage when penicillin was commonly used to treat infections. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus that lacked these new genes were killed by penicillin, allowing the remaining penicillin-resistant bacteria to reproduce and over time become more common.

Chemists then altered the penicillin molecule, making a different but similar drug, methicillin, which could kill the penicillin-resistant bacteria. Soon after methicillin was introduced, strains of Staphylococcus aureus developed genes that made them resistant to methicillin and related drugs. These strains are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

The genes that encode for drug resistance can be passed to following generations of bacteria or sometimes even to other species of bacteria.

The more often antibiotics are used, the more likely resistant bacteria are to develop. Therefore, experts recommend that doctors use antibiotics only when necessary. In particular, doctors should prescribe antibiotics only for infections caused by bacteria, not for those caused by viruses such as a cold or the flu. Giving antibiotics to people who probably do not have a bacterial infection, such as those who have cough and cold symptoms, does not make people better but does help create resistant bacteria. Because antibiotics have been so widely used (and misused), many bacteria are resistant to certain antibiotics.

Resistant bacteria can spread from person to person. Because international travel is so common, resistant bacteria can spread to many parts of the world in a short time. Spread of these bacteria in hospitals is a particular concern. Resistant bacteria are common in hospitals because antibiotics are so often necessary and because hospital personnel and visitors may spread the bacteria if they do not strictly follow appropriate sanitary procedures. Also, many hospitalized patients have a weakened immune system, making them more susceptible to infection.

Resistant bacteria can also spread to people from animals. Resistant bacteria are common among farm animals because antibiotics are often routinely given to healthy animals to prevent infections that can impair growth or cause illness. Many countries have banned the use of antibiotics in animals to do reduce the risk of the following:

  • Consuming resistant bacteria in animal food products

  • Being infected with resistant bacteria through contact with animals

  • Being exposed to antibiotics in animal food products

Skin Infections | MedlinePlus

What are skin infections?

Your skin is your body’s largest organ. It has many different functions, including covering and protecting your body. It helps keep germs out. But sometimes the germs can cause a skin infection. This often happens when there is a break, cut, or wound on your skin. It can also happen when your immune system is weakened, because of another disease or a medical treatment.

Some skin infections cover a small area on the top of your skin. Other infections can go deep into your skin or spread to a larger area.

What causes skin infections?

Skin infections are caused by different kinds of germs. For example,

Who is at risk for skin infections?

You are at a higher risk for a skin infection if you

  • Have poor circulation
  • Have diabetes
  • Are older
  • Have an immune system disease, such as HIV/AIDS
  • Have a weakened immune system because of chemotherapy or other medicines that suppress your immune system
  • Have to stay in one position for a long time, such as if you are sick and have to stay in bed for a long time or you are paralyzed
  • Are malnourished
  • Have excessive skinfolds, which can happen if you have obesity

What are the symptoms of skin infections?

The symptoms depend on the type of infection. Some symptoms that are common to many skin infections include rashes, swelling, redness, pain, pus, and itching.

How are skin infections diagnosed?

To diagnose a skin infection, health care providers will do a physical exam and ask about your symptoms. You may have lab tests, such as a skin culture. This is a test to identify what type of infection you have, using a sample from your skin. Your provider may take the sample by swabbing or scraping your skin, or removing a small piece of skin (biopsy). Sometimes providers use other tests, such as blood tests.

How are skin infections treated?

The treatment depends on the type of infection and how serious it is. Some infections will go away on their own. When you do need treatment, it may include a cream or lotion to put on the skin. Other possible treatments include medicines and a procedure to drain pus.

Antibiotics | Infection Treatment | Types, Uses and Side Effects

What are antibiotics?

Antibiotics are a group of medicines that are used to treat infections. Antibiotics are sometimes called antibacterials or antimicrobials. Antibiotics can be taken by mouth as liquids, tablets, or capsules, or they can be given by injection. Usually, people who need to have an antibiotic by injection are in hospital because they have a severe infection. Antibiotics are also available as creams, ointments, or lotions to apply to the skin to treat certain skin infections.

It is important to remember that antibiotics only work against infections that are caused by bacteria and certain parasites. A parasite is a type of germ that needs to live on or in another living being (host). Antibiotics do not work against infections that are caused by viruses (for example, the common cold or flu), or fungi (for example, thrush in the mouth or vagina), or fungal infections of the skin.

Microbes, Germs and Antibiotics discusses the different types of germs which can cause infections.

Occasionally, a viral infection or minor bacterial infection develops into a more serious secondary bacterial infection. In this case, antibiotics would be needed.

There are various antibiotics available and they come in various different brand names. Antibiotics are usually grouped together based on how they work. Each type of antibiotic only works against certain types of bacteria or parasites. This is why different antibiotics are used to treat different types of infection. The main types of antibiotics include:

  • Penicillins – for example, phenoxymethylpenicillin, flucloxacillin and amoxicillin.
  • Cephalosporins – for example, cefaclor, cefadroxil and cefalexin.
  • Tetracyclines – for example, tetracycline, doxycycline and lymecycline.
  • Aminoglycosides – for example, gentamicin and tobramycin.
  • Macrolides – for example, erythromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin.
  • Clindamycin.
  • Sulfonamides and trimethoprim – for example, co-trimoxazole.
  • Metronidazole and tinidazole.
  • Quinolones – for example, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and norfloxacin.
  • Nitrofurantoin – used for urinary infections.

As well as the above main types of antibiotics, there are a number of other antibiotics that specialist doctors or hospital doctors may prescribe for more uncommon infections such as tuberculosis (TB).

The rest of this leaflet only discusses antibiotics that your GP may prescribe.

How do antibiotics work?

Some antibiotics work by killing germs (bacteria or the parasite). This is often done by interfering with the structure of the cell wall of the bacterium or parasite. Some work by stopping bacteria or the parasite from multiplying.

When are antibiotics usually prescribed?

Dr Sarah Jarvis MBE

Antibiotics are normally only prescribed for more serious infections with germs (bacterial and some parasitic infections).

Most common infections are caused by viruses, when an antibiotic will not be of use. Even if you have a mild bacterial infection, the immune system can clear most bacterial infections. For example, antibiotics usually do little to speed up recovery from most ear, nose and throat infections that are caused by bacteria.

So, do not be surprised if a doctor does not recommend an antibiotic for conditions caused by viruses or non-bacterial infections, or even for a mild bacterial infection.

However, you do need antibiotics if you have certain serious infections caused by bacteria, such as meningitis or pneumonia. In these situations, antibiotics are often life-saving. When you are ill, doctors are skilled at checking you over to rule out serious illness and to advise if an antibiotic is needed. Urine infections also commonly need antibiotics to prevent spread to the kidneys.

Antibiotics can also be prescribed to treat acne – a less serious condition. For acne, antibiotics can be taken by mouth or applied directly to the skin.

Which antibiotic is usually prescribed?

The choice of antibiotic mainly depends on which infection you have and the germ (bacterium or parasite) your doctor thinks is causing your infection. This is because each antibiotic is effective only against certain bacteria and parasites. For example, if you have pneumonia, the doctor knows what kinds of bacteria typically cause most cases of pneumonia. He or she will choose the antibiotic that best combats those kinds of bacteria.

There are other factors that influence the choice of an antibiotic. These include:

  • How severe the infection is.
  • How well your kidneys and liver are working.
  • Dosing schedule.
  • Other medications you may be taking.
  • Common side-effects.
  • A history of having an allergy to a certain type of antibiotic.
  • If you are pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Pattern of infection in your community.
  • Pattern of resistance to antibiotics by germs in your area.

Even if you are pregnant or breastfeeding there are a number of antibiotics that are thought to be safe to take.

When taking an antibiotic

It is important to take antibiotics in the correct way. If you do not, this may reduce how well they work. For example, some antibiotics need to be taken with food and others should be taken on an empty stomach. If you do not take your antibiotics in the right way it will affect how much of them get into your body (their absorption) and therefore they may not work as well. So, follow the instructions as given by your doctor and on the leaflet that comes with the antibiotic you are prescribed.

Always take the entire course of antibiotics as directed by your doctor. Even though you may feel better before your medicine is entirely gone, follow through and take the entire course. This is important for your healing. If an antibiotic is stopped in mid-course, germs (bacteria) may be partially treated and not completely killed. Bacteria may then become resistant to that antibiotic.

Overuse of antibiotics has led to some bacteria changing their form or structure (mutating) and becoming resistant to some antibiotics, which may then not work when really needed. For example, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that has become resistant to many different antibiotics and is difficult to treat. Other bacteria produce chemicals called enzymes such as extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) which allow them to be resistant to certain antibiotics.

Resistance to antibiotics has become a major health threat globally, as antibiotics are life-saving for serious illnesses. So if your health professional says antibiotics are not needed for your condition, do not ask for them. Your health professional will explain in what circumstances you might need antibiotics and what symptoms should prompt you to return for another check. If your illness has changed, or you have developed a secondary infection, antibiotics may be needed after all. Health professionals follow guidelines to help reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.

What are the possible side-effects?

It is not possible in this leaflet to list all the possible side-effects of each antibiotic. However, as with all medicines, there are a number of side-effects that have been reported with each of the different antibiotics. If you want more information specific to your antibiotic then you should read the information leaflet that comes with the medicine.

Most side-effects of antibiotics are not serious. Common side-effects include soft stools (faeces), diarrhoea, or mild stomach upset such as feeling sick (nausea). Less commonly, some people have an allergic reaction to an antibiotic and some have died from a severe allergic reaction – this is very rare.

Antibiotics can kill off normal defence bacteria which live in the bowel and vagina. This may then allow thrush or other bad bacteria to grow.

You should tell your doctor if you have any of the following side-effects:

Some antibiotics may interact with other medicines that you might take. This may cause reactions, or reduce the effectiveness of one or other of the treatments. So, when you are prescribed an antibiotic you should tell a doctor if you take other medicines.

Oral contraceptive pill

In the past it was recommended that, if you were taking antibiotics and were also taking the pill, you should use additional contraception. This is no longer the current recommendation after more recent evidence has been reviewed.

Antibiotics (other than one called rifampicin) do not interfere with the effectiveness of the pill. You should continue taking your pill as normal if you also need to take any antibiotics.

Can I buy antibiotics?

No, in the UK they are only available from your chemist, with a doctor’s prescription. In some other parts of the world they are available over the counter. However, to reduce the problem of resistance due to inappropriate use of antibiotics, it is best to always obtain medical advice before buying antibiotics.

What is the usual length of treatment?

The length of treatment varies a lot. It depends on what kind of infection you have, how severe it is and how quickly you get better after starting treatment. Treatment can be:

  • For just a few days (‘water’ infection – urinary tract infection).
  • For one or two weeks (pneumonia)
  • For a few months (bone infections)
  • For many months (acne).

Who cannot take antibiotics?

It is very rare for anyone not to be able to take some type of antibiotic. The main reason why you may not be able to take an antibiotic is if you have had an allergic reaction to an antibiotic in the past. Even if you have had an allergic reaction to one antibiotic, your doctor or health professional will be able to choose a different type of antibiotic, which you will be able to take. If you are pregnant, there are certain antibiotics you should not take, but your health professional will be able to advise on which one is suitable if an antibiotic is needed. If you are on some medication, certain antibiotics may need to be avoided, or your regular medication stopped whilst you take the antibiotic. As above, when prescribed an antibiotic, make sure the prescriber knows about any other medication you take.

How to use the Yellow Card Scheme

If you think you have had a side-effect to one of your medicines you can report this on the Yellow Card Scheme. You can do this online at www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard.

The Yellow Card Scheme is used to make pharmacists, doctors and nurses aware of any new side-effects that medicines or any other healthcare products may have caused. If you wish to report a side-effect, you will need to provide basic information about:

  • The side-effect.
  • The name of the medicine which you think caused it.
  • The person who had the side-effect.
  • Your contact details as the reporter of the side-effect.

It is helpful if you have your medication – and/or the leaflet that came with it – with you while you fill out the report.

Infectious diseases

Memo: Prevention of influenza and coronavirus infection

Influenza and coronavirus viruses cause respiratory diseases of varying severity in humans. Symptoms are similar to those of regular (seasonal) flu. The severity of the disease depends on a number of factors, including the general condition of the body and age.

Predisposed to the disease: the elderly, small children, pregnant women and people suffering from chronic diseases (asthma, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases), and with weakened immunity.

More information …

Memo for the prevention of acute intestinal infections

Source of infection – a sick person or a carrier of pathogens of acute intestinal infections. The most dangerous for those around them are patients with mild, worn out and asymptomatic forms.

Adults and children are ill, most often children aged 1 to 7 years. Children account for about 60-65% of all registered cases.

The main transmission mechanism of is fecal-oral, which is realized through food, water and contact – household routes.

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Malaria

Etiology

Plasmodia are parasitic unicellular organisms that cause malaria. Microbes enter the human body through bloodsucking, during which they are injected by a female mosquito into the blood or lymph. Plasmodia stay in the blood for a short time and penetrate into liver cells, affecting them.The hepatic stage of the disease lasts quite a long time, periodically causing relapses due to the release of protozoa into the bloodstream. They attach to the membranes of red blood cells, which leads to the transition of the hepatic stage to the red blood cell.

Malaria mosquitoes are ubiquitous. They breed in stagnant, well-heated water bodies, where favorable conditions remain – high humidity and high air temperatures. This is why malaria was formerly called “swamp fever.”Malaria mosquitoes differ in appearance from other mosquitoes: they are slightly larger, have a darker color and have transverse white stripes on their legs. Their bites are also different from ordinary mosquitoes: malaria mosquitoes bite more painfully, the bitten place swells and itches.

Pathogenesis

In the development of plasmodium, 2 phases are distinguished: sporogony in the body of a mosquito and schizogony in the human body.

  • Tissue schizogony lasts 1-2 weeks. It occurs in hepatocytes and ends with the release of microbes into the bloodstream.Tissue schizogony corresponds to the incubation period and proceeds without obvious clinical signs.
  • Erythrocytic schizogony develops after the breakdown of red blood cells and the penetration of parasite toxins into the blood plasma. This phase is associated with the appearance of the main symptoms of malaria. Massive breakdown of red blood cells can result in the development of hemolytic anemia, microcirculation disorder, shock.

More information …

Lice (head lice, lice)

Pediculosis or head lice.What it is? Contrary to popular public opinion that lice are the lot of persons without a fixed abode, absolutely everyone can get a small and harmful pet on their heads. Three main types of lice carry troubles for a person: head louse, clothes louse and pubic louse.

Types of lice

Head louse settles in the scalp, preferring the occipital and temporal regions. This translucent insect belongs to small obligate (constantly occurring) parasites and the order of chewing lice.Their main food is human blood. The female louse lives a little more than a month and lays 10 eggs (nits) a day, attaching them to the base of the hair with a strong sticky secret and placing them in the form of a spikelet in 4-5 pieces. Their mouthpieces are adapted to bite through skin and suck blood. When bitten, the parasite releases an irritating substance into the wound, causing severe itching. A person bitten by lice has an intolerable desire to comb the bite site, introducing a secondary infection into the wound with his own hands.There is a local inflammatory reaction, redness, crusting and thickening of the skin at the site of scratching. This infection can spread to nearby lymph nodes.

More information …

Causes, disease clinic

The causative agent of malaria is the malaria plasmodium. It belongs to the class of protozoa. Causal agents can be 4 types of plasmodia (although there are more than 60 species of them in nature):

• R.Malariae – Leads to malaria with a 4-day cycle
• P. vivax – causes malaria with a 3-day cycle;
• P. falciparum – causes tropical malaria;
• P. Ovale – causes an oval-shaped three-day malaria.

Mixed infections are common in endemic countries. It is characterized by simultaneous infection by several types of plasmodia. In a parasitological study, they are detected in the blood.

The life cycle of malaria plasmodia includes a sequential change of several stages.In this case, there is a change of owners. At the stage of schizogony, pathogens are in the human body. This is the stage of asexual development, it is replaced by the stage of sporogony.

It is characterized by sexual development and occurs in the body of the female mosquito, which is the carrier of the infection. Causal mosquitoes belong to the genus Anopheles.

The penetration of malaria plasmodia into the human body can occur at different stages in different ways:

  1. When bitten by a mosquito, infection occurs at the spore stage.The penetrated plasmodia end up in the liver in 15-45 minutes, where their intensive reproduction begins.
  2. Penetration of plasmodia of the erythrocyte cycle at the schizont stage occurs directly into the blood, bypassing the liver. This pathway is realized when donated blood is introduced or when using non-sterile syringes that can be infected with plasmodia. At this stage of development, it penetrates from mother to child in utero (vertical route of infection). This is the danger of malaria for pregnant women.

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Measures and types of prevention of influenza

There are 3 types of prevention:

  1. specific, aimed at combating a certain virus with the use of vaccines;
  2. prophylaxis with the use of antiviral medications;
  3. nonspecific, based on the observance of the rules of public and personal hygiene, strengthening the immune system and increasing the body’s resistance to stress.

Anyone who spends some part of the time in society, contacts with colleagues at work, classmates at school, classmates in kindergarten, is at risk of contracting the flu. Therefore, the most effective prevention method – limiting contact with sick people and with all other (possibly healthy) people – is practically unfeasible. Therefore, all known prevention methods are aimed at ensuring that a person prepares his body for a meeting with the virus.

More details…

Dangerous! Influenza

Enterovirus infection

Enteroviruses – so named because after the onset of infection, they multiply initially in the gastrointestinal tract. Despite this, they usually do not cause intestinal symptoms, most often they actively spread and cause symptoms and diseases of organs such as: the heart, skin, lungs, brain and spinal cord Enteroviruses are found throughout the world, but infection most often occurs in areas with low the level of hygiene and high overcrowding.The virus is most commonly transmitted through the faecal-oral route, as well as through contaminated food or water. The ingestion of certain strains of the virus by airborne droplets can lead to respiratory diseases. Breast milk contains antibodies that can protect newborns. The incubation period for most enteroviruses is 2 to 14 days. In areas with a temperate climate, infections occur mainly in summer and autumn.

Enterovirus most often enters the human body through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or the respiratory tract.Once in the gastrointestinal tract, viruses stop in the local lymph nodes where they begin the first stage of reproduction. Around the third day after infection, viruses enter the bloodstream and begin to circulate throughout the body. On the 3-7th day, viruses with blood can enter the organ systems where the second stage of reproduction can begin and, as a result, cause various diseases. The production of antibodies to the virus occurs during the first 7-10 days.

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Tularemia

Tularemia is a zooanthroponous infection with natural focus.It is characterized by intoxication, fever, and lymph node involvement. The causative agent of the disease is a small bacterium Francisella tularensis . Carriers of tularemia sticks are hares, rabbits, water rats, voles. Epizootics periodically occur in natural foci. The infection is transmitted to humans either directly through contact with animals (hunting), or through contaminated food and water, less often by aspiration (when processing grain and fodder products, threshing bread), blood-sucking arthropods (horsefly, tick, mosquito).

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Typhus

Typhus is a group of infectious diseases caused by rickettsia bacteria, a common acute infectious disease transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through lice. It is characterized by a specific rash, fever, damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems. There are two forms of the disease: epidemic typhus and endemic typhus.

Epidemiology

Currently, only a few developing countries have a high incidence of typhus.However, the long-term preservation of rickettsia in those who had previously had typhus and the periodic appearance of relapses in the form of Brill-Zinsser disease does not exclude the possibility of epidemic outbreaks of typhus. This is possible when social conditions deteriorate (increased population migration, head lice, poor nutrition, etc.).

The source of infection is a sick person, starting from the last 2-3 days of the incubation period and up to the 7-8th day after the normalization of body temperature. Typhus is transmitted through lice, mainly through body lice, less often through head lice.

Epidemic typhus, also known as classic, European or lousy typhus, ship or prison fever, is caused by Provacek’s rickettsia, Rickettsia prowazekii (named after the Czech scientist who described them).

More information …

Infectious diseases

WHAT IS IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT TUBERCULOSIS

TUBERCULOSIS – an infectious disease caused by tuberculosis bacillus and transmitted by airborne, airborne dust.

Koch’s wand is sometimes called mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) after the German microbiologist Robert Koch, who discovered it to the world. It happened on March 24, 1882. Therefore, World Tuberculosis Day is celebrated on March 24th.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) in the environment remains active for a long time, is resistant to many factors, can periodically rise upward with dust, which means it can infect people.

MBT infection by alimentary is possible.Children can become infected in this way by licking, trying “on the tooth” unwashed toys: after playing in the sandbox, after falling on the asphalt. Adults – when using shared utensils. In addition, it is possible to become infected with tuberculosis after drinking milk from animals with tuberculosis. Contact route of infection is possible if the rules for working with biomaterial in laboratories are not followed. Possible vertical (intrauterine) route of infection – from mother to fetus during pregnancy and childbirth.

MBT can affect any organs and tissues of a person. The human immune system protects the body, including from MBT. But with the weakening of the protective factors, infection and human disease are possible.

Anyone can get sick with tuberculosis, regardless of social status and income level.

Infection in any child or adult can cause serious illness. Therefore, it is very important to carry out primary prevention of tuberculosis in newborns, children, adolescents, adults – to be regularly examined.

Despite medical advances in the treatment of tuberculosis, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure.

Prevention of tuberculosis begins at the maternity hospital. The national calendar of preventive vaccinations of the Russian Federation provides for vaccination against tuberculosis in the maternity hospital. Vaccination is carried out with the BCG-M vaccine against tuberculosis is carried out in the maternity hospital on the 3rd-7th day of the child’s life in the absence of medical contraindications. The effectiveness of vaccination has been tested and proven over time.

If the child was not vaccinated in the hospital, the vaccination is carried out in the clinic after the removal of contraindications. Before vaccination and for the period of development of immunity (2 months), it is necessary to limit the range of adults who communicate with the child and conduct their examination for tuberculosis (fluorography).

Children with chronic diseases need vaccination more than healthy children. vaccination proceeds, as a rule, easily, imperceptibly for the body, and the course of tuberculosis in such children, most often, is difficult and requires significant efforts of medical workers and the patient himself on the way to recovery.When deciding whether to vaccinate these children, it is important to choose the right period to ensure safe vaccination (no exacerbation of a chronic disease).

Dear parents!
Get your child vaccinated against tuberculosis in time!

TUBERCULOSIS IS DANGEROUS BUT WE CAN CURE!

The earlier the disease (infection) is detected, the better the prognosis.

For the timely detection of tuberculosis infection, diagnostic tests and studies are used.Among them are tuberculin diagnostics (Mantoux test) for children, intradermal test with recombinant tuberculosis allergen (DIASKINTEST) for children and adults, fluorographic examination for adults and adolescents from 15 years old. To detect tuberculosis, other diagnostic methods are also used, the main thing is to consult a doctor on time and not refuse the proposed studies.

Mantoux test, tuberculin diagnostics

Tuberculin diagnosis is carried out – at least once a year.
Twice a year conduct a tuberculin test:
• Children who have not been vaccinated against tuberculosis, regardless of their age
• Children in contact with a TB patient
• Children from risk groups based on the results of tuberculin diagnostics
• Children from medical groups -biological risk: patients with diabetes mellitus, peptic ulcer disease, blood diseases, systemic diseases, receiving long-term (more than 1 month) corticosteroid therapy, HIV-infected, children with chronic nonspecific diseases
• Children from social risk groups

PURPOSE OF TUBERCULIN DIAGNOSTICS

• Identification of tuberculosis patients
• Identification of persons infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis
• Selection of children for revaccination against tuberculosis.

The doctor should decide on possible contraindications for the Mantoux reaction.

A positive tuberculin test may indicate the presence of anti-tuberculosis immunity (post-vaccination allergy) and infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (infectious allergy).

Intradermal test with tuberculosis allergen “DIASKINTEST”

Intradermal test with recombinant tuberculosis allergen, Diaskintest “allows you to distinguish tuberculosis infection with a high risk of developing the disease from a reaction to vaccination in children, and is also used to diagnose tuberculosis in adults, contingents of the risk group.

If your family is expecting the birth of a child, family members from the environment of the pregnant woman need to be tested for tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis risk groups.

  1. HIV-infected
  2. Patients receiving therapy with genetically engineered biological drugs, immunosuppressive therapy
  3. Persons who have fallen into difficult life situations and are in social welfare organizations
  4. Children in organizations (orphanages, boarding schools, orphanages, etc.))
  5. Persons in difficult life situations when contacting medical organizations for medical assistance
  6. Persons in psychiatric medical institutions
  7. Patients registered in the branches of the State Treasury Healthcare Institution of the city of Moscow “Moscow Scientific and Practical Center for Narcology
  8. Released from remand prisons and correctional institutions of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia
  9. Prescribed contingents for preventive health care, incl.including medical workers
  10. Patients with chronic somatic diseases, incl. diabetes mellitus.

When can you suspect you have tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is often asymptomatic. It can only be detected with a special examination. For this there is a medical examination. However, some patients may have clinical manifestations of the disease.

It is necessary to suspect tuberculosis and donate sputum for analysis for MBT if you or your child has one or more of these symptoms:

  • cough for more than two to three weeks
  • chest pain associated with breathing
  • prolonged temperature rise
  • weight loss not associated with special weight loss
  • weakness, fatigue and fatigue
  • excessive sweating, often night sweats
  • streaks of blood in sputum

If you or your child have one or more of the above symptoms,

  • consult a general practitioner, pediatrician.
  • get tested for tuberculosis to exclude this infection or detect the disease as early as possible and recover quickly!

How not to get sick with tuberculosis?

• Be sure to give your newborn the BCG-M vaccine against tuberculosis.
• Practice good personal hygiene.
• Wash your hands before eating, after contact with dust and any dirty objects, after being in public places (public transport, shop, clinic and hospital).
• Do not touch your eyes and face with dirty hands.
• Do not allow your child to put unwashed toys into their mouths (those that have been dropped on the street or with which they played on the street, in kindergarten, in the sandbox).
• Do not take soft toys with your baby for a walk.
• Avoid contact (stay away) with people who are coughing, especially with long-term coughs.
• Go outside more often: walk in sunny weather.
• Avoid hypothermia and keep your daily routine.
• Monitor your food.Food should be rational and balanced, contain vegetables and fruits.

In case someone in your environment fell ill with tuberculosis, be sure to undergo a prophylactic examination (fluorography, complete blood count, perform skin tests: Mantoux test with 2 TE, Diaskintest).

If someone gets sick with tuberculosis in your house or apartment,
is required:

• Get tested for tuberculosis (children and adolescents – Mantoux test, adults and adolescents – fluorography, Diaskintest, etc.).
• Do not ignore the invitation to the survey!
• Observe the prescriptions and recommendations of the attending physician, incl. on compliance with the sanitary and hygienic regime.

PCR analysis – to pass in Ryazan at a bargain price – ELAMED Medical Center

High-tech laboratory diagnostic methods make it possible to identify many diseases at the earliest stages. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method is one of the newest and most accurate diagnostic methods.For its development, scientist Carey Mullis received the Nobel Prize in 1993.

Today, although this method is considered experimental, it is already widely and successfully used in medicine.

PCR diagnostics: the essence of the approach

The PCR method uses the principles of molecular biology. Its essence lies in the use of special enzymes that repeatedly copy fragments of RNA and DNA of pathogens that are found in biomaterial samples, for example, in blood.After that, laboratory workers check the obtained fragments with the database, identify the type of pathogen and its concentration.

PCR is carried out in an amplifier – a device that cools and heats test tubes with biomaterial samples. Heating and cooling is required for replication to take place. Temperature accuracy affects the accuracy of the result.

Fields of application of the method:

The diagnostic capabilities of the PCR method are enormous, with its help it is possible to identify a variety of infections.Most often, the PCR method is used for diagnostics:

  • HIV;
  • 90,047 herpes;

    90,047 various genital infections, in particular chlamydia, ureaplasmosis, gardnerellosis, mycoplasmosis and trichomoniasis;

  • candidiasis;
  • 90,047 hepatitis;

  • mononucleosis;
  • listeriosis;
  • cytomegalovirus;
  • tuberculosis;
  • human papillomavirus;
  • tick-borne encephalitis.

This is not a complete list; the PCR analysis method is used in various fields of medicine.

Advantages and disadvantages of the approach:

PCR diagnostics have many advantages:

  • High sensitivity. The method allows you to identify the causative agent of the disease even in the presence of several molecules of its DNA, that is, at very early stages, in the chronic form of the disease, as well as in cases when the disease does not manifest itself in any way, proceeding latently.
  • Versatility. Almost any biomaterial is suitable for PCR analysis – from blood and saliva to skin cells.
  • Wide coverage. Examination of one sample can identify several pathogens at once.
  • Efficiency. The result, as a rule, is ready in 5-7 hours, that is, you can get a conclusion the very next day after taking the biomaterial.
  • Accuracy. The PCR method almost never gives false positive or false negative results, if the technology for conducting this analysis was followed.
  • Low cost. The price of PCR analysis is comparable to any other laboratory blood tests.

However, it should be understood that there are no perfect methods of analysis. PCR has a minus – high requirements for technology compliance and for the professionalism of laboratory technicians. If the sample is contaminated, the test may give a false result. Therefore, it is better to carry out PCR diagnostics only in the best laboratories, where work quality control systems are implemented.

Test biomaterial:

For PCR diagnostics of diseases, different types of biomaterial are taken for analysis.The choice depends on the type of infection. When testing for STDs by PCR, a scraping or swab is taken from the cervix or urethra, as well as urine. To detect herpes, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, toxoplasmosis and HIV, blood is taken for analysis. When tested for mononucleosis and cytomegalovirus, a throat swab is taken. Cerebrospinal fluid is used for analysis of lesions of the nervous system, placental tissues are examined to diagnose intrauterine infections, and sputum or pleural fluid is examined to detect pulmonary infections.

Preparation for examination:

Preparation for PCR diagnostics directly depends on the type of biomaterial. Blood is taken on an empty stomach in the morning. Urine is also submitted in the morning, under laboratory conditions, in a sterile container. Before taking a smear or scraping from the urogenital area, you should not have sexual intercourse a few days before the study, you should not douch. A swab or scraping should not be taken during menstruation and within 2 days after its end.

Interpretation of results:

For a patient, a PCR test result can be either positive or negative.Negative means that no traces of hostile DNA have been found and the person is healthy. Positive means the presence of DNA fragments of the causative agent of the disease – this means that the person is infected and he needs treatment.

Often PCR diagnostics gives a positive result, but the patient does not feel any discomfort, and there are no signs of the disease. However, this does not mean a mistake, but a very early stage of the disease. In this case, more research and treatment is needed. If the disease was diagnosed at such an early stage, therapy should be started as soon as possible, because the further the disease goes, the more difficult it will be to cure it.

PCR diagnostics of infections is incredibly accurate – it allows you to detect the causative agent of the disease, even if there is only one single molecule of its DNA in the sample. It is this quality that made PCR analysis one of the most effective diagnostic tools both for determining the presence of infection and for monitoring the course of treatment.

Tick-borne encephalitis – the fight continues

Tick-borne infections (natural focal vector-borne tick-borne infections)

The tick-borne infections block includes the following diseases: tick-borne encephalitis, ixodic tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease), tick-borne ehrlichiosis (monocytic ehrlichiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis), rickettsioses (relapsing typhus).
Tick activity peaks between May and July, although bites are reported from March to October.
Be careful when visiting forests and parks. Regularly (once every half hour) inspect your clothes and skin.
If you are nevertheless bitten by a tick, at the Medical Diagnostic Center you can receive a full range of diagnostic services, as well as carry out the necessary prophylaxis of all tick-borne infections. Highly qualified infectious disease doctors will advise, if necessary, prescribe treatment, and send to a hospital.
If you are insured under the Voluntary Health Insurance programs, then examination and prevention of tick-borne infections in the Medical Center “NPO Virion” will be provided free of charge.

Tick-borne encephalitis – the fight continues

This year the discovery of tick-borne encephalitis will be 76 years old. In the mid-1930s, when the development of the Far Eastern taiga began, the first cases of an unknown disease of a neuroinfectious nature with a severe course and high mortality appeared.
In 1937, a special expedition was sent to the Far East to study the nature of a new disease. It was headed by Professor Lev Alexandrovich Zilber, later an academician of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences. The work of this expedition was marked by a major discovery. During one season (May-July 1937), a virus was discovered – the causative agent of the disease, its carriers were identified, the main epidemiological patterns of infection were revealed, and the first preventive measures were developed. Subsequent expeditions of 1938-1940 successfully completed the research begun.During the study of a new disease, various names were proposed for it. The students of L.A. Zilber, later well-known Soviet virology, academicians of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences M.P. Chumakov and A.A. Smorodintsev, relying on the most essential epidemiological and clinical features of the infection, gave it the name “tick borne encephalithis”, which was established in domestic and foreign literature.
Since then, tick-borne encephalitis continues to be a seasonal scourge of the entire Siberian region.
Infection occurs through human or animal bites with ticks, an alimentary route of infection has been established – through raw milk from domestic animals that have been bitten by ticks.
The incubation period is 3-25 days (average 7-14 days). The onset is acute, suddenly the temperature rises to 39-40 ° C, a sharp headache, nausea, vomiting appears. There are several variants of the course of the disease.
Febrile form – has a benign course, fever lasts 3-8 days, headaches, nausea are noted; neuralgic symptoms are poorly expressed, quickly disappear.
Meningeal form – characterized by fever for 7-10 days, nausea, vomiting, severe headache, severe meningeal symptoms.Changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (lymphocytic pleocytosis) are observed for 3-4 weeks.
Meningoencephalic form – characterized by hyperthermia, lethargy, drowsiness, pronounced meningeal syndrome, delirium, psychomotor agitation with loss of orientation, hallucinations, sometimes severe convulsive syndrome of the type of status epilepticus. In the cerebrospinal fluid – moderate lymphocytic pleocytosis, increased protein content. Already on the 2-4th day of the disease, subcortical hyperkinesis, stem disorders, paresis and paralysis of the muscles of the neck and shoulder girdle appear.Mortality is observed in 25% of cases.
The poliomyelitis form is characterized by general cerebral phenomena, accompanied by flaccid paralysis of the muscles of the neck and upper limbs with muscle atrophy at the end of the 2-3rd week.
Polyradiculoneuritic – the form differs from poliomyelitis in its benign course, in the absence of residual effects in the form of flaccid paralysis and muscle atrophy.
Two-wave tick-borne encephalitis is a clinical form in which, after a fever (3-5 days), a period of apyrexia (3-8 days) occurs, then encephalomyelitis itself develops, but with a benign course.This form is associated with nutritional contamination (two-wave milk fever).
Residual effects – flaccid paralysis, muscle atrophy, dyskinesia, decreased intelligence, sometimes epilepsy. Recovery takes years. Full recovery may not come.
Diagnostics.
Diagnosis is based on epidemiological (tick bite, seasonality) and characteristic clinical symptoms. Serological tests (ELISA) and PCR diagnostics are used to confirm the diagnosis.
Prevention.

In epidemic areas, collective and individual prophylaxis and vaccination of people are carried out according to epidemiological indications. There are different vaccines and vaccination schedules depending on the type of vaccine.

Lyme disease

Lyme disease tends to become chronic with frequent exacerbations. Mostly the skin, nervous system, joints and heart are affected. It was found that natural foci of Lyme disease largely coincide with natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis, and are recorded almost throughout the territory of Russia.The Tomsk region belongs to such an unfavorable “endemic” territory. Many people like to go out in the summer with whole families to nature. But not everyone knows that not only in the suburban forest, but also in the city park, they can face danger in the form of ticks. But the fact is that ticks carry some infectious diseases. One such disease is Lyme disease. Lyme disease or tick-borne borreliosis is an infectious disease caused by spirochetes (borrelia) and transmitted by ticks.Lyme disease tends to be chronic with frequent exacerbations. Mostly the skin, nervous system, joints and heart are affected. It was found that natural foci of Lyme disease largely coincide with natural foci of tick-borne encephalitis, and are recorded almost throughout the territory of Russia. The Tomsk region belongs to such an unfavorable “endemic” territory. Moreover, the incidence of borreliosis is several times higher than the incidence of encephalitis. Borrelia live in the body of some wild animals such as rodents, deer, birds, etc.e. When a tick bites, spirochetes from the blood of a wild animal enter the intestines of the tick, multiply there, and then are excreted with saliva when bitten. Tick ​​bites are recorded during the spring, summer to late fall, but the peak bites usually occur in May-June. Lyme disease can be suspected when a typical ring-shaped erythema (redness of the skin of a rounded shape) appears on the skin after a tick bite. In the laboratory, a blood test is carried out to detect antibodies to borrelia. An ELISA reaction is performed (determination of “early” (M) and “late” (G) specific antibodies in the victim’s blood.A reaction is also carried out that detects the DNA of borrelia in human blood (PCR). After a tick bite and Borrelia enters the bloodstream and before the first signs of the disease appear, it takes from 2 to 30 days, on average, two weeks (incubation period). The disease has several stages, which do not necessarily follow one after the other, sometimes there is no stage at all. The first stage is creeping erythema, which lasts about a week. Against the background of high fever, headache, nausea, joint pain at the site of the tick bite, redness, edema (erythema) appears.Erythema gradually increases in size, sometimes reaching 50-60 cm, and acquires a bluish tint. Gradually, enlightenment forms in the center and erythema takes the form of a ring (but sometimes it remains a spot). Such erythema can persist for several months, or it can disappear after 2-3 days, leaving behind pigmentation, and then a scar. The second stage is the stage of complications from the nervous and cardiovascular system (after 2-4 weeks). Signs of serous meningitis appear: headache, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, etc.e. There may be damage to various nerves, for example, facial with impaired facial expressions and numbness of the affected half of the face. Then, in some patients, heart disorders occur (discomfort, interruptions in heartbeats, etc.). The third stage is joint damage. It begins two months later and later from the onset of the disease, sometimes even after 2 years. Large joints, usually the knee, are affected, often on one side. Inflammation of the joints can last for several years, then dying out, then exacerbating, while the structure of bones and cartilage can be disrupted.The disease has a tendency to a chronic course with alternating periods of exacerbation and attenuation, but sometimes it proceeds in the form of a continuous process. Symptoms of joint damage (arthritis) usually occur. Against the background of chronic inflammation, the joint gradually changes and loses its function. In case of a severe course of the disease, treatment is carried out in a hospital. Antibiotics are prescribed, as well as drugs that affect the inflammatory process in certain organs and tissues and relieve intoxication.In the chronic course of the disease, along with antibiotics, drugs are prescribed that restore immunity (the body’s defenses). But if the response of the body is excessive and dangerous in itself, then medications are prescribed for it. Going for a walk in the forest, you need to try not to leave open places on the body, especially on the legs. Carefully remove the tick with tweezers, trying not to crush it, and lubricate the wound with iodine.

Human ehrlichiosis

Ehrlichiosis is a new vector-borne infection.Infection occurs through the bite of ticks of the genus Ixodes.

Ehrlichia were known as causative agents of animal diseases, and the problem of Ehrlichiosis was previously only of interest to veterinary medicine. Human ehrlichiosis was first discovered in the United States at the end of the twentieth century (1987). By the nature of the spectrum of affected blood cells, human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) (Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis – HME) and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HEC) (Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis – HOE) are distinguished. In the most recent years, the pathogens of the MEC and HEC groups have been identified in ixodid ticks and by the serological method in humans in many countries, which indicates a wide spread of transmissible ehrlichiosis.Now ehrlichiosis has been found in Russia as well. Different types of ehrlichia are associated with different types of ixodid ticks. Infection of ticks with microorganisms of this genogroup (according to the PCR method) ranges from 1.6% to 24% in different countries.

Ehrlichia enter the human body with the saliva of a sucked infected tick. The incubation period lasts from 1 to 21 days, and the clinically expressed disease lasts 2-3 weeks, but sometimes it lasts up to 6 weeks. Reproduction of ehrlichia leads to inflammatory processes of a different nature, including chronic ones, in various internal organs.

Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic or subclinical form to life-threatening course and death. Common clinical symptoms of HES and HES include fever, malaise, headache and myalgia, stiffness, sweating, nausea, and / or vomiting. These and other clinical manifestations of ehrlichiosis are nonspecific. The acute phase of ehrlichiosis is characterized by thrombocytopenia, leukopenia and an increased level of hepatic transaminase, sometimes anemia. These changes in the blood, usually occurring in both adult patients and children, indicate a high probability of ehrlichiosis etiology of the disease, but cannot be a sufficient basis for establishing a definitive diagnosis.

In Russia, ehrlichiosis will have to be differentiated from mononucleosis, enterovirus and cytomegalovirus infections, respiratory diseases, bacterial meningoencephalitis, endocarditis, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, leukemia, ixodic tick-borne borreliosis, and leukemia

Antibiotics are used to treat MEC and HEC, and it should last at least 7-10 days. Non-specific prophylaxis measures are the same as for other infections, the pathogens of which are transmitted through the bite of ticks of the genus Ixodes.

The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis can be confirmed by a microscopic, serological or PCR method by examining the tick or the victim’s blood.

90,000 New infections in the new world

Smallpox, polio, measles and plague have become rarities in the modern world. However, infectious diseases have not disappeared – their nature and reasons for their spread have changed. High mobility and aging of the population in developed countries, an increase in the proportion of chronic and latent infections, bioterrorism, rejection of official medicine – these and other factors will determine the epidemiological situation in the world in the near future.Some of the problems are obvious now, others are unpredictable, but you can prepare for the changes ahead and prevent multiple illnesses and deaths.

Smallpox, polio, measles and plague have become rarities in the modern world. However, infectious diseases have not disappeared – their nature and reasons for their spread have changed. High mobility and aging of the population in developed countries, an increase in the proportion of chronic and latent infections, bioterrorism, rejection of official medicine – these and other factors will determine the epidemiological situation in the world in the near future.Some of the problems are obvious now, others are unpredictable, but you can prepare for the changes ahead and prevent multiple illnesses and deaths.

Airplanes, trains and cars

The modern world is mobile like never before. Many travel, often to the most remote corners of the planet. Infectious diseases travel with people. Epidemiology ceases to be local and requires monitoring not only for endemic infections, but also for pathogens that were previously considered exotic.This is a global problem. Russia must learn to quickly and effectively identify and control imported infections. Every 3-4 months, the emergence of a new pathogen or the return of an old pathogen with new properties is recorded in the world [1]. For example, the West Nile virus that entered New York from North Africa in 1999 and spread throughout the states has evolved into a more pathogenic strain.

Migration poses a particular challenge for surveillance. The largest flow of migrants to Russia comes from the south – from the Central Asian republics and from China.The backwardness of medical services in some of these countries leads to the fact that, along with migrants, pathogens enter Russia, the spread of which has been effectively stopped in our country (for example, poliomyelitis). In addition, illegal migrants often live in unsanitary conditions and do not have access to qualified medical care. This contributes to the spread of infections among them, which then inevitably spread to the entire population. The best solution to the problem would be to prevent illegal migration.But until this problem is resolved, it is in Russia’s interests to organize a system of providing basic medical care to illegal migrants and to carry out preventive measures such as vaccinations.

Hide and seek

Over the past 50–70 years, the fight against chronic and latent infections has become increasingly important for public health. This is due to the fact that acute infections (with some exceptions) are easier to control with the available means. The life strategies of pathogens that cause acute infections are not designed to combat the immune response: they either leave the host before defense mechanisms are triggered against them, or they lead to death.Therefore, vaccines against such pathogens are easier to develop and more effective than vaccines against pathogens that cause chronic infections. Surveillance of such infections is also easier because the incubation period is short and the symptoms are acute. In this regard, a comparison of the SARS and HIV epidemics is instructive.

The coronavirus, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), was discovered very quickly after it entered the human environment.The short incubation period and the acute symptoms of the infection made it possible to track its spread and take the necessary quarantine measures that stopped the epidemic before it spread to the whole world. The HIV epidemic began in the 1960s, but was discovered only twenty years later [2]. The long incubation period (6-8 years) allowed the virus to spread throughout the world, since not only doctors, but also the infected themselves for a long time did not suspect about their infection. Moreover, HIV is well adapted to avoid the immune response, which makes it difficult to develop a vaccine against it.

Surveillance of such “latent” infections requires more effective diagnostics, focusing on risk groups or even covering the entire population. An example is the diagnosis of tuberculosis by the Mantoux reaction, which was routinely done to everyone in the USSR. However, this approach is not cheap – in addition to the cost of the tests themselves, an infrastructure is required to provide regular bulk testing. The effectiveness of testing is directly proportional to the prevalence of infection in the population.Therefore, in the long term, vaccination will remain the most effective control method for these infections as well. Vaccines already exist for some of these (hepatitis B, chickenpox, human papillomavirus), but attempts to develop vaccines against many other microbes are still unsuccessful.

Anti-vaccination, alternative medicine and other quackery

The progress of medicine in the 20th century has led to a significant decrease in the number and severity of infectious diseases.Paradoxically, this success also led to the fact that society became less worried about vaccinations and less trusted in official medicine. A favorable epidemiological situation leads to an overestimation of the benefits and risks of vaccines: if earlier they were treated as protection against common infections, now they are an unnecessary risk. In extreme cases, we are talking about a complete rejection of vaccinations, the rejection of mainstream medicine and the use of untested or ineffective drugs. The proliferation of pseudoscience and so-called alternative remedies is already a serious problem (remember the recent outbreak of whooping cough in California), and the situation is likely not to change in the near future.The paradox of the problem also lies in the fact that, if initially the Internet was created for the exchange of information between scientists, then recently it has become the main source of the spread of charlatanism and nihilism. Unfortunately, uneducated netizens are often unable to distinguish between expert advice from a doctor or scientist and misinformation. By monitoring the emergence and spread of new anti-scientific theories, the scientific community and the Ministry of Health can counteract them by providing valuable information from qualified sources.

Super microbes

The acquisition of drug resistance by microorganisms is an inevitable process. It can be delayed and slowed down, but not stopped. Resistance is already a problem for tuberculosis, malaria, staphylococcal infections and many other diseases. The development of new drugs is complex, costly and time-consuming. Stricter drug control is needed to limit misuse.

There is a widespread problem with the addition of low concentrations of antimicrobial agents to animal feed.For unknown reasons, such additives accelerate the growth of animals, but such use of these drugs contributes to the emergence and spread of resistance.

Self-medication is another problem, especially for acute respiratory infections, where people start taking antibiotics or antiviral drugs “just in case” and then stop taking them as soon as symptoms have subsided.

Resistance is not only about drugs but also about vaccines.The immune response elicited by vaccination focuses on specific targets in viruses and bacteria specific to the strains used in the manufacture of vaccines. Microbes circulating in the population adapt to this immune response and evolve towards changing the targets they attack. A classic example of this evolution is the annual change in the influenza virus. The ability to rapidly mutate and evolve is an intrinsic property of the microbe, and different species have this ability to varying degrees.Today, the standard approach to this problem is to develop new vaccines that attack the changed strain, as is done for the influenza virus. However, as a result of the accumulation of knowledge in the future, it will be possible to create universal vaccines: either attacking unchanged parts of the microbe, or causing an immune response of a very broad spectrum of action.

The Aging Developed World

Over the past hundred years, life expectancy in developed countries has increased significantly and is likely to continue to grow.An aging population poses a number of challenges for epidemic control. With age, the immunity acquired as a result of vaccinations or natural infections is lost. At the same time, revaccination with standard vaccines is often ineffective and does not lead to the development of the desired immune response. Pharmaceutical companies are working on vaccines specifically for aging people. A weakened immune response also leads to a greater susceptibility to infectious diseases and to the reactivation of latent infections.So, chickenpox transferred in childhood manifests itself in the form of a very painful herpes zoster. To prevent this disease, a vaccine has been developed for people over sixty years of age.

Bioterrorism

Attempts to use infectious agents as weapons are known, but so far none of them has led to a serious epidemic. The use of contaminated blankets by American colonists to induce the spread of smallpox among the Indians was an experiment that was not crowned with success: against the background of the natural spread of the virus, these attempts were a drop in the ocean [3].Everyone knows the story of the anthrax dispute being sent to the United States by mail, but there was no mass infection either – only a few people suffered. Nevertheless, the possibility of a successful deliberate spread of the pathogen in the future cannot be ruled out. A scientist with experience in working with infectious agents, if desired, can discreetly produce a significant amount of virus or bacteria and think over effective methods for their spread. Biotechnological inventory is becoming more and more accessible, and, in principle, it is now possible to create a biolaboratory even in a garage [4].

Control over the key tools and reagents necessary for such work is possible and necessary, but it does not completely eliminate the threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare in advance for such a scenario. Research into the use of infectious agents as weapons should be supported rather than prohibited. These studies will make it possible to assess which infectious agents can be used for such purposes, what their transmission channels may be, and what preventive measures should be taken.For example, many countries now hold stocks of smallpox vaccine. However, it is not known how wide the spectrum of action of this vaccine is, or how difficult it is to modify the smallpox virus to render the vaccine ineffective.

Doctors and Scientists

The only way to prepare for the infectious crises that will inevitably occur in the 21st century is to train specialists who can recognize a new disease, assess the epidemiological situation, develop preventive measures and new drugs.This preparation should be flexible. The now popular emphasis on “priority areas” has a number of advantages, but is ineffective for the production of generalists. In the first place, Russia will need (and needs now) just good biologists, epidemiologists and doctors. It makes sense to develop any priority areas only on top of a system capable of training a specialist. The current educational system in Russia does not correspond to the world level, which means that tomorrow Russia will have to ask for help or use the fruits of developments made outside its borders.It will be expensive, and most importantly, insufficiently efficient and fast.

* * *

Despite the advances in biomedical prevention of infectious diseases, they continue to be a threat to modern society. A number of important social and economic changes are affecting the epidemiological situation in Russia and around the world. Some of them can and should be prepared. However, in the long term, the most effective approach would be to invest in a scientific and educational complex capable of producing and employing specialists in various fields of science.

1. Jones K.E. et al. Global Trends in Emerging Infectious Diseases // Nature. 2008. 451. P. 990–993.

2. Worobey M. et al. Direct Evidence of Extensive Diversity of HIV-1 in Kinshasa by 1960 // Nature. 2008. 455. P. 661-664.

3. Ewald P.W. Plague Time: How Stealth Infections Cause Cancer, Heart Disease, and Other Deadly Ailments. Free Press, 2000.

4. Garage biology // Nature.2010. 467. P. 634.

90,000 Vaccinations against pneumococcal and meningococcal infections in Voronezh

Description

Our center has the following types of vaccines:

Pneumovax vaccine 23

Vaccine Pneumovax 23 (polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine) includes the main types of pneumococci that cause diseases with severe clinical course (otitis media, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia).

Manufacturer: Merck Sharp & Dome Corp., USA

Indications for use:

Prevention of diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children from 2 years of age and adults.

Method of administration and dosage:

The vaccine is injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly once, the inoculation dose is 0.5 ml for all ages.

Compatibility with other vaccines:

Pneumovax 23 vaccine can be administered simultaneously with all drugs from the national vaccination calendar on the same day, in different parts of the body, with the exception of BCG vaccine.

Primary immunization – single administration.

Contraindications:

Hypersensitivity to any component of the vaccine

Strong reaction or post-vaccination complication to the previous injection

Acute infectious and non-infectious diseases, exacerbation of chronic diseases are temporary contraindications for vaccinations

MENACTRA

Meningococcal infection is dangerous, highly contagious and transmitted by airborne droplets.

Vaccine for the prevention of meningococcal infections

Manufacturer: USA

Readings:

Prevention of invasive meningococcal infection caused by N. meningitidis serogroups A, C, Y and W-135 in persons aged 9 months to 55 years ..

Contraindications:

– Known hypersensitivity with systemic manifestations to any component of the vaccine, including diphtheria toxoid, or to previous administration of other vaccines containing the same components.

– Acute infectious and non-infectious diseases, exacerbation of chronic diseases (in these cases, vaccination is carried out after recovery or in remission).

Method of administration and dosage:

Vaccination is carried out with a single dose of 0.5 ml.

The vaccine should be administered intramuscularly, taking into account the age and weight of the vaccinated: for children aged 9 to 12 months – in the anterolateral region of the thigh; children aged 12 months and older – in the deltoid muscle of the shoulder.

In children aged 9 to 23 months, the course of vaccination with Menaktra vaccine consists of 2 injections of one dose of vaccine (0.5 ml) with an interval of at least 3 months.

In persons aged 2 to 55 years, vaccination is carried out once in a dose of 0.5 ml.

BCG vaccine should not be used concomitantly with Menaktra vaccine.

    Prevenar 13

    Vaccine for the prevention of pneumococcal infections

    Production: Russia

    The vaccine is injected only intramuscularly into the anterolateral surface of the thigh (children under 2 years old) or into the deltoid muscle of the shoulder (children over 2 years old).

    Indications: prevention of diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children aged 2 months to 5 years.

    Contraindications : The most common adverse reactions were soreness at the injection site and fever (fever).

    90 055 90 000 UN mobilizes academia to fight COVID-19

    The COVID-19 pandemic makes us aware of the important role of science for both research and international cooperation – UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay

    In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the UN is mobilizing countries and academia to promote open science and strengthen collaboration and use the latest technology to combat coronavirus infection.

    World Health Organization Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said that 74 countries are currently participating or willing to participate in the WHO initiative to test potential treatments for infection.

    WHO conducts research related to COVID-19 with leading health experts from around the world, tasked with assessing the amount of knowledge available about the new COVID-19 infection, identifying existing research gaps and joining forces to accelerate the organization and funding priority research to help contain the current outbreak and prepare for future outbreaks.

    WHO is currently collecting information on COVID-19 in order to create a 2019 coronavirus infection database.

    Republic of Korea response

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is urging information and communications technology companies to participate in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

    As part of ITU round tables on the use of artificial intelligence, the Republic of Korea presented an outbreak control program that uses innovative technologies.

    In 2015, during the outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, a case quarantine information system was implemented in the country.

    “Those entering the Republic of Korea must be screened for fever and must complete a special questionnaire,” explains Song Ku Lee, director of the Risk Assessment and International Cooperation Division at the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the Republic of Korea.

    According to Lee, inbound travelers with symptoms, at-risk groups, and tourists from at-risk countries are quarantined and must download a mobile app to check their condition and submit their health data on the app within 14 -day incubation period.

    An artificial intelligence system has been created in South Korea that categorizes confirmed cases into four categories: mild, moderate, severe, and very severe. “Each category receives a different type of treatment and is admitted to a different facility depending on the severity of the case,” said Dr. Li.

    Authorities may also use geolocation data from mobile phones, credit card transaction records and video footage from security cameras to track people who may have recently come into contact with an infected person.Many places publish detailed maps showing the movements of the infected so that those who come into contact with them can be tested and treated.

    Delivery robots launched in China

    Through a partnership between the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Center for International Industrial Cooperation in Shanghai and the Beijing-based company White Rhino Auto , unmanned delivery vehicles were launched to operate at a field hospital in Wuhan.

    The company’s CEO and two engineers flew two drones from Beijing to Wuhan and set them up to transport medicines, deliver food for doctors and patients, and perform other emergency tasks at the hospital. Their use not only helped to avoid cross-contamination, but also reduced the workload of medical personnel.

    Another UNIDO partner in Shanghai that also provides AI solutions to combat the coronavirus pandemic is technology company CloudMinds .In early March, a field hospital was opened, where medical services are performed by robots and other gadgets using the Internet of Things. Patients at the facility wore smart bracelets and rings that were synchronized with an artificial intelligence platform to monitor their temperature, pulse, and blood oxygen levels. A second type of robot provided food, drink, medicine, and information to patients, while a third sprayed disinfectant and cleaned floors.

    Director General White Rhino Auto Zhu Li expressed gratitude for UNIDO’s assistance in Shanghai.”During this global fight against the epidemic, office staff are actively integrating public resources and organizational efforts from all sides, which shows us the critical role of international organizations in creating a network of public-private cooperation in the crisis management process.”

    Meanwhile, UNESCO organized an online meeting of representatives from ministries of science from around the world. The meeting was attended by representatives of 122 countries, including 77 ministers and secretaries of state.

    The purpose of the event was to discuss the important role of international scientific cooperation and increased investment in the field of science in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. UNESCO Director-General Audrey Azoulay called on governments to strengthen scientific cooperation and include open science in their research programs to prevent and mitigate the impact of global crises.

    “The COVID-19 pandemic makes us realize the important role of science for both research and international cooperation.The current crisis also demonstrates the need for more effective information exchange through open science. Now is the time to combine all our efforts, ”said the General Director.

    According to Ms Sumiya Swaminathan, WHO’s Chief Scientist, “Collaboration is really important to share knowledge and data, and to advance COVID-19 research. At a time when trade and logistics barriers impede the movement of essential goods, it is important to emphasize that science must lead the global response to this pandemic. ”

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