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Does dehydration cause body aches: Dehydration: What It Does to Your Muscle and Body

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Dehydration: What It Does to Your Muscle and Body

A human body is made up of approximately 60%, water which is a staggeringly large number when you think about the body as a whole. Water is important for every function. Little cells, muscles and tissues are composed of water, and they are responsible for keeping your organs and systems in efficient working order. On average, to sustain water levels men should be drinking approximately 3L of water in a day (which is the equivalent of 15.5 cups) and women should be drinking 2.7L (which is 11.5 cups).

If you’re looking over at a 2L coke bottle and thinking, how can I ever down that much liquid plus a bit in a day, then let’s put the task into perspective for you by talking about the reason you need to drink so much water in a day.

Where Does Water Go?

Because the body is made up of so much water, there are also plenty of ways for the body to lose water in ways you may not realize. When you breathe, when you sweat and when you digest, your body is losing water. Things like dry weather conditions, physical activities, menstruation, and pregnancy, or being sick with the common cold or stomach virus, can also cause water loss. There are also illnesses and diseases that can cause the body to lose water rapidly.

As stated before, water helps your cells, muscles and tissues stay hydrated from head to toe keeping things like your eyes, nose, and mouth from getting dry. But there are other organs and functions inside your body that sometimes aren’t visibly noticeable when it comes to water levels, but have tremendous physical effects when there isn’t enough water.

How Hydration Affects Your Most Important Organs

The brain and heart are recorded as having a water composition of approximately 73% water amongst their other makeup. So when your body is lacking water, your brain and heart can greatly suffer. But they’re not the only organs. Technically speaking, your skin is the largest organ of your body, and it’s made up of 64% water. Then there are your muscles and kidneys—both of which are 79% water, and your bones that have about 31% water makeup. If you think about it, it’s extremely important to maintain good hydration levels to allow your body to be its best.

Water and Your Cognitive Function

Dehydration and Symptoms of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness in Normothermic Men

Abstract

Context: A dehydrated individual who performs eccentric exercise may exacerbate skeletal muscle damage, leading to structural, contractile, and enzymatic protein denaturation, in addition to the myofiber and connective damage resulting from the eccentric muscle tension.

Objective: To identify the effects of dehydration on 5 physiologic characteristics of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in normothermic men after an eccentric exercise perturbation.

Design: Randomized group test-retest design.

Setting: Laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants: Ten healthy male volunteers randomly assigned to either a euhydration (age = 26.2 ± 4.9 years, height = 174.1 ± 6.0 cm, mass = 86.5 ± 15.3 kg) or dehydration (age = 25.8 ± 2.2 years, height = 177.2 ± 3.1 cm, mass = 84.4 ± 3.8 kg) group.

Intervention(s): Subjects performed treadmill walking for 45 minutes in either a thermoneutral (euhydration) or a hot, humid (dehydration) environment. After a rest period to allow for return to the normothermic condition, DOMS was induced with a 45-minute downhill run.

Main Outcome Measures: We assessed 5 physiologic characteristics of DOMS before and at intervals after the eccentric exercise. The characteristics were perceived pain of the bilateral quadriceps and overall body, bilateral punctate tenderness of the superficial quadriceps muscles, bilateral knee-flexion passive range of motion, bilateral thigh circumference, and bilateral isometric quadriceps muscle strength. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular measures were obtained to monitor participants’ heat load during exercise.

Results: The experimental protocol produced a 0.9% increase in body mass of the euhydration group and a significant 2.7% decrease in body mass of the dehydration group. The downhill-running exercise perturbation induced DOMS in both the euhydrated and dehydrated participants, based on increased bilateral quadriceps and overall body perceived pain and punctate tenderness of the bilateral vastus medialis muscle. The signs and symptoms of DOMS after an eccentric exercise perturbation were not exacerbated by moderate dehydration of 2.7% body mass after rest and return to the normothermic condition.

Conclusions: Significantly dehydrated participants who rested and returned to a normothermic condition did not experience increased characteristics of DOMS.

Keywords: euhydration, euthermic, thermal regulation, eccentric exercise

Dehydration is a frequent problem in physically active individuals exercising at high volumes in hot ambient environments, with losses of 6% to 8% of preexercise body mass common.1,2 As little as 1% to 2% body mass loss in the heat challenges cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms for increased body temperature and reduces exercise capacity.3 Thermoregulatory shunting of blood from the core to the skin for passive heat loss and sweating provides compensatory mechanisms for cooling but may challenge both total body water and the blood volume needed to optimally perfuse the tissues of the body during exercise,3 resulting in decreased skeletal muscle perfusion.3–5

Normal skeletal muscle function is affected by altered physiologic states such as dehydration. Exercise performance decreases as less blood is available for perfusion of active skeletal muscle. Blood flow to exercising muscles is significantly reduced with dehydration due to reductions in blood pressure and perfusion pressure.4,5 Sweating is maintained by intracellular water shifting to the extracellular space, resulting in cell dehydration and adversely affecting skeletal muscle cell function.6 Dehydration negatively affects muscle performance by impeding thermal regulation, altering water movement across cell membranes, and interfering with actin-myosin cross-bridge formation.7

Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a clinical model of muscle damage consisting of muscular pain and other symptoms experienced 24 to 48 hours after novel or intense exercise. The signs and symptoms of DOMS include dull, diffuse pain and tenderness; stiffness; swelling; and decreased strength of the exercised muscle.8 These signs and symptoms typically last 1 to 4 days after the exercise bout.8–12 The magnitude of DOMS depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise perturbation8,10,11 as well as the physiologic condition of the individual.13,14

Eccentric exercise performed when an individual is dehydrated may exacerbate the skeletal muscle damage as a result of reduced intracellular water. Eccentric muscle activity with decreased intracellular water during dehydration has been theorized to lead to structural, contractile, and enzymatic protein denaturation.6,7 These structural and functional protein alterations might occur in addition to the initial myofiber and connective tissue damage produced by eccentric muscle tension. Rest periods before additional exercise in a thermoneutral environment have been shown to sufficiently redistribute body water and attenuate thermoregulatory and cardiorespiratory responses of dehydrated individuals.15 Ultimately, dehydration may increase the risk of DOMS in healthy individuals engaged in novel or unaccustomed physical exercise.12,16 Ostensibly, DOMS has a detrimental impact on athletic performance in that muscle endurance, strength, and power are reduced.17 The combination of the deleterious effects of dehydration and DOMS may predispose an athlete to the risk of additional injury during physical activity. A paucity of data exists concerning the effects of dehydration on eccentric-biased aerobic exercise performance and the resulting signs and symptoms of DOMS. Our purpose was to determine the effects of dehydration on the characteristics of DOMS.

METHODS

Research Design

The research design consisted of a randomized group test-retest design with 2 factors (group and time) with repeated measures on time (). Participants performed 45 minutes of treadmill walking in either a thermoneutral (euhydration) or a hot, humid (dehydration) environment. After a rest period to allow for the return to the normothermic condition, DOMS was induced with a 45-minute downhill run (−12° from horizontal). The euhydration group was allowed water ad libitum, and the dehydration group was fluid restricted. Five physiologic characteristics of DOMS were assessed preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was conducted at the Biokinetics Research Laboratory.

Research procedures flow chart. DOMS indicates delayed-onset muscle soreness

Participants

Participants were 10 healthy male students (age = 25.4 ± 3.6 years, height = 175.8 ± 7.6 cm, and body mass = 85.3 ± 3.6 kg) (). Males were selected to reduce the variability of hormone levels and substrate utilization between sexes during exercise. Before participating in the study, subjects completed a health history questionnaire and an informed consent form in compliance with institutional review board policies.

Age, Height, Percentage of Body Fat, Resting Heart Rate, and Resting Mean Arterial Pressure of Euhydration and Dehydration Groups (Mean ± SD)

Participants were accepted based on the absence of lower extremity eccentric training during the 6 months preceding data collection. Eccentric training was defined as downhill running, running downstairs, jumping, or weight training. Subjects maintained normal activities of daily living and refrained from initiating an exercise program during the course of the study. Additionally, they denied a history of lower limb injury or surgery, predisposing cardiovascular or cardiorespiratory conditions, or heat-related illness within 1 year preceding data collection. Participants were required to abstain from ingestion of alcohol, caffeine, and nonprescription medications for 24 hours before and during the study. They were also instructed to abstain from massaging, stretching, or otherwise treating the exercised limbs during the study.

Instruments

Visual Analog Scale

Bilateral quadriceps and overall body perceived pain were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The VAS consists of a 10-cm line labeled with no soreness on the left and extremely sore on the right.18 Participants rated perceived pain by placing a slash mark on the line best corresponding to their soreness level. Perceived pain was quantified by measuring to the nearest 1 mm from the left end of the line to the slash mark.

Subjects assessed their perceived pain level using a standardized protocol. All determinations were performed twice with a blank VAS for each assessment to minimize bias from previous determinations. The averages of the 2 bilateral quadriceps determinations and the 2 overall body determinations were recorded. The VAS has been used to reliably quantify perceived pain following eccentric exercise.19–21 The VAS average intratester reliability for the current study was an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (2,1) of 0.99.

Punctate Tenderness Gauge

Bilateral quadriceps punctate tenderness was assessed using the punctate tenderness gauge (PTG) (model 75 force probe gauge; Technical Products, Caldwell, NJ). Spring-loaded probes similar to the PTG have been used to reliably quantify muscular tenderness.21–25 The PTG has a 2-mm hemispheric probe attached to a force gauge. A 1.5-cm closed-cell foam stopper is attached to the end of the probe to simulate digital palpation.21–25 We used a plastic grid with 10 holes spaced 10 cm apart to standardize placement of the PTG.

Bilateral quadriceps punctate tenderness was assessed using a standardized protocol. Participants were seated on a plinth with the hips in 0° of abduction and 90° of flexion and the knees in 0° of extension. The plastic grid was positioned over the quadriceps muscle group; its distal corners were secured with self-adhesive strips over the medial and lateral femoral condyles. The gauge was inserted into each hole of the grid and depressed until the participant reported that the sensation of pressure turned to tenderness or pain. A maximum force of 14 lb (6.35 kg) was recorded and interpreted as absence of punctate muscle tenderness.21 The force required to elicit a response is inversely related to punctate muscle tenderness (ie, the more force applied, the less muscle tenderness present). Measurements were recorded to the nearest 0.25 lb (0.11 kg). Each region of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed. The vastus medialis and the rectus femoris each had 3 data collection levels: proximal, middle, and distal. The vastus lateralis had 4 data collection levels: proximal, middle proximal, middle distal, and distal. Measurements were performed twice for each data collection level and averaged for each muscle. The punctuate tenderness gauge has weights traceable to the National Bureau of Standards with a reliability of r = 0.99, P < .05 (unpublished data, Donald C. Meserlian, 1987–1991). The average intratester reliability for the gauge in the current study was an ICC (2,1) of 0.76, comparable with previously published studies.21,22

Goniometer

Goniometry has been used to assess passive range of motion (ROM) after eccentric exercise.21,26–28 Bilateral knee-flexion passive ROM was measured using a 12-in (30.48-cm) clear plastic goniometer (No. 137; Orthopedic Equipment Co, Bourbon, IN). The goniometer was marked in 1.0° increments. Bilateral knee-flexion passive ROM was assessed using a standardized protocol. Participants were positioned on a plinth prone with the hips in 0° of abduction and flexion. A folded towel was placed under each distal thigh to stabilize the femur and reduce hip rotation, flexion, and extension. The fulcrum of the goniometer was centered over the lateral femoral epicondyle, and the stationary arm of the goniometer was aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The movable arm of the goniometer was aligned with the lateral midline of the fibula, using the lateral malleolus as a reference.26 The starting position was 0° of knee extension. Bilateral knee-flexion passive ROM was assessed at the end range when participants either reported pain or soreness or no further movement occurred. Measurements were performed twice for each limb. The average of the 2 measurements for each limb was recorded. Passive knee-flexion ROM average intratester reliability was an ICC (2,1) of 0.99.

Anthropometric Measuring Tape

Bilateral thigh circumference was measured using a Gullick anthropometric measuring tape (Fabrication Enterprises, Everton, NY). The measuring tape has a spring-loaded gauge for improved standardization of applied tension. Bilateral thigh circumference was assessed using a standardized protocol. We measured the length of the thigh from the anterior superior iliac spine to the superior pole of the patella. Distal thigh circumference was measured at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (distal, middle distal, middle proximal, and proximal sites, respectively) of the length of the thigh. Two measurements were performed at each site, and the average of the 2 measurements for each site was recorded. Limb circumference has been used to reliably assess muscle swelling after eccentric exercise.27,28 Bilateral thigh circumference intertester and average intratester reliabilities for the current study were ICC (2,1) of 0.99 and 0.99, respectively.

Isokinetic Dynamometer

Isokinetic dynamometry has been used to assess isometric strength after eccentric exercise.21,28–30 Bilateral quadriceps isometric strength was measured using the Biodex B-2000 isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex Corp, Shirley, NY), which is a multijoint testing and rehabilitation system. The dynamometer was calibrated before each data collection session in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines.

Bilateral quadriceps isometric strength was assessed using a standardized protocol. Participants were seated on the bench with the hips and knees at 90° of flexion. They crossed their arms over their chest, and we secured straps over their arms, pelvis, and femur. The knee attachment was secured to the tibia just proximal to the talocrural joint, allowing full plantar flexion and dorsiflexion. The dynamometer axis was aligned with the joint line of the knee. The dynamometer arm was positioned at 60° (knee extension) and confirmed goniometrically. Subjects performed five 5-second submaximal isometric warm-up repetitions. Testing consisted of the participants applying as much force as possible against the immovable dynamometer arm in the direction of knee extension. Participants performed five 5-second maximal isometric repetitions for each limb with a 5-second rest between repetitions. The highest and lowest values were eliminated, and the remaining 3 values were averaged and recorded. Bilateral quadriceps isometric strength average intratester reliability was an ICC (2,1) of 0.95.

Experimental Protocols

As safety precautions, participants’ rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and rating of perceived exertion responses were recorded preexercise and at 15-minute intervals during treadmill walking and downhill running. Thermoregulatory response to exercise was determined via rectal probe (model 401; YSI, Yellow Springs, OH) and 4 skin thermistors (model 409A; YSI) connected to a telethermometer (model 43; YSI). Cardiovascular response to exercise was determined by measuring heart rate using the SensorMedics Max-1 12-lead electrocardiogram (Yorba Linda, CA). Participants’ blood pressures were assessed standing and during exercise using a mercury sphygmomanometer (American Diagnostics, West Babylon, NY) and stethoscope (American Diagnostics). Perceived exertion was measured using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.31 Exercise rectal temperature and the electrocardiogram were monitored every 5 minutes.

Euhydration

The euhydration protocol consisted of participants reporting to the laboratory fully hydrated on the morning of data collection. Subjects were instructed to consume a breakfast consisting of a bagel or toast and 4 oz (118.29 mL) of orange juice. Euhydrated participants consumed water ad libitum to maintain preexercise body mass throughout exercise and data collection. To mitigate the confounding effects of exercise on DOMS, the euhydrated subjects performed 45 minutes of treadmill walking (model Q55; Quinton Instruments, Seattle, WA) in a thermoneutral environment. The treadmill walking protocol commenced with a 5-minute warm-up at 3.0 mph (4.83 kph). Treadmill speed was then increased, and the participants walked for 40 minutes at 60% to 70% of their age-predicted heart rate range. A 60-second rest was administered after every 15 minutes of walking.

Dehydration

The dehydration protocol consisted of participants reporting to the laboratory fully hydrated on the morning of data collection. The dehydration criterion was a decrease in preexercise body mass of at least 3.0%, consistent with a moderate level of dehydration.3 Subjects were dehydrated by walking on a treadmill for 45 minutes in a hot, humid environmental chamber (Tenney Engineering, Union, NJ) with fluid restriction. The treadmill was located inside the environmental chamber, which is a stainless steel vault measuring 10 × 5 × 6 m and capable of producing and maintaining temperatures up to 40°C and 85% relative humidity. The treadmill walking protocol commenced with a 5-minute warm-up at 3.0 mph (4.83 kph). Treadmill speed was then increased, and the participants walked for 40 minutes at 60% to 70% of their age-predicted heart rate range. A 60-second rest was administered after every 15 minutes of walking. Conditions inside the environmental chamber were maintained at an ambient temperature of 40.0 ± 1.7°C, a relative humidity of 66.5 ± 12.4%, and sea level ambient pressure. The first 2 environmental conditions were confirmed using a dry bulb thermometer (Bacharach, Pittsburgh, PA) and sling psychrometer (Bacharach).

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Inducement

After treadmill walking, participants rested to allow rectal temperature to return to preexercise, or normothermic, levels (30 to 60 minutes) to attenuate the cardiovascular compensatory effects of exercise in the heat. We induced DOMS in all participants by having them run downhill on a treadmill elevated −12° from horizontal by placing wooden blocks under the rear of the treadmill. Downhill running was performed in a thermoneutral room and commenced with a 5-minute warm-up at 4.0 mph (6.44 kph). Treadmill speed was then increased, and subjects ran for 40 minutes at 60% of their age-predicted heart rate range.32 A 60-second rest period was administered after every 15 minutes of downhill running. At the conclusion of the data collection session, dehydrated participants were required to orally rehydrate with cool water until they returned to within 2% of their preexercise body mass.

Experimental Procedures

Participants reported to the Biokinetics Research Laboratory 24 hours before data collection for nude weighing and baseline data collection. The following day, they reported to the Laboratory and euhydrated body mass was confirmed as ±1% of baseline. Subjects were randomly assigned (n = 5) to perform treadmill walking in either a thermoneutral environment with oral rehydration to elicit the euhydration (control) condition or a hot, humid environment (40.0 ± 1.7°C, 66.5 ± 12.4% relative humidity) with fluid restriction to elicit the dehydration (experimental) condition. The criterion for dehydration was 3% body mass loss, consistent with moderate levels of dehydration. After treadmill walking, all participants rested (30 to 90 minutes) to reduce rectal temperatures to preexercise, or normothermic, levels in order to mitigate the fatiguing effect of lower extremity exercise on DOMS. They then performed 45 minutes of downhill running to induce DOMS. During all exercise sessions (treadmill walking and downhill running), heart rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion, rectal temperature, and skin temperature were recorded at 15-minute intervals. After downhill running, participants were again weighed nude. At 0.5 hours postexercise, the DOMS-dependent variables were measured and recorded. Five characteristics were assessed: bilateral quadriceps and overall body perceived pain, bilateral quadriceps punctate tenderness at 3 muscle sites, bilateral knee-flexion passive ROM, bilateral thigh circumference at 4 sites, and bilateral quadriceps isometric strength. Subjects returned to the laboratory 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise for follow-up measurements of the DOMS dependent variables. At least 96 hours after exercise, the participants’ body compositions were determined via hydrostatic weighing (underwater weighing scale; Chatillon Creative Health Products, Plymouth, MI) and population-specific formulae for conversion of body density to percentage of body fat.32 Subjects also performed a graded treadmill test using the SensorMedics Vmax 229 metabolic cart to determine cardiovascular fitness level. Data collection was conducted in May and July (mean maximum ambient temperature = 27.9 ± 4.8°C, National Weather Service, Mount Holly, NJ).

Data Analysis

Statistical analyses were conducted on the participants’ physical characteristics and DOMS-dependent variables. Physical characteristics and hydration status were compared between groups using independent t tests. The DOMS-dependent variables were analyzed using separate 2 (group: euhydration and dehydration) × 6 (time: preexercise and 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise) analysis of variance with repeated measures on the second factor. When applicable, bilateral data for the DOMS-dependent variables were averaged and used as the criterion measure for the data analyses. When significant interactions existed, tests of simple main effects were performed. The appropriate post hoc t test with a Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed to reveal the location of the significant differences. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 10.0 for Windows Statistical Package (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Significance was set at P ≤ .05 for all statistical analyses.

RESULTS

Physical Characteristics

No significant differences existed between the euhydration and dehydration groups for age (t9 = 0.17, P = .87), height (t9 = −1.04, P = .33), body mass (t9 = 0.30, P = .11), percentage of body fat (t9 = 1.81, P = .12), resting heart rate (t9 = 0.44, P = .67), or resting mean arterial pressure (t9 = .94, P = .37) (see ). However, percentage change in body mass data from preexercise to postexercise revealed significant differences between groups. The dehydration group lost significantly more body mass (t9 = 7.92, P ≤ .001) than the euhydration group. Treadmill walking in a hot, humid environment with fluid restriction resulted in a 2.7% decrease in body mass of the dehydrated participants (2.3 ± 0.1 kg). Treadmill walking in a thermoneutral environment with oral rehydration resulted in a 0.9% increase in body mass of the euhydrated participants (0.7 ± 0.4 kg).

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Assessment

Bilateral Quadriceps Perceived Pain

The quadriceps perceived pain data () revealed a significant time main effect only. Quadriceps perceived pain was significantly higher at 0.5, 24, and 48 hours postexercise than at preexercise (t9 = −4.80, P ≤ .001; t9 = −5.48, P ≤ .001; and t9 = −6.65, P ≤ .001, respectively). Bilateral quadriceps perceived pain was also significantly higher at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise than at 96 hours postexercise (t9 = 4.02, P = .003; t9 = 5.95, P ≤ .001; and t9 = 4.46, P = .002, respectively) and significantly higher at 48 hours postexercise than at 72 hours postexercise (t9 = 4.24, P = .002). No interaction effects were observed for bilateral quadriceps perceived pain.

Perceived pain of the bilateral quadriceps muscles of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. *Significantly greater at 0.5, 24, and 48 hours postexercise than at preexercise (P ≤ .001). †Significantly greater at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise than at 96 hours postexercise (P < .003, P ≤ .001, and P = .002, respectively). ‡Significantly greater at 48 hours postexercise than at 72 hours postexercise (P = .002). Nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 0.087, P = .776, power = .058)

Overall Body Perceived Pain

A significant time main effect only existed for overall body perceived pain (). Overall body perceived pain was significantly higher at 24 and 48 hours postexercise than at preexercise (t9 = −4.31, P = .002 and t9 = −4.44, P = .002, respectively). No interaction effects were observed for overall body perceived pain.

Perceived pain of the overall body of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. *Significantly higher at 24 and 48 hours postexercise than at preexercise (P = .002). Nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 0.024, P = .882, power = .052)

Bilateral Quadriceps Punctate Tenderness

The punctate tenderness data for the vastus medialis () revealed a significant time main effect only. Punctate tenderness of the vastus medialis was significantly higher at 24 hours postexercise than at preexercise and 0.5 hours postexercise for both groups (t9 = 5.36, P ≤ .001 and t9 = 4.70, P ≤ .001, respectively). Punctate tenderness data for the vastus lateralis revealed a significant interaction between group and time. Tests of simple main effects demonstrated that punctate tenderness of the vastus lateralis was 18.5% and 10.1% higher for the euhydrated participants than for the dehydrated participants at 72 and 96 hours postexercise, respectively (t9 = −3.64, P = .007 and t9 = −3.69, P = .006). No significant interaction or main effects existed for the rectus femoris.

Punctate tenderness of the bilateral quadriceps of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. Values are inversely related to tenderness, ie, the lower the value, the more tenderness reported. *Significantly greater (P ≤ .001) than preexercise and 0.5 hour postexercise. †Significantly higher (P ≤ .007) than dehydration group for each time. Vastus medialis nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 0.633, P = .449, power = .108). Rectus femoris nonsignificant for time (F5,40 = 1.016, P = .421, power = .323) and group (F1,8 = 1.235, P = .299, power = .166). Muscles tested: VM indicates vastus medialis; VL, vastus lateralis; and RF, rectus femoris

Bilateral Knee-Flexion Passive Range of Motion

Bilateral knee-flexion passive ROM () revealed no significant interaction or main effects.

Knee-flexion range of motion of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. Nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 0.242, P = .242, power = .072) and time (F5,40 = 1.155, P = .348, power = .313)

Bilateral Thigh Circumference

Distal bilateral thigh circumference data () revealed a significant time main effect only. Distal bilateral thigh circumference was significantly greater for both groups at 0.5 hours postexercise than at preexercise (t9 = −4.63, P ≤ .001). No significant interaction or main effects existed for middle distal, middle proximal, or proximal bilateral thigh circumferences.

Distal thigh circumference of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. *Significantly greater at 0.5 hour postexercise than at preexercise (P ≤ .001). Nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 1.711, P = .227, power = .211)

Bilateral Quadriceps Isometric Strength

Quadriceps isometric strength data () revealed a significant time main effect only. Quadriceps isometric strength was significantly greater at 96 hours postexercise than at 0.5 hours postexercise for both groups (t9 = −4.72, P ≤ .001). No interaction effects were observed for bilateral quadriceps isometric strength.

Isometric strength of euhydrated and dehydrated participants measured preexercise and at 0.5, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours postexercise. *Significantly greater than at 0.5 hour postexercise (P ≤ .001). Nonsignificant for group (F1,8 = 4.572, P = .065, power = .469)

DISCUSSION

We demonstrated that the downhill running exercise perturbation induced DOMS in both the euhydrated and dehydrated participants, based on increased bilateral quadriceps and overall body perceived pain and punctate tenderness of the bilateral vastus medialis muscle. All 3 variables were significantly higher at 24 hours postexercise than at preexercise. Bilateral quadriceps perceived pain was also significantly higher at 48 hours postexercise than at preexercise. Compared to its zenith at 48 hours postexercise, bilateral quadriceps perceived pain was significantly reduced at 72 and 96 hours postexercise. This classic model of DOMS has been consistently reported in the literature.10,11,33–36

Pathophysiology of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Primarily, DOMS is caused by exercise that incorporates heavy loads with passive lengthening during muscle contraction or production of eccentric muscle tension.33–35 Eccentric muscle tension is produced during lowering weight against gravity, downhill walking, and downhill running.34,35 Acute bouts of eccentric muscle tension produce microscopic lesions of the myofiber often referred to as “microdamage.”36–38 Microdamage affects the sarcolemma, sarcoplasmic reticulum, Z-lines,11,37,38 contractile components of the myofiber, and surrounding connective tissue.39–43 Skeletal muscle microdamage produced by eccentric muscle tension is subcellular and leads to concomitant events that result in the signs and symptoms associated with DOMS.44–48

The signs and symptoms of DOMS are attributed to subcellular alterations of the sarcolemma, or phospholipid membrane, as a result of skeletal muscle microdamage.49–53 The sarcolemma loses its ability to retain potassium, creatine kinase, and myoglobin, which are released into the extracellular fluid, plasma, and urine.33,36,49–53 Efflux of intramuscular ions and proteins leads to increased osmolarity of the extracellular fluid and fluid shifts out of the cell.

Increased osmolarity of the extracellular fluid enhances potassium release by cells and, in a counterproductive way, further increases extracellular fluid osmolarity and potassium concentrations. As plasma osmolarity increases, intracellular water leaves the cell because of the osmotic pressure gradient across the cell membrane. Intracellular water shifts out of the cell until the intracellular fluid osmolarity equals the extracellular fluid osmolarity. This loss of intracellular water shrinks (crenates) cells, causing the intracellular potassium concentration to rise, providing a driving force for potassium efflux from cells, further increasing extracellular fluid and plasma potassium concentration.54

During exercise, more potassium is released from skeletal muscle cells than during rest.54 Release of potassium during the recovery phase of the action potential and the ensuing plasma hyperkalemia depends on the degree of exercise. Plasma potassium concentration increases up to 0.3 mEq/L with slow walking and up to 2.0 mEq/L with heavy exercise. The extent to which these conditions alter plasma potassium concentration depends on the integrity of the sarcolemma. Under normal conditions, plasma potassium concentration is regulated by homeostatic mechanisms, such as the secretion and action of epinephrine, insulin, and aldosterone.54

Dehydration and Its Effects on Skeletal Muscle Function

During dehydration, plasma hyperosmolarity is exacerbated as water is redistributed from the intracellular to the extracellular compartments of skeletal muscle in an attempt to maintain normal blood osmolarity. Muscle proteins affected most by dehydration are those involved in electrolyte distribution across the sarcolemma (ie, sodium-potassium and calcium adenosine triphosphatases), calcium release and reuptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.7 Cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms for thermoregulatory blood pooling in the skin determine tolerance to dehydration and exercise in the heat. Exercise performance decreases as less blood is available for perfusion of active skeletal muscle. Blood flow to exercising muscles is significantly reduced with dehydration due to reductions in blood pressure and perfusion pressure.55

Pain Associated With Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Signs and symptoms of DOMS may be attributed to increased extracellular fluid osmolarity, which leads to swelling, edema, decreased ROM, and elevation of intramuscular pressure.56,57 Group IV sensory afferent neurons terminate in the connective tissue between myofibers and may be sensitive to the increased osmotic pressure produced by leakage of cellular contents. Activation of these neurons would result in the sensation of dull, diffuse pain associated with DOMS.58

Damage to the sarcolemma leads to the inability of the cell to modulate cellular functions and ultimately contributes to the signs and symptoms of DOMS. The reduced ability of the sarcolemma to contain and regulate cellular contents allows extracellular calcium to enter the cell, following its concentration gradient.59,60 Increased intracellular free calcium in the sarcoplasm may also result from damage or impairment of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, decreasing its ability to resequester calcium.60,61 Eccentric muscle tension produces sarcolemma damage and increased intracellular free calcium in the sarcoplasm. Increased intramuscular free calcium activates phospholipase A2,36,62 stimulating the inflammatory response associated with DOMS and promoting further degradation of cellular structures. Within 12 hours of the initial damage, cellular infiltration of neutrophils is followed by monocytes,17,51 lymphocytes, granulocytes, and interleukins.63–65 Further damage to cellular structures is caused by free radicals produced by infiltrated monocytes and calcium-stimulated proteases such as calpains.59 Eccentric muscle tension producing sarcolemma impairment leads to extensive skeletal muscle microdamage and DOMS.12,13,66 Altered osmotic pressure gradients at the tissue-capillary interface result in fluid and solute shifts in and out of the cell. Osmotic pressure gradient alterations may contribute to increased plasma osmolarity (hyperosmolarity or hemoconcentration). Fluid shifts associated with plasma hyperosmolarity adversely affect the ability of the body to regulate temperature and subsequently decrease skeletal muscle function.6

Muscle Tenderness Associated With Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

The increased perceived pain and punctate tenderness after downhill running were likely the result of microdamage from mechanical stress on the active muscles. Although not directly measured in this study, eccentric exercise-induced mechanical stress results in microdamage to the sarcolemma and contractile elements of the myofiber.37,38 The damaged sarcolemma allows efflux of intramuscular contents, increasing the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid.49–52 Increased osmolarity of the extracellular fluid stimulates group IV sensory afferent nerve fibers terminating near the myofiber, resulting in increased perceived pain.58 A damaged sarcolemma would have also resulted in increased intramuscular pressure, which sensitized sensory afferents terminating in the connective tissues between myofibers.36,30,41 Increased punctate tenderness is attributed to increased sensitivity to palpation as a result of increased intramuscular pressure.39,67

Of the 3 quadriceps muscles assessed for punctate tenderness, only the vastus medialis showed a significant time effect. Newham et al10,68 reported increased punctate tenderness in the vastii muscles with the rectus femoris being spared 24 to 48 hours after bench stepping.10,34,68 Schwane et al35 reported increased punctate tenderness in the quadriceps and other postural and accessory muscles of the lower extremity 24 to 48 hours after downhill running. In a related study, Cleary et al69 reported increased punctate tenderness of the vastii muscles 24 to 72 hours after downhill running and no effect on the rectus femoris. Ciccotti et al70 reported that the vastus medialis had significantly greater motor unit recruitment than the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during the loading phase of running and downhill walking. Accordingly, the vastus medialis is an important patellofemoral joint stabilizer during ambulation, which leads to increased mechanical tension during the eccentric phase of the gait cycle and the corresponding increased punctate tenderness. The signs and symptoms of DOMS were not significantly different between the euhydrated and dehydrated groups, with one exception. Punctate tenderness of the bilateral vastus lateralis muscle was higher for the euhydrated than the dehydrated participants at 72 and 96 hours postexercise. This finding is an enigma and is counter to what was anticipated.

Swelling Associated With Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Distal bilateral thigh circumference was significantly greater at 0.5 and 24 hours postexercise than at preexercise for the euhydrated and dehydrated participants. The metabolic demands of the active quadriceps muscles require increased vascular perfusion for oxygen and glucose delivery and metabolic waste removal, resulting in the increased distal thigh circumference at 0.5 hours postexercise.5,57 However, this was not the causative factor for the increase at 24 hours postexercise, which was attributed to muscle swelling associated with the inflammatory response.39,51 Smith et al63–65 reported increased circulating indices of inflammation 12 to 24 hours after downhill running, which they attributed to microdamage of the exercised myofibers. Using radionuclide-labeled leukocytes, MacIntyre et al71 confirmed the presence of inflammatory cells throughout the quadriceps 24 hours after eccentric quadriceps exercise.

Reduced passive ROM and isometric strength after an eccentric exercise perturbation have been frequently reported in the DOMS literature.30,72 Bilateral passive knee-flexion ROM was not affected by downhill running, a finding also noted by Cleary et al.69 This finding is in contrast to that of Ebbeling and Clarkson28 and Nosaka and Clarkson,73 who reported reduced passive ROM after eccentric free-weight loading of the elbow flexor muscles resulted in increased tension per motor unit area. Differences in study outcomes are attributed to differences in the mode of eccentric loading and the size of the musculature tested.

Strength Loss Associated With Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

We demonstrated that bilateral quadriceps isometric strength recovers by 96 hours postexercise compared with its nadir at 0.5 hours postexercise. Other researchers30,71–73 have reported reduced isometric strength up to 6 days after isokinetic eccentric quadriceps exercise. Sargeant and Dolan72 found reduced quadriceps isometric strength up to 96 hours after exhaustive downhill walking. Cleary et al69 noted that 45 minutes of downhill running resulted in significantly lower isometric strength at 0.5 hours postexercise than at preexercise and significantly higher isometric strength at 96 hours postexercise than at preexercise. The intensity and duration of the downhill running exercise perturbation and the multiple strength assessments in the current study may have been sufficient to elicit the significant strength increase. The increase is likely the result of improved neural efficiency in motor unit recruitment.74

Dehydration Alone Does Not Affect Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Athletic trainers and other practitioners should be aware that treadmill walking at a moderate intensity in a hot, humid environment with fluid restriction resulted in a 2.7% body mass reduction. Researchers2 have demonstrated that body mass losses as low as 1% to 2% compromise physical performance as a result of cardiovascular compensations for heat load. The signs and symptoms of DOMS after an eccentric exercise perturbation were not exacerbated by moderate dehydration of 2.7% body mass with rest and a return to the normothermic condition. Although the goal had been to dehydrate the participants to 3%, this was not accomplished due to the participants’ negative physiologic responses to the dehydration protocol.

Heat load in the current study was attenuated in the dehydrated participants during the 30- to 90-minute rest period before downhill running. Heat load indices were reduced before the downhill run, as demonstrated by no significant differences between the euhydrated and dehydrated participants’ thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, and rating of perceived exertion responses. In our study, the effects of lower extremity exercise and moderate dehydration were attenuated by rest. The attenuated effects may not have been severe enough to elicit deficits in muscle function.

We acknowledge the limitations of the current study. Power for nonsignificant findings between groups ranged from .052 to .469, which may be attributed to our small sample size or a less than anticipated effect size. Acclimation probably was not a factor, as the average maximum ambient temperature during the data collection period was 27.9 ± 4.8°C and participants did become moderately dehydrated. It is also possible that downhill running in a hot, humid environment or dehydration levels greater than 2.7% may elicit a threshold sufficient to exacerbate the signs and symptoms of DOMS.

Water lost via sweating is thought to be replaced by movement of intracellular water from inactive tissues to defend plasma volume and active skeletal muscle during dehydration. This outcome has been substantiated in prior research.15,75 Greiwe et al76 reported that dehydration of 3.8% body mass and attenuation of heat load indices by a 3-hour rest had no significant effect on isometric quadriceps muscle strength. Nielsen et al5 noted that 60 minutes of uphill walking in the heat without dehydration increased intramuscular temperatures but did not affect muscle blood flow. Moderate dehydration without a concomitant heat load does not exacerbate eccentric exercise-induced skeletal muscle microdamage.

Practitioners should be aware that dehydration combined with heat load from the environment and from metabolic heat generated during eccentric exercise may potentiate the signs and symptoms of DOMS in dehydrated participants and warrants further investigation. Cleary et al69 demonstrated more perceived pain and punctate quadriceps tenderness 24 to 72 hours after 45 minutes of downhill running in hyperthermic participants who were 3.3% dehydrated than in hyperthermic participants who were euhydrated. Eccentric exercise-induced microdamage and the concomitant signs and symptoms of DOMS may be exacerbated by reduced tissue perfusion, heat load, metabolic heat, reduced muscle strength, and denaturation of structural and functional proteins.7

We demonstrated that a treadmill walking protocol in a hot, humid environment resulted in a 2.7% reduction in body mass and the downhill running eccentric exercise perturbation resulted in a classic pattern of the signs and symptoms of DOMS. Athletes participating with DOMS may be susceptible to further injury as a result of pain, swelling, and decreased muscle function. Although dehydration to 2.7% of preexercise body mass with rest and attenuation of heat load had no deleterious effects on the signs and symptoms of DOMS, the extent to which this is true at dehydration levels greater than 2.7% is unknown and warrants further study.

Dehydration and Joint Pain | News

Dehydration and Joint Pain

Dehydration is so much more than just being thirsty.  75% of Americans are chronically dehydrated.  By the time you “feel” thirsty, you are already dehydrated.  

Not drinking enough water – not coffee or pop – but pure water, can lead to fatigue, slow down metabolism, affect cognitive functioning, and contribute to the formation of kidney stones.  Lack of hydration has also been noted as a contributor of joint pain.  

About 70-80% of your joint cartilage is made of water, so it comes as no wonder why the lack of hydration is associated with joint pain.  The water content in cartilage is regulated by proteins that become a gel-like consistency when they come into contact with water.  This gel-like liquid provides cushioning, lubrication, shock absorption and nutrition to the cartilage in our joints.  They are the framework, much like a sponge.  For the sponge to be “full” and provide that “cushion” it needs to be filled with water.  That is why, even if you take specific supplements for your joints, without enough water, they will not provide the best benefits.

How much water do you need?  Obviously you need to drink plenty of water on a daily basis.  Regardless of what you may hear, half a gallon of water a day is not unreasonable for most people.  Remember, some of the other liquids we may consume in a day, may have the opposite effect of hydrating. Caffeine in coffee, tea, and soda contributes to dehydration. Try to drink water, not just when you feel thirsty, and on a regular basis throughout the day.  If you are not used to drinking that amount of water, it will take your body a bit to get used to it, but then you will start to crave the water and it will become a habit.

The warm weather is here and drinking water will be easier to remember, but you also may need to increase your water intake even more, especially if you are active and/or working out in the warmer temperatures to replace the sweat you may lose through activity.  

Make a habit of drinking more water.  Have a full glass when you get up in the morning, sip water at your desk during the day, have a full glass before lunch and one before dinner.  Find a few other set times during the day when you could drink a glass.  Before you know it, you will be in the habit and you will notice how much better you feel being well hydrated.  

Dehydration: 9 symptoms to be aware of

With temperatures starting to warm up and summer in sight, it’s a good time to take stock of our hydration habits.

Drinking enough water is important regardless of the season, but we tend to sweat more in hot weather, making it especially important that we refill that water bottle.

Heat can sometimes be very subtle in how it affects the body. If you’re out in the sun, it can take just 30 minutes or up to a few hours for the heat to cause dehydration, nausea or trouble concentrating, said Dr. Corey Slovis, professor of emergency medicine and internal medicine at Vanderbilt Medical Center.

Dehydration is a serious health concern. A study published in the American Journal of Public Health found that more than half of all children and adolescents in the U.S. aren’t getting enough water.

“People don’t realize the amount of fluid they can lose in the heat, or while exercising,” explained Michael F. Bergeron, Ph.D., president and chief executive officer of Youth Sports of the Americas. “And it’s important to note that your hydration needs are very individual.”

This health issue is more serious than you might think and could land you in the hospital.

Heat stroke occurs when the body temperature gets above 105 degrees. “One of the earliest signs of a heat-related illness is just not feeling right,” said Slovis. “There’s no one specific symptom.”

How much liquid do we need each day? And how can you tell if you’re dehydrated? Here are a few signs and symptoms that you might be dehydrated and tips to stay healthy all summer long.

1. Increased thirst and a dry or sticky mouth

“If you feel thirsty, you’re already dehydrated,” explained Dr. Laura Goldberg, pediatric sports medicine specialist in the Division of Sports Medicine at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine. The easiest remedy is to start drinking water (and beverages with electrolytes) as soon as you notice this, but try not to let yourself get to this point.

The best way to prevent this from happening is to meet your daily hydration needs, for women, the National Academy of Sciences recommends 2.7 liters of water a day (about 11.4 cups), and for men, 3.7 liters (15 cups). Try to drink more water if you’ve spent excessive time in the sun, or exercising.

2. Signs of fatigue, confusion or anger

Studies have found that mild levels of dehydration can affect your mood and cognitive functions. This is especially common in the young or elderly, who may seem less alert, or forgetful.

A study from the University of Connecticut’s Human Performance Laboratory found that even mild dehydration can alter a person’s mood, energy and ability to think clearly. The researchers defined mild dehydration as an approximately 1.5% loss in normal water volume in the body — and the adverse reaction is the same whether you’re exercising or sitting still.

Related

3. Dry eyes or blurred vision

“When you’ve been exercising for a long time, you’re sweating and your overall body fluid goes down — this can result in dry eyes or blurred vision,” said Goldberg, who also noted that any part of the body that is normally moist is going to feel dry or irritated.

“Monitor your hydration levels and make sure you’re drinking throughout any form of exercise,” she explained further.

4. Headaches or disorientation

Dehydration can result in a headache or migraine, light headedness or delirium. “I’ve seen marathon runners running in zigzags because they’re dehydrated. You can’t make decisions and feel delirious,” elaborated Goldberg.

“You may also experience weakness, dizziness or nausea, because the body doesn’t have enough fluid to send to other parts of the body. This could also result in heat exhaustion. You can collapse if you don’t stop exercising and cool down,” warned Bergeron, who also added that these specific symptoms can also be signs of over hydration, so be aware of how much you’re drinking.

Related

5. Muscle cramps

“If you’ve been exercising, it’s natural for your legs to feel tired, but if it’s more than that and you’re experiencing muscle cramping, that’s a serious sign of dehydration,” Goldberg explained. This is because of the loss of water and salt in the body — you also might experience tightness in your muscles, instead of cramping.

“Wandering and progressively widespread muscle cramping is a certain clue of a sodium deficit and dehydration in the fluid spaces surrounding certain muscles,” Bergeron elaborated. “But don’t confuse it with an overworked muscle which would just affect a small area.”

To prevent this from occurring, it’s important to drink sports beverages that contain sodium, or snack on salted pretzels or low-fat cheeses. The sodium helps your body to re-hydrate and retain the water.

6. Lack of sweat

According to Goldberg, this is one of the more serious symptoms to look out for and a sign of severe dehydration. It means your body is in dire need of water. Though, on the other hand, Bergeron notes that more likely it may be a sign of overheating or heat stroke — though either can occur in the presence of continued sweating. Either way, it’s crucial to cool down rapidly if you’re not sweating anymore.

Related

7. Dark urine

“Straw-colored or light yellow urine means you’re properly hydrated. If your urine is dark, or if there’s blood in your pee, you need to stop exercising immediately,” warned Goldberg. Notably, perfectly clear urine may mean that you are over-hydrated.

8. Fever

“Dehydration can lead to hyperthermia and a fever-like symptoms (e.g. chills) because over-heating can alter your body’s normal temperature ‘set point,’” explained Goldberg. Excessive overheating is an urgent red flag. Stop exercising immediately, take an ice bath and hydrate.

9. Shriveled and dry skin

If your skin is hydrated, it will appear doughy. If you’re dehydrated, your skin will lack elasticity and won’t bounce back. “If you pinch your skin and it appears thin and doesn’t melt back onto your body quickly, you’re dehydrated,” said Goldberg.

Some key things to remember when exercising in the summer is that the longer you’re working out, the more water you need. Also, plain water is good for you, but a combination of water, electrolytes and sodium is really the best way to stay hydrated.

It’s also crucial to understand that hydrating properly isn’t 100% preventative, if you’re working too hard and too long in the summer heat, you can still overheat no matter how much water you’re drinking. So be aware of your body, and stop what you’re doing if you notice any of these symptoms.

Dehydration – Symptoms and causes

Overview

Dehydration occurs when you use or lose more fluid than you take in, and your body doesn’t have enough water and other fluids to carry out its normal functions. If you don’t replace lost fluids, you will get dehydrated.

Anyone may become dehydrated, but the condition is especially dangerous for young children and older adults.

The most common cause of dehydration in young children is severe diarrhea and vomiting. Older adults naturally have a lower volume of water in their bodies, and may have conditions or take medications that increase the risk of dehydration.

This means that even minor illnesses, such as infections affecting the lungs or bladder, can result in dehydration in older adults.

Dehydration also can occur in any age group if you don’t drink enough water during hot weather — especially if you are exercising vigorously.

You can usually reverse mild to moderate dehydration by drinking more fluids, but severe dehydration needs immediate medical treatment.

Symptoms

Thirst isn’t always a reliable early indicator of the body’s need for water. Many people, particularly older adults, don’t feel thirsty until they’re already dehydrated. That’s why it’s important to increase water intake during hot weather or when you’re ill.

The signs and symptoms of dehydration also may differ by age.

Infant or young child
  • Dry mouth and tongue
  • No tears when crying
  • No wet diapers for three hours
  • Sunken eyes, cheeks
  • Sunken soft spot on top of skull
  • Listlessness or irritability
Adult
  • Extreme thirst
  • Less frequent urination
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Confusion
When to see a doctor

Call your family doctor if you or a loved one:

  • Has had diarrhea for 24 hours or more
  • Is irritable or disoriented and much sleepier or less active than usual
  • Can’t keep down fluids
  • Has bloody or black stool

Causes

Sometimes dehydration occurs for simple reasons: You don’t drink enough because you’re sick or busy, or because you lack access to safe drinking water when you’re traveling, hiking or camping.

Other dehydration causes include:

  • Diarrhea, vomiting. Severe, acute diarrhea — that is, diarrhea that comes on suddenly and violently — can cause a tremendous loss of water and electrolytes in a short amount of time. If you have vomiting along with diarrhea, you lose even more fluids and minerals.
  • Fever. In general, the higher your fever, the more dehydrated you may become. The problem worsens if you have a fever in addition to diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Excessive sweating. You lose water when you sweat. If you do vigorous activity and don’t replace fluids as you go along, you can become dehydrated. Hot, humid weather increases the amount you sweat and the amount of fluid you lose.
  • Increased urination. This may be due to undiagnosed or uncontrolled diabetes. Certain medications, such as diuretics and some blood pressure medications, also can lead to dehydration, generally because they cause you to urinate more.

Risk factors

Anyone can become dehydrated, but certain people are at greater risk:

  • Infants and children. The most likely group to experience severe diarrhea and vomiting, infants and children are especially vulnerable to dehydration. Having a higher surface area to volume area, they also lose a higher proportion of their fluids from a high fever or burns. Young children often can’t tell you that they’re thirsty, nor can they get a drink for themselves.
  • Older adults. As you age, your body’s fluid reserve becomes smaller, your ability to conserve water is reduced and your thirst sense becomes less acute. These problems are compounded by chronic illnesses such as diabetes and dementia, and by the use of certain medications. Older adults also may have mobility problems that limit their ability to obtain water for themselves.
  • People with chronic illnesses. Having uncontrolled or untreated diabetes puts you at high risk of dehydration. Kidney disease also increases your risk, as do medications that increase urination. Even having a cold or sore throat makes you more susceptible to dehydration because you’re less likely to feel like eating or drinking when you’re sick.
  • People who work or exercise outside. When it’s hot and humid, your risk of dehydration and heat illness increases. That’s because when the air is humid, sweat can’t evaporate and cool you as quickly as it normally does, and this can lead to an increased body temperature and the need for more fluids.

Complications

Dehydration can lead to serious complications, including:

  • Heat injury. If you don’t drink enough fluids when you’re exercising vigorously and perspiring heavily, you may end up with a heat injury, ranging in severity from mild heat cramps to heat exhaustion or potentially life-threatening heatstroke.
  • Urinary and kidney problems. Prolonged or repeated bouts of dehydration can cause urinary tract infections, kidney stones and even kidney failure.
  • Seizures. Electrolytes — such as potassium and sodium — help carry electrical signals from cell to cell. If your electrolytes are out of balance, the normal electrical messages can become mixed up, which can lead to involuntary muscle contractions and sometimes to a loss of consciousness.
  • Low blood volume shock (hypovolemic shock). This is one of the most serious, and sometimes life-threatening, complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body.

Prevention

To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of fluids and eat foods high in water such as fruits and vegetables. Letting thirst be your guide is an adequate daily guideline for most healthy people.

People may need to take in more fluids if they are experiencing conditions such as:

  • Vomiting or diarrhea. If your child is vomiting or has diarrhea, start giving extra water or an oral rehydration solution at the first signs of illness. Don’t wait until dehydration occurs.
  • Strenuous exercise. In general, it’s best to start hydrating the day before strenuous exercise. Producing lots of clear, dilute urine is a good indication that you’re well-hydrated. During the activity, replenish fluids at regular intervals and continue drinking water or other fluids after you’re finished.
  • Hot or cold weather. You need to drink additional water in hot or humid weather to help lower your body temperature and to replace what you lose through sweating. You may also need extra water in cold weather to combat moisture loss from dry air, particularly at higher altitudes
  • Illness. Older adults most commonly become dehydrated during minor illnesses — such as influenza, bronchitis or bladder infections. Make sure to drink extra fluids when you’re not feeling well.


Sept. 19, 2019

Dehydration Could be the Source of Your Back Pain; Here’s Why

Water is the primary source of all life. From the tiniest cell to the largest tree, water is found almost everywhere throughout nature and is absolutely essential for growth, health and survival; especially within humans.

Every system within your body, whether it be your organs, muscles blood or spine, is impacted by the amount of water you consume. If you’re not drinking enough, your body will not be able to perform at it’s highest potential and, at its worst, can have serious consequences – including back pain.

Most people recognize the importance of staying hydrated, but studies have shown that up to 75% of Americans spend their lives in a chronic state of dehydration because they don’t know how much water they need. They simply drink when they’re thirsty. The problem with this technique is that, by the time your body signals that it’s thirsty, you’re already dehydrated.

Does this sound like you?

Well fear not, staying properly hydrated is far less daunting than it sounds and can have a dramatic impact on how your feel throughout the day.

So, go grab a cup of water then come back and read about how your back pain could be caused by dehydration and what you can do to fix it.

How Dehydration Causes Back Pain

Dehydration can cause back pain when the gelatinous material inside your discs lose water and are unable to hold the weight of your body, this causes the disc to collapse which can put pressure on the sensitive nerves exiting the spinal column.

Between every two vertebrae in your spine, there is a disc and its primary job is to separate interlocking bones and provide cushioning, shock absorption and mobility to the spine.

Now, it’s important to note that your discs are designed a lot like jelly donuts – they have a strong outer ring of fiber with a softer, more gelatinous substance in the center. This gelatinous center (known scientifically as the nucleus pulposus) is made up primarily of water and is what provides the majority of the cushioning for your spine.

Throughout the day, as your spine is enduring natural wear and tear, the water located inside the discs gradually leaks out. Normally this isn’t a problem because gravity pulls water down your spine and allows your discs to constantly rehydrate as you move around.

But, when you’re not drinking enough, there’s not enough water in your body to rehydrate the discs and they begin to shrink.

This is where problems start to arise.

Remember when we said that jelly-like substance in the middle of your discs acts as a shock absorber? Well, when a disc is dehydrated it puts almost all your weight on the outer ring of the disc, which isn’t designed to carry such a heavy load, and it can actually begin to collapse under the pressure. When a disc collapses, even at a minor level, it can start putting pressure on the sensitive nerves within the spinal column which can cause pain throughout the body.

Additionally, dehydrated discs can result in swelling and, if enough pressure is exerted, could lead to a herniated disc.

If you’re struggling with neck, back or even leg pain that flares up occasionally, you should consider drinking more water.

How to Stay Hydrated

The great thing about water is that it’s virtually everywhere and almost always free. This means that it’s easy to stay hydrated and address back pain that could be caused by a lack of water in your discs.

Here are a few tips that can help keep you hydrated and your discs full of water:

  1. Drink More Water — Over the years, experts have gone back and forth about how much water a person should drink and, unfortunately, there simply isn’t a uniform standard for every single person. However, a good rule of thumb, according to Harvard Health, is 4-6 cups a day if you’re generally healthy. That said, you need to make sure that you’re monitoring yourself because your behavior does have an impact on the amount of water you need.

    For example, if you’re outside on a humid summer day and you find that you’re sweating a lot, it means that you’re losing water at a quicker rate and should probably be drinking more to counteract dehydration.

  2. Drink Plenty of Water When Working Out — Experts believe that it’s possible for the average person to lose anywhere between 17-50 ounces of water for every single hour of exercise.1

    That’s a pretty significant range and while most people drink while they’re working out, most simply don’t consume enough to replace what they’re sweating. Typically, people will drink based on how thirsty they feel and while this is definitely a good indication that you should drink, it also points to the fact that your body is also already dehydrated.

    The hypothalamus is the area of the brain that is responsible for stimulating your thirst response. It is constantly scanning your blood to look for high concentrations of sodium and other substances that tend to appear in higher quantities when the body is becoming dehydrated.2 It’s also keeping track of fluid levels and pressure in the bloodstream that can vary based on your food consumption, exercise habits, sickness and more. The hypothalamus will typically trigger a thirst response when it notices that your blood pressure is getting too high, levels of sodium have spiked or fluids are low. The issue is that this response is triggered in response to those events already happening which means that, typically, your body has already reached a level dehydration when your thirst response activates.

    Like with most things in health, there really is no agreed-upon hydration standard for every single person on the planet. This is simply because people are different. Body weight, exercise type and intensity, surrounding temperature, physical fitness and more all play a role in how much you sweat. So, you need to know your own body and hone in on how much you need to be drinking specifically.

    However, as you’re getting started, experts from the American Council on Exercise recommend that you should be drinking at three different points when you work out:

    Pre-Exercise
    2-3 hours before you start working out, you should consume 17-20 ounces of water. Then, 20-30 minutes before your exercise you should drink another 8 ounces.

    Mid-Exercise
    While you’re working out you should be drinking 7-10 ounces of water every 10-20 minutes depending on the intensity and how much you’re sweating.

    Post-Exercise
    Finally you should drink around 8 ounces of water within 30 minutes of finishing your workout. Then, another 16-24 ounces for every pound of weight that you lost.

    It’s also helpful to keep in mind that, if you’re planning on exercising for more than an hour, you should consider bringing along a sports drink that contains sodium and potassium. A lot of people typically turn to popular sports drinks like Powerade and Gatorade. Both are good, but contain approximately 21 grams of sugar depending on the type of flavor you choose.3 Depending on your body type, this concentrated amount of sugar can cause cramps and stomach pain which can hinder your workout. We typically recommend that athletes who are spending more than an hour working out should try a sports drink that is more natural and contains less sugar; Skratch is one of our favorites.

  3. Keep an Eye on Your Urine — That’s right, your urine is one of the most accurate ways to tell if your body is hydrated. Creating urine is how the body naturally gets rid of waste products that can float around in the blood stream and extracts toxins that build up in the kidneys. According to Harvard University, when your urine is dark yellow or amber, it means that there is less water and more waste than usual and a pretty strong indication that you’re not drinking enough.

    If you’re healthy and hydrated, your urine should be pale yellow color.

    Cleveland Clinic has put together a great infographic on the different colors of urine and what they can mean.

    Also keep in mind that when you drink more, you’ll likely start urinating more. For some, the added trips to the bathroom can be inconvenient, but over time your body will adjust to your extra intake of liquid and you won’t need to go as often.

The great thing about being hydrated is that it can do more than just have an impact on your spine health, though that is a huge benefit. It also has cardiovascular benefits, helps clear toxins out of your kidneys, helps deliver nutrients to your muscles, helps your hair grow thicker, makes your skin feel softer along and much, much more.

Drinking 4-6 cups of water a day can seem like a daunting task, but it’s not as hard as it sounds.

An average Nalgene bottle is 32 ounces, or about four cups, which means that you only need to drink less than two to reach your daily goal. Totally feasible. It’s also helpful to note that drinking other liquids throughout the day like coffee and juice actually do help push you towards your daily recommended intake amount. Of course, the difference is that you’re typically taking in other chemicals, sugars, acids and more with those drinks, so they should be consumed responsibly.

There are dozens of other methods and tricks for staying hydrated online. Simply find what method works best for you and stick with it! Soon enough, it’ll become a healthy habit and relatively easy to keep yourself on track.

If you’re experiencing frequent or severe back pain, consider making an appointment with your spine care specialist.

References

1. Fetters, K. A. (2018, July 9). How Much You Really Need to Drink When Exercising. Retrieved March 7, 2019, from https://health.usnews.com/well…

2. Perry, S. (2008, March 16). The Neural Regulation of Thirst. Retrieved March 7, 2019, from http://www.brainfacts.org/Arch…

3. Bryan, D. (n.d.). Powerade Vs. Gatorade. Retrieved March 7, 2019, from https://www.livestrong.com/art…

8 Signs That You Are Dehydrated

Dehydration can have dire consequences if left untreated that extend to unconsciousness, coma, organ failure, and even death. Dehydration is a condition where the body does not have enough water to properly function. In most cases it can be avoided by increasing water intake. However, the condition doesn’t always showcase symptoms before it hits: the first symptoms can be fatal.

Dehydration is caused primarily by sweating too much which is commonly brought on by exercising in hot weather. Other causes include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and too frequent urination. People who drink an insufficient amount of fluids can also get dehydrated. They may not drink enough because of stomach irritation from sickness, nausea, or a sore throat.

People who have a heart condition, are seeking cardiology services at a heart center, are overweight, have kidney problems, have diabetes, are under the age of two, or over the age of 50 are more prone to dehydration and should pay extra attention to water consumption.

Dehydration symptoms

1) Thirst and dry mouth

A thirsty person is a dehydrated person. Dry mouth also frequently accompanies thirst. So if you are feeling thirsty or have dry mouth take it as a sign you need to drink some water. However, you should continue to drink water even when you’re not thirsty because it’s possible to alleviate your thirst without avoiding dehydration.

2) Lightheadedness, muscle cramps, and weakness

When your body is dehydrated it compensates by constricting blood vessels and increasing the heart rate to maintain constant blood pressure. The body also redirects blood away from skin to internal organs like the brain and lungs. However, this defense will begin to fail as dehydration worsens. Symptoms like lightheadedness, muscle cramps, and general weakness are indications that the body is failing to compensate for dehydration.

3) Nausea and vomiting

Nausea and vomiting are particularly bad because they can cause the situation to get worse. A person who is experiencing nausea can have a more difficult time consuming fluids and a person who vomits will lose fluids quickly.

4) No longer sweating, producing tears, or urinating

Gauging your urine color—the lighter the more hydrated, the darker the less hydrated—is an effective way to test for dehydration. However, if your body is no longer producing urine it is a bad sign. If your body stops sweating while you’re working out or is no longer able to produce tears, it’s a sign you are dehydrated and moving towards heat exhaustion.

Moderate to severe dehydration symptoms

5) Irritability

People get cranky when they are experiencing substantial dehydration. This is a particularly important warning sign for children as they may have a more difficult time understanding when they are suffering from dehydration symptoms than adults. Children who have lost between 3 and 10 percent of their body weight in fluids will exhibit the symptoms of mild dehydration and may be fussy, irritable, and tired.

6) Rapid heartbeat and breathing

A hydrated body is able to pump blood more easily throughout the body than a dehydrated one. Your heart actually has to work harder to provide oxygen across your body when dehydrated, which means the heart is going to beat much faster than usual and your lungs are going to need to take in more oxygen.

7) Sunken eyes

The appearance of sunken eyes is a sign of substantial dehydration. For obvious reasons, this isn’t a symptom you could be experiencing that’s immediately apparent to you unless you have a mirror or someone else points it out.

8) Delirium

If a person starts exhibiting symptoms of delirium, including restlessness, incoherent thoughts, unintelligible speech, and seeing illusions, they are likely experiencing extreme dehydration. This is among the most severe symptoms that can occur before the body starts to break down and permanent damage can occur.

Preventing and treating dehydration

Water is the best thing to drink while fruits and vegetables (because of their high water concentration) are the best things to eat. The body requires between 48 and 64 fluid ounces of water every day; however, people who sweat more need to drink more water to compensate. Electrolyte-added sports drinks are helpful for people in specific situations where the temperature is very high and the exercise is notably intense. Drinks with caffeine in them, as well as fruit juices, soda, and sugary drinks should all be avoided. Caffeine is a diuretic which causes your body to expunge fluids whereas sweet drinks can be hard on your stomach when dehydrated. You can help prevent dehydration by taking breaks in exposure to high temperatures in cooler areas and wear light-colored, loose-fitting clothing when outside. Also, avoid alcohol consumption.

Preventative approaches can be extremely effective. A good way to gauge how much water you need to consume when exercising is to weigh yourself before and after working out. Each pound you drop equates to a pint of water.

90,000 real and fictitious risks / Blog / Clinic EXPERT

How much water should you drink per day and what risks can be caused by non-compliance with the correct regimen? On the Internet, you can find a lot of advice and conflicting information on this topic, and some companies directly claim that it is their drinks that can save you from dehydration. It’s actually not that simple. In this article, we will help you deal with this issue.

Often we do not think about how much water we consume.There is another extreme – people painstakingly monitor the regular replenishment of fluid in the body and always try to keep some kind of soft drink with them.

The truth is that most healthy people rarely experience severe dehydration and even less water poisoning.

Numerous metabolic mechanisms of our body work 24 hours a day to maintain a constant water-salt balance within us – they control both the intake of water into the body (including the feeling of thirst) and its excretion from the body.

But it should be noted that certain groups of the population are indeed at increased risk of 90 014 dehydration, 90 014 these primarily include 90 013 children and the elderly, athletes, as well as those who are prone to loose stools (with irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases, chronic pancreatitis and other gastrointestinal diseases).

In the process of supporting daily activities, our body uses a certain volume of water every day, primarily for the transfer of active beneficial molecules and the elimination of toxins from the body.The volume of water used can vary depending on environmental conditions (for example, dry hot or humid cool air), as well as the needs of our body. For example, a woman’s body during menstruation tends to retain water, which can slightly increase body weight and lead to some swelling, most often in the legs. This is a physiological, natural process that stops after activating the necessary systems and removing excess fluid.

People who like to eat salty foods retain more fluid in their bodies.It is caused by excess sodium intake. It is for this reason that in any pathological conditions accompanied by edema, it is recommended to limit the use of salt with food. This also applies to people with high blood pressure – limiting salt intake allows you to avoid pressure surges, and sometimes reduce the amount of antihypertensive drugs taken.

How does thirst quenching work?

Water intake is regulated through behavioral mechanisms – through the development of a feeling of thirst or satiety.When a person loses a lot of water, and the concentration of electrolytes in the body remains the same, the blood becomes too “viscous”. The blood supply to the salivary glands is rebuilt, which leads to a decrease in salivation, as a result, a person experiences a feeling of dry mouth and thirst. The hypothalamus determines the characteristics of the body’s water-salt composition and sends signals that regulate urine production and sweating. As a result, the excretion of water from the body with sweat, urine and stool is reduced, which allows you to avoid dehydration for some time.

Risks of dehydration

Dehydration is not only uncomfortable for a person, but can also be detrimental. With a decrease in the water content in the body, attentiveness, the ability to perceive and process information are disturbed, mood worsens, headaches and fatigue develop. Significant dehydration can lead to a significant disruption in the functioning of the body, up to 90,013 death.

The first sign of dehydration is thirst.

In this way, the body gives a signal to the person that it is necessary to immediately replenish the water reserves in the body. Thirst usually develops when the water deficit is approximately 200-400 ml. The protective mechanism prevents further loss of fluid from the body: sweating and urination are reduced. If a person is in a hot atmosphere, then this can lead to overheating of the body and the development of heatstroke. That is why it is important to listen to your feelings and, when a feeling of thirst arises, not to delay with its satisfaction.

In the elderly, the feeling of thirst can be dulled due to age-related changes in the body and especially in the nervous system. Therefore, unless contraindicated, doctors generally recommend that older adults monitor and drink water regularly throughout the day to stay hydrated. Some elderly people, unfortunately, avoid drinking liquids because they do not want to use the restroom again. This happens especially often before going to bed. However, this approach can be detrimental to the health and quality of life .

What makes you thirsty

The following factors increase your need for water:

  • Alcohol
  • Increased fiber in the diet
  • Certain diseases associated with water-salt imbalance, such as diabetes and kidney disease
  • Being on an airplane or rooms with forced air circulation
  • stay in mountainous areas
  • hot and dry weather
  • increased intake of proteins, salt and sugar, carbohydrate deficiency (ketosis)
  • taking diuretics
  • physical activity
  • pregnancy or breastfeeding
  • diarrhea , vomiting
  • rise in body temperature
  • surgery, blood loss or burns
  • infant or advanced age.

Let’s illustrate one of the above points with an example. It is known that active sports training significantly accelerates metabolic processes in the body, which is accompanied by increased sweating. All this leads to a significant increase in water demand. When training takes place in a hot atmosphere or in the sun, the need for water is even higher. For example, during intense physical activity, an athlete may additionally lose about 1.5-2 liters of water per hour.

Exposing Myths

Many publications on the Internet contain myths about dehydration:

Myth # 1.

To moisturize the skin, fight wrinkles and wrinkles and improve the condition of the skin, you need to drink 8 cups of water a day.

The fact is that the use of additional fluid by people who are healthy and already taking a sufficient amount of water, does not improve the condition of the skin. The body will remove excess fluid naturally, which will in no way affect the preservation of the elasticity of your skin. It is correct to assess the need for fluid in your body, taking into account the intensity of physical activity and the presence of any pathological processes in the body and the subsequent selection of moisturizing creams with a beautician.

Myth number 2.

Drink water in addition to drinks to avoid dehydration.

Medical research shows that the lack of water can be compensated not only with ordinary water, but also with juices, herbal teas, soups, broths, etc. However, in case of significant dehydration , it is necessary to drink exactly water, as this will allow you to quickly restore the water-salt balance in the body without consuming additional calories.

Myth number 3.

Darkening of the urine clearly indicates dehydration.

Indeed, when there is a lack of water in the body, the concentration of excreted urine occurs and it becomes slightly darker. However, darkening of urine can also occur with certain foods, such as beets, asparagus and other foods, and can be a symptom of liver and kidney disease.

Myth number 4.

Experts have established the exact daily volume of water required by a person.

Unfortunately, there is no magic exact dose that is equally good for everyone. We are all unique and we live our own unique lives. Although researchers are still working to determine the optimal amounts of water consumption for both healthy people and different groups of patients.

Intake and exit of water from the body

Every day, water enters our body with drinks and food, and a certain amount of water is formed during metabolism (for example, when burning fats).On average, about 1450-2800 ml of water is supplied to the human body every day:

  • drinks (550-1500 ml)
  • food (700-1000 ml)
  • metabolism (300 ml).

And with the help of the work of the skin and lungs, the gastrointestinal tract and the urinary system, the same volume of water (1450-2800 ml) is excreted daily from the human body:

  • urine (500-1400 ml)
  • skin evaporation (450–900 ml)
  • exhaled air (350 ml)
  • stool (150 ml).

However, when the intensity of the body’s work (physical activity, various diseases) changes, our body needs a larger volume of incoming fluid.

How much should I drink every day?

To answer this question, “banal” and generally available tests will help you – a clinical blood test with the determination of hematocrit, a general urine test with the determination of specific gravity.

For a more informative assessment of the presence of fluid in the body, bioimpedansometry will help – according to the results of the procedure, you will see how much fluid, fat mass and lean mass in your body contains, including bones, muscles and internal organs.

Based on the results of these examinations, the doctor will be able to say for sure whether there is a need to correct the drinking regime and not only.

Which water is better to drink?

Store counters and catering chains offer us a fairly wide selection of drinks.

Often our attention is drawn to carbonated drinks. It must be remembered that behind their pleasant taste there are insidious excess calories and sugar. That’s right – read the packaging and evaluate every time – why do I buy and drink this drink.

This problem is especially relevant for developed countries, because many people drink drinks not to quench their thirst, but due to the “close availability” and to obtain pleasant taste sensations, stimulate the nervous system with caffeine and sugar, or to relax through alcohol. The sports industry has also invented a new kind of soft drinks – sports. However, most experts are very skeptical about the benefits of sports drinks for maintaining water-salt balance and improving training results.

Fruit juices contain fruit pulp and a substantial amount of water, which also allows you to quench your thirst. It is correct to use natural freshly squeezed juices if necessary with the addition of pure water. Industrial juices may contain sugar and preservatives, the frequent use of which can have a harmful effect on health.

In order to maintain good health and wellness, it is recommended to use pure water , low-mineralized water (up to 2-2.5 g of minerals per liter), of weak black and green tea, herbal teas (chamomile, peppermint, willow tea). Remember that drinking green tea with milk has a mild diuretic effect and will help save you from feeling puffy and heavy in your legs.

Conclusion

Water is an important source of wellness. The human body is a self-regulating system, therefore, to maintain health, it is enough just to listen to it and consume the amount of water you need, without limiting yourself.Try to get your water from sugar-free, low-calorie drinks.

When can water help to cope with a headache

Headache is one of the most common symptoms: 9 out of 10 adults experience it at least once in their life. There are many varieties of this disorder, and in some cases it is easily treatable at home. This happens, for example, with headaches caused by dehydration.

The body requires a balance of water and electrolytes to function optimally.But a person loses water every day when breathing, sweating and urinating. The loss of water is compensated by its intake with drinks and food, but the body loses water faster than it receives. Factors such as diarrhea, vomiting, intense sweating, fever, and frequent urination can cause dehydration.

Dehydration sometimes causes headache, a secondary symptom that can be mild or severe. With a lack of water, the brain may shrink slightly, which causes pain.After the water balance is restored, the brain volume is restored and the pain disappears.

A headache with dehydration can occur in the front, back and sides of the head, and also affect the entire head. Unlike pain associated with sinus pressure, dehydration pain rarely affects the front of the head and does not occur in the back of the neck as with high blood pressure.

With a lack of water, headache is accompanied by symptoms of dehydration: excessive thirst, infrequent urination, blurred consciousness, dizziness, fatigue, dry mouth, loss of skin elasticity, decreased blood pressure and increased heart rate.Symptoms of dehydration often only occur with severe water loss.

Certain populations are particularly prone to dehydration. Risk groups include young children, the elderly, patients with chronic diseases (such as diabetes and kidney disease), people taking diuretics or living in hot climates, and athletes.

For the treatment of headache caused by dehydration, it is necessary not only to reduce the severity of the pain, but also to restore the water balance.To do this, you should increase your fluid intake, restore the balance of electrolytes in the blood, temporarily reduce physical activity and avoid overheating. Over time, these measures will lead to a decrease in the severity of the headache. If you are severely dehydrated, you should seek medical attention to avoid complications such as kidney damage, seizures, and shock.

Dehydration can be prevented. To do this, you need to consume enough liquid and foods containing a large amount of water (cucumbers, juicy fruits).Scientists recommend that you distribute your water intake evenly throughout the day. In hot weather and during physical exertion, the amount of fluid you drink should be increased. To help your body stay hydrated, you should avoid caffeine and alcohol and avoid strenuous physical activity in the heat.

Following these simple guidelines will help you maintain optimal water levels and avoid the unpleasant symptoms of dehydration.

Based on materials from www.medicalnewstoday.com

90,000 Medical myths. Do tea and coffee dehydrate our body?

We often hear that tea and coffee dehydrate our bodies. Sounds a little threatening, but is there any real evidence for this?

Photo author, thinkstock

Photo caption,

Does drinking coffee make you run to the toilet more often?

Every day around the world, people drink 1.6 billion cups of coffee and roughly double that of tea.Some people just like the taste of these drinks, but for many, the main thing, perhaps, is that caffeine adds vigor.

However, when health gurus urge us to drink six or eight glasses of water a day (a rather controversial recommendation), they usually emphasize that tea and coffee are not included in the daily fluid intake, because they supposedly dehydrate the body. Is it so?

Three men, two winters and caffeine

Although tea and coffee contain many different substances, including vitamins, caffeine is the subject of most research.Having said “the majority”, we must immediately make a reservation: there are very few scientific works on this topic of interest to us.

One of the most widely cited studies was conducted almost 100 years ago, in 1928, with a sample of only three people. Three men were studied for two winters. Sometimes they had to drink four cups of coffee a day, sometimes they drank mostly tea, and sometimes they abstained from both drinks or received water with the addition of pure caffeine. All this time, the amount of urine they excreted was regularly monitored.

The study authors concluded that if men abstained from tea and coffee for two months and then started drinking caffeinated water, the amount of urine increased by 50%. But when they returned to regular coffee consumption, the diuretic (diuretic) effect faded away.

Very high doses of caffeine are known to increase blood flow to the kidneys and inhibit sodium absorption. Hence the diuretic effect – excess sodium must be removed from the body. But the exact mechanism of how this works is still a matter of debate.

However, when it comes to more moderate doses of caffeine, the diuretic effect is not so pronounced. According to a review of ten studies by Lawrence Armstrong of the University of Connecticut (USA), caffeine is at best a mild diuretic. In 12 out of 15 cases, the amount of urine examined did not depend on whether the water they drank contained caffeine or not.

Can you drink boiled water as well?

So why do many people think that if they drink tea or coffee, they will have to go to the toilet more often?

Author of the photo, thinkstock

Caption to the photo,

Scientists need to decide whether to give coffee to subjects or dissolved caffeine?

As demonstrated in Armstrong’s review, most researchers give people an aqueous solution of pure caffeine, not the tea or coffee we usually drink at home.Maybe the combination of substances that these drinks contain somehow makes a difference?

In a rare study where subjects drank nothing but tea for 12 hours, there was no difference in water saturation levels between them and people who drank the same amount of regular boiled water.

As for coffee, one study did find a 41% increase in urine output and an increase in sodium and potassium excretion. But its participants abstained from caffeine prior to the study, so the situation may be different with people who are used to coffee.

Another study did not find any difference in hydration between tea or coffee consumers, so we cannot draw a definite conclusion here either.

And the most recent study …

In a new work by Sophie Keeler from the University of Birmingham (UK), published earlier this year, not only measured the volume of urine excreted, but also checked how the functioning of their kidneys affects the blood tests of subjects. and also calculated the total amount of water in the body.

In the experiment, the men drank four cups of coffee a day, which is much more than the average coffee consumer drinks. There was no evidence that subjects were dehydrated compared to those who drank only water.

Although this study was funded by the Institute for Scientific Information on Coffee, of which coffee companies are members, it was published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and the authors confirm that the Institute had no influence on the collection and analysis of the data or on the writing of the study.

Thus, if we even notice the need to go to the toilet after a cup of coffee, we should not compare it with the situation when we do not drink at all. Because if you drink a glass of water instead of a cup of tea or coffee, the effect is likely to be the same.

About the Author: Claudia Hammond writes articles, broadcasts and lectures on psychology.

Dehydration at high body temperature during ARVI and influenza

It is believed that fever is the most common symptom of the disease in children.Each child has a disease at least once a year, which is accompanied by an increase in body temperature (fever).

Acute respiratory viral infectious diseases (ARVI) and FLU are the most common diseases that are accompanied by an increase in body temperature (fever) in both children and adults. The main danger of fever with FLU and ARVI is dehydration.

It is known that for every 1 ° C increase in temperature, body fluid losses increase by about 10% of normal daily losses.Fluid loss comes with sweat, incl. when using antipyretics and with exhaled air.

The body loses water and sodium salts.

At the same time, the load on the heart and blood vessels increases, which in general negatively affects the well-being of the child and the adult. Young children may develop seizures due to high fever and dehydration.

Signs of dehydration may include dry lips, tongue, mucous membranes of the mouth and nose, irregularities in eye moisture, decreased skin elasticity on the dorsum of the hands and feet.

The correct drinking regimen is able to support the body of a sick person and prevent possible complications.

Drinking only water or various drinks that are not intended to eliminate the phenomena of dehydration often cannot solve the problem, since the body loses water and salt in a certain ratio.

Part of the daily fluid you drink should be presented with glucose-salt solutions with a suitable concentration for this case, for example, Regidron Bio.

Salts included in Regidron Bio will compensate for the loss of salts by the body. Glucose will help the salts pass from the intestines into the bloodstream. Lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which are contained in Regidron Bio, have a positive effect on the intestinal biocenosis and improve the body’s immune resistance to viral infection.

90,000 what you need to know about insidious Salmonella !?

Salmonellosis is an acute intestinal anthropozoonotic infection caused by microorganisms of the genus Salmonella, characterized by a predominant lesion of the gastrointestinal tract and proceeding in the form of gastrointestinal, less often generalized forms.

Pathogen Salmonella bacillus 0.0003 cm long, with high mobility, without the ability to form spores and capsules. The pathogen affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing intoxication and dehydration.

The resistance of saplmonella is extremely high, they remain viable when smoked, salted, however, they die during boiling and under direct exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

Salmonellosis is most often observed in the warm season, when favorable conditions are created for the reproduction of microorganisms in food.

Relevance The problem of salmonellosis is that Salmonella is relatively persistent in the environment.

They can remain viable in water for up to 5 months, in soil for up to one and a half years, in meat for up to six months, in poultry carcasses for up to a year or more.When chicken eggs are stored for more than 30 days in the refrigerator, the bacterium is able to penetrate through the whole shell into the egg and actively multiply inside the yolk.

About 20 days are stored in milk, a month in kefir and four in butter. In cheese, Salmonella can remain alive for up to a year, 3-9 months in egg powder and 17-24 days in eggshells.

Salmonella die after 5-10 minutes at a temperature of 70 ° C, they can withstand boiling for some time if they are in the thickness of a large piece of meat.When boiling, eggs die after 4 minutes. In milk and meat products, salmonella not only persist, but also actively multiply, while not affecting the organoleptic properties of the products. Microorganisms are quite resistant to salting and smoking, and when frozen, their lifespan increases. Currently, Salmonella strains have been isolated that have a high degree of resistance to antibiotic therapy and disinfectants.

The insidiousness of Salmonella is that, living and multiplying on products, they do not in any way affect their appearance and taste.

Sources of infection.

Salmonella is widespread among domestic and wild animals , predominantly among animals used for food such as poultry, pigs and cattle; and among domestic animals including cats and dogs, birds and reptiles such as turtles. Birds with salmonellosis can contaminate household items and food with droppings.

A person becomes infected with salmonellosis, usually through the consumption of contaminated food of animal origin (mainly eggs, meat, poultry and milk), although other foods, especially vegetables contaminated with manure, may be implicated in transmission.

In recent years, cases of salmonellosis infection as a result of contact with aquatic turtles have increased. Baby turtles are often purchased as pets or animals in school. Be aware that Salmonella is part of the normal gut microflora of turtles, and there is no way to tell a healthy turtle from an infected one. These bacteria are present in their droppings, in the water of the aquarium where turtles live. After any contact with the turtle or its habitat, hands should be thoroughly washed, otherwise infection cannot be avoided.

In some cases, the source of infection can be a person. If animals are infectious for several months, then a person can transmit the infection for a period from several days to three weeks, sometimes the carriage can persist for years.

Humans are highly susceptible to salmonellosis. The severity of the infection depends on a complex of factors, both external (the number of pathogens that have entered the body, their antigenic composition and biological characteristics) and internal (the state of the defense systems of the human body, concomitant pathology, especially the digestive system).The infection is most severe in infants and the elderly.

How does the infection take place?

The mechanism of transmission of salmonellosis is fecal-oral, bacteria are excreted by a sick person or animal with feces, salmonella enters the human body through the mouth, and into the mouth through dirty hands or contaminated products.

Food route of transmission of infection to humans. Infection occurs while eating food prepared without observing the rules of heat treatment.

The waterway of transmission is more often implemented in poultry and livestock farms. A person can become infected by drinking raw water.

Contact with sick animals or animal carriers. A person becomes infected while caring for them, while working at meat processing plants, eating infected (during life or after slaughter) meat or dairy products. Birds are the most active carriers of Salmonella, a person can become infected by eating contaminated meat, eggs or food contaminated with the droppings of sick birds.

Contact and household route of infection. There is a high probability of infection from a person (both a patient and a carrier of Salmonella), this route of transmission is more often implemented in organized groups, kindergartens, schools, hospitals. Infection through household contact occurs through: household items, pots, linen, towels, toys, unwashed hands of a sick person, including medical staff or family members, medical instruments and equipment (probes, catheters) that have not been processed according to all sterilization rules.

Dust-air path. It is relevant in urban conditions, the main factor is the pollution of streets and public places with bird droppings (sick or carriers of salmonellosis).

After a disease, immunity is formed, which lasts up to six months; after which there is a possibility of re-infection, however, the disease will proceed in a milder form.

After the transferred infection, unstable immunity persists, lasting no more than one year.

____________

The most susceptible to infection with salmonellosis: small children, the elderly, people who for one reason or another have reduced immunity, workers in poultry and livestock farms, people who are fond of raw food, people who neglect the rules of personal hygiene and thermal processing of products.

Clinic.

From the moment of infection until the first signs of the disease appear, it usually takes from several hours to 2-3 days.

The main clinical symptoms are: fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain of a spastic nature and loose stools mixed with mucus, blood, often greenish in color with a fetid odor. The disease can be severe or mild.

With a severe course of of the disease, the development of seizures, mainly of the lower extremities, is possible.

If signs of illness appear, you should definitely consult a doctor.

In some cases, various complications may develop: pancreatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, chronic colitis, infectious toxic shock, which is accompanied by pulmonary and cerebral edema, cardiovascular, renal and adrenal insufficiency. Generalized forms can lead to the development of purulent complications.

How does the disease proceed?

Salmonellosis is characterized by a sharp rise in temperature, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and sometimes vomiting.Symptoms appear 6 to 72 hours (usually 12 to 36 hours) after the bacteria has entered the body. The illness lasts 2 to 7 days.

The disease is usually relatively easy. In most cases, recovery occurs without special treatment.

In more severe cases, symptomatic treatment, replacement of electrolytes and lost fluids is carried out.

Routine antimicrobial therapy is not recommended for mild or moderate cases in 90,332 healthy people.This is due to the fact that such drugs may not completely kill the bacteria and contribute to the development of resistant strains, which can lead to the fact that the drug becomes ineffective. However, infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may need antimicrobial therapy, as disease-related dehydration can be life-threatening. Large outbreaks of salmonellosis attract media attention, but 60 to 80% of all salmonellosis cases occur outside of known outbreaks.Such cases are classified as sporadic cases or not diagnosed as such at all.

How to avoid contamination?

At the state level, preventive measures are carried out by veterinary and sanitary-epidemiological services. They exercise control over the meat-processing industry (slaughtering and processing of raw materials), catering enterprises (cooking technology, storage and sale of finished products), catering in kindergartens and schools.At the same time, the sanitary services control the process of examining new employees at poultry farms, catering establishments, trade, children’s institutions, and catering workers.

Effective prevention requires control of all parts of the food chain – from agricultural production to processing, production and preparation of food, both in public institutions and at home.

Rules for individual prevention of salmonellosis.

In order not to get infected and not get sick with salmonellosis, everyone should remember and follow the following recommendations!

  • Strictly observe the rules of personal hygiene. Teach hygiene skills in your children.
  • Wash hands thoroughly with soap and water (especially after using the restroom and before eating).
  • Do not purchase meat, meat products, poultry, eggs, cottage cheese, milk, butter, cheese – in places of unauthorized trade.
  • When purchasing eggs, strictly follow the sorting date (it is indicated both on the package and directly on the eggs).The admissible implementation period is 25 days.
  • Observe food storage times and temperatures.

Important! It is widely believed that raw quail eggs can be safely eaten. Despite the fact that quails do not suffer from salmonellosis, they are carriers and distributors of Salmonella, and can become a source of infection. Therefore, it is unacceptable to use quail eggs without proper heat treatment.

  • Observe the rules of cooking (using cutting boards and knives separately for raw and finished products, processing raw eggs before cooking with a warm soapy-soda solution for 5 minutes; boiling the eggs for 10 minutes after boiling; sufficient heat treatment of poultry meat and farm animals).
  • When purchasing products in the market or in a store, you should monitor compliance with the commercial proximity of the products. Raw and finished products must be on separate display cases and sold by different people.
  • Observe the rules for storing food at home (raw food and ready-made food should be stored separately).
  • Wash the refrigerator regularly, thoroughly clean the egg storage compartments.
  • Thoroughly wash and scald kitchen utensils with boiling water.
  • Boil eggs for at least 10 minutes from the moment of boiling, poultry – 40 minutes, meat – at least 2 hours.
  • Never sample raw minced meat.
  • Do not drink raw milk.
  • Rinse fruits, herbs and vegetables well under running water and then with boiled water. Optimally, scald with boiling water.
  • When preparing food, wash your hands after cutting raw meat, fish, poultry, contact with raw eggs.

In case of signs of illness (abdominal pain, loose stools, nausea, vomiting), seek medical attention promptly!

Remember: there is no specific prophylaxis for salmonellosis in humans.

Take care of your health, be careful with your diet and carefully monitor your hygiene!

90,000 What Every Parent Should Know?

Dehydration (the medical term exicosis) is a pathological condition in which the body loses fluid, as well as salts and minerals dissolved in it.

What could be the cause of dehydration in children?

one.Difficulty entering fluid into the body. This situation is rare. This, or the lack of drinking water at hand. Or the child’s refusal to drink liquid. For example, due to pain when swallowing. Or severe pathological conditions in which the child cannot swallow on his own.

2. Increased excretion of water and minerals by the body. When the loss exceeds her income. This situation is observed in acute infections, food poisoning, parasitic infection, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, overheating, and burns.

It is worth talking about these reasons in more detail.

1. Increased fluid loss can occur with acute respiratory infection. Sweating increases with high fever. This is a physiological process. This is how the body cools itself. In addition, fluid loss occurs with mucus flowing abundantly from the nose. And also when coughing, especially productive. Severe dehydration with ARVI usually does not occur. However, fluid loss should be replenished in full, especially in young children.That is why pediatricians recommend an abundant warm drink for colds. Warm water is absorbed faster in the intestines than cold water.

2. The most dangerous condition for dehydration is such a condition as an acute intestinal infection. Her symptoms:

  • high temperature;
  • single or multiple vomiting;
  • diarrhea, stool frequency can be from two (provided that the consistency is liquid) to 20 or more times per day;
  • pain and rumbling in the abdomen;
  • loss of appetite, weakness, drowsiness;
  • refusal of water and drink.

This infection is especially dangerous in infants. This is due to their physiological characteristics: they have a higher percentage of body fluids. For babies, losing even a small amount of fluid can be dangerous.

Intestinal infections are divided into two large groups – viral and bacterial. The mainstay of the treatment of viral infections is precisely the fight against dehydration. Some bacterial infections require an antibiotic. In order to distinguish between the two types of infections, you need to show the child to the pediatrician.It is not worth prescribing an antibiotic to the child yourself, because it is not necessary in all cases of intestinal infection.

3. Food poisoning – usually does not threaten the child’s life and goes away quickly enough, within 1-2 days, with rare exceptions.

4. It is very important to replenish fluid in case of burns, including sunburn. Since damaged skin loses a large amount of fluid.

What are the types of dehydration?

Doctors classify exsicosis by severity.Depending on how many percent of body weight the child lost in the form of water:

Grade 1 – 3% of body weight. Light degree of dehydration. Its main features:

  • thirst;
  • dry skin and mucous membranes;
  • tense urination.

Grade 2 – from 3 to 6% of body weight. Moderate severity. The main symptoms are:

  • expressed thirst;
  • dry skin and mucous membranes;
  • tongue coated with white or grayish bloom;
  • weakness and drowsiness;
  • urinary retention up to 6 hours;
  • in infants, retraction of the fontanelle.

Grade 3 – 9% or more. Severe dehydration. This condition is dangerous and requires immediate medical attention. Its main features will be:

  • crying of a child without tears;
  • severe weakness and drowsiness;
  • pronounced retraction of the fontanelle in infants;
  • Severely dry skin, chapped lips;
  • sunken eyes;

The most severe symptoms of dehydration are:

  • thin saggy skin;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • convulsions;
  • 90,051 drop in body temperature;

What symptoms can a doctor find on examination?

  • shallow breathing;
  • rapid pulse;
  • lowering blood pressure;
  • increase, and in severe cases, a decrease in body temperature relative to the norm.

In addition, you should definitely show your child to a doctor if:

  • blood was found in stool or vomit;
  • if the child categorically refuses to drink, and diarrhea continues for more than a day;
  • 90,051 children drink, but diarrhea lasts more than a week.

What to do when dehydrated?

First of all, you need to try to get the child drunk.

1 What should be given to drink?

  • Breast milk remains the topical drink for an infant.Babies with signs of dehydration should be applied to the breast as often as possible, do not skip night feedings, and do not shorten the feeding time. In addition to breast milk, children should be offered plain boiled water
  • For older children, there are special solutions for oral rehydration. With their help, you can replenish not only the loss of water, but also electrolytes (potassium, calcium, sodium, chlorine), as well as glucose. It is better to consult a doctor about the choice of a specific drug. not all oral rehydration solutions can be used at an early age.In the absence of a special medicine. Or, if the child refuses to drink it, you can give the child plain water or other liquids.

2 What to drink with?

  • It is strictly forbidden to use coffee or tea to replace the loss of liquid. These drinks can worsen the symptoms of dehydration. have a diuretic effect.
  • Do not use sugary carbonated drinks for soldering. They can aggravate the manifestations of the underlying disease.
  • Small children should not be fed with rice water, because it may contain traces of arsenic.
  • Do not give fruit juices to children. Their daily consumption is limited in preschool children. Acidic juices can irritate the gastrointestinal tract and worsen diarrhea.
  • Do not give cows milk to children. It gives a high protein load on the baby’s digestive organs. May provoke vomiting. In addition, it should not be given even to healthy children under one year old.

3. How to drink properly?

You need to drink in small portions, starting with the volume of half or a whole teaspoon, gradually increasing the volume to 2-3 tablespoons. The one-time volume is individual and depends on the well-being of the child and the presence of vomiting. You need to offer liquid to the child every 5-15 minutes. Unsoldering lasts until the child stops losing fluid.

5. How to determine the required volume of liquid?

Clinical guidelines do not give strict recommendations in this regard.Approximate volume of 50-100 ml for each kilogram of the child’s weight for the first few hours. For an approximate calculation, you can rely on age. Up to 2 years old, a child needs to consume about a liter of liquid per day, after 2 years up to one and a half liters.

6. What if the child does not drink?

Only droppers can be an alternative to oral soldering. Therefore, you need to make every effort to ensure that the child drinks a certain amount of liquid.If the child categorically refuses to use special solutions, compote, highly diluted non-acidic juice, weak tea can become an alternative.

In severe dehydration, fluid loss is replenished only by intravenous administration. This is possible only in an infectious hospital. With the development of a life-threatening condition, the child can be taken to the intensive care unit.

How else can you help your child?

Usually, children who are dehydrated refuse to eat.You should not feed your child if he flatly refuses. As soon as the baby becomes a little easier, he will ask for food himself. Cereals are considered optimal for nutrition. Porridge with milk diluted in half with water. You can also offer your baby steam cutlets, stewed vegetables, non-steep broths, dryers and crackers. They categorically exclude from the diet sugary carbonated drinks, fatty and fried, raw fruits and vegetables and whole milk.

Food should be offered to the child in small portions, at short intervals.In my practice, it often happens that a baby for whom it becomes easier asks for large amounts of food at once. Parents rejoice at the appetite that has appeared. As a result, the child is overfed. This provokes a new wave of malaise, vomiting and repeated dehydration.

It is very important to provide an optimal environment. A sick child’s room should be cool. The hotter it is, the more water is lost. Dehydration increases.

You cannot give your child antiemetic and antidiarrheal drugs on their own.These medicines can only be used as directed by a doctor and under his strict supervision.

Online consultation of a Pediatrician

Online consultation

As part of the consultation, you will be able to voice your problem, the doctor will clarify the situation, decipher the analyzes, answer your questions and give the necessary recommendations.

What are the adverse effects of dehydration in a child?

If assistance was provided to the child on time and in full, dehydration does not have any negative consequences for the body.

In advanced cases, the consequences can be disruption of the functioning of organs and systems:

  • Disruption of the cardiovascular system: decrease in blood pressure, oxygen starvation of the body, arrhythmia as a result of impaired ion exchange;
  • impaired renal function due to imbalance of blood electrolytes;
  • Disruption of the nervous system (convulsions).
  • violation of thermoregulation, drop in body temperature.

Prevention of conditions contributing to dehydration

First of all, you need to try to protect your baby from intestinal infections. Vaccination is a specific prophylaxis measure. A vaccine against rotavirus infection has now been developed. It is administered to a child from 2 to 8 months of age three times. And it protects the baby’s body in 80-85% of cases from infection and in 100% of cases from a severe course.

Non-specific prevention of intestinal infection is the observance of hygienic measures: frequent hand washing, reducing contact with sick children.

If the infection could not be avoided, then the child should be shown to the pediatrician. And start soldering with water or a special solution on your own, even before the doctor arrives.

Prevention of food poisoning is the rejection of the use of poor-quality products, proper heat treatment of food.

In case of overheating and sunburn, it is necessary to replenish the lost fluid in a timely and sufficient amount.And also cool the body by rubbing with cold water or a cool bath.

In the overwhelming majority of cases, parents manage to cope with the manifestations of dehydration in a baby on their own. However, you need to be wary of symptoms, especially in children under one year old, in order to provide them with medical assistance in a timely manner.

Drinking regime: how much water to drink per day, and how to drink water correctly

March 30, 2020 April 14, 2021

Water is the basis of our life.As you know, a person cannot live without water for more than four days, and the loss of only 1% of the liquid by the body causes thirst. Our health, the condition of the epidermis and scalp, and the well-being of a person as a whole depend on the amount of water we drink.
The percentage of water in the human body varies with age. So, a newborn is 90% water. But with age, the amount of fluid decreases, and by old age the percentage of its content in the body decreases to 60%. Unfortunately, it is impossible to stop this process completely.However, it is in our power to observe the drinking regime and maintain the correct water balance as long as possible, prolonging our life and preserving our health.

How water affects health

Water is involved in all biochemical processes of the body, such as:

  • metabolism,
  • digestion,
  • hematopoiesis,
  • regulation of blood pressure,
  • thermoregulation,
  • detoxification.

Violation of these processes affects the condition of hair, skin, nails, as well as the functioning of all systems of the body, the musculoskeletal system, and the brain. No wonder doctors believe that dehydration can cause distraction and headaches. After all, the human brain is 75% liquid.
Same thing with blood. The less water in our body, the thicker the blood and the higher the pressure. That is why hypertensive patients need to monitor the water balance especially carefully.
When the body feels a lack of water, it begins to vigorously produce histamine, a hormone responsible for the immune response in an alarming situation for the body.However, an excess of histamine activates not only the immune system, but also allergies. This is why compliance with the drinking regime is especially important for allergy sufferers.
Water dissolves and delivers a variety of nutrients to tissues. Normal functioning of joints and muscles is impossible without water. With its lack, the likelihood of arthrosis and osteochondrosis increases sharply due to the constant wear of fragile cartilaginous tissue.
People with diabetes need to control their blood sugar.A glass of water instead of juice or a sugary beverage allows them to keep their sugar levels in check. Whereas drinks containing sugar can cause a sharp rise in its level in the blood and increase thirst.

Dehydration

When dehydrated, the body draws water from its cells to maintain its most important functions. As a result, the functionality of the cells is impaired. The blood thickens and moves more slowly, respectively, and oxygen is supplied with delays.

Signs that you are not drinking enough water:

  • Thirsty and dry mouth;
  • dark yellow urine;
  • peeling of the skin, cracks on it;
  • headaches;
  • drowsiness and lethargy;
  • heart palpitations.

Unfortunately, at the very beginning, these symptoms may appear separately, do not give an overall picture of the problem, or be attributed to manifestations of other diseases.

Excessive fluid intake

Healthy adult kidneys can process up to one liter of water per hour. Anything beyond that can be considered harmful and even dangerous. In ordinary life, this practically does not happen. However, under the confluence of a number of circumstances, this is possible, as a result of which a person may drink an excessive amount of water.

An excess of water, that is, drinking more than 4-5 liters of water per day, is fraught with the following consequences:

  • increased kidney function;
  • increased protein breakdown;
  • increased sweating;
  • by washing out the necessary salts and disturbing the salt balance;
  • dilution of gastric juice and slowing down of digestion.

In addition, people with liver and kidney diseases should be more careful with drinking water.Excessive consumption of liquids for them can be hazardous to health. In this matter, they need to strictly adhere to the doctor’s recommendations.

What is included in the drinking regimen?

One of the most common misconceptions is that the drinking regimen is equated to the use of liquids in general, including all drinks that have entered our body. It is important to remember that juices, fruit drinks, soda, milk, coffee, tea cannot replace water. Our body perceives them as food and spends maximum efforts to extract water from them.
To function properly, the human body needs a certain amount of pure water. You can calculate how much water you need to drink per kg of weight using a simple formula – we’ll talk about this further.

How much water to drink per day?

The statement that all people need to drink 8 glasses of water per day is not entirely accurate. The required volume of water should be calculated based on individual characteristics, lifestyle, weight and age of a particular person.It is worth considering physical activity during the day, the presence of chronic diseases, weather conditions and some other indicators.

You can calculate how much water to drink per day by weight from the infographic below.

Adults up to 50 years old

After <50 years old

40 milliliters per 1 kg of weight

30 milliliters 908 908 9044 908 963 An adult needs about 30 ml of water per day per kilogram of body weight.For a person weighing 50 kg, you need 1.5 liters, 60 kg – 1.8 liters, 70 kg – 2.1 liters, 80 kg – 2.4 liters of water every day.

Correct drinking regime

Basic tips

  1. Drink a glass of water at least 30 minutes before breakfast;
  2. It is better to drink raw water, that is, the water must be undistilled and unboiled;
  3. Do not drink water with meals;
  4. Drink more during exercise, on hot days, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and if poisoning.

People who lead a healthy lifestyle have probably heard that it is not recommended to drink water with food. This dilutes the stomach acid, making it difficult for food to be digested. Foods have an approximate digestion time, which is a good guide to when deciding when to drink after meals. Digestion of dairy products takes the longest time – more than two hours; bread products, pasta will occupy the stomach for more than an hour. Remember that the duration of digestion also depends on the amount eaten – the more, the longer.

Why is it important for a person to determine how many liters of water to drink per day? The fact is that due to the fast and stressful pace of our life, we sometimes forget about the needs of our body, and even a slight lack of fluid can lead to the onset of dehydration and poor health. The easiest way to calculate whether you are drinking your fluid rate is visual. Use a reusable water bottle, refill it each time it is empty, and record the data. For example, the Amway eSpring water bottle is designed in a compact size that will allow you to carry it with you without any problems, and most importantly, it has graduated marks to control the amount of drink.Its material does not contain toxic bisphenol, and the structure is easy to disassemble and wash, which prevents possible growth of bacteria on the walls. Such a simple method will help to organize the correct regime of water consumption and adhere to it constantly.

What kind of water should you drink?

The most useful is raw water, that is, water that is not distilled and unboiled. However, in our ecology, tap water carries a lot of harmful impurities. Therefore, it must be filtered using powerful purification systems.

Boiling removes magnesium and calcium salts from water, which are required by the body. And besides, there is practically no oxygen in boiled water.

It is unacceptable to drink mineral water uncontrollably and a lot – it is enriched with minerals and salts, which, if constantly ingested, can accumulate and have a negative effect. The composition of mineral water affects the solution of specific problems, and a gastroenterologist should recommend it.

It is safest to use water after high quality and reliable treatment systems.The eSpring Home Water Treatment System purifies water using a charcoal filter, which removes many hazardous substances (over 140), after which the water is irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp, which destroys up to 99.99% of infectious pathogens. Thus, the output is clear, clean water of excellent quality, which does not need to be boiled and which is safe for consumption even by 6-month-old babies.

Learn more about the eSpring Water Treatment

Water and Weight Relationship

There are many articles on the Internet on the relationship between water and weight loss.To a certain extent, drinking pure water actually helps you lose weight – in large part because it suppresses your appetite. Very often, when we want something to eat, our body actually signals the desire to drink. And a drunk mug of water will completely satisfy this desire, while an eaten sandwich or other snack will bring new kilograms with it.

Many women are concerned about the question: how much water do you need to drink to lose weight? Experts believe that when losing weight, it is necessary to increase water consumption by 30% relative to the calculation.First of all, this is due to the fact that at the time of the breakdown of adipose tissue, there is an active release of toxins that are removed from the body thanks to water. Also, when losing weight, girls often use protein diets, and water is also needed for proper protein breakdown.

In special situations

There are a number of situations and conditions that provoke an increased need for water.

  • Smoking dries out the mucous tissues of the nasopharynx, which causes a decrease in local immunity and increases the vulnerability to infections.Smokers need to increase their water intake by 60%.
  • Viral diseases, high body temperature force the body to lose a lot of moisture, therefore, during the illness, it is advisable to significantly (almost double) the intake of water.
  • Breastfeeding. A large amount of liquid is needed for milk to flow. Any breastfeeding mother should increase the amount of water consumed per day by an average of 50% and even 150% if milk is not enough.
  • Athletes with increased physical activity should drink twice as much water, because during training, the body loses a lot of water with sweat.
  • When taking diuretics, diarrhea or vomiting, the water balance must also be replenished with additional fluid.

During pregnancy

During pregnancy, some expectant mothers limit themselves to drinking due to the fear of polyhydramnios. This is a delusion. Water is necessary for the proper course of pregnancy, and the amount of amniotic fluid is in no way related to the volume of fluid consumed, but is a consequence of past diseases.Also, in pregnant women, there is concern about edema. However, water by itself, even in large quantities, cannot lead to edema. But in combination with diabetes, with the use of salty and spicy foods, with the lack of the required amount of protein in the diet, you will be guaranteed swelling. When they appear, we recommend that you immediately contact your doctor with this to establish the exact cause of their occurrence.

Even with a normal pregnancy, you should not drink a lot of water in the evening.This can adversely affect sleep quality.

The importance of clean water for children

It is necessary to teach children to drink plain water from an early age. Of course, they are much more fond of sugary and carbonated drinks, but soda does not replace water and is not only not useful, but often even harmful to the child’s body and adolescents. Remember that weaning from soda is much more difficult than teaching your baby to drink clean water from childhood.

The baby needs to be given very little water if he gets the mixture.If the baby is breastfed, then the need for water arises only during the introduction of complementary foods or in hot weather, since he gets everything he needs with his mother’s milk.

At one year and later, when the baby begins to eat more and more adult food, the volume of water must be increased. The calculation formula is about 30 ml per 1 kg of weight. If there is sport in a child’s life, then the amount of water needs to be adjusted upward.

It is equally important 0 what kind of water the children drink.

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