About all

Does drinking water affect cholesterol test: Fasting Time & How to Read Results

What to do and what to expect

A doctor may instruct a person to fast before taking a cholesterol test. This was once standard practice, but new studies are changing this recommendation.

A cholesterol test measures the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in a person’s blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like material that is present in all of the body’s cells.

The body needs some cholesterol to help produce vitamin D, hormones, and enzymes that aid digestion.

A cholesterol test, also known as a lipids panel, measures several different types of cholesterol, including:

  • high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or “good cholesterol”
  • low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or “bad cholesterol”
  • triglycerides, the chemical form in which most fats exist

To work out a person’s total cholesterol score, a healthcare professional adds the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels to 20 percent of the triglyceride level.

A doctor will use these results to assess a person’s risk of developing heart disease and other health problems relating to high cholesterol.

Read on to find out more about fasting before a cholesterol test.

Share on PinterestA person will need to refrain from food and drink for 9–12 hours before a fasting cholesterol test.

Standard practice used to require a person to fast for 9–12 hours before taking a cholesterol test, meaning that they should have no food or drink other than water during that time.

However, recent guidelines have changed. They now allow doctors to recommend nonfasting cholesterol testing to certain groups of individuals.

One 2017 paper recommends nonfasting cholesterol testing, citing the following advantages of nonfasting cholesterol testing:

  • convenient
  • safe
  • no waiting required

The author also states that research involving over 300,000 people suggests that nonfasting tests are at least as accurate as fasting tests at predicting future cardiovascular health problems.

This paper suggests that the triglyceride level will rise by an average of 26 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) for a nonfasting reading in comparison with the fasting level. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels will be 8 mg/dl lower, on average. The authors believe that this difference is clinically insignificant.

However, the medical community continues to debate the need for some higher-risk groups to fast before testing.

According to another analysis from the American College of Cardiology, higher-risk groups may benefit from fasting. This is because the equation that doctors use to find the LDL level tends to underestimate the levels of LDL and triglycerides in people who do not fast.

Due to this, a doctor may recommend that some people fast before a cholesterol test but suggest that other individuals do not need to. A person should follow their doctor’s recommendation regarding fasting.

In cases where a doctor does recommend fasting before a cholesterol test, this often means that the person must refrain from all food and drink except water for 9–12 hours before the test.

A person who undergoes a fasting cholesterol test is likely to go for the test first thing in the morning so that they may eat after the test and do most of the fasting while they sleep.

A cholesterol test is a simple blood test during which a technician will generally seat the person in a chair with a special armrest. The technician will then tie a rubber strip around the person’s arm to try to find a suitable vein from which to draw blood.

After finding a vein, the technician will clean the area with alcohol, insert a needle attached to a tube into the person’s vein, and allow the tube to fill.

When the tube is full of blood, the technician will remove the needle and hold gauze on the site of the puncture. The technician may ask the person to apply pressure for a few minutes to stop the bleeding, and they might apply a small bandage over the gauze.

At this point, the test is complete, and the person is usually free to go about their normal daily activities.

Share on PinterestA cholesterol test will measure several types of cholesterol in the blood.

The results will tell a doctor if the levels of cholesterol in a person’s blood are healthy.

The test measures several types of cholesterol in a person’s blood in mg/dl. It is possible to break down the results by type of cholesterol.

HDL cholesterol

HDL results measure the amount of “good” cholesterol in a person’s blood. Higher readings tend to be better than lower readings:

60 mg/dl or higher optimal
40–59 mg/dl less desirable
under 40 mg/dl poor

LDL cholesterol

Recommended LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels will vary based on the health of the individual. Lower readings tend to be better than higher readings:

below 70 mg/dl optimal for people with diabetes or heart disease
below 100 mg/dl optimal for people with no heart disease and no increased risk for heart disease
130–159 mg/dl borderline high
160–189 mg/dl high
above 190 mg/dl very high

Triglycerides

Lower triglyceride levels tend to be better than higher readings:

under 150 mg/dl optimal
150–199 mg/dl borderline high
200–499 mg/dl high
above 500 mg/dl very high

Total cholesterol

A low total cholesterol level tends to be better than a higher one:

under 200 mg/dl optimal
200–239 mg/dl borderline high
240 mg/dl or over high

What happens next will depend largely on the results of the test and other risk factors that a person may or may not have.

If the cholesterol levels do not suggest any potential health problems, a doctor is likely to recommend no further action or testing.

If a person’s cholesterol levels are high, a doctor may recommend that the person makes lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or changing their diet. The doctor may prescribe medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol.

Additionally, a doctor may recommend more frequent cholesterol testing.

A person can have too much cholesterol in their body. Often, people with high cholesterol have no symptoms.

Cholesterol can combine with other substances in the blood and make a substance called plaque that clogs the arteries.

The higher a person’s cholesterol levels, the more likely they are to have health problems related to high cholesterol, including:

As high cholesterol often does not cause symptoms, doctors routinely order a cholesterol test for adults. The American Heart Association recommend that people aged 20 years and older should consider having a cholesterol level check once every 4–6 years.

Doctors may recommend that some people get more frequent cholesterol tests. Those who may need these additional tests include the following groups:

  • people who are overweight or obese
  • people with a family or personal history of heart attack
  • people with a family history of high cholesterol
  • people whose initial cholesterol test was high
  • people who smoke

High cholesterol levels can warn doctors of other potential health problems that a person may develop during their lifetime.

As high cholesterol often has no symptoms, doctors recommend checking cholesterol levels with a simple blood test.

Fasting before a cholesterol test used to be standard practice. Now, however, the medical community is starting to change its recommendations on fasting before cholesterol testing.

A person should follow their doctor’s instructions regarding fasting before a cholesterol test.

Q:

Can drinking coffee before a cholesterol test affect the results?

A:

Drinking a cup of black coffee before a cholesterol test might not significantly affect the test results. However, it is best to follow a doctor’s orders. If the doctor suggests fasting before a cholesterol test, then the person should fast.

Gerhard Whitworth, RNAnswers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

What to do and what to expect

A doctor may instruct a person to fast before taking a cholesterol test. This was once standard practice, but new studies are changing this recommendation.

A cholesterol test measures the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in a person’s blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like material that is present in all of the body’s cells.

The body needs some cholesterol to help produce vitamin D, hormones, and enzymes that aid digestion.

A cholesterol test, also known as a lipids panel, measures several different types of cholesterol, including:

  • high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, or “good cholesterol”
  • low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, or “bad cholesterol”
  • triglycerides, the chemical form in which most fats exist

To work out a person’s total cholesterol score, a healthcare professional adds the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels to 20 percent of the triglyceride level.

A doctor will use these results to assess a person’s risk of developing heart disease and other health problems relating to high cholesterol.

Read on to find out more about fasting before a cholesterol test.

Share on PinterestA person will need to refrain from food and drink for 9–12 hours before a fasting cholesterol test.

Standard practice used to require a person to fast for 9–12 hours before taking a cholesterol test, meaning that they should have no food or drink other than water during that time.

However, recent guidelines have changed. They now allow doctors to recommend nonfasting cholesterol testing to certain groups of individuals.

One 2017 paper recommends nonfasting cholesterol testing, citing the following advantages of nonfasting cholesterol testing:

  • convenient
  • safe
  • no waiting required

The author also states that research involving over 300,000 people suggests that nonfasting tests are at least as accurate as fasting tests at predicting future cardiovascular health problems.

This paper suggests that the triglyceride level will rise by an average of 26 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) for a nonfasting reading in comparison with the fasting level. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels will be 8 mg/dl lower, on average. The authors believe that this difference is clinically insignificant.

However, the medical community continues to debate the need for some higher-risk groups to fast before testing.

According to another analysis from the American College of Cardiology, higher-risk groups may benefit from fasting. This is because the equation that doctors use to find the LDL level tends to underestimate the levels of LDL and triglycerides in people who do not fast.

Due to this, a doctor may recommend that some people fast before a cholesterol test but suggest that other individuals do not need to. A person should follow their doctor’s recommendation regarding fasting.

In cases where a doctor does recommend fasting before a cholesterol test, this often means that the person must refrain from all food and drink except water for 9–12 hours before the test.

A person who undergoes a fasting cholesterol test is likely to go for the test first thing in the morning so that they may eat after the test and do most of the fasting while they sleep.

A cholesterol test is a simple blood test during which a technician will generally seat the person in a chair with a special armrest. The technician will then tie a rubber strip around the person’s arm to try to find a suitable vein from which to draw blood.

After finding a vein, the technician will clean the area with alcohol, insert a needle attached to a tube into the person’s vein, and allow the tube to fill.

When the tube is full of blood, the technician will remove the needle and hold gauze on the site of the puncture. The technician may ask the person to apply pressure for a few minutes to stop the bleeding, and they might apply a small bandage over the gauze.

At this point, the test is complete, and the person is usually free to go about their normal daily activities.

Share on PinterestA cholesterol test will measure several types of cholesterol in the blood.

The results will tell a doctor if the levels of cholesterol in a person’s blood are healthy.

The test measures several types of cholesterol in a person’s blood in mg/dl. It is possible to break down the results by type of cholesterol.

HDL cholesterol

HDL results measure the amount of “good” cholesterol in a person’s blood. Higher readings tend to be better than lower readings:

60 mg/dl or higher optimal
40–59 mg/dl less desirable
under 40 mg/dl poor

LDL cholesterol

Recommended LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol levels will vary based on the health of the individual. Lower readings tend to be better than higher readings:

below 70 mg/dl optimal for people with diabetes or heart disease
below 100 mg/dl optimal for people with no heart disease and no increased risk for heart disease
130–159 mg/dl borderline high
160–189 mg/dl high
above 190 mg/dl very high

Triglycerides

Lower triglyceride levels tend to be better than higher readings:

under 150 mg/dl optimal
150–199 mg/dl borderline high
200–499 mg/dl high
above 500 mg/dl very high

Total cholesterol

A low total cholesterol level tends to be better than a higher one:

under 200 mg/dl optimal
200–239 mg/dl borderline high
240 mg/dl or over high

What happens next will depend largely on the results of the test and other risk factors that a person may or may not have.

If the cholesterol levels do not suggest any potential health problems, a doctor is likely to recommend no further action or testing.

If a person’s cholesterol levels are high, a doctor may recommend that the person makes lifestyle changes, such as losing weight or changing their diet. The doctor may prescribe medications, such as statins, to lower cholesterol.

Additionally, a doctor may recommend more frequent cholesterol testing.

A person can have too much cholesterol in their body. Often, people with high cholesterol have no symptoms.

Cholesterol can combine with other substances in the blood and make a substance called plaque that clogs the arteries.

The higher a person’s cholesterol levels, the more likely they are to have health problems related to high cholesterol, including:

As high cholesterol often does not cause symptoms, doctors routinely order a cholesterol test for adults. The American Heart Association recommend that people aged 20 years and older should consider having a cholesterol level check once every 4–6 years.

Doctors may recommend that some people get more frequent cholesterol tests. Those who may need these additional tests include the following groups:

  • people who are overweight or obese
  • people with a family or personal history of heart attack
  • people with a family history of high cholesterol
  • people whose initial cholesterol test was high
  • people who smoke

High cholesterol levels can warn doctors of other potential health problems that a person may develop during their lifetime.

As high cholesterol often has no symptoms, doctors recommend checking cholesterol levels with a simple blood test.

Fasting before a cholesterol test used to be standard practice. Now, however, the medical community is starting to change its recommendations on fasting before cholesterol testing.

A person should follow their doctor’s instructions regarding fasting before a cholesterol test.

Q:

Can drinking coffee before a cholesterol test affect the results?

A:

Drinking a cup of black coffee before a cholesterol test might not significantly affect the test results. However, it is best to follow a doctor’s orders. If the doctor suggests fasting before a cholesterol test, then the person should fast.

Gerhard Whitworth, RNAnswers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.

New guidelines simplify cholesterol tests: no fasting needed

I’m supposed to have my cholesterol checked soon. It’s a simple test, but I’m not looking forward to it since it requires fasting overnight. And that means making a special early-morning trip to my doctor’s office.

But new international guidelines say it’s OK — even preferred — to skip the overnight fast.

To learn more about this small but oh-so-useful shift, I talked with cardiologist Dr. Samia Mora. She helped write the new guidelines, which were published this week in the European Heart Journal and summarized in JAMA Internal Medicine. Mora is director of the Center for Lipid Metabolomics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School.

advertisement

What was the point of fasting before having a cholesterol test?

Not eating for eight to 12 hours before having blood drawn for a cholesterol test was thought to give a more accurate assessment of total cholesterol, harmful LDL cholesterol, protective HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, a type of fat-carrying particle. We now know better.

One problem with fasting is that we spend most of the day in the nonfasting state, so the way cholesterol tests are currently done doesn’t necessarily give a clear picture of “normal” levels. Another is that fasting is a hassle for everyone concerned — patients, clinicians, and even lab workers.

advertisement

What’s behind the new recommendation?

This change has been coming for some time. It is driven by data from a dozen-plus studies that include more than 300,000 people whose cholesterol and other lipids were measured when they hadn’t fasted. Their levels predicted cardiovascular risk, as well as, or possibly better than, fasting lipid levels.

Nonfasting levels might be better?

After you eat, your digestive system converts some of the carbohydrates and fats into triglycerides. Their level in the bloodstream rises, then gradually falls. If the triglyceride level rises too much, it’s a signal that the body has trouble metabolizing food. Think of eating as a stress test for metabolism. That’s something you can’t see if you’ve been fasting.

What does this shift mean?

Everyone wins with this change. People don’t like to fast overnight. Some find it difficult to do, others are even harmed by it, such as those who faint from fasting and people with diabetes who take medications to lower blood sugar. The new recommendation means you can have your blood drawn when it’s most convenient for you, rather than early in the day.

It may even mean one-stop shopping — you can have your blood drawn and then see your doctor, all in the same visit. It’s easier for clinicians, who don’t have to keep track of patients’ special lab visits. Eliminating the fasting requirement will benefit labs, too, since they won’t have to deal with the daily crush of patients first thing in the morning needing blood draws for cholesterol checks.

Does what you eat before the test matter?

Consuming a double cheeseburger, fries, and a milk shake right before having your blood drawn for a cholesterol test may lead to a follow-up fasting test if the triglycerides are very high. But eating normally has little effect on your lipid levels, including triglycerides.

Will this recommendation catch on in the United States?

Health care providers often do what they are used to doing, so it may take a while for some to change to nonfasting cholesterol tests. But we also need to realize that there are advantages to this evidence-based change. Switching to nonfasting cholesterol testing is actually the path of least resistance for patients and clinicians. It also provides a more accurate lipid profile for individual patients.

I believe that getting the word out to clinicians, lab directors, and patients will be enough to make the switch to nonfasting cholesterol tests in a fairly short time.

When to Suspect Your Cholesterol Test Is Wrong

An accurate cholesterol test test can be an important indicator of overall health, risk of conditions such as heart disease and stroke, and a useful factor when determining preventive measures such as dietary changes. If the results of those tests aren’t accurate, however, they aren’t likely to be helpful.

Andrew Brookes / Getty Images

There are several things you can do to help make certain you get results from a cholesterol test you can trust. A good place to start: Ask your doctor what kind of test will be used to measure your cholesterol. In recent years, testing methods have become increasingly accurate as well as more convenient in that fasting beforehand is no longer always necessary.

Despite best intentions, inaccurate tests can happen and it is helpful to know when it might make sense to ask your doctor if you need a re-test.

Current Cholesterol Tests

The standard “cholesterol test” is a blood lipid test in which a sample of blood is drawn and then analyzed in a lab to measure: 

  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or “bad” cholesterol. Desirable result: Less than 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL)
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) or “good” cholesterol. Desirable result: Greater than or equal to 60 mg/dL
  • Triglycerides, a type of fat blood the body uses for energy. Desirable result: Less than 150 mg/dL
  • Total cholesterol, the total amount of cholesterol in the blood based on your HDL, LDL, and triglycerides numbers. Desirable result: Less than 200 mg/dL

Thanks to research showing that HDL/LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels aren’t generally affected by food consumption the day before testing,it’s not always necessary to fast the night before a cholesterol test or show up first thing in the morning for a blood draw.

Nonfasting test methods have been shown to be more accurate than the traditional method originally developed and used since the 1970s (known as the Friedewald Estimation), particularly when measuring LDL (bad) cholesterol. Ask your doctor if a non-fasting test might be available and an option for you.

Reasons for Inaccuracy

If you get cholesterol test results you suspect may not be accurate, it’s likely due to a temporary change in your body’s chemistry that might be the result of any one of a number of situations, including:

  • Certain medications: Corticosteroids and beta-blockers can raise lipid levels, for example. If you take such a drug, tell your doctor before your cholesterol test. It may be you’ll need to take a break from the medication for a short period prior to testing to get accurate results.
  • Pregnancy: For the entire nine months, as well as several months after a baby is born, cholesterol levels may be higher than usual. A cholesterol test should not be considered reliable until a new mom is about four months postpartum.
  • Alcohol consumption: Even occasional heavy drinking can negatively affect cholesterol scores. Most experts advise avoiding alcohol for 24 hours prior to testing.
  • Inflammation or infection. Either can skew cholesterol numbers, particularly in chronic cases. Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and psoriasis may affect scores.
  • Human error: Although uncommon, lab mistakes and reporting mistakes do happen.

Make sure the person who draws your blood asks for your identification, and then labels the tubes with the correctly-spelled information. There are other ways that laboratory errors happen, but misidentification is one you can help prevent.

What to Do

If you suspect your cholesterol results aren’t accurate, talk to your doctor and don’t hesitate to ask for a repeat test. Again, your cholesterol numbers, along with other factors like blood pressure and body weight, are a key indicator of your overall health and well-being.

Ask an expert: Can a cheeseburger raise my cholesterol test results?

Q: “I ate a cheeseburger the day before I gave blood for a physical. Even though I fasted for 12 hours before I gave blood, could the cheeseburger have elevated my cholesterol? I am 22 and am only a few pounds overweight. My total cholesterol is 180; HDL is 37; LDL is 119; triglycerides are 121. What do you suggest I do to lower my numbers?”

Answer provided by Kimra Hawk, RD, LD, outpatient dietitian with Providence Nutrition Services at Providence St. Vincent Medical Center

If you fasted for 12 hours, then the cheeseburger you ate did not have a direct effect. Fasting for 10 to 12 hours before a cholesterol test ensures that a single food or meal does not affect the outcome of the test.

However, if you ate a cheeseburger every day, that probably would affect your numbers. Cholesterol levels are affected by what you eat over time. If you regularly eat foods that are high in saturated fat – such as cheeseburgers, full-fat cheese, and fatty cuts of meat – that can raise your cholesterol levels. Foods high in trans fats (fast-food fries, crackers, chips, packaged baked goods) and in cholesterol (egg yolks, full-fat dairy, organ meats) also can raise your levels.

Since your numbers are actually pretty good, I’d guess that you eat a fairly healthy diet most of the time. Here’s a breakdown of your numbers:

Total cholesterol: Your level of 180 mg/dL is well within the desirable range of less than 200 for good health.

LDL cholesterol: At 119 mg/dL, your LDL cholesterol – the number you want to keep low – is “near optimal” according to the National Cholesterol Education Program. (Less than 100 mg/dL is optimal; 100–129 is near optimal; 130–159 is borderline high; 160–189 is high; 190 and above is very high.)

Triglycerides: Your triglyceride level of 121 mg/dL is also good – anything less than 150 is considered normal.

HDL cholesterol: This is the only number where your results – 37 mg/dL – come up a little short, especially for your young age. Unlike the other numbers, HDL is the one that you want to keep high. Levels below 40 mg/dL in men and below 50 mg/dL in women are considered a major risk factor for heart disease. A desirable level is 60 mg/dL and above.

So rather than looking for ways to lower your cholesterol, which is pretty good overall, it would be better for you to focus on strategies to increase your HDL cholesterol. Here are some things that might help:

  • Try to get two and a half hours of aerobic exercise every week (about 30 minutes a day on most days). This can increase your HDL by about 5 percent.
  • Lose those few extra pounds you’ve been carrying around (the exercise will help). Every 6 pounds of weight loss can increase HDL by about 1 mg/dL.
  • If you smoke, quit. Smoking lowers HDL levels.
  • Choose fats wisely, opting for unsaturated fats. Get more fat facts.

These strategies should help you increase your good HDL cholesterol and maintain the good numbers you already have.

I’m glad that you are keeping an eye on your cholesterol levels. These numbers are important for determining your risk of having a heart attack. The National Cholesterol Education Program offers a calculator that can help you determine your risk.

At your age, and with your numbers, you probably don’t have a lot to worry about. Just get some exercise, and go easy on the cheeseburgers.

Water Can Heal – High blood pressure and cholesterol


1 | 2

Do you know the number one killer in America is actually — heart disease? High cholesterol and high blood pressure can lead to serious heart conditions. But, these two causes can be prevented.

Let’s start with high cholesterol. The American Heart Association says that one in five American’s have too high a cholesterol level. But first, just what is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance called a lipid that is found inside cells and blood. It is produced naturally in the liver, but some of the “bad” cholesterol comes from the food we eat, mainly in animal fats. While too much cholesterol can be harmful, a certain amount is necessary for bodily functions, such as making cell walls and acting as a building block to produce various hormones, bile acids, and Vitamin D.

Having too much cholesterol can block blood flow, resulting in a thickening and hardening of artery walls, a disorder called arteriosclerosis. Since this also narrows the arteries, blood flow can be slowed down, or even blocked. With less blood, the heart therefore gets less oxygen. That can result in chest pain, heart attack, or something as drastic as death. Lowering your blood cholesterol level is one of the best ways you can decrease your risk of heart disease. And, even if your cholesterol is close to the desirable range, 200 milligrams per deciliter of blood, you can lower it and reduce your risk of heart disease.

With all this thickening going on, water can play a very important role. Drinking water can actually thin the blood, making in a natural way to help the blood pump more smoothly. When the body is dehydrated, the blood becomes acidic which can lead to a build-up in LDL levels of cholesterol. Drinking plenty of water will keep your blood ways clean and eliminate excess buildup of cholesterol waste from the body. Drinking plenty of water will keep your blood ways clean! Moreover, drinking lots of water can improve your metabolic rate, which may help you lose weight. Since exercise, along with a healthy diet, is an important contribution to the lowering of cholesterol, once again, water needs to be drank in order to replenish what was lost. In fact, consumption of water so you are fully hydrated can increase your metabolic rate!


1 | 2

The Facts on Fasting for Blood Tests

It’s the morning of your bloodwork and your doctor said to fast before the test. But your stomach is growling and you have serious caffeine withdrawal hours before you roll up your sleeve. A bite of toast and a few gulps of coffee won’t really make a difference, right?

Not so fast. Your results could come back wrong if you give in to temptation.

Fasting means you don’t eat or drink anything but water usually for 8 to 12 hours beforehand.

So, if your appointment is at 8 a.m. and you’re told to fast for 8 hours, only water is okay after midnight. If it’s a 12-hour fast, avoid food and drink after 8 p.m. the night before.

You also shouldn’t smoke, chew gum (even sugarless), or exercise. These things can rev up your digestion, and that can affect your results.

Take your prescription medications unless your doctor tells you to skip them. But ask your doctor before you take any over-the-counter drugs.

What Tests Do I Fast For?

Blood tests help doctors check for certain health problems and find out how well your body is working. Doctors also use them to figure out how well treatments are working. You don’t need to fast before all blood tests. Your doctor will tell you if you need to.

These tests typically require fasting:

  • Fasting blood glucose measures the amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood to test for diabetes or prediabetes.
    Typical fasting time: At least 8 hours
  • Lipid profile is used to check the level of cholesterol and other blood fats. High levels put you at risk for developing heart disease or having a stroke.
    Typical fasting time: 9-12 hours
  • Basic or comprehensive metabolic panel is often part of a routine physical. The tests check your blood sugar, electrolyte and fluid balance, and kidney function. The comprehensive test checks your liver function, too.
    Typical fasting time: 10-12 hours
  • Vitamin B12 test measures how much of the vitamin is in your blood. It can help diagnosis a specific type of anemia and other problems. Some medications can interfere with this test. Tell your doctor about all the drugs you take.
    Typical fasting time: 6-8 hours
  • Iron tests are used to see if iron levels in your system are too low or too high.
    Typical fasting time: 12 hours
  • Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) shows the level of the GGT enzyme in your system. A high reading may indicate liver disease, bile duct problems, or alcohol abuse.
    Your doctor may ask you to fast for at least 8 hours beforehand. You also may need to avoid alcohol and some prescription drugs the day before the test because they can affect GGT levels. Talk to your doctor before stopping any prescribed medicines.

 

Why Do I Have to Fast?

Nutrients in food and drinks go into your bloodstream and can change things measured by the tests, skewing your results.

For instance, if you eat or drink before a fasting blood glucose test, your blood sugar probably will be higher than if you hadn’t had anything. When you’re fasting, doctors get a baseline result so tests can be compared to give a true picture of your sugar levels over time.

What If I Slip Up?

If you make a mistake and eat or drink anything besides water, tell the person taking your blood. Your doctor will want to know so they can interpret your tests correctly. For the best results, they may ask you to reschedule.

When Can I Eat or Drink Again?

As soon as your blood is taken, your fast is over. You might want to bring a snack and a drink with you so you can eat as soon as possible after the test.

90,000 Can I drink water before donating blood

A blood test is one of the most common laboratory tests, which is the main diagnostic in determining most of the known diseases. Based on the results obtained during testing, a diagnosis is made and treatment is prescribed. At the moment, several types of analyzes are widespread at once. Mostly the sample is taken from a finger, less often from a vein (as directed by a doctor).

Types of blood tests

Three main types of blood tests are common: general, biochemical, and sugar testing.

  • General analysis allows you to obtain information on several parameters at once – it can include from 5 to 24 studied indicators. These include hemoglobin, erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes.
  • Biochemical analysis allows you to assess the work of internal organs and the state of the metabolic process.
  • A blood sugar test is used to establish the blood glucose level, which is considered a key indicator in the diagnosis and subsequent treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Blood tests for hormones, AIDS, or HIV infection are also common.

Rules for preparing for the delivery of tests

In the overwhelming majority of cases, a blood test is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach – while it is prohibited to take any food 8-12 hours before the start of the study. This is the time necessary for its assimilation, after which the main processes in the body are normalized. The prohibition implies the refusal to eat food on the eve, which will prevent a chemical reaction of metabolism.Violation of the requirement affects the chemical composition of the blood, in particular, causing false positives.

Taking into account the fact that the tests are delivered mainly at the beginning of the day, the fulfillment of the basic requirements most often does not cause difficulties. But there are a number of conventions. For example, fried and fatty foods should be eliminated from the diet within 48 hours. Also, at the request of the doctor, you can stop taking medications that affect blood clotting. The exceptions are cases when the analysis is carried out to control these indicators.

Tea, coffee and other hot and cold drinks are also banned. However, in the case of water, everything is far from being so unambiguous – it is necessary for the human body and, regardless of the type of analysis, will not affect the results. But this is true only if the amount of its use by a person does not exceed a few sips.

Can drinking water influence research results?

If a general blood test is performed, the amount of liquid taken, if it is pure drinking water without dyes and sweeteners, does not matter.In this regard, even a large amount of it will not affect the results. However, in a number of other cases, the situation is different – for example, during a biochemical study, as well as tests to establish the level of cholesterol and hormones, it is forbidden to drink more than a couple of sips. Otherwise, the blood may become more liquid, which in turn will affect the performance.

This is due to the fact that water consists of chemical elements, therefore, under certain conditions, it creates an error, including in the study of hormonal parameters.The doctor should decide on a ban on taking a certain amount of water, based on the type of the planned examination and its direction.

About time frames

If we talk about the time frame, then when donating blood for glucose, you can use water, literally a few sips, no later than one hour before the study. More serious preparation is required when carrying out biochemical analyzes – in this case, it is recommended to refrain from drinking plenty of fluids for 8-12 hours before the analysis.No more than one to three sips is allowed.

It should be remembered that quenching your natural thirst with a little water will not have a strong effect on the results. In the first place, the consequences can manifest themselves if the body encounters stress during thirst. This can lead to distortions and negatively affect the results. To avoid such cases, a number of doctors even recommend taking a small amount of water with you to the laboratory – this is done in order to calm the patient’s condition and relieve him of a feeling of nervousness.

How often do you need to donate blood?

The question of the regularity of donating blood worries people who need constant monitoring of indicators. This applies to pregnant women and people who are being treated in a hospital, as well as those with diabetes mellitus. Taking into account the fact that the volume of blood taken for analysis at one time is insignificant, even with regular checks, this will not have a negative effect on the body. The vast majority of patients do not pay attention to blood loss.

Summing up

Answering the question whether it is possible to drink water before donating blood, it should be noted that a couple of sips will not hurt, but whether more fluid intake will be allowed depends on the type of analysis. In order to be sure of the accuracy of the results obtained and to avoid the influence of drinking water on them, it is recommended that, in any doubt, consult the doctor who issued the referral. The laboratory assistant’s job is to take a sample.

Express Cholesterol Test | Health Clinic

Cholesterol is a pivotal indicator of fat metabolism; the determination of its value in the blood characterizes the patient’s lipid profile.
In addition, this blood test remains indispensable in diagnosing arteriosclerosis obliterans, as well as in predicting the risks of coronary heart disease.
If, after receiving the results, the concentration of cholesterol is above the 5.2 mmol / l mark, then this will indicate the need for a thorough investigation of the patient’s lipid status.
___
Indications for express analysis

___
  • prediction of development risks and diagnosis of arteriosclerosis and coronary artery disease;
  • inflammatory cycles or liver ailments;
  • endocrine abnormalities;
  • kidney ailments;
  • screening and dyslipoproteinemia;
  • when it is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of therapy with statins and other prescribed lipid-lowering drugs.
How is blood donated for cholesterol?

Before studying, it is important to exclude junk food, medication and alcohol, which affect the degree of concentration of cholesterol in the blood. The preparatory process for the express analysis is quite simple and consists in the following:

  • Exclude the use of fatty foods for several days.
  • Graying food intake should be no earlier than 12 hours before taking the study.
  • A day before analysis, exclude alcohol.
  • You can drink water even before the procedure itself.
  • Immediately before passing the express analysis, it is advisable to relax and rest for 15 minutes, and also to exclude smoking.

If you are taking medications that affect cholesterol levels, for example, hormones, antibiotics, vitamin complexes, diuretics, statins, anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.etc., warn the specialist referring you to the test.

Checking cholesterol levels using rapid test

Express analyzes are very easy to use. They are popular among patients who are recommended lipid-lowering therapy, because with the help of tests they can independently control the effectiveness of therapy without visiting a doctor.

Rapid tests are designed to collect blood in the laboratory, while everything you need is included in the kit, and the result is ready in just a few minutes.

In our clinic, experienced specialists are waiting for you, who, using an express blood test, will quickly establish the level of cholesterol, and will be able to help bring it back to normal, in case of imbalance.

In addition to high-quality service, you are pleased to be surprised by the price for express analysis of cholesterol in our clinic, because it is one of the lowest in Moscow

Name of service Price in rubles

Express analysis of cholesterol

500

If you did not find the service in the price list, please call us at +7 (495) 961-27-67 and
+7 (495) 951-39-09, you will be given the necessary information.

* Not a public offer. Check the cost with the administrator.

Rules of preparation for laboratory research

Blood test

Blood counts can change significantly during the day, so all tests should be done in the morning. All blood tests should be done prior to radiography, ultrasound, EGD, and physiotherapy.For an hour before donating blood, you must refrain from smoking. The day before donating blood, it is advisable to avoid physical activity, alcohol intake and significant changes in diet and daily routine. The results of studies can be influenced by taking medications. If you are taking medication, be sure to notify your doctor and the procedure nurse. If it is necessary to study on an empty stomach, at least 12 hours should elapse between the last meal and blood sampling. You can drink water and take medicine.If you previously experienced dizziness when taking blood, warn the procedural nurse in advance – your blood will be taken in the supine position.

IMPORTANT! After taking blood, it is not recommended to load the arm from the vein of which the blood was taken for 1 hour (for example, to carry a bag).

When monitoring laboratory parameters in dynamics, it is recommended to conduct repeated studies under the same conditions: in the same laboratory, donate blood at the same time of day, etc.Venous blood collection is performed using closed vacuum systems. The needle will be inserted into the vein and it is possible that during the puncture you may experience a short-term slight painful sensation. After taking blood, the needle will be removed. It is extremely rare, after taking blood at the puncture site, a hematoma may occur. This type of hematoma is not particularly dangerous. To prevent it from appearing, you must clearly follow the advice of medical personnel. In order to prevent the formation of a hematoma (bruise), a tight bandage is applied to the puncture site using a sterile material.Removal of the dressing is possible after 15 minutes. Any other method is less effective in preventing hematoma formation.

Clinical analysis blood
Blood for research is more often taken from a vein, less often from a finger, and from a newborn’s heel. If only a general blood test is prescribed, then the last meal is an hour before blood donation.

Biochemical blood test, study of blood hormones, coagulogram
Examine venous blood on an empty stomach.At least 12 hours should elapse between the last meal and blood collection. You can drink water and take medicine.

IMPORTANT! When examining the lipid profile (cholesterol and fractions), at least 14 hours should elapse between the last meal (light dinner) and blood sampling. You can drink water and take medicine.

For glucose tolerance tests, a mixed diet of more than 250 grams of carbohydrates per day (normal diet) should be followed for 3 days.

IMPORTANT! It is necessary to agree on the regimen of taking medications that can affect glucose metabolism with your doctor. The duration of the test, depending on the doctor’s prescription, can be from 1 hour to 4 hours. This time the patient must be in the clinic.

IMPORTANT! When examining the hormonal status, women of reproductive age should pay special attention to the need to donate blood on the corresponding day of the menstrual cycle.

IMPORTANT! When examining a coagulogram, it is imperative to inform the procedural nurse of the medications taken (especially warfarin, heparin, fraxiparin, clexane, plavix, aspirin).

The rest of the blood tests do not require strict restrictions.

Sputum examination
Sputum is collected in the morning, before meals, in plastic disposable sterile containers. The container can be obtained from your doctor’s office or purchased from a pharmacy. Brush your teeth before coughing up sputum. Rinse mouth with water. Wash the hands. Take a few deep breaths, then vigorously cough and spit out the phlegm into a container. Close the lid.

General urinalysis and urinalysis according to Nechiporenko
Before collecting urine, be sure to conduct a thorough toilet of the external genital organs. For research, collect the morning (immediately after sleep) middle portion of urine in a container.

ATTENTION! The first and last portions of urine are drained into the toilet.


For taking, use a syringe – test tubes of yellow color.
See diagram.

With the simultaneous appointment of a general analysis of urine and urine according to Nechiporenko, at least 2 tubes of 12 ml are required.If using a plastic container, collect the urine in the usual way. With the simultaneous appointment of a general analysis of urine and urine according to Nechiporenko, at least 25 ml of urine is required.

Attention! The urine is delivered to the laboratory on the day of collection. It cannot be stored until the next day.

Urine collected for general analysis can be stored for no more than 1.5-2 hours (always in a cool place, for example, a refrigerator at a temperature of 2-8 ° C). You can not collect urine during menstruation and for 2-3 days after the end, within 5-7 days after cystoscopy.

Bacteriological examination of urine
A green test tube with a filler is used (contains boric acid, which prevents the growth of bacteria). Urine collection technique – see general urinalysis. Boric acid stabilizes the growth of microorganisms for 48 hours when the urine sample is stored at room temperature.

Collection of daily urine
To collect daily urine in the pharmacy of the clinic “Scandinavia”, you can purchase special kits, the complete set of the kit depends on the type of study.Each set includes a 3 liter plastic container with a measuring scale for fixing the daily urine volume, 12 ml SARSTEDT tubes (URINE) yellow and / or and SARSTEDT plastic disposable containers, a collection set for epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, IUD, calcium, phosphorus, includes a plastic tube with a stabilizer. Before collecting urine, pour the contents of the tube into a 3-liter container. The urine is collected over 24 hours in one large container (jar). The last urine sample is drawn at exactly the same time that collection was started.Measure the volume of urine (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml). Stir. Approximately 50 ml is delivered to the laboratory for research. In the direction indicate the volume of excreted urine per day (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml).

Daily excretion (loss) of protein, 17-KS, 17-OC
A special kit can be purchased at the Scandinavia clinic pharmacy to collect daily urine. During the day, the usual drinking regime is observed. In the morning at 6-8 o’clock, the bladder is emptied (this portion is poured out).Next, the urine is collected within 24 hours in one large container (jar).

ATTENTION! Urine does not need to be stored in a cold place.

The last portion is taken exactly at the same time when the collection was started. Measure the volume of urine (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml). Stir. Approximately 50 ml is delivered to the laboratory for research. In the direction indicate the volume of excreted urine per day (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml).

Rules for collecting urine per day for: adrenaline, norepinephrine, calcium, phosphorus, vanilla almond, homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acids, metanephrine and normetanephrine

To collect daily urine for these studies, a special set with a preservative can be purchased at the Scandinavia clinic pharmacy.During the day, the usual drinking regime is observed. In the morning at 6-8 o’clock, the bladder is emptied (this portion is poured out). The next portion of urine is collected in a large container and the contents of the vial with the stabilizer are poured into the same. Next, the urine is collected within 24 hours in one large container (jar). The last urine sample is drawn at exactly the same time that collection was started. Measure the volume of urine (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml). Stir. Approximately 50 ml is delivered to the laboratory for research. In the direction indicate the volume of excreted urine per day (daily urine output) in milliliters (ml).

Stool analysis: coprogram, worm eggs, protozoa, Gregersen reaction (“occult blood”)

The feces are delivered in a plastic container (the volume of material is about a walnut). With the simultaneous study of feces for eggs of worms and a coprogram, 2 containers are required. When prescribing the Gregersen reaction “hidden blood”, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the diet for 3 days and exclude fish, meat, green vegetables, tomatoes, and iron supplements from food.Feces should be delivered for examination no later than 12 hours after defecation, provided that they are stored in a refrigerator (+2 – + 8 ° C). Giardia cysts are stable, therefore, for detection of cysts, the delivery time is up to 24 hours.

Analysis of feces for dysbiosis

A prerequisite is the morning portion of feces. If it is impossible to collect an analysis at this time, consult your doctor. The feces are delivered in a special plastic container for SARSTEDT feces (the volume of the material is about a walnut).The container is delivered to the laboratory no later than 2 hours after collection of the sample or if stored in a refrigerator for 4 hours (at a temperature of 4-8 ° C).

How to donate blood for analysis correctly

* there are contraindications, specialist consultation is required

  1. A number of tests are done on an empty stomach. For example, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin, etc.) and serological tests (syphilis, hepatitis B), hormones (TSH, parahormone), etc.”On an empty stomach” is when at least 8 hours pass between the last meal and blood collection (preferably at least 12 hours). Juice, tea, coffee, especially with sugar – are also food, so you have to endure. You can drink water.

  2. Strictly on an empty stomach (after a 12-hour fast), blood should be donated to determine the parameters of the lipid profile: cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides.

  3. If you have to take a general or clinical blood test, the last meal should be no later than 1 hour before donating blood.Breakfast can consist of unsweetened tea, unsweetened porridge without butter and milk, and an apple.

  4. It is advisable to exclude fatty, fried and alcohol from the diet 1-2 days before the examination. If a feast took place the day before, postpone the laboratory test for 1-2 days. Refrain from smoking one hour before taking blood.

  5. The content of many tests in the blood is subject to daily fluctuations, therefore, for a number of studies, blood should be donated strictly at a certain time of the day.So, blood for some hormones (TSH and parahormone), as well as for iron, donate only until 10 in the morning.

  6. When donating venous blood, it is necessary to exclude factors influencing the research results: physical stress (running, climbing stairs), emotional arousal. Therefore, before the procedure, you should rest for 10-15 minutes in the waiting room, calm down.

  7. It is advisable to donate blood for analysis before taking medications.If you are taking medication, be sure to notify your doctor about it.

  8. Blood should not be donated after x-rays, rectal examinations, or physiotherapy procedures.

  9. In hormonal studies in women of reproductive age (from about 12-13 years old and before the onset of menopause), the results are influenced by physiological factors associated with the stage of the menstrual cycle.Therefore, when preparing for examination for the hormones FSH, LH, prolactin, estriol, estradiol, progesterone, the phase of the cycle should be indicated. When conducting a study for sex hormones, strictly adhere to the recommendations of your doctor about the day of the menstrual cycle in which you need to donate blood.

  10. When performing studies for the presence of infections, it should be borne in mind that, depending on the period of infection and the state of the immune system, any patient may have a negative result.But, nevertheless, a negative result does not completely rule out infection. In doubtful cases, it is recommended to re-analyze.

  11. It is advisable to take capillary blood in children for a general or clinical blood test during a routine examination in the morning on an empty stomach (in infants – before the next feeding, the drinking regimen is normal). In an emergency situation associated with the need for urgent diagnosis, the requirement to take on an empty stomach for this study can be neglected.If it is impossible to fulfill the recommended conditions for taking blood in the morning, on an empty stomach, it is allowed to take a sample during the day, as well as after taking a small amount of low-fat food.

  12. Different laboratories may use different research methods and units of measurement. To assess your results correctly and to make the results acceptable, do the research in the same laboratory at the same time. Comparison of such studies will be more correct.

90,000 Drinking alkaline water – how beneficial is its effect on the body? Literature review | # 06/19

Recently, many publications have appeared on the topic of nutrition, which helps a living organism maintain acid-base balance, preventing it from shifting towards the acidic side [1, 2]. Such nutrition includes both a diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and the use of alkaline water.

The acid-base balance of the internal environment of the body is maintained within fairly rigid limits at the pH level of arterial blood from 7.26 to 7.45 by the buffer systems of the body [3], and it is generally accepted that it changes only in severe diseases. However, the analysis of the acid-base balance of blood, as a rule, was carried out in patients with severe pathology and has been little studied in practically healthy people exposed to negative environmental influences, stress, changes in nutrition, etc.Currently, more sensitive methods and models are being worked out, which may help to understand more subtle, but very significant for health fluctuations in pH [4, 5].

There is a study that convincingly proves that not only severe health conditions, but also working conditions in modern industry reliably shift the traditional indicators of the blood buffer system (pH, PaCO2, PaO2 of blood and HCO in plasma) in workers of a plastics plant [6]. More subtle changes in acid-base balance in connection with the evolution of human nutrition in a historical context are also described in European Journal of Nutrition in 2001.[7]. It also states that “during high-intensity activity, acidosis is responsible for fatigue and wasting of working muscles. Pre-workout bicarbonate supplementation improved performance by delaying the onset of fatigue. ” Acid-base balance is dependent on nutrition prior to high-intensity training. Low carbohydrate intake before exercise leads to a shift towards the acidic side after intense exercise [8, 9]. Determination of acid-base balance by indicators of urine (pH, bicarbonates, urea) can also show the balance of acids and bases in the body.This method revealed the negative influence of the Western style of eating with a large amount of protein on the change in urine indicators to the acidic side [10]. There are other studies proving the effect of nutrition on the acid-base balance in both humans and animals, where it is emphasized that an unbalanced diet changes the acid-base balance towards the acidic side [11-13].

Thus, the role of nutrition in maintaining acid-base balance has been confirmed and continues to be studied, and a significant proportion of the diet is water, which has a significant effect on health along with food.The literature has accumulated a lot of data on the beneficial health effects of drinking alkaline water, which is the basis for correcting acid-base balance against the background of a person’s usual diet. Its effect on general health improvement, blood glucose level, body weight, recovery of athletes after strenuous training, etc. was studied, which will be discussed separately below.

Research materials and methods

We analyzed randomized clinical trials, as well as groups of non-randomized trials.

Results and Discussions

Drinking water in all countries is pH regulated, but the permissible range of fluctuations is quite wide. In the Russian Federation, acceptable parameters for drinking water are pH in the range of 6–9 [14], covering the range from slightly acidic to alkaline reaction. Drinking water with a pH of 8-9 is alkaline, being within the normalized parameters for daily consumption.

One of the most controversial issues when considering the benefits of drinking alkaline water is the doubt that it can be completely neutralized by the acidic environment of the stomach.Indeed, at first glance, this question is obvious, and there is an assumption that the alkaline environment will be completely inactivated by gastric juice, losing its beneficial properties. However, the answer to this question is not so simple, and it would be wrong to consider it, relying only on the physicochemical properties of the two media, overlooking some of the features of the evacuation of gastric contents. This issue has been very carefully considered by some researchers, since in medicine there is always a rather acute question of how to avoid inactivation of certain medications and reduce the time of their contact with the acidic contents of the stomach.This issue in relation to alkaline water will be considered for the first time in this review.

To understand the degree and time of contact of alkaline water with stomach acidity, it is necessary to consider the features of evacuation of fluid and food from the stomach. Methods for studying the peculiarities of evacuation of gastric contents include methods of sampling the gastrointestinal tract [15-18], scintigraphy [19, 20], pharmacokinetic analysis of marker substances [21] and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [22, 23].

For the first time, the mechanism of a much faster evacuation of water compared to food was described and studied in 1908.GV Waldeyer, who described the anatomical structure of the folds of the mucosa on the lesser curvature of the stomach (Fig.), Acting as a path for rapid evacuation of fluid [24], calling it “Magenstrasse” – the gastric lane. By the way, it was this famous histologist and anatomist who introduced the terms “neuron” and “chromosome”.

Subsequently, the Waldeyer’s phenomenon was repeatedly described by other authors [25, 26] and was finally confirmed in the 70s of the last century [27, 28]. In 2007 and 2015.the phenomenon of rapid evacuation of water (within 10 minutes) from the stomach was confirmed using mathematical models [29, 30].

In 2017, a group of German scientists published a work where the mechanism of evacuation of water drunk both on an empty stomach and after a meal was studied using MRI, and in this work, various types of food (hardness, calorie content, fat content) were studied [31]. Despite the high variability in the time of water evacuation among the subjects, it was confirmed that most of the water does not mix with the chyme and is evacuated much faster than food.Most of all, evacuation is delayed by homogeneous low-fat food, with which fluid in the stomach mixes.

The speed of water evacuation is also influenced by its temperature – cool drinks (5–20 ° C) pass from the stomach into the duodenum faster than warm drinks (25–40 ° C) [32, 33]. It should be noted that all studies were carried out on volumes of 250–350 ml, that is, the evacuation function of the stomach when eating large volumes of food was not studied, water was also drunk in an amount of 250 ml.

Despite the fact that the issue of the peculiarities of water evacuation from the stomach has been well studied and confirmed, it is known only to a certain circle of researchers and is not widely discussed in the circles of practical doctors. Although it is this phenomenon that would help to understand the mechanism of absorption and breakdown of certain drugs and fluids, long contact of which with the acidic environment of the stomach would be undesirable.

Acquaintance with the Waldeyer phenomenon gives an understanding that a significant part of alkaline water in the stomach after its consumption will be evacuated into the duodenum rather quickly along the folds of the lesser curvature and will not come into contact with the acidic environment of gastric juice concentrated in the antrum.This process occurs especially quickly when the stomach is empty. In other words, the acidity of the gastric juice does not affect the maintenance of the alkalinity of the liquid. As a guideline for maximum preservation of an alkaline environment, it is best to drink alkaline water on an empty stomach or between meals.

The effect on the human body of alkaline water obtained by electrolysis has been studied by individual authors both in animal and human models. The general health effect of the constant use of such water was considered, in particular, from the point of view of the effect on oxidative processes, causing extensive damage to biological macromolecules and leading to various diseases, aging and mutations.In particular, the mechanisms of protection against oxidation and damage of RNA, DNA, and proteins were considered both in vitro [34–37] and in vivo in laboratory rats [38]. It was assumed that alkaline water is an ideal absorber of active oxygen, which is one of the most powerful damaging factors in living systems. The research results confirmed this thesis. All of these studies found that alkaline water tended to suppress single-strand breaks in DNA, RNA, and protect protein from oxidative stress.Alkaline water has also been shown to increase the activity of a key detoxifying enzyme in the body, superoxide dismutase, which is the main defense against free radical damage [34, 35].

Water with an alkaline range (pH 8.5-9.5) has been shown to be highly antioxidant in dialysis patients. K. C. Huang et al. studied reactive oxygen species in the plasma of these patients and found that such water reduces peroxide levels increased by hemodialysis and minimizes markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) after 1 month of consumption.These data indicate that cardiovascular complications (stroke and heart attack) in hemodialysis patients can be prevented or delayed by such harmless drinking [39]. Moreover, in terms of activity and test results, the use of alkaline water in this group of patients is comparable to the effect of injectable vitamin C, but, unlike the latter, without the risk of oxalate formation [40]. The same article noted that a six-month intake of alkaline water increased hematocrit and decreased the amount of cytokines that mobilize the inflammatory response.

It is known that it is free radical oxidation that leads to the development of many age-related diseases; therefore, antioxidants can be useful for mitigating the destructive effects of aging and, possibly, for slowing it down. G. Fernandes of the University of Texas reported that different types of laboratory mice that received alkaline water from birth lived 20-50% longer than the control group that consumed tap water. He also found a decrease in serum peroxide levels in experimental mice compared to controls [41].A study carried out on nematodes in which alkaline water was used as an aqueous medium showed that it significantly extended the life span of worms, which was interpreted as a manifestation of the absorbing effect of reactive oxygen species [42].

The health-improving effect of drinking alkaline water has been registered and described in humans in a study by N.V. Vorobyeva (Lomonosov Moscow State University) in the study of intestinal microflora. Stimulation of the growth of normal anaerobic flora was noted.The positive impact was interpreted by the author as an improvement in the habitat and a favorable microecological background for the growth of auto microflora [43].

A 2001 human study in China demonstrated that drinking alkaline water for 3 to 6 months reduced hyperlipidemia, blood glucose levels in mild type 2 diabetes mellitus, and regulated blood pressure to normal levels [44] … Similar results with blood sugar regulation have been obtained in other studies.Another 2006 study in laboratory rats with experimental diabetes confirmed these results [45]. After 12 weeks of drinking alkaline water, the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar decreased.

Since type 2 diabetes mellitus is a fairly urgent problem in modern society, it receives a lot of attention from various researchers. Interesting results were obtained in people with type 2 diabetes who were divided into groups and received water with different pH (7.0; 8.0; 9.5 and 11.5) for 14 days.It was found that water with a pH of 9.5 and 11.5 exhibits a glucose-lowering property, while lower values ​​do not have a statistically significant effect on blood glucose [46]. The authors also note that along with the hypoglycemic effect, alkaline water exhibits a pronounced antioxidant effect, which is necessary for patients with diabetes mellitus, as well as a pronounced detoxification effect, manifested in frequent urination. A Korean study in diabetic mice confirmed that drinking alkaline water significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations and improved glucose tolerance [47].However, no effect was found on insulin levels. Two more studies confirmed not only the promotion of a decrease in blood glucose and the normalization of glucose tolerance, but also a better preservation of pancreatic β-cells, which are actively destroyed during the progression of this disease [48, 49].

Studies on the effects of alkaline water on the body have also been conducted among athletes and among people who received intense physical activity. It is assumed that intense physical activity provokes oxidative stress in the body [50].Post-workout dehydration also triggers an increase in malonic aldehyde, which is one of the markers of oxidative stress [51]. Red blood cells are very sensitive to oxidation. Iron-rich hemoglobin decomposes to release superoxide [49, 52]. When reactive oxygen species initiate lipid membrane peroxidation, cell membrane proteins often become cross-linked, and erythrocytes become stiffer with less mobility [53]. These mechanisms change the properties of erythrocytes, including reducing the fluidity of blood and increasing the aggregation of its cells, which leads to an increase in blood viscosity and impaired blood flow [54].Similar changes under the action of oxidants occur in platelets [55]. Platelet aggregation is also enhanced by finibrinogen, which is exposed to oxidative stress [56]. Therefore, one of the indicators of pronounced oxidative stress in athletes can be considered an increase in blood viscosity, which is exacerbated by dehydration after intense training.

Rapid recovery after intense physical activity is an urgent problem in sports medicine. J.Weidman et al. conducted a double-blind, randomized study comparing the effectiveness of rehydration after exercise using standard drinking water and alkaline water (pH 9.5) obtained by electrolysis, in which the parameters of blood viscosity were studied [57]. This study found a significant difference in whole blood viscosity when assessing high pH water intake compared to standard purified water during the recovery phase (120 min) after intense exercise-induced dehydration.The authors explain the results obtained by the neutralization of oxidative processes identified after intense physical exertion in the body of athletes. A study carried out with three types of water: mineral (pH 6.1), alkaline with low mineral content (pH 8) and regular drinking water, also showed better rehydration after high-intensity interval training with improved lactate utilization when consumed after exercise of alkaline water with low mineral content [58].

In another study, D.P. Heil demonstrated faster and better rehydration with bottled alkaline water (pH 10) than with standard drinking water in ten male cyclists. Rehydration markers were urine specific gravity, diuresis, serum protein concentration, and water balance [59]. Bicarbonate bottled alkaline water with micronutrients (pH 9.1) also showed better restorative properties compared to drinking water and in martial arts athletes after water restriction for rapid weight loss before competition [60].These studies demonstrate that water with an alkaline pH shows the best reducing properties compared to neutral drinking water, regardless of whether it is obtained by electrolysis or it is a bottled version.

Conclusions

Thus, water with a pH of 9-10 can be considered as an additional health factor. A growing body of scientific research has not revealed any negative negative effects on the body. From the reviewed publications, it is clear that drinking alkaline water can provide additional antioxidant support, has a beneficial effect on health in diabetes and hyperlipidemia, and can improve blood rheology when it is disturbed due to intense exercise.The use of alkaline water in sports for more active recovery after training can provide an additional safe tool for maintaining the health of athletes.

The literature data provided in the review can also help develop recommendations for the intake of alkaline water to maximize its beneficial properties. The peculiarities of the evacuation function of the stomach when eating food with a volume of up to 250 ml allows most of it not to mix with its contents. However, this does not apply to the entire volume of water drunk.Some of it does mix, especially if the food is homogeneous and semi-liquid. Retention is most likely to occur when alkaline water is consumed on an empty stomach or between meals. It should also be taken into account that the studies concerned the volume of liquid up to 250 ml. How large volumes of water are evacuated from the stomach remains unclear today.

In conclusion, it should be noted that the high relevance of studies of the effects of alkaline water on health remains, since there are prospects for an additional safe alimentary nutritional factor that has a beneficial effect on the body and is available to a wide range of the population.

Literature

  1. Riond J. L. Animal nutrition and acid-base balance // Eur J Nutr. 2001. No. 40 (5). P. 245-254.
  2. Gannon R. H., Millward D. J., Brown J. E. et al. Estimates of daily net endogenous acid production in the elderly UK population: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) of British adults aged 65 years and over // Br J Nutr. 2008, Sep; 100 (3): 615-623.
  3. Adrogué H. E., Adrogué H.J. Acid-base physiology // Respir Care. 2001. Apr; 46 (4). R. 328–341.
  4. Adrogué H. J., Madias N. E. Assessing Acid-Base Status: Physiologic Versus Physicochemical Approach // Kidney Dis. 2016. Nov; 68 (5). R. 793–802.
  5. Todorovic J., Nešovic-Ostojic J., Milovanovic A. et al. The assessment of acid-base analysis: comparison of the “traditional” and the “modern” approaches // Med Glas (Zenica). 2015. Feb; 12 (1). R. 7-18.
  6. Prakova G. Monitoring of acid-base status of workers at a methyl methacrylate and polymethyl methacrylate production plant in Bulgaria // RAIHA J (Fairfax, Va).2003 Jan-Feb; 64 (1). R. 11-16.
  7. Manz F. History of nutrition and acid-base physiology // Eur J Nutr. 2001. Oct; 40 (5). P. 189-199.
  8. Greenhaff P. L., Gleeson M., Maughan R. J. The effects of dietary manipulation on blood acid-base status and the performance of high intensity exercise // Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1987.56 (3). R. 331–337.
  9. Greenhaff P. L., Gleeson M., Whiting P. H. et al. Dietary composition and acid-base status: limiting factors in the performance of maximal exercise in man? // Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol.1987.56 (4). R. 444-450.
  10. Remer T. Influence of nutrition on acid-base balance – metabolic aspects // Eur J Nutr. 2001. Oct; 40 (5). R. 214-220.
  11. Remer T. Influence of diet on acid-base balance // Semin Dial. 2000, Jul-Aug; 13 (4): 221-226.
  12. Riond J. L. Animal nutrition and acid-base balance // Eur J Nutr. 2001 Oct; 40 (5): 245-254.
  13. Akter S., Eguchi M., Kurotani K. High dietary acid load is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension: the Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study // Nutrition.2015 Feb; 31 (2): 298-303.
  14. SanPiN 2.1.4.10749-01 “Drinking water. Hygienic Requirements for Water Quality “.
  15. Malagelada J. R., Longstreth G. F., Summerskill W. H. et al. Measurement of Gastric Functions during Digestion of Ordinary Solid Meals in Man // Gastroenterology. 1976, 70 (2), 203-210.
  16. Hens B., Corsetti M., Brouwers J. et al. Gastrointestinal and Systemic Monitoring of Posaconazole in Humans After Fasted and Fed State Administration of a Solid Dispersion // J.Pharm. Sci. 2016, 105 (9), 2904-2912.
  17. Hunt J. N., Macdonald I. The Influence of Volume on Gastric Emptying // J. Physiol. 1954, 126 (3), 459–474.
  18. Rubbens J., Brouwers J., Wolfs K. et al. Ethanol Concentrations in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract after Intake of Alcoholic Beverages // Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2016, 86, 91–95.
  19. Feinle C., Kunz P., Boesiger P. et al. Scintigraphic Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging Method to Study Gastric Emptying of a Solid Meal in Humans // Gut.1999, 44 (1), 106-111.
  20. Coupe A. J., Davis S. S., Evans D. F. et al. Do Pellet Formulations Empty from the Stomach with Food? // Int. J. Pharm. 1993, 92 (1), 167-175.
  21. Heading R. C., Nimmo J., Prescott L. F. et al. The Dependence of Paracetamol Absorption on the Rate of Gastric Emptying // Br. J. Pharmacol. 1973, 47 (2), 415-421.
  22. Koziolek M., Grimm M., Garbacz G. et al. Intragastric Volume Changes after Intake of a High-Caloric, HighFat Standard Breakfast in Healthy Human Subjects Investigated by MRI // Mol.Pharmaceutics. 2014, 11 (5), 1632-1639.
  23. Mudie D. M., Murray K., Hoad, C. L. et al. Quantification of Gastrointestinal Liquid Volumes and Distribution Following a 240 mL Dose of Water in the Fasted State // Mol. Pharmaceutics. 2014, 11 (9), 3039-3047.
  24. Waldeyer H. W. Die Magenstraße. Sitzungsberichte der Koniglich – Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Verlag der Ko? Niglich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: Berlin, 1908.
  25. Jefferson G.The Human Stomach and the Canalis Gastricus (Lewis) // J. Anat. Physiol. 1915, 49 (Part 2), 165-181.
  26. Baastrup C. I. Roentgenological Studies of the Inner Surface of the Stomach and of the Movements of the Gastic Contents // Acta Radiol. 1924, 3 (2-3), 180-204.
  27. Malagelada J. R., Go V. L., Summerskill W. H. Different gastric, pancreatic, and biliary responses to solid-liquid or homogenized meals // Dig. Dis. Sci. 1979, 24 (2), 101–110.
  28. Malagelada J.R. Quantification of gastric solid-liquid discrimination during digestion of ordinary meals // Gastroenterology. 1977, 72 (6), 1264-1267.
  29. Pal A., Brasseur J. G., Abrahamsson B. A stomach road or “Magenstrasse” for gastric emptying // J. Biomech. 2007, 40 (6), 1202-1210.
  30. Ferrua M. J., Singh R. P. Computational modeling of gastric digestion: current challenges and future directions // Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2015, 4, 116-123.
  31. Grimm M., Scholz E., Koziolek M. et al. Gastric Water Emptying under Fed State Clinical Trial Conditions Is as Fast as under Fasted Conditions // Mol Pharm. 2017, Dec 4; 14 (12): 4262-4271.
  32. Bateman D. N. Effects of meal temperature and volume on the emptying of liquid from the human stomach // J Physiol. 1982, Oct; 331: 461-467.
  33. Ritschel W. A., Erni W. The influence of temperature of ingested fluid on stomach emptying time // Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 1977 Apr; 15 (4): 172-175.
  34. Park E. J., Ryoo K. K., Lee Y. B. et al. Protective effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the paraquat-induced oxidative damage of human lymphocyte DNA // J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 2005, 48, 155-160.
  35. Hanaoka K., Sun D., Lawrence R. et al. The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis // Biophys Chem. 2004, Jan 1; 107 (1): 71–82.
  36. Shirahata S., Kabayama S., Nakano M. et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage // Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997, May 8; 234 (1): 269-274.
  37. Lee M. Y., Kim Y. K., Ryoo K. K. et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein // Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006, Nov; 135 (2): 133-144.
  38. Yanagihara T., Arai K., Miyamae K. et al. Electrolyzed hydrogen-saturated water for drinking use elicits an antioxidative effect: a feeding test with rats // Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.2005, Oct; 69 (10): 1985-1987.
  39. Huang K. C., Lee K. T., Chien C. T. Reduced hemodialysis-induced oxidative stress in end-stage renal disease patients by electrolyzed reduced water // Kidney International. 2003, 64 (2), p. 704-714.
  40. Huang K. C., Yang C. C., Hsu S. P. et al. Electrolyzed-reduced water reduced hemodialysis-induced erythrocyte impairment in end-stage renal disease patients // Kidney Int. 2006, Jul; 70 (2): 391–398.
  41. Rubik B.Studies and observations on the health effects of drinking electrolyzed-reduced alkaline water // WIT Transactions on Ecology and The Environment. 2011. Vol. 153, 317-327.
  42. Landis G. N., Tower J. Superoxide dismutase evolution and life span regulation // Mech. Aging Dev. 2005. Vol. 126, No. 3. P. 365-379.
  43. Vorobjeva N. V. Selective stimulation of the growth of anaerobic microflora in the human intestinal tract by electrolyzed reducing water // Medical Hypotheses.2005.64 (3), p. 543-546,
  44. Wang Yu-Lian. Preliminary observation on changes of blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipids after using alkaline ionized drinking water // Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicin. 2001, 12.
  45. Jin D., Ryu S. H., Kim H. W. et al. Anti-diabetic effect of alkaline-reduced water on OLETF rats // Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006, Jan; 70 (1): 31–37.
  46. Edy Siswantoro, Nasrul Hadi Purwanto, Sutomo Effectiveness of Alkali Water Consumption to Reduce Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 // JDM.2017, Nov, vol. 7, no. 4, p. 249-264.
  47. Kim M. J., Kim H. K. Anti-diabetic effects of electrolyzed reduced water in streptozotocin-induced and genetic diabetic mice // Life Sci. 2006 Nov 10; 79 (24): 2288-2292.
  48. Kim M. J., Jung K. H., Uhm Y. K. et al. Preservative effect of electrolyzed reduced water on pancreatic beta-cell mass in diabetic db / db mice // Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2007, Feb; 30 (2): 234-236
  49. Li Y., Nishimura T., Teruya K. et al. Protective mechanism of reduced water against alloxan-induced pancreatic beta-cell damage: Scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species // Cytotechnology.2002, vol. 40, no. 1–3, p. 139-149.
  50. Oostenbrug G. S., Mensink R. P., Hardeman M. R. et al. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E // J Appl Physiol. 1997, Sep; 83 (3): 746-752.
  51. Paik I. Y., Jeong M. H., Jin H. E. et al. Fluid replacement following dehydration reduces oxidative stress during recovery // Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 383 (1): 103-107.
  52. Baskurt O. K., Meiselman H. J. Blood rheology and hemodynamics. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2003; 29 (5): 435-450.
  53. Halliwell B., Gutteridge J. Free radicals in medicine and biology. Oxford: Clarendon, 1999.
  54. Nwose E. U., Jelinek H. F., Richards R. S., Kerr P. G. Erythrocyte oxidative stress in clinical management of diabetes and its cardiovascular complications // Br J Biomed Sci. 2007; 64 (1): 35–43.
  55. https://www.lvrach.ru/2003/04/4530251/.
  56. Azizova O.A., Aseichev A. V., Piryazev A. P. et al. Effects of oxidized fibrinogen on the functions of blood cells, blood clotting, and rheology // Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007, Sep; 144 (3): 397-407.
  57. Weidman J., Holsworth R. E. Jr., Brossman B. et al. Effect of electrolyzed high-pH alkaline water on blood viscosity in healthy adults // J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016, Nov 28; 13: 45.
  58. Chycki J., Zajac T., Maszczyk A. et al. The effect of mineral-based alkaline water on hydration status and the metabolic response to short-term anaerobic exercise // Biol Sport.2017, Sep; 34 (3): 255-261.
  59. Heil D., Seifert J. Influence of bottled water on rehydration following a dehydrating bout of cycling exercise // J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2009; 6 (Suppl 1): 1-2.
  60. Chycki J., Kurylas A., Maszczyk A. et al. Alkaline water improves exercise-induced metabolic acidosis and enhances anaerobic exercise performance in combat sport athletes // PLoS One. 2018, Nov 19; 13 (11).

E.A. Khokhlova, Doctor of Medical Sciences

LLC “Medical Center” August “, Cheboksary

Contact information: helenkhokhlova @ rambler.ru

DOI: 10.26295 / OS.2019.16.75.011

Drinking alkaline water – how beneficial is its effect on the body? Literature review / EA Khokhlova
For citation: Attending physician No. 6/2019; Issue page numbers: 44-49
Tags: exercise, acid-base balance, diabetes

90,000 what does this mean, and what should be done? / State Budgetary Healthcare Institution of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug “Labytnangskaya City Hospital”

Cholesterol is an organic substance, a natural fat-soluble alcohol.In the body of all living things, it is a part of the cell wall, forming its structure and participating in the transport of substances into the cell and back.

Cholesterol exists in two forms: LDL or low density lipoprotein (LDL) is called “bad” cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) or HDL is called “good”.

High blood cholesterol, which was not considered a problem a few decades ago, now worries many. Heart attacks and strokes claim the lives of many people, and half of them are caused by atherosclerosis of the vessels, which, in turn, is a consequence of high blood cholesterol in men and women.What does this mean, and what should be done in this case.

Determination of cholesterol is shown for the following patients:
• Women taking hormonal contraceptives for a long time;
• Women in menopause;
• Men over 35 years old;
• People at risk of heredity;
• Upon reaching a certain age;
• Suffering from diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism;
• Obese;
• Having bad habits;
• If you have symptoms of systemic atherosclerosis.

Most experts believe that sedentary work, a sedentary lifestyle, lack of regular physical activity in the fresh air, overeating, an abundance of junk food in the diet are the determining factors in the early development of atherosclerosis and the causes of high cholesterol in the population.

The norm of cholesterol can fluctuate in the range of 3.6-7.8 mmol / l. However, doctors say that any cholesterol level over 6 mmol / l is considered elevated and poses a health risk, since it can provoke atherosclerosis, in other words, clog the vessels, creating obstacles for blood flow through the veins and arteries.

Classification of blood cholesterol levels:
• Optimal – 5 mmol / l or less.
• Moderately increased – 5-6 mmol / l.
• Dangerously high cholesterol – 7.8 mmol / l.

At the same time, several types of these compounds are distinguished:
• HDL – high density lipoproteins, transport excess free cholesterol from tissues to the liver for processing and excretion.
• LDL – low density lipoproteins intended for the transport of cholesterol from the liver to tissues.
• VLDL – very low density lipoproteins, carry endogenous cholesterol, triglycerides in the body.

Elevated cholesterol levels in the blood contribute to the development of atherosclerotic damage to the walls of blood vessels and is one of the risk factors for the development of severe cardiovascular diseases such as angina pectoris (coronary heart disease) and myocardial infarction, cerebral stroke and intermittent claudication.

Why is blood cholesterol high, what does it mean and what should be done? The risk of high cholesterol increases in the case of a hereditary predisposition, if close relatives are sick with atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease or arterial hypertension.

With age, the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia also increases. In middle age, an increase in cholesterol is more often detected in men, however, with the onset of menopause, women become susceptible to this pathology as often as men.

However, the main causes of high cholesterol in women or men are acquired in nature:
• Wrong lifestyle of the patient: physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol abuse, frequent stressful situations;
• Concomitant diseases: obesity, diabetes mellitus, systemic connective tissue diseases;
• Culinary preferences: regular consumption of fatty foods, animal origin, insufficient amount of fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet.

All of the above factors are direct answers to why cholesterol can be increased, or rather, these are direct results of a poor-quality attitude to one’s health.
Symptoms

Here are some of the signs that can help you detect higher than normal cholesterol:
• Angina pectoris due to narrowing of the coronary arteries of the heart.
• pain in the legs during physical exertion.
• presence of blood clots and ruptured blood vessels.
• rupture of plaques and, as a consequence, heart failure.
• The presence of xanthoma is a yellow patch on the skin, most often in the eye area.

High cholesterol itself has no symptoms. Symptoms are common in atherosclerosis, a common consequence of excess cholesterol. If you can recognize a cold by a mild runny nose, then high blood cholesterol is sometimes found only after a heart attack.

In other words, don’t wait for the signs of high cholesterol to show up. It is better to do tests for prevention every 1-5 years (depending on the risk).

How to treat high cholesterol?

A comprehensive approach is needed to reduce high blood cholesterol levels. Consult your healthcare professional for the best cholesterol control program.

Depending on the degree of risk, different methods of treatment are used:
• rejection of bad habits;
• physiotherapy exercises;
• weight loss;
• special diets;
• drug treatment.

Helps to reduce blood cholesterol in women and men:
• physical activity 5-6 times a week for 30-60 minutes;
• Do not eat foods containing trans fats;
• Eat plenty of fiber, in foods that are acceptable for a low-carbohydrate diet;
• Eat sea fish at least 2 times a week or take in Omega-3 fatty acids;
• quit smoking;
• Be a teetotaler or drink alcohol in moderation.

It should be noted the importance of regular medical examinations, because most diseases are much easier to cure at the initial stage, when a person is still practically not worried about anything. Remember: complications caused by high cholesterol are irreversible, and treatment does not eliminate existing problems, but only prevents the development of new ones.

In order to reduce hypercholesterolemia, you should limit cholesterol-raising foods in your diet:

red meat – beef, veal;

egg yolk;

fatty pork, lamb, lard;

offal;

sausages, sausages;

duck meat;

mayonnaise;

canned food;

easily digestible carbohydrates;

fried foods;

margarine;

coffee;

Products containing trans fats, so-called fast food: chips, crackers, etc.P.;

high fat milk: cheese, cream, sour cream, milk, ice cream, butter, ghee;

oysters, crabs, shrimps, caviar. For example, a lobster weighing 100 grams. contains 70 mg. cholesterol.

Do not forget that, on average, only 30% of cholesterol enters the bloodstream from the outside. The rest of it is produced by the body on its own. Therefore, even if you try to reduce the level of these fats with the help of various diets, you will still not be able to “remove” a significant portion of it.

Experts recommend adhering to a cholesterol-free diet not for prophylaxis, but only for medicinal purposes, when the level of these fats is really high.

In addition to limiting foods that increase cholesterol, you can add cholesterol-lowering foods to your diet.

avocado;

wheat germ;

brown rice bran;

sesame seeds;

sunflower seeds;

pistachios;

pumpkin seeds;

pine nuts;

flaxseed;

almonds;

olive oil;

greens in any form;

wild salmon and sardines – fish oil;

blueberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, lingonberries, chokeberry, pomegranate, red grapes.

Also, eliminating coffee and replacing it with high-quality weak green tea can reduce cholesterol levels by 15%.

Sports activities
The easiest and most natural way to keep blood vessels in good shape is movement: physical labor, gymnastics, dancing, walking, in a word, anything that brings a feeling of muscle joy. People who are physically active tend to have lower total cholesterol and higher cholesterol levels.

Walking for half an hour at a moderate pace 3–5 times a week so that the heart rate increases by no more than 10–15 beats per minute is an excellent therapy cycle.

In addition to ways such as increasing physical activity, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and eating healthy foods, a person with high cholesterol may be offered medication. # yamalzdorov # national project demography89 # national health project89

which foods should not be eaten by children and how to teach them to eat right?

Proper nutrition of children is underestimated by many. After all, our parents and grandparents grew up somehow without this knowledge.But in fact, the older generations, who grew up in conditions of total scarcity, did not have to fight temptations. They just weren’t there. And the foods that were available were much more suitable for the definition of proper nutrition than the food that children now eat. And it’s not even about fast food, the dangers of which almost everyone knows about. Nutritionists and other children’s doctors told in an interview with MIR 24 about what foods children should not eat and how to teach them to eat right.

“Nutrition is one of the main factors determining the normal development of a child, it has the most direct effect on his growth and health, – says pediatrician, senior medical consultant“ Teledoctor 24 ”Maria Mamedova .- The most important thing is adherence to the principles of rational nutrition in children of early and preschool age. This period is characterized by intensive growth processes, improvement of the functions of many organs and systems, especially the nervous system, enhanced metabolic processes, and the development of motor activity. ”

What should not be eaten by babies and preschool children

According to , the head of the children’s clinic at the maternity hospital №4 of the GKB im. Vinogradov, pediatrician Vladislav Zyablitsky , , in addition to harmful products for children of all ages, pediatricians highlight foods that should not be eaten by children under 3 years old.Here they are.

  • Seafood such as shrimp, mussels, crabs (allergic).
  • Sausages, sausages, wieners (full of flavorings, dyes, preservatives).
  • Lamb, fatty pork, meat of waterfowl (geese and ducks) – contain an excessive amount of refractory fats of animal origin.
  • Melon and grapes (increase gas production and increase the load on the pancreas).
  • Everyone’s favorite delicacy is ice cream (it has a high level of fat content, sugar content, harmful additives that can cause allergies).
  • Honey, if the child is prone to food allergies.
  • “Adult” unadapted milk (dangerous for allergies, problems with the gastrointestinal tract, decreased immunity of the child’s body, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension in the future).
  • Cakes, cakes, sweets, chocolate, puff or shortbread cookies, other confectionery products. They are stuffed with food additives, sugar, fat, but contain almost no nutrients.
  • Cocoa – due to the increased fat content of the drink and the invigorating alkaloid theobromine.
  • Tomatoes should not be given until 1 year old (they overload the kidneys).
  • Only after 1.5 years is it permissible to give a child garlic, onions, bell peppers in small amounts.
  • Do not give pickles and pickled tomatoes until 2 years old (due to bacteria).
  • Nuts, especially peanuts (very strong allergens).
  • Celery (excessively activates the activity of the pancreas).
  • Red and black caviar is prohibited for up to 5 years (very allergenic, includes preservatives; contains excess salt, which is fraught with kidney damage).For the same reason, salted fish is prohibited.
  • Mushrooms – a child’s body does not contain enough enzymes to digest them. In addition, mushrooms accumulate radioactive substances and heavy metals.

Strictly not recommended for all children, regardless of age: salty croutons, chips, french fries, hamburgers and other fast food.

“The best way to avoid a child’s love for such food is not to visit the place where it is sold. Confidently walk past the bright signs of fast food restaurants, ignore the aroma of pies in a kiosk near the metro, forget about noodles and instant soups.After all, this food is a direct path to obesity, diabetes mellitus, to malfunctioning of the immune and cardiovascular systems, ”says Maria Mamedova. The pediatrician adds a few more to the list of foods prohibited for preschoolers.

  • Ready semi-finished products . It is fast, convenient, but not useful for children whose gastrointestinal tract is imperfect – the processes of digestion, the production of enzymes and bile in preschoolers are still immature. The nutritional value of semi-finished products is a dubious question, and one can only guess about the qualitative composition of their components.For the production of semi-finished products, proteins of plant origin are often used, which are inferior to meat and fish in terms of amino acid composition. An excess of salt in ready-made semi-finished products creates an unnecessary load on the kidneys of the child, food additives provoke allergies, spices irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa, starch and soy are poorly digested, and cause functional disorders of the digestive system.
  • It is better to cook minced meat for baby food on your own, since the store often contains a lot of fat, connective tissues, and also the skin of birds.The same applies to minced fish: it is prepared from low-value fish varieties, and only a production specialist can control the quality of the product.
  • Sausages . Some parents sometimes substitute sausages for a full meat or fish dish on the children’s table – for the same reasons of saving time. The cost of a kilogram of the sausages that are most optimal in terms of quality is practically equal to the price of meat (veal, beef, pork), and sometimes even higher. But this does not mean at all that meat of a certain category is present in the composition of the product in the amount provided for by the standards.According to GOST, premium sausages consist of beef, pork, milk powder or cream and eggs. If the product is of a lower grade, then it contains up to 10% trimmed meat, starch and protein stabilizer. However, on store shelves, there are mainly sausages made according to TU – according to the standards created by the manufacturer itself. That is why the composition of the product changes and becomes “richer”: various fillers (cheese, paprika), soy, sodium nitrite (color stabilizer) and monosodium glutamate (flavor enhancer), ascorbic and citric acid, as well as salt and spices are added to it.All these components, depending on the concentration in the product, negatively affect the health of the child.
  • Smoked meat and fish products today are often produced not by the traditional method of smoking, which is also not very useful, but using a special (and very harmful to the human body) substance that gives the product the necessary taste, smell and color.
  • Sweet carbonated drinks . It is a completely synthetic product. And even a certain percentage of natural juice in the composition of some “soda” is not able to compensate for the harm that artificial colors, preservatives, flavors, sweeteners and carbon dioxide cause to an immature body.They not only affect the child’s digestive tract, spoil the tooth enamel, but can also provoke a lot of serious diseases. The best drink for a child is water (clean drinking, from two years old – still canteen, but not medicinal), freshly squeezed juice diluted with water, fruit or dried fruit compote, berry juice.
  • Vegetables and fruits “from a can” . There are very few vitamins in products of enhanced heat treatment and long shelf life. Canned vegetables are high in salt and vinegar, fruits are high in sugar.And if this is not home preservation, then also synthetic preservatives. A child should be introduced to such products no earlier than seven years old. It is better to freeze vegetables, fruits and berries in summer and autumn to prepare delicious vegetable stews, casseroles, berry fruit drinks and fruit desserts in winter. Or buy ready-made frozen products, remembering that the shock freezing method is the most gentle.
  • Mayonnaise and ketchup . Homemade mayonnaise, a high-fat product, can only be given to a child after three years of age, in small amounts and not systematically.It is better to completely refuse ready-made mayonnaise, which contains flavors, flavoring additives, dyes, thickeners, stabilizers, emulsifiers and preservatives. Ketchup is also not a baby food. There are a minimum of vitamins and nutrients in it, hot spices will harm the child’s body, and they produce it using all the same preservatives and synthetic additives (to improve color, taste, aroma).

You can, but be careful: from sweets to seasonings

This group includes foods that children, according to Maria Mamedova, can be consumed under certain conditions, although they can be introduced only from the age of three and should not be present in the diet constantly.

Sweets . Experts believe that chocolate is contraindicated for children under three years old. It creates an extra load on the pancreas, causes allergies, excites the nervous system of the crumbs, and can provoke caries. An alternative to chocolate is sweets made with carob, a sweet powder made from the pulp of the carob. It tastes like cocoa, is very healthy and, unlike chocolate, has no “side effects.”

The later the child gets to know the sweets, the better.But since everything sweet is a source of easily digestible carbohydrates that the body needs, then as a dessert, you can occasionally offer your child a little marshmallow, marshmallow, marmalade, jam (while remembering the dangers of synthetic dyes and flavors). Better yet, replace store-bought sweets with berries and fruits, honey (if there is no allergy), dried fruits, sweets and homemade jam.

Flour products . Their regular use provokes excess weight.You can sometimes allow your child to enjoy a bun or a pie (for an afternoon snack), but it is better to limit yourself to biscuit biscuits or drying. It is worth abandoning products made of puff, shortcrust, pastry dough, which include margarine, at all – its components increase the level of cholesterol in the blood and provoke the development of vascular diseases in the future.

Condiments and spices . They enhance the flavor and aroma of food, but seasonings must be chosen very carefully for baby food.After a year, greens (dill, parsley, cilantro) can be added to the child’s food, from 1.5-2 years old – onions, garlic (in hot dishes), from 3 years old – bay leaf. Spices used in dishes for adults can irritate the lining of the child’s esophagus or provoke allergies.

Ready-made spice mixtures, various flavoring seasonings should not be added to food for a child, since they contain, in addition to the main components, a lot of salt and various preservatives.

Instant porridge .It is very convenient to use them – you do not need to wash the cereal, wait until it is cooked. It is enough just to pour boiling water over a portioned bag, which is already “all-inclusive” – ​​sugar, fruit or chocolate, cream or milk. And also – flavors, flavor enhancers and read synthetic additives. The nutrients and vitamins that whole grains contain are lost during numerous processing steps. Therefore, the use of such porridge in baby food is justified only in emergency cases. For example, on the road – it’s still better than eating a sausage or fast food.

How to teach a child to eat healthy food?

“First of all, by my example,” says Maria Mamedova. – If the house does not eat junk food, then the child will want every day what he is used to from an early age. Scientists say that even during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the expectant mother’s addictions to certain foods are passed on to the baby. ”

It is important to prepare proper snacks in advance so that children grab fruit or granulated bran from the table, not cookies or candy between meals.Both tasty and healthy at the same time.

If there is soda or sweet store juice in the refrigerator, you can give one hundred percent guarantee that the child will drink them first, and not the vital clean water. Therefore, the filter with water should be in the most visible place so that it constantly catches the eye.

“Observe what the child eats and praise his choice. Focus on those products, the consumption of which leads to health, beauty and excellent sports achievements: depending on what he is passionate about, ”says Maria Mamedova.

Useful substitutes can be found for most harmful products. Potato and corn chips will replace dried fruit wedges. Instead of candy, you can eat dried fruits and dried berries. Here it is important not to be confused with candied fruits, in which there is no less sugar than candies.

Organization of regular meals reduces the number of snacks, which means better control over what children eat. If breakfasts, lunches and dinners are held at a common table with adults, then the opportunities to grab a couple of sweets instead of soup are significantly reduced.But healthy snacks are also not harmful, this is the key to a good functioning of the digestive system. Make them accessible and child-friendly. What can you use if you don’t have time to cook?

  • Chop carrots, bell peppers, cucumbers into containers.
  • Popcorn with no artificial additives and no saturated fat is an excellent whole grain snack.
  • Pour fruit and vegetable smoothies into small bottles.
  • Place the fruit bowl where it can be seen.

Let the children participate in the menu, so they become more interested in the result. It’s always nice to have exactly what you ordered for dinner, what you love. You should not force to eat unloved foods, no matter how useful they are. You can always find an equally useful replacement. And pay attention to high quality healthy foods.

Reduce the amount of simple sugars in your diet. To do this, it is not at all necessary to put the child on a diet – just look at the label of those products that you buy out of habit, regardless of the composition.

  • Replace your regular loaf with whole grain bread.
  • Choose natural yoghurt instead of sweet yoghurt with a fat content of no more than 1-3%.
  • Make homemade biscuits instead of purchased ones.
  • Water and fruit or fruit and vegetable smoothies are the best substitutes for purchased drinks.
  • Try to eliminate trans fats. They are most commonly found in processed foods, instant meals, fried foods, frozen pizzas, pies, cookies, margarines, and sandwich mixes.
  • If fried foods are a big part of your diet, try gradually switching to stewed, steamed, or baked foods.

It is important to maintain a pleasant atmosphere while eating. Clarification of the relationship and “debriefing” is better to postpone for another time. It is better to turn off TVs and tablets too. When a person is busy watching a cartoon or TV show, his brain does not think about food, which adversely affects digestion and leads to obesity.

“By the way, you can learn the correct process of eating from babies,” says Maria Mamedova.- They eat only when they are hungry, chew food thoroughly, giving it all their attention. And they stop eating as soon as they are full. At the same time, children under three years old cannot be forced to eat foods that they do not like. And they choose, as a rule, exactly those that are necessary for the body at the moment ”.

Schoolchildren and adolescents: six components of their healthy diet

In school-age children, the need for basic nutrients and energy remains high and is due to physiological and biochemical characteristics: accelerated growth and development, differentiation of various organs and systems, especially the central nervous systems, the intensity of metabolic processes.

“It is important to observe a differentiated approach to the determination of nutritional needs, depending on the type of activity of the student,” says Maria Mamedova. – So, for schoolchildren studying in specialized schools with increased mental and physical stress (mathematics, with the study of foreign languages, sports schools, etc.), the total calorie content of the diet should be increased by 10% of the age norm. During the child’s stay in health institutions (holiday camps, forest schools, etc.) due to increased energy consumption (increased physical education, swimming, hiking, etc.), the caloric content of the diet should also be increased by 10% with a uniform increase in all nutrients and maintaining a balanced diet. ”

According to the expert, a properly established diet is of great importance for school-age children. It is most advisable to establish the following diet: 1st meal – at 8:30; 2nd – at 12: 00-13: 00, 3rd – at 15:30 – 16:00, 4th – at 19:00.Breakfast and dinner should be 25% of the daily calorie content, second breakfast – 15%, and lunch – 35% of the daily calorie content.

Where possible, school lunches should be hot. If this is not possible, then you can recommend a milk-fruit breakfast (milk, bun, sweet curd cheese or processed cheese, fresh fruit). Lunch should consist of soup, a second course of meat (fish) and a side dish, a sweet dish (compote, jelly, juice or fresh fruit). It is advisable to have a fresh vegetable salad or vinaigrette before the first course.A teenager can already be offered radish, radish with sour cream or vegetable oil, tomatoes, fresh cucumber with green onions and sour cream instead of salad before meals. Vegetables stimulate appetite, promote the secretion of digestive juices and improve digestion.

According to Maria Mamedova, there are six groups of products that are simply vital for the full growth and development of a teenager.

  1. Complex carbohydrates . These are the main suppliers of energy, which is so necessary for rapid growth.They are found in cereals and cereals.
  2. Foods containing protein . This is animal meat, poultry and fish. Protein is the main building block for soft tissues and internal organs. And, by the way, meat, especially red, contains iron, which, if lacking, can lead to anemia in a teenager.
  3. Vegetable cellulose . These are nothing more than vegetables, roots and fruits. Fiber is essential for normalizing the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and cleansing the body of toxins thanks to the natural antioxidants contained in these products.
  4. Vegetable fats . These are vegetable oils and various nuts. Eating these foods can be great for helping your teenager avoid the fairly common problems of hair loss and brittle nails at this age.
  5. Milk and fermented milk products . They are irreplaceable suppliers of calcium, vitamin D and phosphorus in adolescent nutrition.
  6. Clean drinking water . For normal functioning of the body, you need to drink an amount of water per day at the rate of 30 ml per 1 kg of body weight.That is, a teenager who weighs 50 kg should drink 1.5 liters of clean water, not counting other liquids.

And if the younger generation adheres to these simple dietary recommendations, health and normal development will be ensured.

“If in adolescence a person does not get used to healthy food and does not start eating right, then it will be quite difficult for him to change his habits and addictions in food. And the problems associated with improper nutrition can manifest itself not only in excess weight, but also in the development of various diseases, ”says the doctor.

If you decide to seriously improve your child’s diet, do not try to do it overnight. Here are a few steps to help you transition smoothly to your new diet.

  • Start replacing your usual foods with healthier ones. At the same time, you can tell the teenager why you decided to do this, what knowledge you lacked before and where you got it.
  • Make sure that the child does not have the feeling that you are depriving him of something. Let the impression be the opposite: the whole family decided to try something new, gain an interesting experience and improve the quality of life.
  • Go to the store together, read the ingredients on the package of your corn flakes, and try to choose ones that are free of refined sugar and artificial flavors.
  • Look for more information about nutrition, a balanced diet and physical activity, and most importantly, share this knowledge with your children. Ask them to tell what is happening with their body, then they will become more aware of the issue and observe the effect of changing nutrition. And perhaps they themselves will begin to look for information about this.

Parents are able to shape the child’s optimal eating behavior. But remember that eating right yourself and setting a good example for children is much more important than talking about the benefits of healthy eating for a long time.