Ear infection sinus drainage: The Inner Workings of the Inner Ear
The Inner Workings of the Inner Ear
Eustachian tubes help maintain normal air pressure in the middle ear, in response to changes in pressure in the external environment. But when sinus congestion from a cold or allergies blocks these tubes, you could develop a variety of problems, including ear infections.
What exactly is a eustachian tube? It’s a small canal, about one and one-half inches long and only a few millimeters in diameter, that serves as a passageway connecting the back of your throat and nose to your middle ear, where your eardrum is located. Eustachian tubes are lined with the same kind of moist membrane that lines the nose and throat. They are typically closed, but they open with movements of the back of the nose and throat, such as those that occur when you swallow, yawn, or talk. Adult eustachian tubes are angled downward from the ear into the back of the throat, allowing for gravity drainage of middle ear fluids and mucus.
Your middle ear translates sounds that enter your outer ear into vibrations that can be understood by your inner ear and brain. To work properly, your middle ear should maintain the same air pressure as the air pressure around you. So your eustachian tubes open up periodically to circulate air throughout your middle ear, equalizing its air pressure to the pressure in the back of your throat.
Another function of your eustachian tubes is to allow any mucus buildup in your middle ear to drain out into your throat.
When Your Eustachian Tubes Malfunction
A number of things can go wrong with your eustachian tubes and middle ear, including:
- Blockage due to swelling. It is not uncommon for people with sinus pressure to experience middle ear blockage due to congestion of the eustachian tubes. This swelling is most commonly caused by a sinus infection, a cold, or allergies. These conditions can cause the inner ear membranes to swell and block the tubes. A blocked eustachian tube cannot circulate air or drain mucus as it should.
- Mechanical blockage. Sometimes overgrowth of tissues in the back of the nose (such as nasal polyps or the adenoids) can cause ear blockage by obstructing the eustachian tube opening. On rare occasions, a tumor can cause a blockage.
- Otitis media (middle ear inflammation or infection). When sinus congestion leads to a blocked eustachian tube, fluid can accumulate in the middle ear and cause it to become inflamed. Similarly, if you have a bacterial sinus infection that spreads into your eustachian tubes, it can cause a middle ear infection, which leads to swelling and more fluid buildup. Otitis media is associated with ear pain and pressure.
- Ruptured eardrum. If too much fluid builds up in your inner ear, it could tear your eardrum.
Speech, Language, and Hearing Problems
Particularly in children, eustachian tube blockages can result in:
- Hearing problems. Excess fluid in the middle ear can result from a blocked eustachian tube, which can interfere with normal hearing, since fluid makes it difficult for the eardrum and bones in the inner ear to vibrate properly in response to sound. This type of hearing loss is usually temporary, but if left untreated, it can become permanent.
- Speech and language problems. In young children, the hearing impairment caused by frequent middle ear infections can lead to disabilities with speaking and understanding language.
Eustachian tube-related problems are more common in children than adults, partly because eustachian tubes are not fully developed in children, and tend to be shorter and straighter than those in adults. Chronic or recurrent eustachian tube blockages are sometimes referred to as eustachian tube dysfunction.
When Outside Forces Harm the Eustachian Tubes
It’s not just allergies and infections that can cause eustachian tube issues. Other causes include:
- Discomfort during air travel. Most people who have traveled by air are familiar with the sensation of increased pressure and popping in the ears, especially when the airplane is landing. This happens because your middle ear cannot keep up with rapid air pressure changes, and the pressure within your ears is lower than the air pressure around you, which increases as a plane descends. You can help keep your ears clear during air travel by doing things to open the eustachian tube, such as swallowing often, chewing gum, and yawning frequently.
- Barotrauma. When the pressure in your middle ear is different than the pressure outside of your body for an extended period of time (for example during flight, scuba diving, or driving in very high altitudes), it can lead to severe discomfort, and even eardrum damage. This type of damage is called barotrauma (baro is from the word barometric, which relates to atmospheric pressure). Barotrauma can cause you to feel dizzy, have ear pain, and experience pressure in your ears. Symptoms of severe barotraumas include ear drum rupture, hearing loss, and nosebleeds.
Treatment Options for Eustachian Tube Problems
If you have persistent pain or pressure in your ears, or suspect you or your child has a eustachian tube-related problem, see your doctor. The following may help manage fluid buildup and even infection in your middle ear:
- Eustachian-tube opening strategies such as swallowing and chewing are useful, and your doctor can teach you a breathing technique called a valsalva maneuver, which if done gently, may open a clogged eustachian tube.
- Intranasal steroid sprays may help, especially if allergies are causing the problem.
- Some doctors recommend use of an oral decongestant if the eustachian tube blockage accompanies a cold or sinus infection.
- Antibiotics may be prescribed if there is a suspected bacterial ear infection.
- Surgical insertion of tubes in the eardrums helps ventilate the middle ear outwardly, via the external ear canal, and to drain fluids that way as well.
If left untreated, eustachian tube problems can lead to permanent hearing loss, serious infection, or other long-term complications. So if you or your child is experiencing problems, be sure to let a doctor know.
Find more information in the Everyday Health Ear, Nose, and Throat Center.
10 Tips for Unclogging & Pressure Relief
The Sinus-Ear Connection
Your sinuses and ears are connected inside your head. So sinus congestion and stuffiness can affect the pressure in your ears. Treating the congestion may help.Clogged sinuses can mean more than a stuffy nose. You can also have pain, dizziness, and that muffled-ear sensation, like you’re in a descending plane.
You can take steps to relieve your ears once you know what the problem is, though.
Stuffiness, Ear Discomfort, and Sinus Pain
Get moisture. Use a nasal saline spray several times a day, or hold a warm, moist washcloth to your face. This can ease the pressure and pain.
Humidifiers will also help keep your sinuses from drying out. Or you can sit in the bathroom with a hot shower running for 15 minutes to curb pain.
Check the medicine cabinet. Try an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or naproxen, to ease an earache or pain from sinus pressure.
Try a decongestant. Over-the-counter tablets or nasal sprays can ease sinus blockage which in turn can relieve clogged ears. But don’t use nasal decongestant sprays for more than 3 days, or you will rebound… meaning the more you use it the more you need it because you’re congested.
Avoid extreme temperatures. They can make sinus-related ear problems worse. If your ears bother you, it isn’t the time to go jogging on a hot day or build a snow fort with the kids.
Keep your head up. If you bend forward with your head down, it can make the pressure worse. You’ll want to skip yoga class until the sinus problem is over.
Blow your nose gently. Block one nostril while you blow through the other.
Drink plenty of fluids. Down lots of water in the evening. When you stay hydrated, it keeps nasal mucus thin. That helps it drain and means less nighttime stuffiness.
A build-up of pressure in the inner ear, including pressure caused by sinus problems, can sometimes make you feel dizzy.
No fast movements. Don’t stand up too quickly or shake your head fast.
Avoid caffeine, salt, alcohol, and tobacco products. These can affect your circulation, and minor changes in blood flow can affect your ears.
The pressure changes you feel on an airplane can be uncomfortable. If you already have sinus pain or pressure, flying can be tough.
If you can, avoid air travel when you’re having sinus problems, especially if they affect your ears.
If you must fly, don’t wait for the pain to hit to try to relieve pressure. Before you get on the plane, try a nasal spray or oral decongestant. Pills and capsules can take a while to get into your system and begin working. So take them at least 30 minutes to an hour before takeoff.
Sinus-related ear problems can cause problems in the water, too. Scuba divers should avoid diving when their problems flare up. Stuffy sinuses can make it hard or impossible to equalize ear pressure. That puts you at risk for an injury.
When to See a Doctor
Usually, ear problems related to a sinus issue aren’t severe and don’t last long. Most of the time, they go away on their own. See your doctor if:
- You have a fever.
- You have head, face, or ear pain, or swelling that doesn’t get better with non-prescription medication.
- Your symptoms last for more than a week or keep coming back.
Remedies for Sinus Pressure in the Ears
Why is Sinus Pressure in The Ears So Painful?
When experiencing pain and pressure in the ears caused from sinus congestion, there are many questions that may cross your mind. How do I make it go away? The cause of the pain in your ears is usually due to sinus pressure. This is because the sinus congestion and stuffiness can affect the pressure in your ears. The pressure in your sinuses affects more than just your nose. It can also cause pain in your ears, dizziness, and the feeling that your ears feel stuffed up or clogged. The good news is, there are several remedies to bring you relief.
Here are some remedies for sinus pressure in the ears:
1. Over the counter decongestant
Decongestants like nasal sprays or tables can help relieve sinus pressure and blockage. This helps to relieve clogged ears. If you use a decongestant, make sure to follow the directions on the medication.
2. Pain medication
Over the counter pain medication can also relieve pain associated with sinus pressure. Some medications to try for relief are Ibuprofen, Naproxen or Acetaminophen. Speak with your physician or pharmacist for the best option for you.
3. Blowing your nose
By gently blowing your nose, it can help clear the sinus passages and bring quick relief. While blowing your nose, block one nostril, then change nostrils and repeat. This can help ease sinus pressure in the ears. Just don’t blow too hard or it may make you feel worse.
4. Saline Rinse
Nasal irrigation with a saline rinse helps relieve nasal congestion and ear pain by flushing out your nasal passages. There are several devices used for saline rinses including bulb syringes, squeeze bottles, Neti pot and Navage Irrigation kits.
Try taking a steam treatment with a bowl of hot water and a towel. Put your face over the steaming bowl of water and drape the towel over your head. The towel keeps the steam in. The steam loosens mucus. Menthol, Eucalyptus oils, or Camphor can also be used in the water to assist in opening nasal passages. Steam from a hot shower can also help loosen mucus.
6. Hot Moist Washcloth on the face
By applying a moist warm washcloth to the face, it can provide relief to the sinus areas on your face and relieve pressure to the ears.
7. Drink Plenty of Fluids
Staying hydrated will keep your nasal mucus thin. Thin nasal mucus is easier to drain. By draining your nasal mucus, it will help relieve the sinus pain and pressure you are feeling in the ears.
8. Avoid fast movements and bending over
If you bend forward with your head down, it can make the pressure worse. When there is a build up of pressure in the inner ear, fast movements such as standing up quickly or shaking your head can cause dizziness.
Trying one or a combination of these remedies for sinus pressure in the ear should help bring you some relief. These simple sinus remedies can help alleviate the pain and pressure in your ears.
If there is a persistent problem with sinus pressure in your ears, call (719) 867-7800 to make an appointment today.
Physician Describes How to Unclog Stuffy Ear
It’s ragweed season – the time of year rife with runny noses, sore throats and stuffy ears. You may be dealing with a river of mucus from postnasal drip, but why do your ears become clogged?
“Stuffy ears are caused by sinus inflammation or sinus pressure pushing on the inside of your ear sinuses, which causes a clogged sensation,” says Vikash Modi, M.D., a Piedmont family medicine physician. “Most people don’t realize their sinuses are all connected – from the nasal passage to the ears and down the back of your throat. ”
So how do you get rid of stuffy ears? Dr. Modi shares a few tips:
1. Get a humidifier. “Humidity and moisture are a great way to treat sinus inflammation or irritation,” says Dr. Modi. “Try sleeping with a humidifier in your room. To benefit from additional moisture, you can also stand in a nice warm shower.”
2. Use a saline mist or nasal spray. Pollen, dust and bacteria cause the sinuses to dry out. A good saline mist or nasal spray can provide much-needed moisture.
“It’s what I describe to my patients like pressure washing your back deck,” says Dr. Modi. “These nasal sprays literally wash the pollen and the dust off at the surface so you have a nice clear surface that will be less reactive and less congested.”
If your symptoms don’t subside, consider using an over-the-counter nasal steroid spray like Nasonex or Flonase.
3. Consider a decongestant. “When things are getting more severe you can add a nasal decongestant, like Afrin,” says Dr. Modi. “But you’ve got to be careful. Just take it for two or three days at a time and then take a break from it, because it can be habit-forming.”
Dr. Modi says this is also true for pill decongestants like Sudafed or Allegra D.
“These medicines are great short-term therapies for really bad sinus pressure and ear clog symptoms, but after two or three days you should probably think about taking a break from them,” he says.
4. Avoid caffeine, salt, tobacco and alcohol. “These things can affect your circulation and make the congestion feel worse,” says Dr. Modi.
5. Check for wax. A large wax buildup can lead to clogged ears.
“For that, we recommend a regular routine cleaning system,” says Dr. Modi. “Take a shower, let some of the warm water run into your ears and then dry the ear with a wet wash cloth. Try not to use a Q-tip, because that can actually pack wax in more than pull it out.
When to see the doctor for clogged ears
If your ear clog sensation turns into ear pain, or if the pain in your head or face becomes severe, it is best to see your doctor.
“Anyone who has a fever or severe swelling and congestion after three or four days of home treatment should come in and have it checked out,” says Dr. Modi.
Dr. Modi practices at Piedmont Physicians Brookhaven, located at 3925 Peachtree Road Northeast, Suite 300, Brookhaven, GA 30319. Schedule an appointment with Dr. Modi or one of our other primary care providers. Save time, book online.
Hearing Loss & Sinus Issues
How to Treat Sinus-Related Hearing Loss
When sinus issues cause your hearing loss, you need to treat the root of the problem in order to relieve the symptoms. The source of your sinus issues may be infection or sinusitis, or may be a less common problem such as enlarged turbinates or nasal polyps. The best course of treatment for your hearing loss will depend on the reason your sinuses are swollen or congested. An experienced ENT Doctor can help you determine the cause and treatment plan for hearing loss caused by sinus problems.
If the cause of your hearing loss is sinusitis, medications like antihistamines, analgesics and decongestants can decrease swelling and reduce allergy reactions to help temporarily alleviate symptoms like hearing loss. Unfortunately, antibiotics are not usually effective to help clear sinus infections since symptoms often return as soon as a round of antibiotics is complete. Oral steroid medications can sometimes be prescribed as well.
The most effective long-term treatment for your sinus issues and hearing loss symptoms is a fast, easy procedure called a FESS or Sinuplasty. This procedure involves opening and enlarging the sinuses, allowing the infection or fluid to drain. This can help eliminate many sinus issues and symptoms, including hearing loss caused by sinusitis.
This procedure can be performed very comfortably in our office without general anesthetic, and allows you to be back to work in 2-3 days. There is very little post-operative pain and in most cases, this procedure can keep sinus issues from ever returning.
While it may not treat the underlying cause of the issue, steam inhalation can be helpful to relieve nasal congestion. Breathing deeply through the nose in a hot shower or over a steaming bowl of water can loosen thick or hardened mucus blocking the sinuses, which can ease swelling and alleviate symptoms like hearing loss temporarily.
Sometimes, even if sinusitis or other sinus and nasal problems are causing your difficulty hearing, allergies could still truly be at the root of all these issues. Consider getting an allergy test or discussing potential allergies with an ENT specialist to determine if this could be an underlying cause.
What Is Eustachian Tube Dysfunction?
What Causes Eustachian Tube Dysfunction?
If the Eustachian tubes become inflamed – typically due to illness or allergies – mucus or fluid can build up. 3 This improper drainage causes the pressure, fullness, pain, and/or hearing changes that characterize the condition.
What are the causes of Eustachian tube dysfunction?
Colds, flus, sinus infections, or allergies can cause the Eustachian tube in one or both ears to become inflamed, preventing proper mucus drainage and leading to symptoms. Altitude changes can also cause problems with the Eustachian tubes or aggravate existing inflammation. Activities such as hiking, flying on a plane, or even riding an elevator could cause symptoms.3
Who is at an increased risk of developing Eustachian tube dysfunction?3
People who smoke are at an increased risk because smoking damages cilia – tiny hairs that line the middle ear and help sweep mucus toward the throat. People who are obese are also at a higher risk because fatty deposits can form around the Eustachian tubes, leading to dysfunction.
Allergies can also increase a person’s risk, as they can lead to frequent episodes of mucus production and congestion.
Nasal polyps, a cleft palate, or a tumor may put someone at increased risk of developing Eustachian tube dysfunction.
What are the complications of Eustachian tube dysfunction?3
The most common complication is recurring Eustachian tube dysfunction – which is possible if you don’t treat the underlying cause or risk factor. In rare, more severe cases, Eustachian tube dysfunction may also lead to:
• Chronic otitis media, a middle ear infection
• Otitis media with effusion, or “glue ear,” a fluid buildup in the middle ear that can last
for weeks and could damage hearing
• Eardrum retraction, when the eardrum is seemingly sucked farther into the ear canal
How long does Eustachian tube dysfunction last?
Most cases of Eustachian tube dysfunction clear up in a few days with the help of over-the-counter medication and home remedies, but symptoms can last one to two weeks. If you’re still having symptoms after two weeks, or they’re getting worse, you may need more aggressive treatment. 3
What is the typical Eustachian tube dysfunction recovery time?
Most people feel better in a few days to a week or two. If symptoms last longer, get worse, or seem to recur, you should see a doctor.
Can Allergies Cause Ear Infections?
Your least favorite allergen is in the air, you’ve got the sniffles, and your ears feel clogged, all of which gets you to wondering… Can allergies cause ear infections?
When we think of allergies, ear infections are rarely the first side effect that comes to mind. But the truth is, allergies can contribute to ear infections. That means patients struggling with allergies—from the less robust winter allergies in Florida to the ragweed inundation of summer and spring—are more at risk for developing ear infections than those without allergies.
Learn how your allergies and ear infections may be connected, and which treatment options could be available to you.
How do allergies cause ear infections?
When your body is allergic to something, one of its ways of “protecting” you from the potential threat of the allergen is to produce excess mucus as a means of keeping allergen particles from entering the rest of your body. Meanwhile, when the allergen does come into contact with your sinus tissues, those tissues can become enlarged and inflamed.
All of these reactions—the inflammation, the excess mucus, and the issues with chronic sinus drainage—can lead to ear infections. When excess mucus is unable to exit the body, many patients experience chronic drainage issues, including a buildup of fluid and puss in the middle ear.
And like your sinus tissues, the membrane surrounding the eustachian tube can also become inflamed. When this happens a build-up of fluid and pressure can occur in the middle ear, leading to a painful ear infection.
Ear allergy symptoms
Ear infections are one of the top reasons for visits to a children’s doctor. The bones surrounding the middle ear and the air-filled space behind the eardrum are much more delicate in children, which makes them more prone to infections and other issues.
Look out for these signs that your child might have an ear infection:
- Tugging at the ear or earlobes
- Discomfort when lying down (learn why sinusitis is worse at night)
- Ear pain and headaches
- Fluid drainage from the ear
- Balance issues
- Trouble hearing
If your child is especially prone to ear infections, your doctor may recommend that your child be given ear tubes and/or have their adenoids removed.
Symptom FAQ 1: Can allergies cause ear infections in adults?
Although allergy-related ear infections (also called otitis media) are less common in adults than they are in children, they can still occur.
Symptom FAQ 2: Can allergies cause ear drainage?
Yes, drainage of fluid or puss can and often does occur during an ear infection. If you notice more fluid than usual, this may be a sign that your eardrum has ruptured.
Symptom FAQ 3: How can I tell I have an ear infection and not something else?
If you find the symptoms of allergy-related ear infections confusingly similar to those of sinusitis ear infections, you are not alone. Luckily, we can help! Just check out our guide to the difference between allergies and sinusitis.
Symptom FAQ 4: Can food allergies cause fluid in the ears?
Yes. While more research needs to be done on the subject, food allergies have been shown to result in fluid in the ears and ear infections.
Ear allergy treatment at Sinus Solutions of South Florida
Now that you know the answer to the question, “Can allergies cause ear infections?” your next question will likely be along the lines of, “What doctor should I see?” or even, “Do you need a referral to see an ENT?”
An ENT of South Florida can answer questions like these and help you find relief from allergy-related ear infections. Whether you need a round of antibiotics or a more proactive approach to restoring proper sinus drainage (such as balloon sinuplasty), the doctors and staff at Sinus Solutions of South Florida will be with you every step of the way until you find relief.
Ready to get started? Simply fill out our online form or calling Sinus Solutions of South Florida at 561-790-7744 today.
Other Helpful Articles by Sinus Solutions of South Florida:
Drainage and flushing of the paranasal sinuses
Results of treatment of 86 patients aged 18 to 40 years with pyoinflammatory processes in the paranasal sinuses, who under local anesthesia underwent sounding and lavage of the sinuses through natural fistulas.
The article presents the results of treatment of 86 patients aged 18 to 40 years with pyoinflammatory processes in the paranasal sinuses. All patients underwent probing and lavage of the sinuses through the natural anesthesia under local anesthesia.
To eliminate the process in the sinuses, 5 to 7 washes were required. A comparative analysis was carried out using a visual analogue scale for the severity of pain, discomfort and discomfort. During probing, the severity of these sensations was 2 times lower than during puncture treatment. The duration of treatment with this technique did not differ from the traditionally accepted technique for treating sinusitis. The advantage of this method of treatment is its non-invasiveness and good patient tolerance.
Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses (SNP) is one of the urgent problems of otorhinolaryngology.
So, according to G.Z. Piskunov and S.Z. Piskunov , the incidence of sinusitis per 1000 population reaches 12. 7%, and the proportion of patients hospitalized in ENT hospitals with sinusitis ranges from 15 to 36%. An even more significant proportion (up to 40%) is occupied by sinusitis among outpatients in ENT offices of hospitals and clinics [3, 12].
In Russia and the countries of the former Soviet Union, the “gold standard” in the treatment of acute purulent sinusitis is still puncture treatment.The invasiveness of the puncture method for treating sinusitis and the fear of developing serum hepatitis and HIV infection forced a number of Western countries to abandon the puncture of the SNP.
In addition, when performing a puncture of the maxillary sinus (VSP), errors and complications are possible: a) penetration of the needle into the opposite wall of the VSP, b) bleeding, c) penetration of the needle end into the soft tissues of the cheek, orbit or tissue of the pterygopalatine fossa, d) air embolism [2, 10, 13].
To reduce the number of repeated punctures, a number of authors have proposed a method of permanent drainage [1, 5, 6, 13].The aim of the method was to install a permanent drainage tube into the cavity of the ONP, which served for multiple repeated lavages of the sinus without additional punctures.
However, the lack of a standard catheter for this purpose has led to the creation of many variations of catheters, ranging from conventional PVC tubing to the use of subclavian catheters. Moreover, the drainage itself is a foreign body for the SNP, and constant irritation of the inflamed mucous membrane by this foreign body for many days can negate all the advantages of the catheterization method.
In recent years, for the treatment of sinusitis, the YAMIK sinus catheter, proposed by Yaroslavl otorhinolaryngologists, has been successfully used, which makes it possible to actively improve drainage from the SNP by creating negative pressure in the nasal cavity by creating negative pressure in the nasal cavity . The advantage of this method is its non-invasiveness, as well as the possibility of a therapeutic effect on all SNPs. The disadvantages of the YAMIK sinus catheter are the lack of these catheters in many ENT offices in the country, the significant cost of the catheter itself, the need for special training of personnel, and limited use in destructive processes.
There is no doubt that all of the above methods of drainage of SNP (first of all, VSP) have the right to exist. A novice otorhinolaryngologist and a doctor with little practical experience will prefer an HPP puncture (we teach him this procedure) or a YAMIK catheter. However, the desire of the patient, the need for selective examination and treatment of specific SNPs, obstruction of the sinus anastomosis and other circumstances persuade the doctor to seek and master other methods of sinus drainage.
In 1998S.S. Limansky et al. [7, 8] reported on the experience of flushing SNP through natural anastomosis (NDES). For probing and washing the sinuses, the authors use cannulas of their own design, 9 and 15 cm long, which have an S-shape, are valed at the working end with side holes and are equipped with a device for connecting a syringe.
More than 5 years after learning the technique of probing and purchasing original needles, we in the clinics of Tyumen use the method of probing the sinuses through natural fistulas.Under our observation and treatment, there were 86 patients with purulent-inflammatory processes of SNP at the age of 14 to 40 years, the diagnosis of sinusitis in whom was verified not only by visualization of mucopurulent discharge during rhinoscopy, but was also confirmed by X-ray data of SNP or CT (table).
|Nosological form||Number of patients||The presence of purulent exudate||Obstruction phenomena|
…After 2-3 minutes, a probe with a cotton swab moistened with 2% dicaine solution or 10% lidocaine solution was introduced into the middle nasal passage. When probing the frontal sinuses, in addition to the indicated anesthesia, infiltration anesthesia was applied with ultracaine in an amount of 2 ml, which was injected into the area of aggernasia and the anterior end of the middle turbinate. When probing the sphenoid sinus after anesthetic insufflation, a turunda with an application anesthetic was injected into the olfactory gap, and then 2 ml of ultracaine were injected into the posterior-superior sections of the nasal septum.
Probing of the VSP began with the introduction into the middle nasal passage of the working end of the cannula, which, with its concave surface, seemed to lie on the inferior turbinate. After that, focusing only on the tactile sensation, the tip of the cannula was turned laterally and somewhat upward, thereby feeling the deepest part of the funnel, and then, making sliding and oscillatory movements, the needle seemed to “fall through” through the anastomosis. At the same time, the distal end of the cannula pushes the columella of the nasal septum in the opposite direction, there is a feeling of falling into the sinus, deviation of the distal end of the cannula in the opposite direction, and when rinsing, the patient feels pressure or pain in the upper teeth and the outflow of fluid from the cannula when it is separated from the syringe.
When probing the frontal sinus, after local anesthesia was performed, a Killian’s speculum with closed branches was introduced into the middle nasal passage and, spreading them apart, the middle turbinate was redressed. At the same time, the patient experienced a “crunch”. Then the end of the cannula was brought to the mouth of the frontal-nasal canal behind the hook-shaped process and directed upward, laterally and somewhat anteriorly. The correct position of the cannula was controlled when its distal end fits snugly against the upper lip; when flushing the sinus, the patient feels pressure or pain in the frontal region.
When probing the sphenoid sinus, you can use a well-known landmark – the Zuckerkandl line [15, 16]. However, due to the significant variability in the size and shape of the middle turbinate, it is very difficult to navigate along it. Therefore, the main reference point for probing this sinus was the tactile sensation and the criterion for getting into the sinus was the feeling of sinking. In the sinus, the cannula rests against the posterior-superior wall and when washing it, the patient feels pressure or soreness either in the back of the head or in the frontal region.In the presence of sinus obstruction, some resistance is noted when the fluid is injected; when the syringe is disconnected from the cannula, fluid flows out of it.
Probing and lavage of 42 frontal sinuses, 77 maxillary sinuses and 51 sphenoid sinuses were performed. In 66 (76.7%) patients, purulent exudate was obtained during washing, in 9 (10.5%) patients, SNP obstruction was detected. In the presence of several affected sinuses, they were not washed simultaneously. To eliminate the process in the sinuses, it took from 5 to 7 washes through the natural anastomosis.
Probing of the frontal sinuses was unsuccessful in 3 adult patients who had post-traumatic deformities in the area of the frontal-nasal anastomoses, 2 sphenoid sinuses with pronounced deformation of the nasal septum and 4 maxillary sinuses with postoperative cicatricial changes in the nasal cavity and ethmoid labyrinth.
A comparative analysis was carried out using a visual analogue scale of the severity of pain, discomfort and negative sensations during the probing procedure and during traditional puncture treatment.With probing, the score was 2 times lower than with puncture. The duration of treatment of patients with probing and puncture did not differ significantly, and the duration of treatment did not actually differ (p> 0.05).
Thus, on the basis of the work carried out and the accumulated experience, it should be noted that there are significant advantages of the method of forced drainage of the sinuses through natural anastomosis, which consists in its atraumaticity, painlessness, and good patient tolerance.
This method improves the spontaneous outflow of exudate through the natural anastomosis due to its bougienage. The use of this method at the initial stage of treatment makes it possible to reduce the prevalence and severity of polysinusitis, which ultimately reduces the volume of surgical interventions at subsequent stages of treatment. This method does not require a hospital stay, it can be performed on an outpatient basis, and therefore it can be widely recommended in medical practice.
- Bobrov V.M. Modification of a shortened drainage tube with a self-fixing device for the maxillary sinus. Zhurn usn nose throat bol 1985; 5: 79-80.
- Ivanchenko O.A., Chugueva N.G., Lopatin A.S. Puncture of the maxillary sinus: a critical assessment of safety and efficacy. Materials of the XVII Congress of Otorhinolaryngologists of Russia. Vestn otorinolar (supplement) 2006; 281-282.
- Karal-Ogly R.D. Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the maxillary and frontal sinuses.Chisinau: Shtiintsa 1983.
- Kozlov V.S. A device for the treatment of sinusitis. Patent No. 178142 — BI 1992; 38.
- Korneev S.T. A gentle method of treating sinusitis using permanent metal drainage. Zhurn usn nose throat bol 1977; 1: 91-92.
- Kostyshin A.T. A set of instruments for drainage of the maxillary sinus in the treatment of sinusitis. Zhurn usn nose throat bol 1978; 4: 109-110.
- Limansky S.S., Lapina S.A., Reshetov M.A. Drainage of the paranasal sinuses through natural fistulas.Materials of the XVI Congress of Otorhinolaryngologists of Russia. Sochi 2001; 611-614.
- S. S. Limansky, O. V. Kondrashova Double lumen cannula for washing the paranasal sinuses. Patent for invention №2318540 – 2008.
- Lopatin A.S., Piskunov G.Z. Catheterization and forced drainage of the paranasal sinuses. Rosrinol 1995; 5: 34-48.
- Palchun V.T., Ustyanov Yu.A., Dmitriev N.S. Paranasal sinuitis. M: Medicine 1982; 152.
- Piskunov G.Z., Piskunov S.Z. Clinical rhinology.M: Publishing House “Miklos” 2002; 390.
- Ryazantsev S.V., Naumenko N.N., Zakharova G.P. Principles of etiopathogenetic therapy of acute sinusitis (guidelines). St. Petersburg 2005; 39.
- Temkina I.Ya. Pathogenesis, clinic and prevention of maxillary sinus puncture. M: Medicine 1963; 119.
- Ustyanov Yu.A. To the technique of puncture of the frontal sinus. Ed. V.S. Pogosov. Topical issues of otorhinolaryngology. Lipetsk 1971; 95-98.
- Onodi A. Dic topographische Anatomie der Nasenhohle und ihrer Nebenholen.Katz L., Bluenfeld F. Handbuch der spezielen chirurgi des ohres und odonen Yuftwege. Yeipzig 1922; 61-134.
- Sanderson B.A. Phisiologie maxillary antrostomy update. Lagyngoscohe 1983; 93: 180-183.
A.G. Volkov, N.A. Zakharova
Rostov State Medical University
With the growth of frontal sinus osteomas, the destruction of the structures of the frontal-nasal canal often occurs, which necessitates the formation of a frontal-nasal anastomosis.
To reduce the number of relapses of diseases after operations on the frontal sinuses, they began to use combined tubular drainages, consisting of rigid tubular drainage necessary for fixation, and tissue material (skin, multilayer heterogeneous formalinized peritoneum of cattle, umbilical cord, etc.). All types of these drainage tubes were in the anastomosis from 7-8 days to 4 years of the postoperative period.
A.N. Pomukhina, A.G. Volkov (1982) in the formation of the frontal-nasal fistula, the femoral artery was used, fixed on a Teflon drainage tube.Within 28-35 days, the fistula formed, after which the Teflon tube was removed, and the artery, for the first time in the practice of postoperative interventions, was not removed and it became part of the fistula.
This method of forming the frontal-nasal anastomosis after opening the frontal sinuses was taken by us as the basis for its creation in patients with significant destruction of the frontal-nasal canal.
Combined drainage tubes were used in 6 patients after removal of large osteomas of the frontal sinuses (or frontal-lattice region) with significant destruction of the frontal-nasal canal.Their rigid base was made up of thermoplastic pipes of the Portex company, which we shaped into an “hourglass”. This shape was represented by the upper and lower bells and a narrow central part of the “belt”. A fragment of the femoral artery of the same shape, fixed on a
tube, was used as a tissue component.
2-3 hours before the start of the operation, a fragment of a lyophilized artery was soaked in warm saline with the addition of an antibiotic. After removal of the osteoma and preparation of the frontal-nasal junction, a fragment of the artery with a diameter equal to the diameter of the tube was fixed on a thermoplastic drainage tube.At the same time, the artery was slightly stretched due to the elasticity of the wall, and its length was 1-2 mm less than the length of the tube. On the lower bell of the combined drainage tube, incisions were made on the wall of the artery and tube, forming “lower petals”. Then the combined drainage tube was inserted through the nasal cavity into the formed frontal-nasal fistula using a special device, installed in the frontal sinus and nasal cavity, and the “lower petals” of the artery, which were fixed by the “petals” of the tube, were straightened.
The next step consisted in the imposition of similar notches on the upper socket of the tissue part of the drainage tube. These manipulations were performed without damaging the tubular drainage and straightened and installed the formed “upper petals” of the artery and the tube fixing them, as well as with a special fragment of fibrin film.
Before plasty of the bone walls, the lumen of the sinus was thoroughly dried. The specified position of the combined drainage tube ensured its stable position in the anastomosis and good conditions for the outflow of wound contents from the sinus.Removal of the rigid part of the drainage tube was performed at least 3 months after the intervention.
The postoperative period in 5 patients was uneventful, within 8-12 days a wound mucous-hemorrhagic discharge was discharged from the sinuses. On the 5th day after the intervention, 1 patient developed mucopurulent discharge from the nasal cavity. A smear was taken for bacteriological examination and targeted antibiotics were determined. Over the next days, the operated frontal sinus was washed through a catheter (fixed on the “belt” of the combined drainage and brought out into the lumen of the sinus) with solutions of antiseptics and targeted antibiotics.After cessation of exudation, lavage of the sinuses was stopped. The entire group of our patients started to work before removing the hard part of the drainage tube.
Upon completion of the formation of the frontal-nasal fistula, the rigid part of the combined tube was easily removed by pulling on the catheter, and the vascular fragment becomes part of the wall of the frontal-nasal fistula.
There were no relapses of the disease and purulent complications in the operated group of patients during the follow-up period from 4 months to 1.5 years.
Treatment of sinusitis without puncture | Your family doctor
YAMIK sinus catheter
The average resident of our country is often faced with various viral respiratory infections. In more than half of cases, the common cold causes complications. Most often, the nasal cavities are affected. Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses. Most often, residents of megalopolises, as well as areas with an unstable environmental situation, suffer from such diseases – exhaust gases, emissions into the atmosphere, a large number of industrial enterprises lead to some allergic reactions, which results in sinusitis.At the site of the location of the inflammation, sinusitis, sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis are distinguished.
Treatment of sinusitis, sinusitis treatment
In our country, sinusitis is treated using a complex of conservative and surgical methods, depending on the complexity of the disease. Treatment of sinusitis is long enough and includes drug treatment with the help of special drops, sprays that relieve swelling of the nasal mucosa, then antibacterial and disinfecting agents are injected.If such a sanitation of the nasal passages does not work, doctors go to a surgical solution to the problem – a puncture, that is, a puncture of the nasal sinuses. This procedure is quite unpleasant, although in most cases it gives a positive result. However, the duration of treatment, its painfulness does not favor this method. Is there an alternative to this treatment?
Domestic scientists have developed an apparatus that allows treating sinusitis, treating sinusitis, treating frontal sinusitis, treating ethmoiditis, and treating sphenoiditis painlessly and effectively.The YAMIK sinus catheter allows for puncture-free treatment by alternating negative and positive pressure in the nasal passage. In this case, the pumping out of purulent accumulations occurs. The YAMIK sinus catheter allows for complex treatment of sinusitis, that is, after cleansing the nasal cavity from pathological secretions, a drug is injected that has a therapeutic and disinfecting effect. Once again, it should be noted that the use of the YAMIK sinus catheter is a puncture-free treatment, i.e. the membranes of the nasal cavity are not injured.Its use helps to restore the drainage function of the nasal canal due to the alternation of negative and positive pressure on the nasal cavity.
The YAMIK sinus catheter is easy to use, but should be treated by a qualified otolaryngologist. The widespread use of this method will significantly reduce the time for the treatment of frontal sinusitis, treatment of ethmoiditis, and treatment of sphenoiditis. To obtain a lasting effect, a maximum of six procedures are required, after which recovery is guaranteed.This method can be used both in inpatient treatment and in polyclinics.
Sinusitis, sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, ethmoiditis, sphenoiditis are diseases of the modern world. Their treatment with the YAMIK sinus catheter allows you to quickly and forever forget about these ailments. Using this method will bring you a speedy recovery and the ability to breathe deeply!
90,000 Sinusitis symptoms in children and adults, signs and treatment of the disease.
Sinusitis is a type of sinusitis – an acute or chronic inflammatory process that affects the mucous membranes of the paranasal sinuses.With sinusitis, the maxillary / maxillary paranasal sinuses are affected.
The disease is often difficult, with a sharp increase in body temperature, general weakness, and intoxication of the body. In many patients, sinus pain is acute, painful.
Treatment of sinusitis in Tyumen can be prescribed only by a qualified ENT doctor. Self-diagnosis, prescription of treatment are categorically unacceptable.
Causes and types of disease
Sinusitis in adults or children is a complication of the primary rhinitis, colds, flu, measles, scarlet fever or other infectious diseases.The cause of the pathology is considered to be an infection that enters the mucous membrane of the maxillary sinus and causes inflammation.
The course of the disease is of three forms – acute, subacute and chronic. Depending on the reasons leading to the complication, sinusitis is:
- infectious, characterized by the primary contact with the mucous membrane of infectious pathogens – viruses, bacteria;
- vasomotor, caused by disorders of neuro-reflex reactions to irritation – excessively cold, hot, dry air, pungent odors;
- allergic, associated with a violent reaction of the body to an allergen.
Depending on the pathways of penetration of the pathogen, inflammation is:
- hematogenous – ingestion through the blood;
- nasal – through the nasal mucosa;
- odontogenic – due to primary damage to the teeth;
- traumatic – associated with injuries to the face, nose, oral cavity.
Sinusitis in children is more often associated with primary acute respiratory or infectious diseases.Young children are most susceptible to dangerous complications of pathology.
Signs of sinusitis and its complications
Clinical symptoms and treatment of sinusitis and even the likelihood of developing dangerous complications depends on the type of pathology. In the acute form of the disease, there is:
- a sharp increase in body temperature;
- violation of nasal breathing;
- symptoms of general intoxication of the body – dizziness, nausea, weakness, refusal to eat;
- purulent nasal discharge;
- sharp soreness of the nasal region, increasing in the evenings, sensations of painful distention of the paranasal part of the face.
Symptoms of subacute and chronic sinusitis are less pronounced. The disease of the chronic form may be asymptomatic. It is this fact that often becomes the cause of the development of dangerous complications.
Untimely detection, improper impact on the inflammation focus can lead to the development of sepsis, meningitis and even a brain abscess. Ignoring the symptoms of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, self-medication is life-threatening.
Only an experienced otolaryngologist can establish the correct diagnosis. When making a diagnosis, the doctor takes into account:
- history data;
- clinical manifestations of the disease;
- the results of radiography of the paranasal sinuses and other instrumental studies.
Sometimes, to identify the causative agent of the disease, patients are prescribed a sowing of discharge from the nasal cavity and pharynx, which simplifies the selection of the optimal therapy.
How to treat sinusitis?
The main goal of treating inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is to eradicate the infection, eliminate unpleasant symptoms, and prevent the development of complications. To achieve this goal, depending on the type of pathology, doctors use:
- conservative therapeutic techniques – using medication, physiotherapeutic effects;
- surgical procedures to ensure drainage of the paranasal sinuses.
Complex treatment of pathology can be carried out on an outpatient basis or inpatiently. Outpatient treatment is allowed for chronic forms of the disease, accompanied by moderately severe symptoms. Acute severe forms of sinusitis require additional care provided only in a hospital.
Drug treatment involves the selection of:
- antibacterial drugs, subject to the development of inflammation of a bacterial nature;
- antimicrobial – with a viral or fungal infection.
Operative treatment is required for those patients who have impaired outflow of purulent contents from the sinuses through the nasal passages. A puncture or puncture of the sinuses is performed, which allows you to remove thick purulent contents from the cavity. After puncture, antibacterial drugs are usually injected into the sinus, drainage catheters are installed for daily washing of the cavity.
Symptomatic and supportive therapy helps to speed up recovery – humidifying the air in the room, proper nutrition, hygiene, and drinking plenty of fluids.The doctors of our clinic necessarily give a complete list of individual recommendations for a speedy recovery to each patient.
However, the main condition for successful treatment is timely access to doctors. When the first signs of illness are detected, an ENT doctor’s consultation is required
immediately. Which doctor to contact with sinusitis in an emergency,
will be advised at the reception of our clinic or by phone.
Endoscopic sinus surgery – Prof. Dr. Teoman Dal KBB Uzmanı
What is endoscopic surgery
Endoscopic sinus surgery (ECHO) is a modern method used to treat inflammatory diseases of the paranasal sinuses with surgery.
In the course of EHOP, with the help of endoscopes placed in the nasal nostrils, which provide a better and more accurate projection of the operated area, as well as with the help of some instruments without the need to perform any external incisions, an operation is performed to remove pathological tissue from the cavity of the paranasal sinuses.
ECHO is one of the most commonly performed surgeries today for diseases such as sinus tumors, trauma to the anterior skull base caused by trauma, eye socket diseases, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage and optic nerve compression.At the same time, due to the advantages of minimal surgical trauma, endoscopic surgery is increasingly preferred for dacryocystorhinostomy (dacryocystorhinostomy) and pituitary tumor surgery (endoscopic hypophysectomy).
Due to the limited space, the complexity of the anatomical structure, as well as the rather close location to such important organs as the brain, eyes, optic nerves, lacrimal ducts, jugular veins, along with the qualifications and experience in carrying out endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses, a high the degree of technical skill and the minimum probability of making a mistake.
In the treatment of chronic diseases of the paranasal sinuses, the following procedures are performed during endoscopic surgery:
• Removal of inflamed tissue / polyps
• Dilation of the drainage canals that connect the sinuses to the nose
• Correction of anatomical problems such as “endoscopy” ( concha bullosa, bullous deformity of the middle turbinate), multiple openings of the excretory canals of the paranasal sinuses (accessory ostium) and abnormal areas of contact with the mucous membrane.
During endoscopic sinus surgery, as well as during operations using advanced technological devices such as navigation, ballooning and microdesider, general anesthesia is preferred for patient and surgeon comfort.
The duration of the operation varies depending on the degree of pathology and on the performance of additional interventions during the same operation, such as correction of intranasal curvature, aesthetic surgery of the nose, reduction of tissue in the nasal cavity and various procedures for correcting anatomical structures.Surgical intervention on one paranasal sinus takes about 15 minutes. In this case, the entire pathology of the sinus can be cleared within two hours.
After sinus surgery, except in rare cases, no special tampons are inserted into the nose and patients can breathe easily through the nose.
Inserted at the end of the operation in the lower part of the middle part of the nasal cavity, special tampons and various materials that are placed to prevent bleeding and adherence to the nasal tissue during the operation do not adversely affect nasal breathing.
Postoperative period of endoscopic sinus surgery
There are no major complaints of congestion or pain after surgery. As a rule, simple pain relievers are often sufficient. On the day of the operation, patients are advised to stay in the hospital, meanwhile, depending on the complexity of the operation, they can be discharged on the same day.
In the postoperative period, patients are advised to take antibiotics for at least 10 days.If necessary, this period can be extended or additional drugs can be added.
During the postoperative period, mucosal moisturizing sprays containing sterile saline should usually be used to prophylactically clear the nose until the crust has healed.
Patients with polyps or allergies after surgery start using cortisone sprays and drugs that reduce the risk of polyps.In patients with suspected allergic fungal sinusitis after surgery, oral fungal therapy is recommended.
After endoscopic sinus surgery, the operated area is treated 3-4 times. At the end of the first week, during the first thorough treatment, the crust formed in the drainage channels of the nose and paranasal sinuses is cleaned, antiadhesive materials are removed if they were previously placed in the sinuses, and infection control is carried out.Correct execution of the first postoperative treatment is very important for the successful outcome of the operation. Depending on the complexity of the operation, patients should undergo a follow-up examination at intervals of 7-10 days until complete recovery.
In some special cases during the EHOP, an increase in a number of complications or failure of the operation is possible. These special cases are listed below:
• Excessive tissue bleeding during surgery
• Severe inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
• Surgery of tumors with especially vascular structure
• Coagulation disorder (Hemorrhagic diathesis)
• Change in anatomical structure due to previous surgery / trauma
• Formation of hardened tissue as a result of previous operations
• Common polyps affecting normal anatomy
• Tumors of the internal / external paranasal sinuses
• Anatomical changes (variations)
• Surgery of the posterior ethmoid, sphenoid and frontal sinuses.
Some minor or major complications are likely to occur during or after endoscopic sinus surgery. The most important ones are listed below:
• Active bleeding
• Intraorbital (intraocular) bleeding
• Rupture of the carotid artery (jugular vein)
• Trauma of the eye socket
• Endophthalmitis (purulent inflammation of the eyeball3
) • Violation of eye movement and visual impairment, consisting of bifurcation of visible objects (diplopia)
• Injury of the nasopharyngeal canal (lacrimal canals)
• Cerebrospinal fluid leak
• Intracranial complications
Computer technologies in surgery
This is a technology that, with the help of special surgical instruments and software, used during the operation of the paranasal sinuses, in a three-dimensional projection and with an error of less than 1 mm, allows the surgical intervention of the anatomical region of the paranasal sinuses, tracing in the p Real time tomographic sinus projections. Surgical Navigation Technology enables safer endoscopic sinus surgery by providing controlled intervention to all affected areas, greatly increasing the chances of success. In addition, in special cases with a high risk of complications, navigation technology is especially useful in eliminating this risk. Detailed information on surgical navigation can be found on the pages of our website.
Balloon Sinusoplasty Technology
The most important factor in chronic sinus infections is the blockage of the small canals (openings) that release the contents (mucus) from the nasal sinuses that form in the paranasal sinuses, as well as the accumulation of mucus inside the sinuses and disturbance air intake.The principle of the technique, which is commonly referred to as “balloon sinusoplasty”, is to ensure the function of drainage and air intake by expanding the blocked or narrowed channels of the nasal sinuses, while not cutting or removing any tissue. Detailed information on Balloon Sinusoplasty can be found on the pages of our website.
“The content of this page is for information only, consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment”
prices for surgery in the clinic “Loravita” in Chelyabinsk
Sinusotomy is a surgical technique used to open the sinus, debride and remove mucus.The operation is indicated for patients suffering from sinusitis and sinusitis. It is used when the effectiveness of drug and physiotherapeutic correction options is low.
When is sinusitis indicated?
The need for surgical procedures arises when the following diagnoses are made:
- Chronic sinusitis. Exacerbations occur 2-3 times a year.
- Polyps (growths) of the nose.
- Cysts in the upper jaw area.
- Benign tumors.
- Damage to the walls of the sinus.
- The presence of foreign bodies trapped during dental procedures (blood clots, parts of teeth, implants or fillings).
If the patient does not seek timely help, the risk of complications increases. There is a danger of the onset of purulent sinusitis, sepsis, meningitis, encephalitis. These diseases can be fatal.
You should not prescribe an operation if the patient:
- Is pregnant.
- Suffers from acute infection.
- Has decompensated anemia.
- Sick with pathologies of the blood coagulation system.
- Has chronic metabolic disorders.
Preparation for sinusitis
Before the intervention, you must visit a preliminary appointment with an otolaryngologist. At the consultation, the ENT will conduct an initial examination, collect an anamnesis of the disease, prescribe tests and suggest the most appropriate ways of correction.
If there is a need for surgical treatment, the patient will receive a list of mandatory examinations. Their results will be considered to exclude contraindications to surgery. If necessary, the patient will be referred for examination to an anesthesiologist, therapist, dentist.
How is the operation going
The procedure for opening the maxillary sinus is performed in 3 ways:
- Microsurgical.Small holes are made in the anterior wall of the sinus. A microscope and surgical instruments are inserted through the oral cavity under the lip. The doctor removes mucus, pus and other pathological substances.
- Endonasal. It occurs by expanding the anastomosis between the sinus and the nasal passage.
- Radical. The technique involves an incision in the soft tissues under the upper lip. Instruments are inserted through a hole in the wall of the sinus and polyps are removed. A drainage is placed in the nasal passage for rinsing.
The specific method of exposure is chosen taking into account the clinical picture and anatomical features. In terms of time, manipulations take from 30 to 60 minutes. Local or general anesthesia is used.
Before the intervention, it is required to pass:
- Complete blood count.
- General urine analysis.
- Biochemical blood test:
What to do after surgery
After surgical treatment, the patient takes care of the nasal mucosa, that is:
- Regularly moisturize nose with sprays.
- Relieves swelling of the mucous membrane.
In the first hours after the intervention, bed rest is shown.
Sinusitis symptoms, take a sinusitis test.
Sinuforte is an expert in the treatment of
sinusitis and sinusitis!
Sinusitis is a lesion of the mucous membrane of one or more paranasal sinuses (otherwise they are called sinuses) of an inflammatory nature.Statistics show that about 10 million people a year face sinusitis in Russia. (Https://www.mediasphera.ru/issues/rossijskaya-rinologiya/2017/1/1086954742017011003)
Most often, sinusitis does not occur on its own, but as a complication of infectious ailments such as rhinitis, laryngitis and pharyngitis, influenza and SARS, scarlet fever and measles. The causative agents of the disease – infectious agents are most often viruses and bacteria; development of sinusitis and fungal origin is possible.The development of sinusitis with allergies is not excluded as a result of frequent swelling of the nasal passages, which impede the outflow of secretions from the paranasal sinuses and with nasal injuries.
Risk factors for the development of sinusitis include frequent hypothermia, allergic diseases of the nasal mucosa. Also, the risk of sinusitis increases due to high air pollution and a long course of chronic diseases that suppress the work of the immune system; due to the presence of polyps in the nose and curvature of the internal septum of the nose.
Sinusitis can occur both acutely and chronically. At the same time, the most difficult chronic sinusitis for therapy can last up to six months or even more.
With sinusitis, various paranasal sinuses can be affected, from the maxillary sinuses to the frontal and sphenoid sinuses, as well as the cells of the ethmoid labyrinth.
The main symptoms of sinusitis in adults are not just a banal runny nose, but heaviness and distention in the paranasal and frontal regions.Characterized by a nasal voice, pain, which is clearly worse in the evening and at night. Nasal breathing is impaired, there is a decrease in the sense of smell, or there is none at all. The body temperature rises to 38-39 degrees, the person is in a fever, he complains of weakness, joint and headache, lack of appetite, chills.
A distinctive feature of the course of sinusitis in children is that they often cough, especially at night. Headaches and facial pains are rare in children.
Sinusitis is an inflammatory disease affecting exclusively the maxillary paranasal sinuses, which are called maxillary sinuses. With this ailment, the mucous membrane lining the maxillary sinuses from the inside becomes inflamed; sometimes the inflammation spreads to the bony walls of the sinuses. Sinusitis is considered an infectious and inflammatory disease, the prevalence of which increases in the cold season.
As a rule, sinusitis occurs as a complication of rhinitis, acute respiratory viral infection, or its type – influenza.The cause of the development of sinusitis can be the proliferation of adenoids and pathology of the upper molars. Most often, with sinusitis, bacterial flora, streptococci, staphylococci, some types of protozoa and fungi, chlamydia and mycoplasmosis join the viral infection.
The factors that increase the risk of developing sinusitis include chronic diseases of ENT organs (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, often recurrent tonsillitis), congenital pathologies of the elements of the nose, prolonged weakness of the immune system and a history of allergic reactions.
The main symptoms of sinusitis in adults and children is a severe, prolonged, exhausting headache radiating to the ear or upper jaw, often worsening when bending forward, turning the head, high fever, weakness, inability to work, nasal congestion and profuse discharge , decreased sense of smell, swelling of the cheeks, edema of the eyelids, sometimes lacrimation and photophobia.